Cattell 16-PF

Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download Cattell 16-PF ...


Page 1 of 5

Cattell‟s 16 Personality Factors

History : Among various inventories like EPQ, NEO-PI, etc.16 PF has been selected for the present study.16 PF is constructed by Raymond B.Cattell. According to Cattell there is a common structure on which people differ from each other. This structure could be determined empirically. With the help of statistical technique called factor analysis, he discovered the common structures. He found 16 primary or source traits. The source traits are stable , and are considered as the building blocks of personality. Besides these, there are also a number of surface traits that result out of the interaction of source traits. Cattell described the source traits in terms of opposing tendencies. The test, as already said, is constructed by Raymond B. Cattell, and was first published in 1949, thereafter 2nd and 3rd edition in 1956 and 1962.Five alternative forms of the 4th edition were released between 1967 and 1969.Fifth edition of 16 PF was released in 1993. Need for the Test: Cattell developed Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF), for the assessment of personality. This test is widely used by psychologists. The 16 PF dimension used in these text are based on considerable research directed towards locating unitary, independent and practically important “Source Traits” i.e. traits affecting much of the overt personality such as Intelligence, Emotional Stability, Super Ego strength and Dominance. These dimensions are essentially independent that is to co-relate between one and another is usually negligible and having a certain position on one dimension doesn‟t prevent the person from having a position on another. The PF stands for „Personality Factors‟ and there are sixteen personality factors, hence, it is known as 16 PF. These 16 factors are the major source traits .Cattell‟s theory asserts that every person possesses a degree of each of the following sixteen traits(Cattell also uses the term factors).

Cattell‟s 16 Personality Factors

Page 2 of 5

For each trait, factor label or code letters are used. The major source traits as represented on 16 Personality Factor Inventory are as Factor Label A

Cattell’s label for the Factor Outgoing- Reserved

































Description: 16 PF consists of 105 items measuring 16 factors viz. A, B, C, E, F, G, H, I, L, M, N, O, Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4. 6 items are set up for each of the 16 factors accept for general intelligence where 8 items are added to these total of 98 items, thus constitute 7 motivational distortion items. The items are arranged in a roughly cyclical order determined by a plan to give maximum convenience for scoring by stencil. Three alternative answers are provided for each of the 105 items and the subject is required to choose anyone unlike the two alternatives forced choice situations forbidding “middle of the road compromise.” The 16PF doesn‟t force an incorrect distribution of attitudes. In form C most of the questions are designed to be free as possible of “Value” implications so that the person will not be tempted to answer in any particular direction for the sake of social approval. However for the 7 motivational distortion questions the score may be considered to be the

Page 3 of 5

Cattell‟s 16 Personality Factors

combination of the need and willingness to distort there is no time limit for the test but the subject‟s asked not to take too long in answering the questions.

Uses of test :  The 16PF test is used in many clinical, educational and vocational studies and that is proved that taking into account all the 16 dimensions of the personality results in better prediction than that are obtainable from single scale test.  The PF factor measured are not just peculiar to the 16PF test but have been established as being unitary and psychologically meaningful entities in many researchers and in various life situations.

Standardization : The norms that are available for the 16PF questions are many. All together, there are 6 tables in the manual giving the normative data, out of which Table no.1 &2 contribute to the stanine and stress scores respectively. Table 3&4 deals with non-students where separate scores for males and females are given. Table 3 gives the data of 562 males ranging from 15 to 18 years within the mean of 34 years. Table 4 gives the data of 415 females from 15 to 80 years with the mean of 36 years. Table 5 consists of the data of American college students (male & female), here the number of students was 209 between the ages of 17 to 30 years with the mean of 21 year. This table also gives this stress score of 1,217 non students of both the sexes of the general population and the age range was from 15 to 80 years and the mean age been 35 years. Table 6 constitutes the motivational distortions (MD) scores the standardized sample was carefully chosen to represent occupational, educational level, geographical areas etc.

Page 4 of 5

Cattell‟s 16 Personality Factors

Reliability : The split half reliability that is in terms of consistency co-efficient obtained was on the largest sample size that is 450 young males‟ adults. The test retest reliability was found for 150 Americans under graduate (males & females) with 2 to 7 days interval for form „c‟ &„d‟. The co-relation was between 0.67 to 0.86 (ranged for all the 16 factors). Stability was found to be satisfactory for form A&B with an interval of 2 to 48 months & co-relation obtain was 0.21 to 0.87 for 200 students.

Validity : It includes the concept of construct validity which was 0.74 to 0.96 (with industrial and clinical criteria). The 16PF by the University of its Factors has such specific criteria on validity, potentially against many thousands of specific criteria. The mean of co-relation of all single items with the factors they represent is 0.37 and the mean co-relation of each group of 6 items with the factor it represents is 0.71. External validity shows that the test predicts for a wide variety of real life situations.

Scoring & Interpretation : The scoring of the 16PF can be done in 3 ways: 1) Its hand scoring for response marks made on the test booklet itself. 2) Hands scoring keys for the responses on the answer sheet. 3) I.B.M. board machine. It is quicker and less expensive then machine scoring upon 1,000 forms for the most popular and convenient procedure. Hands scoring: The answer sheet using 2 cardboard stencil with 2 punched holes are applied in succession to answer sheets and each given scores are entered in the raw score column on the right hand edge of the answer sheet. In all the cases the “right” answer scored 2 points the intermediate 1 point and the “wrong” answer scores 0 points the raw scores are converted into standard scores from the stress table which takes the raw score mean of the predict population of the cutting point between stress 5 and stress 6. Any raw score falling between these means a

Page 5 of 5

Cattell‟s 16 Personality Factors

point 1 ½ of the standard deviation downwards translates a stress point of 5 and 1. Falling within ½ a sigma, upward of this point gets 6. Thus the range of average is represented by 5 and 6 only when get to stress of 4 and 7, we think of a person as definitely departing from the average. People scoring 1, 2 and 3 are low and those scoring 7, 8 and 9 are high on a factor.

Interpretation : The questionnaire gives the most complete coverage of personality in brief time. The subject seems to be reserved nature, sensitive by nature, affected easily by feelings & is over active. Subject is intelligent & has capacity to think concretely. Subject seems to be Serious, Assertive and disregard rules. Sober, simple & serious kind of nature & have good strength & confidence to do work by making own rules & regulations. Subject is Down-to –Earth & Genuine and self assured person. Subject is also conservative and relaxed nature As the subject is a kind of introvert personality motivation, personal attention, self – improvement techniques etc. would make possible to improve the self esteem level.

Reference :  Anastasi, A., Psychological testing (4th Edition), Macmillan publishing co.; Inc; New York, 1976.  Freeman, F.S., Theory and Practice of psychological Testing (3rd edition), Hart Rinehart and Winston, New York.

View more...


Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.