Caribbean Studies Notes - Impact of Societal Institutions on Caribbean People

May 8, 2018 | Author: smartkid167 | Category: Family, Religious Conversion, Socialization, Kinship, Slavery
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Caribbean Studies Module 1 Notes...

Description

CARIBBEAN STUDIES NOTES IMPACT OF SOCIETAL INSTITUTIONS ON CARIBBEAN PEOPLE In order to minimize conflicts, a societ needs to a!ree on certain arran!ements " social instit#tions$ Social instit#tions %ma &e analsed accordin! to f#nctionalist, Mar'ist and inter(reti)e )ie*s+ are te set of )al#es and &eliefs of a societ *ic direct te li)es, interactions and to#!ts of te (eo(le$ Social can!e is &ro#!t a&o#t *en dominant and  (eri(eral %or mar!inal+ instit#tional instit#tional ideas and &eliefs com(ete *it eac oter o)er time$ Eac instit#tion &ecomes tan!i&le and concrete tro#! te or!anisations tat mem&ers create to f#lfil tese ideas and &eliefs$ Non-aderents are also (art of an instit#tion. te form an o((osin! or (eri(eral !ro#($ Socialization is te (rocess tro#! *ic te cerised ideas and &eliefs of one !eneration !en eration  &ecome te cerised ideas of te ne't$ Based on )al#es, norms arise$ Te stat#s of a (erson decides is/er role accordin! to instit#tional &eliefs a&o#t o* s#c a (erson so#ld act$ The Family

Te social instit#tion of te famil re(resents te cerised ideas and &eliefs tat (eo(le a)e a&o#t rearin! cildren and socializin! tem into te norms of teir societ$ African families are mainl matrifocal %te moter is te centre of te famil+ *ile Indian families are istoricall  (atriarcal %r#le of te fater+$ In (atriarcal families, families, matrifocal elements ma occ#r$ 0#rin! colonial r#le and toda, te n#clear famil *as and is seen as te ideal to *ic te societ so#ld as(ire$ Te oter o ter t(es of #nions *ere dia!nosed as 1disor!anized families2 or 1#nsta&le #nions2 *ic are inferior to te n#clear famil$ Tis led to te acce(tance of !ender !en der stereot(es *it te male &ein! 1&read*inners2 and 1a#torit fi!#res2 and te *omen &ein! 1omema3ers2 and 1care!i)ers2$ Teories e'(lainin! te (resence of m#lti(le famil forms4 •

African retentions  " Matrifocal o#seolds are t(ical of 5est 5est Africa *ere (ol!am



is commonl (ractised$ Slavery  " Marria!e *as rare %E#ro(ean la*s and sanctions disco#ra!ed marria!e+,



coa&itation *as irre!#lar and life *as #n(redicta&le, so tat sta&le families co#ld not de)elo($ Cildren %*eter of t*o sla)es or a sla)e and er master+ remained *it teir moters$ fo#nd mainl amon! te (oorer Economic thesis  " Te )ariet of famil forms is fo#nd



classes$ Moters are *illin! to !et in)ol)ed in se'#al relationsi(s for financial el($ 6o*e)er, te see3 se)eral s#ccessi)e relationsi(s, not a &#rdensome one$ Gender ine!ality  " 5at !i)es men te feelin! of (o*er and control is a life o#tside of marria!e$ T#s, te ma a)e 1o#tside families2 and relationsi(s$

