Cantonese No Sweat

April 5, 2018 | Author: grigorije | Category: Tone (Linguistics), Dialect, Syllable, Linguistics, Communication
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Amy Leung Hong Kong...

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''Easier than using chopsticks!" - PETER BOCZAR, leo Burnett ltd.

includes CD with pronunciation aid and full-length conversations

No Swea-t Caf'\-tOf'\ese ArYl~ Leur'\~

Asia 2000 Limited Hang Kong

© 2003 Amy Leung All Rights Reserved

ISBN :962-8783-29-7

Published by Asia 2000 Ltd lB'h Floor, Hollywood Centre, 77-91 Queen' s Road West, Hong Kong

http:/ /www. asia2000.com .hk

Typeset in Futuro by Julia Ng Illustrated by Sunshine Wong Printed in Hong Kong by You Yee Printing & Binding Co. (H .K.)

First Printing 2003 Second Printing 2005 Third Printing 2007

The rights of Amy Leung to be identified as the author of this work have been asserted in

accordance with sed ion 77and 78 of the United Kingdom 's Copyright Designs and Patents Ad 1988.

This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold hired out or otherwise circulated without the publi sher' s prior written consent in ony form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.

Contents Preface How to Use the Book

vii ix

Basics Chapter 1 Chapter 2

3 15

Topics Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5

What is Cantonese? Numbers and Things

Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15

Greetings Physical Appearance Transportation : Going to Work and Going Out Around the Home Finding your Way Bargaining: At the Market and Shopping Time, Dote and Day of the Week Going on a Business Trip First Visit to Hong Kong Interests and Hobbies Weather In the Kitchen Chinese Dim Sum and local Cafes

Appendices Appendix I Appendix II Appendix Ill Appendix IV

Geographical Terms Idioms and Slang Expressions Glossary A Chinese Recipe

Acknowledgements About the Author

29

47 55

67 75 83 95 105 115

129 135 145 153

168

175 182

203 205 207

Preface 1\.1 o

S w e a -t: C a 1'\ -t: o 1'\ e s e is designed to help nonCantonese speakers from all walks of life to learn to speak the language while having fun . While it is written primarily for expatriate residents and frequent visitors to Hong Kong, it can be used by anyone interested in the language. Cantonese is spoken by over 70 million people worldwide; aside from in Hong Kong, Cantonese is spoken in many parts of China's Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, as well as the Special Administrative Region of Macau . It can be heard in "Chinatowns" in cities across the world, and it is the language of Hong Kong's cinema, which enjoys global popularity, particularly those featuring such stars as Jackie Chan, Maggie Cheung, Chow Yun-fat, and Alan Tam, just to name a few. After July 1 st, 1997, English and Mandarin became Hong Kong's tow official languages. However, Cantonese is still the most widely spoken dialect used in everyday life. So while knowing Cantonese may not be essential for doing business in Hong Kong, you will have a lot more fun living here if you know just a little. Although many Hong Kong people, such as taxi drivers and shopkeepers, can speak at least some English, expatriates will find it valuable to learn some basic Cantonese phrases in order to find their way around . It is especially useful while shopping at the market and for those who live on outlying islands such as Lantau, Lamma and Cheung Chou, where the use of English is more limited . Speaking Cantonese may even help break the ice at parties and among your co-workers in the office, and earn you respect for your efforts. The local people might have a laugh at your expense but they will certainly appreciate your trying to speak their language.

This book has been written to guide you through learning Cantonese in on enjoyable way. The chapters ore arranged by "topics" or situations that arise most frequently in everyday life. Each provides you with a list of useful words and phrases so that you con speak with confidence local people . Guided conversations, which ore accompanied by the CD recording, help place what you hove learned into living context. In addition, there ore explanations of grammar and sentence patterns for your complete understanding of Cantonese. Lost but not least, pop-up boxes containing fun and useful information on the rituals of work, ploy and love guide you towards fully immersing yourself in local culture. So let's start learning Cantonese in a fun new way!

