Carbon Family (Tetrels)

May 27, 2016 | Author: Jhay-jhay Quitoras | Category: Types, School Work
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Brief description of the carbon family and the elements under this family. This document contains the description of the...


Group IVA-Carbon Family TETRELS Tetrels - come from the Greek word tetra which means four because of the fact that the elements under this family have four valence electrons. -sometimes referred to as tetragens or crystallogens. WHY? Tetragens: Prefix Tetra- means four –based on the valence electrons Suffix -gens – means clan or distinguishable group. Which means “group with four valence electrons” Crystallogens: Crystals- because of the fact that the majority of the elements in the carbon family forms crystals when undergone either natural or synthetic crystallization process. Which means “crystal group” “But the name ‘crystallogens’ is technically not recognized by IUPAC – nor is ‘tetragens’”

IUPAC – International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry -

Serves to advance the worldwide aspects of the chemical sciences and to contribute to the application of chemistry in the service of Humankind. As a scientific, international, non-governmental and objective body, IUPAC can address many global issues involving the chemical sciences.

Elements in the Carbon Family: Carbon (C) Silicon (Si) Germanium Lead (Pb) Flerovium (Fl)

General Characteristics of the carbon family:       

Some are semi-conductors of heat and electricity Are solid at room temperature All have 4 valence electron Block- p Last filled electron- p2 Tend to be very unreactive Are found in both compounds and nature.

Nonmetal or non-metal is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.       

Physically, nonmetals tend to be highly volatile (easily vaporized), Have low elasticity, and Are good insulators of heat and electricity; Are not able to conduct electricity or heat very well. Non-metallic elements are very brittle, and Cannot be rolled into wires or pounded into sheets Have no metallic luster, and do not reflect light.

Facts about the Elements in the carbon group 1. Carbon Symbol Origin of the name Classificati on State Color Notable Characteris tics

C From a Latin word carbo which means charcoal Non-metal Solid (very hard; diamond) (soft; graphite) Transparent (diamond) Black (graphite)  Most vital element in all living things; and in the human body, carbon is the second most abundant element by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.  Considered as backbone of Biology.  All substances that contain Carbon are called organic compounds.  They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen.  It has resistance to dissolution or chemical attack, even


in the acidic contents of the digestive tract, for example. Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled and even ingested safely in the form of graphite or charcoal but many of its compounds are, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. Inhalation of coal dust or soot (carbon black) in large quantities can be dangerous, irritating lung tissues and causing the congestive lung disease. Large accumulations of coal, which have remained inert for hundreds of millions of years in the absence of oxygen, may spontaneously combust when exposed to air, for example in coal mine waste tips.

Difference between the two allotropes of carbon. Synthetic nanocrystalline diamond is the hardest material known.

Graphite is one of the softest materials known.

Diamond is the ultimate abrasive.

Graphite is a very good lubricant, displaying superlubricity.

Diamond is an excellent electrical insulator, and has the highest breakdown electric field of any known material.

Graphite is a conductor of electricity.

Diamond is the best known naturally occurring thermal conductor

Some forms of graphite are used for thermal insulation (i.e. firebreaks and heat shields), but some other forms are good thermal conductors.

Diamond is highly transparent.

Graphite is opaque.

Diamond crystallizes in the cubic system.

Graphite crystallizes in the hexagonal system.

Diamonds are formed in the mantle where the intense pressure changes the molecular structure of carbon, crushing its atoms and forcing them to form a lattice-like structure and will soon form diamonds. Trivia: Do you know that Carbon was one of the first elements known to humans? A Greek historian of the fourth century B.C. , for example, tells of a natural gas well in Turkey that provides a perpetual flame for religious ceremonies. Many reports also detail the practice of mixing lampblack, a form of carbon, with olive oil and balsam gum to make a primitive form of ink. And diamonds, another form of carbon, are described in the Bible and even older Hindu manuscripts. Uses:  Pencil leads for mechanical pencils are made of graphite (often mixed with a clay or synthetic binder).  A cloth of woven carbon filaments.  Charcoal is used as a drawing material in artwork, for grilling, and in many other uses including iron smelting.  Wood, coal and oil are used as fuel for production of energy and space heating.  Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone.  Source of energy. Eg. Coal, oil, natural gas – so called fossil fuels which consist of pure carbon or carbon compounds.

2. Silicon Symbol Origin of the name Classificati on State Color Notable

Si it was given the name silicium from the Latin word silex which means hard stone or flint (with an -ium word-ending to suggest a metal) Metalloid Solid (hard) Gray with metallic luster  Reflects the more physically similar elements carbon

Characteris tics

  

 Hazards

and boron. 2nd most abundant element on Earth’s crust. It has a greater density in a liquid state than a solid state. It does not contract when it freezes like most substances, but expands, similar to how ice is less dense than water. Less reactive than carbon, but more reactive than germanium. Silicon dioxide dust, such as that emitted by volcanoes can cause adverse health effect.