In te Cari&&ean, te e'tensi)e net*or3 of 3in constit#ted te famil, not te o#seold$ Te  (ractices of rit#al !od(arentood and ficti)e 3insi( so* te im(ortance of 3in in different t(es of Cari&&ean famil, es(eciall Cristian families$ Coo(eration, s#((ort and carin! for famil mem&ers are normal (arts of famil life, incl#din! te (ractice of cild siftin!$ Some  (ieces of land are 3no*n as 1famil land2 *ere& o*nersi( is & all famil mem&ers and can  &e #sed & )ario#s mem&ers accordin! to needs$ E'tended families are common amon! Indian o#seolds as tese (re)io#s indent#red la&o#rers did n ot e'(erience stron! attem(ts to m#zzle teir c#lt#ral traditions and (ractices as did te African sla)es$ Te famil (ro)ides te f#nction of re(rod#ction, socialisation and economics and financin! and lo)e and a sense of &elon!in!ness$ From te conflict (ers(ecti)e, it can &e seen tat la&o#r as to mo)e to *ere em(loment is located, lea)in! &eind te e'tended famil$ Te e'(loitation and o((ression of *or3ers leads to te o((ression of teir families$ It also facilitates te se'#al di)ision of la&o#r %men *or3 o#tside and *omen sta ome+$ It is ar!#ed tat te assi!nin! of roles tro#! instit#tional )al#es as led to famil o((ression, a&#se and )iolence$ Im(act of famil on Cari&&ean societ and c#lt#re4 •



Individ!als  " Te famil (erforms a f#nction of social sta&ilit$ Indi)id#als are ta#!t

certain )al#es as te are e'(ected to carr tese traditions on$ Te famil is te earliest so#rce of ed#cation and socialisation to a certain e'tent ta3es (lace ere$ 0ifferent famil mem&ers e'(erience te instit#tion in different *as e$!$ te eldest son and a da#!ter in an Indian ome$ Te str#ct#re of te famil infl#ences tose for *om one as res(ect, one2s code of cond#ct and one2s ideas of !ender relations$ Gro!"s African families " Te 3insi( net*or3 amon! tese are stron!$ Relati)es and o

o

close friends are e'(ected to el( eac oter in times of need, creatin! a #!e s#((ort net*or3$ Peo(le in te dias(ora send mone &ac3 ome or s(onsor famil mem&ers to &ecome ne* mi!rants in te metro(ole$ M#slim families " Pol!am is (ractised, accordin! to Islam$ It increases te

o

com(le'it of te notion of 3in and te e'tended famil in Cari&&ean societ and c#lt#re$ 6o*e)er, tis is not *ides(read in te Cari&&ean$ Te dominant ideas and &eliefs tat (ri)ile!e a n#clear famil mar!inalize tose !ro#(s *o do not follo* s#c norms$ 5omen " 5omen are seen (rimaril as moters and care!i)ers$ Te also #s#all *or3 o#tside te ome$ Tese instit#tional ideas are res(onsi&le for !ender socialization$



Instit!tions Famil " Alto#! te n#clear famil as lon! &een (ri)ile!ed as te 1ideal2 form o

o

o

of famil, te instit#tional ideas of famil are more acce(tin! of different families$ Te idea of te n#clear famil as no* e'(anded to incl#de sin!le (arent families, same se' families and reconstit#ted families$ Ed#cation " Ed#cators contin#all call for (a rental in)ol)ement as it is 3no*n tat a cild2s academic s#ccess is &ased lar!el on s#((ort recei)ed at ome$ Reli!ion " It is from te famil tat mem&ers learn a&o #t reli!io#s (ractices$ It is te res(onsi&ilit of te famil, for e'am(le, to !et a Cristian cild &a(tised and to ta3e im/er to c#rc$ Te e'tent to *ic te famil en!a!es in reli!io#s acti)it *ill affect te reli!io#s (erce(tions of its mem&ers$ If te elders of te famil are of different reli!ions, cildren ma eiter &e socialised into one, neiter or &ot$

