Cash Flow Project
A PROJECT REPORT ON A STUDY ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF SBI Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for the degree of
MBA-I SEM. IN MARKETING/ FINANCE/ HUMAN RESOURCES
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF
MR. ANIL VISHWAKARMA
SUBMITTED BY AADIL KHAN
TO DEPARMTNE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES SWAMI VIVEKANAND UNIVERSITY, SAGAR (M.P.) DECEMBER 2014
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Report entitled “A STUDY ON CUSTOMER
SATISFACTION ON SBI” which is submitted by AADIL KHAN in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree MBA. from SVN University Sagar is a record of the candidate own work carried out my Supervision. The matter embodied in this report is original has not been submitted for the award of any other degree
Mentor Name (AADIL KHAN)
DECLERATION This is to certify that Report entitled ““A STUDY ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ON SBI” which is submitted by me in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree MBA from SVN University Sagar Comprises only my original work and due acknowledgement has been made in the text to all other material used.
NAME OF THE STUDENT APPROVIED BY
( AADIL KHAN)
............................................ (H.O.D & DEAN ) SWAMI VIVEKANAND UNIVERSITY SAGAR
PREFACE Preparing a project of this nature is an arduous task and I was fortunate enough to get support from a large number o persons. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to all those who generously helped in successful completion of this report by sharing their invaluable time and knowledge. It is my proud and privilege to express my deep regards to Respected HOD Dr. Pramesh Gautam, Head of Department of Business Management, SWAMI VIVEKANAND UNIVERSITY SAGAR for allowing me to undertake this project. I feel extremely exhilarated to have completed this project under the able and inspiring guidance of Miss Priyanka chourasia he rendered me all possible help me guidance while reviewing the manuscript in finalizing the report. I also extend my deep regards to my teachers , family members , friends and all those whose encouragement has infused courage in me to complete to work successfully. AADIL KHAN MBA I SEM.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Preparing a project of this nature is an arduous task and I was fortunate enough to get support from a large number o persons. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to all those who generously helped in successful completion of this report by sharing their invaluable time and knowledge. It is my proud and privilege to express my deep regards to Respected, Head of Department Dr.Pramesh Gautam, Department of Business Management , SWAMI VIVEKANAND UNIVERSITY SAGAR for allowing me to undertake this project. I feel extremely exhilarated to have completed this project under the able and inspiring guidance of He rendered me all possible help me guidance while reviewing the manuscript in finalizing the report. I also extend my deep regards to my teachers, family members , friends and all those whose encouragement has infused courage in me to complete to work successfully.
AADIL KHAN MBA I SEM.
CHAPTER-2 CHAPTER-3 CHAPTER-4 CHAPTER-5
CHAPTER-6 CHAPTER-7 CHAPTER-8 CHAPTER-9 CHAPTER-10
PAGE COVER PAGE PREFACE DECLARATION CERTIFICATE INTRODUCTION HISTORY AWARDS RECORINISED BANK RATIONALE OF THE STUDY SCOPE OF THE WORK OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY LITERATURE REVIEW RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA INTERPETATION RESULT AND FINDINDS LIMITATION SUGGESTION CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY QUESTIONNAIRE
Introduction Cash is the basic input needed to keep the operations of the business going on a continuing basis; it is also the final output expected to be realized by selling the product manufactured by the manufacturing unit. Cash is the both the beginning and the end of the business operations. Sometimes, it so happens that a business unit earns sufficient profit, but in spite of this it is not able to pay its liabilities when the become due. Therefore, a business should be always try to keep sufficient cash, neither more nor less because shortage of cash will threaten the firms liquidity and solvency, whereas excessive cash will not be fruitful utilized, will simply remain ideal and affect the profitability of a concern. Effective cash management, therefore, implies a proper balancing between the two conflicting objectives of liquidity The management of cash also assumes importance because it is difficult to predict cash inflows and outflows accurately and there is no perfect coincidence between the inflows and outflows of cash giving rise to either cash outflows exceeding inflows or cash inflows exceeding outflows. Cash flow statement is one important tool of cash management because it throws light on cash inflows and cash outflows of a particular period. Meaning of Cash Flow Statement A funds flow statement based on working capital is very useful in long-range financial planning but this statement may conceal or exclude too much. This is
so because it does not take into considerations the movements among the individual current assets and current liabilities i.e. it shows net change in working capital. Moreover, this statement treats increases in receivables, inventories and prepaid expenses and decreases in accounts payable, outstanding expenses and bank over draft as equivalent to decrease in cash. Likewise, decreases in receivables, inventories and prepaid expenses and increases in creditors, bills payable, outstanding expenses and bank overdraft are treated as equivalent to increases in cash. This is not a correct treatment because this items do not decrease cash or make cash available.
creditors, bills payable, outstanding expenses become payable in the next period. Similarly, inventories and receivable make cash available in the next period. It is quite possible that there may be sufficient working capital as revealed by the funds flow statement and still the company may be unable to meet its current liabilities as and when they fall due. It may be due to an accumulation of inventories and an increase in trade debtors caused by a slow down in collections. In such a situation, a cash flow statement is more useful because it gives detailed information to the management about the sources of cash inflows and outflows. A cash flow statement can be defined as a statement which summarizes sources of cash inflows and uses of cash outflows of a firm during a particular period of time, say a month or a year. Such a statement can be prepaid from the data made available from comparative balance sheet, profit and loss account and additional information.
This statement reports cash
receipts and payments classified according to entities major activities operating, investing and financing during the period a format that reconciles the begging and ending cash balances. It reports a net cash inflow or net cash outflow for each activity and for the overall business. It also reports from where cash has come and how it has been spent. Usefulness of Cash Flow Statement
Cash Flow Statement is very useful to the management for short term planning due to the following reasons:(i)
Predict future cash flows. This statement is often use as an
indicator of the amount, timing and certainty of future cash flows on the basis of what happened in the past. This approach is better than accrual basis data presented by profit and loss account and balance sheet. (ii)
Determine the ability to pay dividends and other commitments.