Amy Leung Hong Kong

How to Use This Book Over the years that I spent training non-Chinese students in the Cantonese language. I come to realize that that there was a Strong demand for on up-to-dote textbook focusing on the Practical needs of expatriates. What's more, it needed to be Presented in a manner that mode Cantonese. "that impossible Language!" - easy and enjoyable to learn . This book meets that demand . With its emphasis on vocabulary and practical application, it is suitable for learners at both beginner's and intermediate levels, as well as those more advanced learners who simply wont to brush up on what they already know. The unique integration of "pop-up" cultural boxes with the more conventional elements of the textbook should guide the business traveler, expatriate resident and anyone else keen to learn Cantonese in the practical usage of newly acquired vocabulary and phrases. No Swea-t Car"li:Or"lese consists of a textbook and a CD recording . The four elements to the textbook- Lingo, Chit Chat, One-liners and Grammatical Notes - present Vocabulary, guided conversation, useful expressions and basic Grammar to the student. They should be approached in that Sequence by beginners, who con then follow through the book In its logical order. Whenever you see the ·r ecording icon{) , you should follow the text while listening to the pronunciation of the native speaker on the CD, then repeat several times. You should keep returning to the recordings to check the accuracy of yours pronunciation . The CD begins with a brief introduction and then continues into chapter 1 .Each subsequent chapter has its own separate track on the CD e .g . for chapter 2 ploy track 2.

All of the Cantonese vocabulary is written phonetically. Listening to the CD while studying the text will allow you to become familiar with the method that I have used . On a few occasions, I have used a colloquial pronunciation, rather than the exact pronunciation, when the former is in general use in Hong Kong. For intermediate to advanced learners, the textbook serves as a unique reference work on everyday language and culture, and can be used according to individual needs . The recording can also be used independently of the textbook - for instance, while driving in the car or flying on a plane - as a way to keep you thinking and pronouncing correctly in Cantonese . In addition, the appendices are a useful reference for students at all levels. The city and country names in Appendix I are listed in the alphabetical order of their Cantonese pronunciation, so as to promote listening comprehension. The idioms and slang expressions in Appendix II are arranged according to common theme. Appendix Ill serves as a mini dictionary of all the vocabulary introduces in each chapter. It takes time to learn a language. I suggest that you use the CD and the textbook together at least three times a week for 20 to 30 minutes to get the best results. Time management is also important. To increase the frequency of your exposure to the material, you may wish to regularly listen to the recording on your way to work. Finally, learning requires a fun attitude toward practice. The best way to learn effectively is to practice loudly and unabashedly with friends or with co-workers every chance you get.

13>asics

I

J What is Cantonese? Cantonese is the most widely spoken dialect used in everyday life in Hong Kong . It is a dialect of Chinese, a "tonal " language - the meaning of the word depends on the tone used to pronounce it (see 1 . 1). Chinese dialects are a closely related group of languages which share a similar writing system of " characters" , but which are spoken differently. The precise number of these dialects is the subject of debate - there are essentially seven main languages (including Cantonese) and perhaps two hundred minor ones.

1 .1 What are Tones? Tones are the most troublesome aspect of learning to speak Cantonese for native English speakers. While Chinese grammar is much simpler than that of English , tones provide a more than adequate challenge for the novice . However, after a few weeks or months you will have mastered the tones, and will be able to pronounce Cantonese with confidence , astounding your English-speaking friends in the process. A tone is the relative pitch in the range of one ' s voice . While in English varying the pitch of one ' s voice is used for emphasis or to form a question , pronounci ng a Cantonese word with a high pitched voice is almost certain to give the word a different meaning than saying the same vowels and consonants with a lower pitched voice . While other Asian languages, e.g . Thai and Vietnamese, also make use of tones, modern Cantonese has seven tones, which is more than most other languages, making it difficult for most beginners to learn . In Cantonese, the same vowels and consonants pronounced with different tones can have six or seven different meanings. An example of this is the word "Si :"

3

No Swea-t Can-tonese

Tone

How the Cantonese word is wriHen in the Roman alphabet

Meaning

High Falling High

Si or Si

Poem

High Rising

Si

Feces

Middle

Si

Try

Low Falling

Slh

Time

Low Rising

Sih

City

Low

Sih

Matter

To help you pronounce as you read we will use the following system of writing tones. 1. For the high tones, we put the appropriate tone mark on the top of the first vowel/final. 2. For the middle tone, there is no tone mark at all. 3. For low falling/rising tones, we put "h" after the vowel! final. plus the appropriate tone mark. 4. For the low tone, we put "h" after the vowel/final. 4

Chap-ter/

wha-t is Can-tonese ?