Ed!cation

Ed#cation is concerned *it socializin! mem&ers of societ into te norms, )al#es, 3no*led!e and s3ills tat a societ deems im(ortant %f#nctionalist (ers(ecti)e+$ Informal ed#cation %(rimar socialization+ refers to te learnin! a&o#t li)in! and s#r)i)in! in societ into *ic one *as &orn *ile formal ed#cation %secondar socialization+ refers to te transmission of 3no*led!e and s3ills in social or!anizations s#c a scools$ It is concerned *it *at te o#n! so#ld 3no* and o* learnin! so#ld ta3e (lace$ %(! 789+ Ed#cation ma &e seen as (ro)idin! order, rational *as of &ea)in!, e:#al o((ort#nities to  &etterment, a sociall a((ro)ed rite of (assa!e and a means of accessin! e'trinsic re*ards$ It ma also &e seen as a so#rce of conflict %onl te more (ri)ile!ed *ill rea( re*ards+, a so#rce of lo* self-esteem res#ltin! from fail#re and a metod of increasin! ine:#ities$ 6ISTORICAL CONTE;T •

Under sla)er, formal ed#cation *as lar!el for te cildren of te E#ro(eans$ Ed#cation



for te ensla)ed *as limited to reli!io#s ed#cation %from te S(anis+$ Te 7 Emanci(ation Act ens#red tat tro#! te Ne!ro Ed#cation ?rant tat elementar scools %ed#cation *as not e'(ected to !o f#rter tan tis+ *o#ld &e &#ilt tro#!o#t te Britis Cari&&ean$ Onl te 1elements of readin!, *ritin!, aritmetic and a little !eo!ra( *ere o o o

offered$ Te Bi&le *as te main te't$ Te c#rric#l#m *as stee(ed in En!lis )al#es, son!s, (oems, stories and c#stoms$ Te istor and c#lt#re of oter etnic !ro#(s *ere not considered as tere *as te stron! feelin! tat onl dee(er #nderstandin! of *estern c#lt#re co#ld el( #s to de)elo( into a modern nation$



A fe* secondar scools *ic car!ed fees *ere esta&lised$ Te *ere &ased on



En!lis !rammar scools and a classical c#rric#l#m$ Te elites so#!t to &loc3 te former ensla)ed and teir descendants from accessin! secondar ed#cation$ Some (ersons %mostl males+ *o attended tese scools *ere a&le to attend Britis



#ni)ersities and &ecame in)ol)ed in efforts at decolonization$ Ed#cation &ecame a means of social mo&ilit$ Te idea *as tat onl cildren *o are 1&ri!t2 and so* a(tit#de for academic *or3



so#ld &e ed#cated at te secondar le)el and &eond, leadin! to te ad)ent of Common Entrance e'ams$ Te instit#tion of ed#cation is intert*ined *it tat of reli!ion, as tere is !reat



com(etition to !ain access to i!-acie)in! dominational scools$ T*o less dominant ideas a&o#t ed#cation are tat4 •

St#dents *it disa&ilities so#ld &e ed#cated *it e)erone else so tat te can &e



inte!rated into societ$ Scools are dan!ero#s (laces for cildren and foster a atred for learnin! amon! st#dents and a disa&ilit to tin3 criticall$ Tose *it tis idea ome-scool teir cildren$

PURPOSES OF E0UCATION •



Aftermat of sla)er o To te Britis " to inc#lcate Britis )al#es and c#stoms to ma3e !o)ernance easier  To te colonised " a means of social mo&ilit o In contem(orar societ A differentiatin! f#nction " *ere& o#n! (eo(le *ere caracterised accordin! o

o

o

o

to academic a&ilit and (laced in different t(es of scools in order to or!anize teir o((ort#nities and life cances Social coesion and armon " ena&lin! te (eo(le of a societ, es(eciall a  (l#ral societ, to come to!eter as te *o#ld a)e all e'(erienced a common c#rric#l#m As a means of economic de)elo(ment " te inc#lcation of #man ca(ital *it s3ills and 3no*led!e *o#ld e)ent#all lead to te (rod#ction of an ed#cated *or3force and economic de)elo(ment As te means and end of #man de)elo(ment " (eo(le co#ld &e !i)en te o((ort#nities, )ia ed#cation, to de)elo( temsel)es. tis &elief incl#des te incl#sion of all, a Cari&&ean foc#s of te c#rric#l#m and te learnin! )ia interaction *it st#dents