This statement indicates the sources and uses of cash under operating, investing and financing activities, helps share holders to know whether the business can make the payment of amount of dividends on their investments in shares and creditors to receive interest and principal amount in time. (iii)
Show the relationship of net income to changes in the business
cash. Generally there is direct relation between net income and cash. I net income leads to increase in cash and wise versa. But there may be a situation where a company’s net income is high but decrease in cash balance and increase in cash balance when net income is low. Every user is interested to know the reasons or difference between the net income and net cash provided by operations. The net income generally tells the progress of the business while cash flow relates to the liquidity of business. The uses or helped to assess the reliability of net profit with the help of this statement. (iv) Efficiency in Cash Management.
This statement is very useful
to the management in evaluating financial policies and cash position. It will help the management to make the reliable cash flow projections for the immediate future and will tell surplus or deficiency of cash so that management may be able to make plan for investment of surplus cash or to tap the sources where
from the deficiency is to be met. Thus it is an important financial tool for the management as it helps in the efficient cash management. (v)
Discloses Movement of Cash. Previous year cash flow statement
when compared with the budget of that year will indicate as to what extent the resources of the enterprise were raised and applied.
Actual results when
compared with the original forecast may highlight the trend of the movement of cash that may otherwise remain undetected, (vi)
Discloses Success or Failure of Cash Planning.
Comparison of projected Cash flow Statement with the actual Cash flow Statement will reveal the success or failure of cash planning and incase of failure, necessary remedial steps can be taken to improve the position. It also provides better measure for inter period and inter firm comparison. (vii) Evaluate Management Decision. This statement, by providing information relating to companies investing and financial activities, gives the investors and creditors about cash flow information which help them evaluate management decisions. (viii) Enhances the Comparability of Report.
comparability of the reporting of operating performances by different enterprises, because it eliminates the effect of using different accounting treatments for the same transactions and events. Limitations of Cash Flow Statement Inspite of various uses of Cash Flow Statement, it has the following limitations:
Cash Flow Statement gives the main items of inflow and outflow
of cash only and does not show the liquidity position of the company. 2.
This statement is not a substitute of income statement which shows
both cash and non cash items. Therefore, net cash flow does not necessarily mean net income of the business. 3.
It cannot replace funds flow statement as it cannot show the
financial position of the concern in totality.
Definitions The following terms are used in this Statement with the meanings specified: (i)
Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks.
Cash equivalents are short term, highly liquid investments that are
readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. (iii)
Cash flows are inflows and outflows of cash and cash
are the principal revenue-producing
activities of the enterprise and other activities that are not investing or financing activities. (v)
Investing activities are the acquisition and disposal of long-term
assets and other investments not included in cash equivalents. (vi)
Financing activities are activities that result in changes in the size
and composition of the owners’ capital (including preference share capital in the case of a company) and borrowings of the enterprise. (vii) Cash and Cash Equivalents Cash equivalents are held for the purpose of meeting short-term cash commitments rather than for investment or other purposes. For an investment to qualify as a cash equivalent, it must be
readily convertible to a known amount of cash and be subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Therefore, an investment normally qualifies as a cash equivalent only when it has a short maturity of, say, three months or less from the date of acquisition. Investments in shares are excluded from cash equivalents unless they are, in substance, cash equivalents; for example, preference shares of a company acquired shortly before their specified redemption date (provided there is only an insignificant risk of failure of the company to repay the amount at maturity).Cash flows exclude movements between items that constitute cash or cash equivalents because these components are part of the cash management of an enterprise rather than part of its operating, investing and financing activities. Cash management includes the investment of excess cash in cash equivalents.
CLASSIFICATION OF CASH FLOWS (i)
Cash Flows from Operating Activities The amount of cash flows arising from operating activities is a key
indicator of the extent to which the operations of the enterprise have generated sufficient cash flows to maintain the operating capability of the enterprise, pay dividends, repay loans and make new investments without recourse to external sources of financing. Information about the specific components of historical operating cash flows is useful, in conjunction with other information, in forecasting future operating cash flows. Cash flows from operating activities are primarily derived from the principal revenue-producing activities of the enterprise. Therefore, they generally result from the transactions and other events that enter into the determination of net profit or loss. Examples of cash flows from operating activities are: (a)
Cash receipts from the sale of goods and the rendering of
Cash receipts from royalties, fees, commissions and other revenue;
Cash payments to suppliers for goods and services;
Cash payments to and on behalf of employees;
Cash receipts and cash payments of an insurance enterprise for
premiums and claims, annuities and other policy benefits; (f)
Cash payments or refunds of income taxes unless they can be
specifically identified with financing and investing activities; and (g)
Cash receipts and payments relating to futures contracts, forward
contracts, option contracts and swap contracts when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes. Some transactions, such as the sale of an item of plant, may give rise to a gain or loss which is included in the determination of net profit or loss. However, the cash flows relating to such transactions are cash flows from investing activities. An enterprise may hold securities and loans for dealing or trading purposes, in which case they are similar to inventory acquired specifically for resale. Therefore, cash flows arising from the purchase and sale of dealing or trading securities are classified as operating activities. Similarly, cash advances and loans made by financial enterprises are usually classified as operating activities since they relate to the main revenue-producing activity of that enterprise.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from investing activities is
important because the cash flows represent the extent to which expenditures
have been made for resources intended to generate future income and cash flows. Examples of cash flows arising from investing activities are: (a)
Cash payments to acquire fixed assets (including intangibles).