Pure silicon is too reactive to be found in nature, but it is found in practically all rocks as well as in sand, clays, and soils, combined either with oxygen as silica (SiO2, silicon dioxide) or with oxygen and other elements (e.g., aluminum, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, or iron) as silicates. The oxidized form, as silicon dioxide and particularly as silicates, is also common in Earth’s crust and is an important component of Earth’s mantle. Its compounds also occur in all natural waters, in the atmosphere (as siliceous dust), in many plants, and in the skeletons, tissues, and body fluids of some animals.

Trivia: Do you know that the first human footprint on the Moon was made with a silicone-rubber-soled boot? Uses:        

Toothpaste Portland cement Glass / glass wares and ceramics Semiconductor in transistorized electronic devices Sand Bath tub sealers Spaceship parts Silicone plastic

3. Germanium Symbol Origin of the name Classificati

Ge After Germany, homeland of the discoverer Metalloid

on State Color Notable Characteris tics


Solid (hard) grayish-white with metallic luster  It is a lustrous, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon.  With an appearance most similar to elemental silicon.  Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature.  Unlike silicon, it is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in the free (native) state.  Organic germanium is reported to be potentially beneficial for health.  Germanium chloride and germane (GeH4) are a liquid and gas artificially-produced compounds, respectively, which can be very irritating to the eyes, skin, lungs, and throat.  Inorganic germanium will accumulate inside the body and will impose health hazards after consumed.  However, synthetic soluble germanium salts are nephrotoxic, and synthetic chemically reactive germanium compounds with halogens and hydrogen are irritants and toxins.

Trivia: Do you know that Germanium has earned a place in the history of chemistry as the element predicted to exist by Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev (1834–1907) in 1871? Are you aware that the element is not very abundant in Earth's surface? Occurring to the extent of no more than 1 to 2 ppm (parts per million). Uses:    

Transistors Radiation detectors Fiber optics and wide-angle camera lenses Solar cells

4. Tin Symbol Origin of the name

Sn from Latin word stannum

Classificati on State Color Notable Characteris tics


Metal Solid (hard) Silver-white  Malleable and Ductile  Exhibits “TIN CRY” when bent producing a crackling sound due to the twinning of the crystals.  Not easily oxidized in air and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion.  Becomes a superconductor below 3.72 K. In fact, tin was one of the first superconductors to be studied; the Meissner effect, one of the characteristic features of superconductors, was first discovered in superconducting tin crystals.  Tin resists corrosion from water but can be attacked by acids and alkalis.  It occurs primarily in the form of mineral cassiterite, an oxide of tin  It is also too soft and fragile to be used by itself.  Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea have been reported after ingesting canned food containing 200 mg/kg of tin.

Trivia: Do you know that Tin is one of the first metals to have been used by humans? The earliest written records date to about 3500 B.C. , when tools and weapons made of bronze (an alloy of tin and copper) were in general use. In fact, the success of bronze for these applications gave the period a name by which it is now well known, the Bronze Age. Uses:    

Solder Coins Tin plating Tin cans

5. Lead

Symbol Origin of the name Classificati on State Color Notable Characteris tics


Pb From a Latin word plumbum, the origin of plumber Metal Solid (soft)  Bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air.  It has a shiny chrome-silver luster when it is melted into a liquid.  Lead has the highest atomic number of all of the stable elements.  Lead is very resistant to corrosion.  It occurs most commonly as the black mineral galena (lead sulfide).  If ingested, lead is poisonous to animals and humans, damaging the nervous system and causing brain disorders.  Excessive lead also causes blood disorders in mammals.  It is a neurotoxin that accumulates both in soft tissues and the bones just like the element mercury.  Can also cause damage to liver, kidneys, and brain when extremely exposed to the element.

Trivia: Do you know that Lead is another metal that has been known to humans for thousands of years? It was used for making pottery glazes in Egypt as early as the seventh millennium B.C. , as roofing and flooring in Babylonia, and for water pipes and other types of plumbing in ancient Rome. Uses:  Lead-acid battery  Part of solders  Bullets  Inert material for gas and water pipes  Shield for radioactivity  Paint

6. Flerovium Symbol Origin of the name

Fl Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia where the laboratory was named after Georgy Flyorov: a Russian physicist. The name was adopted by IUPAC on May 30, 2012.

Classificati on State Notable Characteris tics Hazards

Metal Solid  A highly radioactive metal, of which only a few atoms have ever been made.  Is currently placed as the heaviest known member of the carbon group.  Highly radioactive that it is only been created in the laboratory and has not been observed in nature.

Trivia: Flerovium is unexpectedly volatile for a group IVA element, in preliminary results it even seemed to exhibit properties similar to those of the noble gases. More recent results show that flerovium's reaction with gold is similar to that of copernicium, showing that it is a very volatile element that may even be gaseous at standard temperature and pressure, and that while it would show metallic properties, consistent with it being the heavier homologue of lead, it would also be the least reactive metal in group IVA. Uses:  At present, it is only used for research purposes.

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