IMPACT OF E0UCATION ON [email protected] AN0 CULTURE



Individ!als  " For 1&ri!t2 st#dents or tose *o res#lt in te formation of intelli!entsia,



te instit#tion of ed#cation as *or3ed$ Te *o#ld a)e ac:#ired social mo&ilit and tere& o&tained o& sec#rit, (ossi&ilit of (romotion and te ta! of res(ecta&ilit$ 6o*e)er, for #nderacie)ers %for )ario#s reasons+, te instit#tion of ed#cation as en!endered feelin!s of lo* self esteem and )er little is (#t in (lace to re-orient te st#dent *o as left scool *ito#t credentials$ Gro!"s " St#dents of te middle- and i!er classes are more re*arded in te academic



*orld$ Tis is &eca#se te (ossess te necessar c#lt#ral ca(ital e$!$ lin!#istic com(etence to s#cceed in te scool en)ironment$ C#lt#ral ca(ital res#lts from e'(os#re to man e'(eriences s#c as tra)el, tecnolo! and e'tra-c#rric#lar acti)ities *ic ma  &e limited to tose of lo*er socio-economic !ro#(s$ Instit!tions  " Te instit#tion of ed#cation as lon! &een intert*ined *it tat of reli!ion$ Te first serio#s attem(ts at te (ro)ision of ed#cation in te Cari&&ean *ere & denominational scools$ Te are seen as elite scools *ere onl te )er talented are acce(ted$ Te role te (la in socialisation, tat is, in te (ro)ision of )al#es is also seen as im(ortant to (arents$ State scools, terefore, are seen a s inferior as tere is no em(asis on an one reli!ion or on es(eciall talented st#dents$

Reli#ion

Te common idea and &elief across most reli!ions is tat tere are sacred elements *ic so#ld !o)ern o#r li)es, as o((osed to te (rofane tin!s of tis *orld$ Reli!ion incl#des4 • • •

Te (rescri(tion of ideal &ea)io#rs Collecti)e *orsi( in)ol)in! rit#als and ceremonies *ic im(act on te afterlife Re)erence of a s#(ernat#ral &od or teacer 

Reli!ion often as to contend *it sec#lar ) al#es " (ractices and &ea)io#rs *ic see3 to  (romote non-reli!io#s ideas$ 6ISTORICAL CONTE;T Reli!ion is seen as a)in! te f#nction of (reser)in! order and social coesion & en!enderin! #nit and social solidarit %es(eciall if (art of a mainstream reli!ion+$ It el(s mem&ers to feel a  sense of belonging, to provide support and guidance, and to create a community of believers of certain values$ Mar'ists see reli!ion as an ill#sion *ic (re)ents (eo(le from reall e'(eriencin! te ine:#ities, discrimination and o((ression tat are inerent in societ$ Te inter(reti)e (ers(ecti)e of reli!ion loo3s at o* an indi)id#al interacts *it !od and a c#rc$ Tro#! sncretism and &ridization, te s#&#!ated Cari&&ean (eo(le " mainl Amerindians and Africans " recreated te social instit#tion of reli!ion$ Teir con)ersion to Cristianit *as an