These payments include those relating to capitalized research and development costs and self-constructed fixed assets; (b)
Cash receipts from disposal of fixed assets (including
Cash payments to acquire shares, warrants or debt instruments of
other enterprises and interests in joint ventures (other than payments for those instruments considered to be cash equivalents and those held for dealing or trading purposes); (d)
Cash receipts from disposal of shares, warrants or debt
instruments of other enterprises and interests in joint ventures (other than receipts from those instruments considered to be cash equivalents and those held for dealing or trading purposes); (e)
Cash advances and loans made to third parties (other than advances
and loans made by a financial enterprise); (f)
Cash receipts from the repayment of advances and loans made to
third parties (other than advances and loans of a financial enterprise); (g)
Cash payments for futures contracts, forward contracts, option
contracts and swap contracts except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes, or the payments are classified as financing activities; and
Cash receipts from futures contracts, forward contracts, option
contracts and swap contracts except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes, or the receipts are classified as financing activities. When a contract is accounted for as a hedge of an identifiable position, the cash flows of the contract are classified in the same manner as the cash flows of the position being hedged.
Financing Activities The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from financing activities is important because it is useful in predicting claims on future cash flows by providers of funds (both capital and borrowings) to the enterprise. Examples of cash flows arising from financing activities are:
Cash proceeds from issuing shares or other similar
Cash proceeds from issuing debentures, loans, notes, bonds, and
other short or long term borrowings; (c)
Cash repayments of amounts borrowed.
Cash payments to redeem preference shares and
Payment of dividend.
Preparation 0f cash flow statement
An organization should prepare a cash flow statement according to according to Account standard-3. The following basic information are required for the preparation for the cash flow statement: (1) Comparative Balance Sheets. Balance sheets at the beginning and at the end of the accounting period are required to indicate to indicate the amount of changes that have taken place in assets and liabilities and capital. (2) Profit and loss account. This account of the current period enables to determine the amount of cash provided by or used in operating activities during the accounting period after making adjustments for non cash current assets and current liabilities. (3) Additional data. In addition to the above statements, additional data are collected to determine how cash has been provided or used e.g. sale or purchase of asset for cash. This statement is prepared in three stages as given below : 1. Net profit before taxation and extra ordinary items. 2. Cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities. 3. Cash flow statement These are discussed one by one 1. Net profit before taxation and extraordinary items. This will not be equal to the net profit as reported in the profit and loss account. It is so because of taxation and certain non operating items (e.g., loss or profit on sale of fixed assets, dividend received or paid, amount transferred to general, provision for taxation, fictitious assets written of f etc.) charged to the profit and loss account . Tax paid and non-operating items are adjusted to the figure of profit or loss in order to get the net profit before taxation and extraordinary items. 2. Cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities. Net profit before taxation and extraordinary items is further adjusted with reference to
depreciation in order to get the figure of operating profit before working capital changes. This figure is further adjusted for changes in current assets (except cash)/bank balance), current liabilities and tax paid deducted to get the amount of net cash provided or used by operating activities. All the increases in current assets except cash and decreases in current liabilities decrease cash. It is so because increase in debtors takes place as current sales are greater than cash collections; inventories increase when the current cost of goods purchased is more than the current cost of goods sold leading to reduction in cash. Increase in prepaid expenses reduces cash from operations because more cash is paid than is required for their current services.
Likewise, decrease in current
liabilities reduces cash from operations because decrease in current liabilities takes place when they are paid in cash. Similarly all decreases in current assets except cash and increases in current liabilities increase cash from operations. Creditors would increase because current purchases are more than the cash paid to them during the current period. Decrease in prepaid expenses indicates that less payment has been made for services than are currently used, i.e., some cash has been saved causing an increase in cash from operations. Changes in fixed assets and fixed liabilities have not been adjusted as these are shown separately in the cash flow statement. It is so because current assets (i.e., debtors as a result of credit sales, inventories as a result of purchases and sales and prepaid expenses caused by operating expenses) and current liabilities (i.e., creditors because of credit purchases and outstanding expenses caused by non-payment of some of the expenses of the current period) are directly related to operations.
Reporting Cash Flows from Operating Activities.
An enterprise should report cash flows from operating activities using either: (a)
the direct method, whereby major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments are disclosed; or
the indirect method, whereby net profit or loss is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments, and items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows.
The direct method provides information which may be useful in estimating future cash flows and which is not available under the indirect method and is, therefore, considered more appropriate than the indirect method. Under the direct method, information about major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments may be obtained either: (a) from the accounting records of the enterprise; or (b) by adjusting sales, cost of sales (interest and similar income and interest expense and similar charges for a financial enterprise) and other items in the statement of profit and loss for: i)
changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables;
other non-cash items; and
other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash flows
Under the indirect method, the net cash flow from operating activities is determined by adjusting net profit or loss for the effects of: (a) changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables; (b)
non-cash items such as depreciation, provisions, deferred taxes, and unrealized foreign exchange gains and losses; and all other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash
flows. Alternatively, the net cash flow from operating activities may be presented under the indirect method by showing the operating revenues and expenses excluding non-cash items disclosed in the statement of profit and loss and the changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables.
Reporting Cash Flows from Investing and Financing Activities An enterprise should report separately major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments arising from investing and financing activities, except to the extent that cash flows described in paragraphs 22 and 24 are reported on a net basis.
Reporting Cash Flows on a Net Basis Cash flows arising from the following operating, investing or financing activities may be reported on a net basis: (a)
cash receipts and payments on behalf of customers when the cash flows
reflect the activities of the customer rather than those of the enterprise; and (b)
cash receipts and payments for items in which the turnover is quick, the amounts are large, and the maturities are short.
