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Ch- 6 CONSUMER PERCEPTION Exercises:Q2. Define selective perception. And, relate one or two elements of this concept to your own attention patterns in viewing print advertisements and online commercials. Ans: The Consumers are tend to perceive things according to their beliefs more than as they really are, and react accordingly. For this they select stimuli from the environment based on the interaction of expectations and motives with the stimulus itself. This selection process gives rise to four important concepts concerning perception. Which are as follows:•
Selective exposure—consumers actively seek out messages that they find pleasant or with which they are sympathetic, and they actively avoid painful or threatening ones. They also selectively expose themselves to advertisements that reassure them of the wisdom of their purchase decision. Selective attention—consumers exercise a great deal of selectivity in terms of the attention they give to commercial stimuli. They have a heightened awareness of stimuli that meet their need or interest and minimal awareness of stimuli irrelevant of their need. Perceptual defense—consumers subconsciously screen out stimuli that they find psychologically threatening, even though exposure has already taken place. Thus Threatening or otherwise damaging stimuli are less likely to be consciously perceived than are neutral stimuli at the same level of exposure. Perceptual blocking—consumers protect themselves from being bombarded with stimuli by simply “tuning out”—blocking such stimuli from conscious awareness. They do out self protection because of the visually overwhelming nature of the world in which we live.
Here we can take the Example of Cadburys ad is a pleasant ad which shows happiness and celebrating and sharing the happiness. So it is a Selective exposure according to our point of view. Q3. Find two print advertisements depicting two of the positioning strategies listed in Table 6.3 and evaluate the effectiveness of each ad. Ans:Here I have taken the two positioning strategy of the positioning of the ads: STRATEGY 1:- TOP OF THE RANGE:- Upper class top of the range . STRATEGY 3:- VALUE FOR MONEY:- reasonably price value for money, affordability. The positioning strategy of a product is designed to create a perception of a product. The positioning appeal may be based on a total image rather than an attribute that is unique to the product, or it can center on a single, important attribute
MERCEDES BENZ Positioning Strategy: TOP OF RANGE:- Upper class top of the range
Effectiveness of Ad: The message they want to convey with this ad to the consumers that Mercedes Benz is a perfect upper Class luxury car which has designed more for the upper class more luxury than its competitors. After watching this ad, when a consumer thinks about a luxury car in that range he/she thinks about Mercedes Benz.
OLAY TOTAL EFFECT Positioning Strategy: THE BRAND NAME:The brand name ,leaders in the market, extra features, choice, wide range , expensive Effectiveness of Ad: With this ad, the company wants to tell that after using OLAY the consumers will get cured from 7 signs of ageing and they are targeting the ladies those who are ageing and above 25 yrs old. It also takes care of your skin and also make you look younger.
Q4. Select a company that produces several versions of the same product under the same brand name (one that is not discussed in this chapter). Visit the firm’s Web site and prepare a list of the product items and the benefits that each item offers to consumers? Are all of these benefits believable and will they persuade consumers to buy the different versions of the product? Explain your answers? Ans;- Here I have selected the Products of the same Bands that is of surf Excel Product version of Colgate toothpaste Products Benefits
Fast relief from the pain of sensitive teeth. Proven protection from sensitivity with regular use. Fresh breath
Whitens Teeths. Freshen Breath. Fight Cavities.
Colgate Total 12
Contains fluoride for cavity protection. Makes fighting cavities fun. Sparkling Colorful gel. Freshens Breath. Bubble fruit flavor and strawberry flavor. It is an effective decay preventive dentifrice and helps prevent and reduce gingivitis when used as directed in a conscientiously applied programme of oral hygiene and regular professional care. It also helps reduce the formation of plaque and tartar above the gum line.
Explanation: Yes, All These all benefits are believable & they will be persuaded by consumers to buy, because in case of colgate toothpaste & its line extension are giving actual value is equal to the perceived value. CHAPTER- 7 CONSUMERS LEARNING Discussion questions:Q.4. Which form of learning (classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, observational learning, or cognitive learning) best explains the following consumption behavior: - (a) buying a six pack of Gatorade, (b) preferring to purchase jeans at a Levi’s store, (c) buying a digital camera for the first time, (d) buying a new car and (e) switching from one cell phone service to another ? Explain your choices. Ans: - (a) buying a six pack of Gatorade – It may be observational learning. Because by seeing the physic of the person who is using Gatorade another person may get influenced and start imitating that person as he became role model for him. (b) Preferring to purchase jeans at a Levi’s store It may be instrumental conditioning. It is a trial and error method after trial of many jeans he or she comes to know which jeans is perfect for him or her. It results in the most satisfactory response. (c) Buying a digital camera for the first time – It may be innovation adoption under cognitive learning as buyer is buying a digital camera for the first time so he gathers as much as information as he can and exposure to information resulting in knowledge , then develop preferences and evaluation toward the different alternatives and then decide which model to buy and which ones not to buy. (d) Buying a new car – It may be decision making model under cognitive learning. as buying a car is not a small decision, person who is going to buy a new car he has to have so much information about cars and their features. Then the person tries to evaluate different alternatives and then purchase a car and after purchase do the post purchase evaluation.