inter(reti)e acti)it *ere& te s#&ect (eo(le ado(ted te reli!ion &#t &ridized man of its forms and (ractices *it teir o*n$ Cari&&ean (eo(le acce(ted mem&ersi( into one of te maor reli!ions of E#ro(e or one of te Protestant reli!ions, *ose leaders came later as missionaries$ Co#ntries *ere te S(anis and Frenc *ere dominant a)e a dominant Roman Catolic C#rc$  Religion is influenced by the stratified nature of society. Te #((er classes attended and still attend mainstream E#ro(ean c#rces$ 10#al mem&ersi(2 *as common amon! te (oorer !ro#(s$ Poorer !ro#(s tend to find meanin!, comfort and solace in reli!ions tat are alternati)es to tose of #((er classes$ Roman Catolicism *as te first E#ro(ean reli!ion to &e &ro#!t to te  Ne* 5orld as S(ain and )irt#all of E#ro(e in te fifteent cent#r *ere Catolic$ In te introd#ction to te 7t cent#r, En!land &ro3e a*a formin! te An!lican C#rc %*ere te monarc *as ead of te c#rc+$ E)ent#all Protestant C#rces %in tese, e'ce(t An!licanism, te monarc *as not ead+ *ere formed in E#ro(e after contin#o#s criticism of te Catolic C#rc$ In te aftermat of emanci(ation, tere *as a f#ll flo*erin! of sncretic reli!ions tat ad teir first !enesis #nder sla)er$ ?rassroot reli!ions *ere stron! &#t teir ( ractice made te colonial a#torities #neas$ • •

In sla)er das, o&ea *as o#tla*ed &eca#se of its association *it te sla)e resistance$ Te S(irit#al Ba(tist Proi&ition Ordinance of 797 (re)ented (ractisin! of S(irit#al Ba(tism in Trinidad$ It *as e)ent#all re(ealed in 79D7 and =8 Marc is cele&rated as a national olida S(irit#al Ba(tist Li&eration 0a$ Te Anti-Sa3er Ordinance of 797G *as also (assed in St$ Hincent$

The institution of religion (especially in the form of syncretic religions) has always held strong resistant elements that were opposed to colonialism. Africans2 reli!ions incl#ded em(asis on dr#mmin!, sin!in!, cantin!, so#tin! and in)o3in! te s(irit *orld$ Te considered ri)ers, forests and te sea to &e sacred (laces$ Rastafarianism *as formed in te 79=8s in amaica *it roots *ic la in Mal and Re)i)alism traditions and te (iloso( of Marc#s ?ar)e$ It is a millenarian mo)ement *ic as &elief tat a *ill (ersonall rei!n on Eart, in E tio(ia in te 1end2 times and sa)e is cosen (eo(le$ Rastafarianism calls for intros(ection a&o#t o#r a&sor(tion into mainstream ca(italist )al#es$ Te infl#' of indent#red la&o#r &ro#!t 6ind#s to Trinidad, ?#ana and S#riname$ In Trinidad, te different 6ind# sects %e$!$ Sanatan 0arma+ o*n scools toda $ Man 6ind#s con)erted to Pres&terianism o*in! to te efforts of te Canadian Mission *o *ent as missionaries into te s#!ar estates in te nineteent cent#r$ Te also fo#nded scools a nd a teacers2 colle!e$

One dominant idea of religion in the past was that Christianity could be an asset in ‘bettering  yourself. M#slims *ere also im(orted as indent#red la&o#rers and relati)el fe* *ere con)erted & te Canadian Mission$ Te Indian M#slim comm#nit is &ein! *idened to incl#de African con)erts$ In Trinidad, te different M#slim or!anizations %e$!$ Trinidad M#slim Lea!#e+ o*n and mana!e scools$ Te amaat-al-M#slimeen, a &lac3 M#slim !ro#(, *as res(onsi&le for te 7998 #(risin!$ In te latter ears of te t*entiet cent#r, E)an!elical, F#ndamentalist and Pentecostal faits came from te US$ Te con)ersion to tese faits re(resented resistance to colonialism in te reection of mainstream Cristian c#rced$ Te foc#s on em(asis on ( ersonal moralit and sal)ation and a reection of te sec#lar *orld$ Reli!ion el(s mem&ers to feel a sense of &elon!in!, to (ro)ide s#((ort and !#idance, and to create a comm#nit of &elie)ers of certain )al#es *ic el( tem to li)e etical li)es. el(s tem to resist o((ression %for e'am(le, in colonialism+. and (ro)ides an o((ort#nit to &etter one2s social o((ort#nities tro#! acce(tance of te dominant reli!ion$ IMPACT OF RELI?ION ON CARIBBEAN [email protected] AN0 CULTURE •