Examples of cash receipts and payments referred to in paragraph 22(a) are: (a)
the acceptance and repayment of demand deposits by a bank;
funds held for customers by an investment enterprise; and c) rents collected on behalf of, and paid over to, the owners of
Examples of cash receipts and payments referred to in paragraph 22(b) are advances made for, and the repayments of: (a)
principal amounts relating to credit card customers;
the purchase and sale of investments; and
other short-term borrowings, for example, those which have a maturity period of three months or less.
Cash flows arising from each of the following activities of a financial enterprise may be reported on a net basis: (a)
cash receipts and payments for the acceptance and repayment of deposits with a fixed maturity date;
the placement of deposits with and withdrawal of deposits from other financial enterprises; and
cash advances and loans made to customers and the repayment of those advances and loans Special items 1 Foreign Currency Cash Flows Cash flows arising from transactions in a foreign currency should be recorded in an enterprise’s reporting currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the cash flow. A rate that approximates the actual rate may be used if the result is substantially the same as would arise if the rates at the dates of the cash flows were used. The effect of changes in exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents held in a foreign currency should be reported as a separate part of the reconciliation of the changes in cash and cash equivalents during the period. Cash flows denominated in foreign currency are reported in a manner consistent with Accounting Standard (AS) 11, Accounting for the Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates 4. This permits the use of an exchange rate that approximates the actual rate. For example, a weighted average exchange rate for a period may be used for recording foreign currency transactions. Unrealized gains and losses arising from changes in foreign exchange rates are not cash flows. However, the effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents held or due in a foreign currency is reported in the cash flow statement in order to reconcile cash and cash equivalents at the beginning and the end of the period. This amount is presented separately from
cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities and includes the differences, if any, had those cash flows been reported at the endof-period exchange rates 2 Extraordinary Items The cash flows associated with extraordinary items should be classified as arising from operating, investing or financing activities as appropriate and separately disclosed. The cash flows associated with extraordinary items are disclosed separately as arising from operating, investing or financing activities in the cash flow statement, to enable users to understand their nature and effect on the present and future cash flows of the enterprise. These disclosures are in addition to the separate disclosures of the nature and amount of extraordinary items required by Accounting Standard (AS) 5, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies 3
Interest and Dividends Cash flows from interest and dividends received and paid should each be
disclosed separately. Cash flows arising from interest paid and interest and dividends received in the case of a financial enterprise should be classified as cash flows arising from operating activities. In the case of other enterprises, cash flows arising from interest paid should be classified as cash flows from financing activities while interest and dividends received should be classified as cash flows from investing activities. Dividends paid should be classified as cash flows from financing activities. The total amount of interest paid during the period is disclosed in the cash flow statement whether it has been recognized as an expense in the
statement of profit and loss or capitalized in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 10, Accounting for Fixed Assets. Interest paid and interest and dividends received are usually classified as operating cash flows for a financial enterprise. However, there is no consensus on the classification of these cash flows for other enterprises. Some argue that interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified as operating cash flows because they enter into the determination of net profit or loss. However, it is more appropriate that interest paid and interest and dividends received are classified as financing cash flows and investing cash flows respectively, because they are cost of obtaining financial resources or returns on investments. Some argue that dividends paid may be classified as a component of cash flows from operating activities in order to assist users to determine the ability of an enterprise to pay dividends out of operating cash flows. However, it is considered more appropriate that dividends paid should be classified as cash flows from financing activities because they are cost of obtaining financial resources.
Taxes on Income Cash flows arising from taxes on income should be separately
disclosed and should be classified as cash flows from operating activities unless they can be specifically identified with financing and investing activities.
Taxes on income arise on transactions that give rise to cash flows that are classified as operating, investing or financing activities in a cash flow statement. While tax expense may be readily identifiable with investing or financing activities, the related tax cash flows are often impracticable to identify and may arise in a different period from the cash flows of the underlying transactions. Therefore, taxes paid are usually classified as cash flows from operating activities. However, when it is practicable to identify the tax cash flow with an individual transaction that gives rise to cash flows that are classified as investing or financing activities, the tax cash flow is classified as an investing or financing activity as appropriate. When tax cash flow are allocated over more than one class of activity, the total amount of taxes paid is disclosed
5. Investments in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint Ventures When accounting for an investment in an associate or a subsidiary or a joint venture, an investor restricts its reporting in the cash flow statement to the cash flows between itself and the investee/joint venture, for example, cash flows relating to dividends and advances.
6 Acquisitions and Disposals of Subsidiaries and Other Business Units The aggregate cash flows arising from acquisitions and from disposals of subsidiaries or other business units should be presented separately and classified as investing activities.
An enterprise should disclose, in aggregate, in respect of both acquisition and disposal of subsidiaries or other business units during the period each of the following: (a)
the total purchase or disposal consideration; and
the portion of the purchase or disposal consideration discharged by means of cash and cash equivalents.
The separate presentation of the cash flow effects of acquisitions and disposals of subsidiaries and other business units as single line items helps to distinguish those cash flows from other cash flows. The cash flow effects of disposals are not deducted from those of acquisitions.
7 Non-cash Transactions Investing and financing transactions that do not require the use of cash or cash equivalents should be excluded from a cash flow statement. Such transactions should be disclosed elsewhere in the financial statements in a way that provides all the relevant information about these investing and financing activities Many investing and financing activities do not have a direct impact on current cash flows although they do affect the capital and asset structure of an enterprise. The exclusion of non-cash transactions from the cash flow statement is consistent with the objective of a cash flow statement as these items do not involve cash flows in the current period. Examples of non-cash transactions are: (a)
the acquisition of assets by assuming directly related liabilities;
the acquisition of an enterprise by means of issue of shares; and
the conversion of debt to equity.