(e) Switching from one cell phone service to another – It may be an example of promotional model under cognitive learning. A person give attention to those cell phone services advertisements which those are giving more benefit and then interest arises and that interest leads to desire and this desire leads to an action means to avail that cell phone service. Chapter 8 CONSUMER ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE Discussion questions:Q.5.Explain how the product manager of a breakfast cereal might change consumer attitudes toward the company’s brand by: (a) changing beliefs about the brand; (b) changing beliefs about competing brands; (c) changing the relative evaluation of attributes; and (d) adding an attribute. Ans :-(a) As a product manager of a break fast cereal company we can change the beliefs about the brand by creating awareness through advertising. Our advertisement will focus on the rich contents of vitamins, fibers and low content of calories. (b) We can change the beliefs of beliefs of competing brand through competitive advertising. We can compare our product with our competitor’s product and show our supremacy over them. (c) We can focus more on one attribute let it be vitamins. Through this one attribute we have to position our product in the customer’s mind whose primary concern is vitamin. (d) By adding an attribute we can also position our product e.g. we can make it rich with vitamins. Q.6. The Department of Transportation of a large city is planning an advertising campaign that encourages people to switch from private cars to mass transit. Give examples of how the department can use the following strategies to change commuters’ attitudes: (a) changing the basic motivational function; (b) changing beliefs about public transportation; (c) using selfperception theory; and (d) using cognitive dissonance. Ans :- (a) The functional approach will change beliefs regarding mass transit on some basic motivational functions of attitudes; we have to show our customers how one can work faster by using mass transit rather than a private car. (b) According to the assimilation contrast theory, the Transport Department must be careful about their strategies. The users of private cars will accept only mild changes between the mode of transportation they are presently using and the mode they are encouraged to use (i.e.,
mass transit). If the change suggested by the mass transit ads is too extreme, the contrast will result in the rejection of mass transit as a transportation alternative.
(c) According to self-perception theory, many people carry the beliefs from the Ad and begin to like the object advertised. The Department of Transportation can show the reduction in air pollution by using mass transit, and position it as a green transportation mode. (d) According to cognitive dissonance theory, the Department of Transportation should first persuade the behavior of people. Thus, the ads for mass transit should be designed to persuade behavior and encourage people to try mass transit by, for example, offering them discount over a period of time. The department should reinforce this initial experience by providing good and dependable service. Which include asking first-time riders for comments, thus making them feel important, involved, and comfortable about the experience? Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that an initial, effectively reinforced experience with mass transit will result in a favorable attitude toward this service and continued use of mass transit. Q.8. A college student has just purchased a new personal computer. What factors might cause the student to experience post purchase dissonance? How might the student try to overcome it? How can the retailer who sold the computer help reduce the student’s dissonance? How can the computer’s manufacturer help? Ans - A person’s attitudes may lead to one kind of behavior in one situation and a different behavior in a different time and place. For example, a person may have a strong preference for one brand but purchase a brand that is on “special” because of having to economize. Attitudes are more often relatively consistent with behavior; some times they are influenced by situational factors. These situational factors such as time, place, and social environment plays vital role in one’s life. Post purchase dissonance occurs mostly in case of expensive products. After the purchase, the student might be exposed to ads of other brands with more features and more extensive software than the computer he or she selected. In order to reduce post purchase dissonance, the student should see the advantages in his/her computer (i.e., ads for the brand purchased). The retailer can help by backing the manufacturer’s warranty with a service contract and by mailing buyer’s information about new software packages for the computer when such products become available. The manufacturer should help reduce post purchase dissonance by using advertising which includes messages reassuring purchasers that they made the “right” choice, offering strong, comprehensive warranties, and providing a tollfree user-information hotline.
CASE ANALYSIS Key Objectives: Expectations from the product were set high and providing shine and health were the key expectations. The advertisement established credibility of the claims or established relevance for the product. Yuvraj Singh, the cricket, was a key element in recall and all the situations registered with the customers; he was a strong hook but did not hamper brand communication. Aftershower become a benchmark for success in Marico.
Key Issue: Awareness -77 percent of target group. Overall success in creating curiosity about the brand. There is a low promotion of polymers; hence, the cream is nonsticky. Reactions to the advertising were very positive.
Key Players: The male grooming category in India was dominated by blade, shaving creams and deodorants. The major players are Colgate-Palmolive, Gillete, Godrej, Old Spice, and Park Avenue. The category had started registering growth with the entry of Gillete
and Park Avenue. The key players in hair cream segments are Sara Lee India(Brycream) and Uniliver India(Clinic Active).
Key problem: The hare cream segment was estimated to be around Rs. 220 million but the category had a hopeless decline from 400+ ton per annum
market in 2000, it has dropped to 200 TPA and had slowly became anattractive. There was no competition in the market which lead to the decline of hair cream segment. Another reason was that Uniliver had withdrawn Clinic Active from the market, leading to the category decline.
Attitudinal model: 1. Theory of trying to consume: It is designed to account for many cases in which action and outcomes are not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume. In this there are often personal impediments impediments.
2. Attitude towards ad model: The consumers form various feelings and judgements as the result of exposureto an ad. These feeling and judgement in turn affect the consumer’s attitude towards the ad and belief about brand secure from exposure to the ad.
Strategy: It followed different sources of awareness-TV, a lot of words of mouth was also working for the brand.