Individ!als  " Indi)id#al *omen are o((ressed *eter & la*s tat !o)ern re(rod#cti)e



ealt, &ea)io#rs, as(irations or dress$ Gro!"s " Reli!ion can el( !ro#(s to maintain solidarit and 3ee( teir traditions ali)e



in te face of !lo&alizin! *estern c#lt#re$ F or e'am(le, te ?arif#na of Belize still  (ractise some ori!inal 5est African traditions$ Instit!tions  " Te #stice sstem is lar!el &ased on dominant reli!io#s &eliefs$ For e'am(le, te la*s of an Islamic societ ma &e arser tan tose of te Cari&&ean societ as te follo* Saria la*s$ Tis is es(eciall so in teocracies$ In addition, Baa2is find it e'tremel com(licated to f#nction in a nation state as te &elie)e in one !lo&al societ$ Reli!ions ma 3ee( families to!eter *ere te mem&ers a re of reli!ions *ic &an di)orce$ As disc#ssed earlier, man elite scools are denominational scools *ere te instit#tion of ed#cation meets te instit#tion of reli!ion$ Reli!ion as te (otential to !enerate conflict$ Tis is (ossi&le &ased on tose ideas tat do not tolerate or reco!nise oter reli!ions or (ri)ile!e te reli!ions of dominant !ro#(s$ Tere is also *itin-!ro#( di)ersit *ere& !ro#(s a)e d ifferent &eliefs s#c as te Carismatic Mo)ement in te Roman Catolic C#rc$

$!stice System

Te #stice sstem refers to te ideas and &eliefs in a societ a&o#t (rotectin! and (reser)in! te ri!ts and o&li!ations of citizens$ Te social or!anization of #stice consists of te4 • • •

%olitical frame&or'  " Citizens entr#st (o*er to teir re(resentati)es to ma3e decisions (e#al frame&or'  " 0e)elo(ment of a sstem of la*s tat are fair to all (arties $!dicial frame&or'  " Im(lements la*s & r#lin! on conflicts o)er ri!ts, fairness and

 #stice Te notion of &asic ri!ts of #mans & )irt#e of &ein! #man is onl a recent idea$ E#ro(eans did not re!ard oters as a)in! te same ri!ts as te did and oter !ro#(s did not re!ard eac oter as e:#als$ Te (rotection of #man ri!ts *as &ro#!t to te fore after te Second 5orld 5ar and is done to (romote #stice, fairness and social sta&ilit$ Te United Nations *as also created and te 79>< Uni)ersal 0eclaration of 6#man Ri!ts %U06R+ as !#ided te constit#tions of man Cari&&ean co#ntries$ T6E 6ISTORICAL CONTE;T 7$ Te E#ro(eans came as con:#erors and sa* temsel)es as s#(erior to and a)in! more ri!ts tan te indi!eno#s (eo(le alread in te Cari&&ean$ Tis *as so*n in te form of te 7D7G La*s of B#r!os *ic facilitated te encomienda$ 5ile te S(anis cro*n made (ro)ision for te fair treatment and ed#cation of te indi!enes, te colonists i!nored tese$ Te sa* te nati)e as an 1ensla)ed (erson2$ G$ Under sla)er, Africans did not a)e an ri!ts and *ere re!arded as 1cattel2$ Te E#ro(eans, & )irt#e of &ein! *ite, *ere res(onsi&le for tem and eld all (o *er o)er tem$ La*s made related to te treatment of te ensla)ed (o(#lation " te conditions of  &ein! a sla)es and te (#nisments meted o#t for different crimes$ Pro)isions *ere made for &asic care of te sla)es, &#t tese *ere left lar!el #( to te (lanters$ Te Assem&lies *o enacted la*s *as made #( of te (lanter class and so#!t to control and s#&d#e te sla)es and #(old te ri!ts and (ri)ile!es of te (lanter class$ Tere *ere stron! sanctions a!ainst an !ro#( or (erson attem(tin! to introd#ce alternati)e ideas of freedom or ed#cation for te Africans$ Reli!io#s !ro#(s, es(eciall non-conformist missionaries, so#!t to con)ince te (lanters to !i)e te Africans reli!io#s instr#ction and &asic readin! and *ritin! teacin!s$ Tis *as lar!el #ns#ccessf#l &#t, after sla)er, oter reli!io#s !ro#(s *ere &ent on restorin! some #man ri!ts %&etter li)in! and *or3in! cond itions+ to te African (o(#lation$