RATIONAL OF THE STUDY The study is global in scope, since many of the risks involved are global or regional in nature. For this study, stress is defined as a situation where private sector proponents have exited, or are contemplating exit from a project. Information on stress was derived from the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) dataset, which was used as the source for much of the data used in the estimation. This global dataset contains project-specific information on a large number of projects classifiable as PPP, including the total value of investment, sector, sub-sector, type of transaction, and multilateral participation. It covers projects which achieved financial closure from 1984 up to the present. The data is crosssectional, with projects classified according to their current status (i.e., whether they are operational, distressed, canceled, or concluded). Although the data is cross-sectional, it contains temporal information that can also be used in analysis. Because the sample period spans the emergence of PPP in the late 1980s, through the Asian and Argentine crisis, and beyond, the sample includes many projects that have undergone the most tumultuous experiences in PPP, as well as the periods of consolidation that followed. The PPI dataset is augmented by country-specific macroeconomic data and, where available, additional projectspecific data such as country growth and exchange rate information. Analyzing and addressing stress also helps stakeholders enhance PPP's attractiveness as an investment, by minimizing the fiscal and social impacts of poorly designed and managed projects.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
An enterprise should prepare a cash flow statement and should
present it for each period for which financial statements are presented. 2.
Users of an enterprise’s financial statements are interested in how
the enterprise generates and uses cash and cash equivalents. This is the case regardless of the nature of the enterprise’s activities and irrespective of whether cash can be viewed as the product of the enterprise, as may be the case with a financial enterprise. Enterprises need cash for essentially the same reasons, however different their principal revenue-producing activities might be. They need cash to conduct their operations, to pay their obligations, and to provide returns to their investors.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY Objectives Information about the cash flows of an enterprise is useful in providing users of financial statements with a basis to assess the ability of the enterprise to generate cash and cash equivalents and the needs of the enterprise to utilize those cash flows. The economic decisions that are taken by users require an evaluation of the ability of an enterprise to generate cash and cash equivalents and the timing and certainty of their generation. The Statement deals with the provision of information about the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an enterprise by means of a cash flow statement which classifies cash flows during the period from operating, investing and financing activities.
LITERATURE REVIEW LITERATURE REVIEWCustomer satisfaction is an important theoretical as well as practical issue for most marketers and consumer researchers (10). Customer satisfaction can be considered the essence of success in today’s highly competitive world of business. Thus the significance of customer satisfaction and customer retention in strategy development for a market oriented and customer focused firm can not be overstated. Consequently, customer satisfaction is increasingly becoming a corporate goal as more and more companies strive for quality in their product and services (11). Customer satisfaction is the feeling or attitude of a customer towards a product or services after it has been used and is generally described as a full meeting of one’s expectations (12). Customer satisfaction is a major outcome of marketing activity whereby it serves as a link between the various stages of consumer buying behavior. For instance, if customers are satisfied with particular service offering after its use, then they are likely to engage in repeat purchase and try line extensions (13).A study conducted by Levesque and McDougall (14) confirmed and reinforced the idea that unsatisfactory customer service leads to a drop in customer satisfaction and willingness to recommend the service to a friend. This would in turn lead to an increase in the rate of switching by customers. There can be potentially many antecedents of customer satisfaction as the dimensions underlying satisfaction judgment are global rather than specific (15). However, some argue that customers develop norms for product performance based on general product experiences, and these, rather than expectations from a brand’s performance, determine the confirmation /disconfirmation process (16). More recent work has argued that in addition to the cognitive components, satisfaction judgments are also dependent upon affective components as both coexist and make independent contributions to the satisfaction judgments (17). Researchers have established some of the key antecedents of customer satisfaction in retail banking with respect to customer satisfaction in the competitive world of business as well as the key antecedents to the formation of overall customer satisfaction (18). The bottom line is that organizations will always be attentive to maximizing profits and their success will be determined by how they manage customer relationships. Marketing has taken some initial
steps to place the customer at the center of its efforts, such as information sharing in customer service channels, sales force automation and target market segmentation. Customer profitability management requires a multi-level marketing return on investment analysis covering a series of marketing activities that can be integrated and optimized for a customer or customer segment (19). Customer satisfaction, a business term, is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. It is seen as a key performance indicator within business and is part of the four perspectives of a Balanced Scorecard. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of business strategy. There is a substantial body of empirical literature that establishes the benefits of customer satisfaction for firms. Organizations need to retain existing customers while targeting non-customer. Measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication of how successful the organization is at providing products and/or services to the marketplace. Customer satisfaction is an abstract concept and the actual manifestation of the state of satisfaction will vary from person to person and product/service to product/service. The state of satisfaction depends on a number of both psychological and physical variables which correlate with satisfaction behaviors such as return and recommend rate. The level of satisfaction can also vary depending on other factors the customer, such as other products against which the customer can compare the organization's products.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY According to Green and Tall “A research design is the specification of the methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed. It is the overall operational pattern or framework of the project that stipulates which information is to be collected, from where it is to be collected and by what procedures” This research process based on primary data analysis and secondary data analysis will be clearly defined to meet the objectives of the study.
I chose the primary sources to get the data. A questionnaire was designed in accordance with our mentor in Shirts. I chose a sample of about 30 corporate customers
I collected some data from the secondary sources like published Company documents, internet etc.
Research Design “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collections and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedures”. It is a descriptive cross sectional design .It is the conceptual structure with in which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. It is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations, thereby making research as efficient as possible yielding maximal information with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. In the preliminary stage, my research stage constituted of exploratory study by which it is clear that the existence of the problem is obvious .So, I can directly head for the conclusive research. Sampling Plan “Sampling plan” is a distinct phase of research process. In this stage I have to determine who is to be sampled, how large should be the needed sample and how sampling unit is to be selected. Population In my research, I have defined my population as a complete set of customers of Sagar City.
Sample Survey As compared to census study, a sample study has been conducted by us because of: Wide range of population, it was impossible to cover the whole population Time and money constraints. Sample Unit In this survey I took the list of customers from the dealers of Shirts Sampling Technique Sampling technique implies the method of choosing the sample items, the two methods of selecting sample are: Probability method. Non-probability method. “Probability method” is those in which every item of the universe has an equal chance of the inclusion in the sample. “Non-probability methods” are those that do not provide every item in the universe with known cause of being included in the sampl DATA SOURCES Research is totally based on primary data. Secondary data can be used only for the reference. Research has been done by primary data collection, and primary data has been collected by interacting with various people. The secondary data has been collected through various journals and websites and some special publications of BIRLA. SAMPLING i.
The sample is selected in a random way, irrespective of them being investor or not or availing the services or not. It was collected through mails and personal visits to the known persons, by formal and informal talks and through filling up the questionnaire prepared. The data has been analyzed by using the measures of central tendencies like mean, median, mode. The group has been selected and the analysis has been done on the basis statistical tools available. Sample Size The sample size of my project is limited to 200 only. Out of which only 135 people attempted all the questions. Other 65 not investing in MFs attempted only 2 questions.
Sample Design Data has been presented with the help of bar graph, pie charts, line graphs etc.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 4.1 TABLE SHOWING DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO NET PROFIT Particulars Dividend
Rs. In crores 29.85
Payout Ratio Net Profit
Interpretation:The dividend payout ratio net profit is constantly decreasing year by year. In the year 2006 it was 29.85 crores while in the year 2009 it has decreased to 24.20 crores, but it has gradually decreased to 17.04 crores in 2007 and stays constant in 2009 with 17.11 crores but again it is decreased to 15.66 in 2010. This shows that the dividend payout ratio net profit was decreasing during those years.
4.1.1GRAPH SHOWING DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO NET PROFIT
Inference: From the above graph it clear shows that the net profit of dividend payout ratio is decreasing gradually.
4.2 TABLE SHOWING DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO CASH PROFIT Particulars
Payout Ratio Cash Profit
INTERPRETATION : The cash profit dividend payout ratio is also decreasing year by year . In the year 2006 it was 26.47 crores and it has gradually decreased to 21.95 crores in 2007 and again gradually decreases as it was decreased in the previous year , it has decreased to 15.87 crores in 2008 and stays constant with 15.85 crores in 2009 and again it has just decreased to 14.54 crores in 2010. This shows that the cash profit dividend payout ratio has only decreased and never increased during these 5 years
4.2.1 GRAPH SHOWING THE CASH PROFIT OF DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO
Inference: From the above graph it clear shows that the cash profit of dividend payout ratio is decreasing gradually for the following years.
4.3 TABLE SHOWING EARNING RETENTION RATIO
Particulars Earning Retention Ratio
Mar '06 70.11
Mar '07 75.82
Mar '08 82.97
Mar '09 82.80
Mar '10 84.35
INTERPRETATION The earning retention ratio was 70.11 crores during the year 2006 and has increased to 75.82 crores in 2007 and again gradually increases in the year 2008 with 82.97 crores and stays constant in the next year 82.80 and again it has just increased to 84.35 in 2010. This shows that earning retention ratio has increased year by year. The increase in earning retention ratio is good for the bank
4.3.1 GRAPH SHOWING EARNING RETENTION RATIO
From the above graph it clear shows that the earning retention ratio is increasing gradually.
4.4 TABLE SHOWING CASH EARNING RETENTION RATIO
particular s Cash
Earning Retention Ratio
The cash earning retention ratio is constantly increasing year by year . the cash earning retention ratio was 73.49 crores in 2006 . in the year 2007 it is increased to 84.13 crores and again it is increased in the next year as it is increased in the previous year to 84.13 crores in 2008 and remains constant in the next year with 84.13 crores in 2009 and in the year 2010 it is just increased to 85.47 crores … this shows that the cash earning retention ratio is only increased and not decreased during thoese 5 years
4.4.1 GRAPH SHOWING CASH EARNING RETENTION RATIO
Inference: From the above graph it clear shows that the cash earning retention ratio is increasing gradually.
4.5. TABLE SHOWING ADJUSTED CASH FLOW TIMES
Mar '06 97.44
Mar '07 91.38
Mar '08 69.74
Mar '09 74.82
Mar '10 76.06
sh Flow Times
INTERPRETATION : The adjusted cash flow times is constantly
decreasing year by year . the
adjusted cash flow times was 97.44 crores in 2006 and in the year 2007 it is just decreased to 91.38 crores . in the year 2008 it is gradually decreased to 69.74 crores but only from 2009 it has started increasing , it is increased to 74.82 crores in 2009 . in the year 2010 again it is just increased to 76.06 crores
4.5.1 GRAPH SHOWING ADJUSTED CASH FLOW TIMES
Inference: From the above graph it is inferred that the adjusted cash flow times were fluctuating during these years
4.6 TABLE SHOWING EARNINGS PER SHARE
particulars Earnings Per Share
Mar '06 13.37
Mar '07 16.74
Mar '08 27.46
Mar '09 34.18
Mar '10 41.08
INTERPRETATION : The earning per share is constantly increasing year by year. The earning per share was 13.37 crores in 2006 and in the year 2007 it is just increased to 16.74 crores . in the year 2008 it is gradually increased to 27.46 crores . in the year 2009 it is increased to 34.18 crores and again it is increased in 2010 as it was increased in previous year , it is increase to 34.18 crores by 2010 . this shows that the earning per share is only increasing and has never decreased during those 5 year
4.6.1 GRAPH SHOWING EARNINGS PER SHARE
Inference: From the above graph it clear shows that the earnings per share is increasing gradually.