=$ Te 797 6aitian Re)ol#tion led to te esta&lisment of te first inde(endent co#ntr of te Cari&&ean in 7$ A s#ccession of &lac3 and m#latto leaders enacted la*s

!#aranteein! freedom and e:#alit of all citizens$ Te ri!ts of te 6aitian (eo(le, o*e)er, *ere i!nored & te (olitical elite, *o controlled te #diciar$ Te social instit#tion of #stice *as once a!ain dominated &  fear and intimidation$ >$ In te rest of te Cari&&ean, after emanci(ation, te colo#reds and &lac3s e)ent#all *on some re(resentation in te colonial assem&lies$ At inde(endence, Cari&&ean co#ntries ado(ted forms of te 5estminster Model of ?o)ernment$ It is &elie)ed o*e)er, tat *e *or3 te Britis sstem of #stice *ic *e a)e ado( ted in te interests of certain  (olitical (arties and etnic !ro#(s$ JIn = and >, dominant ideas still tended to fa)o#r te E#ro(eans$ Cari&&ean #stice sstems are inerited from tat of te En!lis &#t te administration of tese differs from te retoric$ Practices are fra#!t *it self-interest, discriminator feat#res and fra#d$ F#nctionalists #nderstand te #stice sstem as im(ortant in (reser)in! social order and sta&ilit$ T#s, &ein! far and e:#ita&le in o#r dealin!s *it eac oter so#ld ens#re tat discontent is minimized in te societ$ Mar'ists )ie* te econom as te reason for entrenced ine:#ities as ca(italism stratifies te (o(#lation$ Tose *o *ield (o*er are tose *ose interests are dominant and seldom recei)e te f#ll &r#nt of te la* *en ca#!t *ron!doin!$ Inter(reti)e sociolo! foc#ses on o* (eo(le are e'(eriencin! li)in! in a societ as citizens &#t not enoin! te same ri!ts as oters, and *at strate!ies te #se to co(e *it, or o)ercome, te ine:#ities$ IMPACT OF T6E USTICE [email protected] ON [email protected] AN0 CULTURE •

Individ!als  " Te la* accommodates itself to c#lt#ral differences$ It &ecomes a



c#stomar la*$ Te #stice sstem im(acts indi)id#als differentl de(endin! on *eter te follo* stat#te la*s or c#stomar la*s$ Gro!"s " @o#n! (eo(le are s#&ect to certain restrictions &ased on a!e &#t are also



 (rotected & certain la*s and con)entions$ Tere is also a sstem of com(#lsor retirement at D ears, DD in ?#ana$ Instit!tions  " Toda, incidences in te famil or domestic crimes ma &e ta3en to te  #stice sstem$ Tis as come a&o#t to (rotect and (reser)e te ri!ts of *omen in families dominated & (atriarc$ In an attem(t to ens#re fairness &et*een te !enders, te #stice sstem as some*at s#cceeded in (er(et#atin! te stereot(es and mts of  &ot men and *omen$ National le!islation as ad to &e enacted to (roi&it atrocities and discriminator (ractices$

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.
SUPPORT KUPDF