4.7 TABLE SHOWING NET CASH FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Net Cash From Operating
INTERPRETATION: The netcash from operating activities was -1124.99 crores in the year 2006 and the bank was not in good position during that year. Later in the year 2007 there was some improvement , like it is increased to 1956.28 crores and there was no big changes in 2007 as it is just decreased to 1930.64 crores but it is gradually increased to 5599.13 in 2009 . in the year 2010 it is totally decreased to -505.97 crores. This shows that the bank is facing problem in operating activities.
4.7.1 GRAPH SHOWING NET CASH FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES
INFERENCE From the above graph it is inferred that the net cash from operating activities of the bank is not good and were fluctuating during these years.
FINDINGS 1. The dividend payout ratio net profit is constantly decreasing year by year. In the year 2006 it was 29.85 crores while in the year 2009 it has decreased to 24.20 crores, but it has gradually decreased to 17.04 crores in 2007 and was constant during the year 2009 with 17.11 crores but again it is decreased to 15.66 in 2010. This shows that the dividend payout ratio net profit has only decreased and it has never increased during those years. 2. The cash profit dividend payout ratio is also decreasing year by year . In the year 2006 it was 26.47 crores and it has gradually decreased to 21.95 crores in 2007 and again gradually decreases as it was decreased in the previous year , it has decreased to 15.87 crores in 2008 and stays constant with 15.85 crores in 2009 and again it has just decreased to 14.54 crores in 2010. This shows that the cash profit dividend payout ratio has only decreased and never increased during 3. The earning retention ratio was 70.11 crores during the year 2006 and has increased to 75.82 crores in 2007 and again gradually increases in the year 2008 with 82.97 crores and stays constant in the next year 82.80 and again it has just increased to 84.35 in 2010. This shows that earning retention ratio has increased year by year. The increase in earning retention ratio is good for the bank 4. The cash earning retention ratio is constantly increasing year by year . the cash earning retention ratio was 73.49 crores in 2006 . in the year 2007 it is increased to 84.13 crores and again it is increased in the next year as it is increased in the previous year to 84.13 crores in 2008 and remains constant in the next year with 84.13 crores in 2009 and in the year 2010 it is just increased to 85.47 crores … this shows that the cash earning retention ratio is only increased and not decreased during thoese 5 years 5. The adjusted cash flow times is constantly decreasing year by year . the adjusted cash flow times was 97.44 crores in 2006 and in the year 2007 it is just decreased to 91.38 crores . in the year 2008 it is gradually decreased to 69.74 crores but only from 2009 it has started increasing , it is increased to 74.82 crores in 2009 . in the year 2010 again it is just increased to 76.06 crores. 6. The earning per share is constantly increasing year by year. The earning per share was 13.37 crores in 2006 and in the year 2007 it is just increased to 16.74
crores . in the year 2008 it is gradually increased to 27.46 crores . in the year 2009 it is increased to 34.18 crores and again it is increased in 2010 as it was increased in previous year , it is increase to 34.18 crores by 2010 . this shows that the earning per share is only increasing and has never decreased during those 5 years 7. The net cash from operating activities was -1124.99 crores in the year 2006 and the bank was not in good position during that year. Later in the year 2007 there was some improvement , like it is increased to 1956.28 crores and there was no big changes in 2007 as it is just decreased to 1930.64 crores but it is gradually increased to 5599.13 in 2009 . in the year 2010 it is totally decreased to -505.97 crores. This shows that the bank is facing problem in operating activities. 8. The net cash from investing activities was -53.87 crores in 2006 and It is just decreased to -101.33 crores in 2007. In the year 2008 it is again decreased to -209.32 crores and again it is decreased in the next year as it was decreased in previous year to -309.76 crores in 2009. Only in the year 2010 it has increased to -200.43 crores and this shows that there were no improvements during these 5 years. 9.The net cash from financing activities was 997.41 crores during the year 2006 and was gradually decreased to 180.98 crores in 2007 and again it has decreased to -49.92 crores in 2008 but only in 2009 it is increased to 597.72 crores and again it has just decreased to 497.26 crores . during the 5 years there were ups and downs in the net cash from financing activities but at last it has only decreased from 997.41 to 497.26
10.The net cash and cash equivalents were increased and decreased in the last 5 years . in the year 2006 it is -181.45 crores and it has increased to 2035.93 crores in 2007 and it is just decreased to 1671.40 crores but in the next year 2009 it has gradually increased to 5887.09 cores and finally it is gradually decreased to -208.24 crores in the last year 2010. This shows that the bank was good in . the middle years and there were no improvement during those 5 years 11.The opening cash and cash equivalents was 6571.97 crores in the year 2006 and it is just decreased to 6390.51 crores in 2007 . in the year 2008 it is increased to 8426.44 crores and again it is increased to 10097.84 crores but it
is gradually increased to 15984.93 crores in the year 2010. This shows that the opening cash and cash equivalents has only increased during those 5 years. 12.The closing cash and cash equivalents was 6390.52 crores in 2006. And it is increased to 8426.44 crores in 2007 and again in the year 2008 it is increased to 10097.84 crores. In the year 2009 it is gradually increased to 15984.93 crores and it is just decreased to 15776.69 crores by the year 2010. This shows that the closing cash and cash equivalents is only increased during these years.
1. The dividend payout ratio should be maintained as the shareholders would prefer to invest only if the dividend payout increases. 2. The EPS is increasing for the bank on yearly basis. So, the bank should maintain the EPS so that the holders are retained by the bank. 3.
The adjusted cash flow is decreasing for the past few years and this cash flow is considered as operating or working capital of any bank. But the cash flow is neither stable nor increasing as it is fluctuating the adjusted cash flow should be maintained
and the cash flow should be planned in such a way that the cash flow should increase on a yearly basis. 4. Net Cash is the cash that is reserved in the bank for any investing or financing activities. The cash should be increasing in any business to maintain it sound and healthy bank. The Net cash should increase on a yearly basis and the net cash is the life blood of any company or bank for diversification or expansion of it respectively. 5. Opening cash and cash equivalent is the initial investment or opening balance of any business. But in this case it is for bank, so as per that the opening cash is increasing for bank and this should be maintained as this will have a drastic impact on the balance and the bank should also keep up this performance to improve in positive direction. 6. Closing cash and cash equivalent is the closing balance or net balance available at the end of the year. The closing cash was increasing substantially for all the years except for the year 2010 as the balance has pitched down this should be maintained and focused for better closing balance at the end of each year. The closing balance should be looked for positive increase as it decreased when compared to other years.
• Risk Management strategies of Union Bank of India must be revised.
• Bank must try to reduce its Net and Gross NPA. • Bank must try to improve its Capital Adequacy Ratio. • Bank must do proper investigation before lending. • Bank must do pre and post monitoring of Loans. • Credit worthiness must be checked before giving loans. • Bank must not try to take financial risk
The process of financial risk management is an ongoing one.Strategies need to be implemented and refined as the market and requirements change. Refinements may reflect changing expectations about market rates, changes to the business environment, or changing international political conditions, for example. In general, the process can be summarized as follows: • Identify and prioritize key financial risks. • Determine an appropriate level of risk tolerance. • Implement risk management strategy in accordance with policy. • Measure, report, monitor, and refine as needed. Risk management needs to be looked at as an organizational approach, as management of risks independently cannot have the desired effect over the long term. In this project I have analyzed the risk management process of Union Bank of India. It was found that Net and Gross NPA of the bank is increasing which is not good for the bank. Thus we can say that Bank must improve its risk management strategies
Credit Appraisal is a process of appraising the credit worthiness of loan applicants. The funds of depositor’s i.e general public are mobilized by means of such advance / investment. Thus it extremely important for the lender bank to assess the risk associated with credit, thereby ensure the security for the funds deposited by the depositors. In UBI the credit appraisal is done by thorough study of the project which involves Following. 1) Evaluation of Management: A detailed study about the promoters is carried out in order to ensure promoters are experienced in the line of business and are capable to implement and run the project 2) Technical Feasibility: A detailed study about the technical aspects is done to determine the technical soundness of the project 3) Financial Viability: A detailed study relating to financial viability of the project is done; thereby ensuring that project will generate sufficient surplus to repay the lan installment and interest 4) Risk analysis: It determines the risk associated with the project this is done by performing a Sensitivity analysis and Credit Rating. With Sensitivity Analysis the projects capacity to service debts under worsened conditions is determined. Credit rating, provides rating for various parameters like management, financial, market and so, thereby determine the credit worthiness of the borrower 5) It is on the basis of the credit risk level, collateral securities to be given by the borrower are determined. This shows Union Bank of India has sound system for credit appraisal
Books :• “Management Accounting-Principles and Practice.”, By Sharma R.K & Gupta Shashi K Eighth Edition, Kalyani Publisher’s, New Delhi. • “Financial Management and Policy”, Bhalla V.K Edition, Annual Publications, New Delhi.
• “Management Accounting and Financial Control”, By Maheshwari S.N Thirteen Edition, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi(2002). • “Research Methodology-Methods & Techniques”, By Kothari C.R Second Edition, Vishwa Prakashan Delhi (1990). • “Management of Working Capital”, Gupta Sunita. First Edition, New Century Publications, New Delhi(2003).
• “Cost and Financial Analysis”, - By Jain.S.P. & Narang.K.L. Third Revised Edition, Kalyani Publisher’s, New Delhi. • “Management Accounting”, By MN Arora Publications, New Delhi(2003).
First Edition, New Century
• “Cost and Financial Analysis”, - By Jawaharlal Third Edition, Himalaya Publisher’s, New Delh
Websites:• www.unionbankofindia.com • www.scribd.com
QUESTIONNAIRE Name of Customer _______________ Mobile No.______________ Name of the bank and type of account_______________________________________ Please answer the questions and tick at the place that matches your opinion. (A) Mobile Banking (b) Tele Banking. How would you describe your views about Customer Service Representatives? Please tick in The appropriate column. (1: Very Dissatisfied/2: Dissatisfied/3: Satisfied/4: Very satisfied/5: Highly Satisfied), specify the Reason if not using the service Call answering time Flawless/correct operations.
Understanding and replying queries correctly Communication skills/positive approach General assessment about the service Branch Banking How would you describe your views about Branch Banking? Please tick in the appropriate column. (1: Very Dissatisfied/2: Dissatisfied/3: Satisfied/4: Very satisfied/5: Highly Satisfied) Behavior of the staff Time taken to process the transaction Working Hours General assessment about the services provided by the branch Internet Banking How would you describe your views about Internet Banking services? Please tick in the appropriate column. (1: Very Dissatisfied/2: Dissatisfied/3: Satisfied/4: Very satisfied/5: Highly Satisfied), specify the reason if not using the service. Page setup/Menu flow Ease of use/navigation Speed of page loading Variety of transactions General assessment about the service ATM Banking How would you describe your views about ATM Banking services? Please tick in the appropriate column. (1: Very Dissatisfied/2: Dissatisfied/3: Satisfied/4: Very satisfied/5: Highly Satisfied. Reason if not using the service ATM network distribution Continuous service Variety of transactions Easy of screen use General assessment about the service The overall experience of customer ranged from good to satisfactory while opening an account in any of five banks Scale 1-7 Demographic profile of the customers Demographics 1. Gender Male Female 2. Marital status Married Unmarried Other 3. Monthly Family income Less than Rs10000 Rs10000-20000 Rs20000-30000 Rs30000-40000 More than 40000 4. Age Below 25 years 25-35 years
35-45 years Above 55 years 5. Education Secondary Undergraduate Post Graduate 6. Occupation Home maker Self employed Students
Higher secondary Graduate