The following graphic illustrates the range of tones in Cantonese :

~.~·;,, --=--------

High or High Falling (Si or Sl)

Q)

Cl

r:::

e

t•

Middle (Si)

• ••

One simplification for the purposes of this book is that we will not distinguish between the High Falling and High tones, as for most speakers there is no audible difference . Therefore, practically speaking, the number of tones is reduced to six. See, it' s easier already!

5

1\/o Swea-t Can-tonese

TONAL TROUBLES

You may have heard from friends who have had some exposure to Cantonese that occasionally, this aspect of the language can lead to some interesting situations - either amusing or embarrassing depending on your perspective .

Here are a few examples :

A

Ordering a Hot Dog - One of my students went Ia a cafe to order a hat dog. Eager to practice Cantonese , he confidently spoke the words that I had taught him the day before. Unfortunately he made a slight mistake in the lone, and asked instead for a "hot male organ". The staff couldn 't help laughing but my student wasn't embarrassed, as he knew that practicing is the only way to learn a language.

The Canadian and The Armpit- Another of my students was looking for his Canadian colleague at work and he used the wards he had just learned to ask his Chinese colleague, "Where is the Canadian guy?" However, he used the wrong tone, and actually said, "Where is Mr. Armpit? " They all had a laugh . "Light up" before you "Hit the plane " - One time , someone asked my student whether he had a lighter. However, my student thought he said, "Hit the plane"- which happens to be slang for " masturbate ." He immediately punched the unsuspecting smoker. The pronunciation is so similar that he mistook it as something rude. It took him a while to clear himself out of that mess!

...

6

~--------~~

Wh;Jt is Cllntonese!

Chllpter 1

1 .2 Pronunciation Drill Now try the following Pronunciation Drill (I promise not to hove too many of these) . Repeat a few times after the recording, then try it on your own :

High

High Rising

Ba

ba

Do

Middle

0

Low

Low

Falling

Rising

Low

ba

bah

bah

bah

do

do

doh

doh

doh

Si

si

si

sih

sih

sih

Po

pa

pa

pah

pah

pah

Gwa

gwa

gwa

gwah

gwah

gwah

Syu

syu

syu

syuh

syuh

syuh

Fan

fan

fan

fohn

fohn

fohn

Congratulations! You've now correctly pronounced all six tones for the first time! Just do that whenever you speak Cantonese, and things will go smoothly.

7

N o Swet

Whc

185

No Swe.:;t C.:;ntonese

D

cold dish Ioong pun cool leuhng curly lyOn Chinese herbal leuhng chah champagne heung ban comb so carrot loh baahk curly lyOn chicken stock gai fan chicken bundle gai jaat chicken wings gai yihk chicken gaiyuhk calculate wrongly gai cho sou can (classifier of gun soft drinks) carpet deih jin cheap pehng custard tart daahn toot clam hin Coca-cola h61ohk candy shop tohng gw6 dim cabbage yeh choi cauliflower yeh choi fa coriander yuhk gwai colleague tuhng sih degree douh department store book fo gOng si digital camera sou m6h seung gei door muhn downstairs hah mihn 186

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4 14 15 15 7

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15 8

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7 8 8

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fc].

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1ft

si!iiflQI

Mlllm

14 3 13 7 8

Ill ~

"Filii

6 11

Appendix Ill

C.!ossary

dining room

faahn teng

dining table

chah gei chit lap h6u sihk

dice delicious delayed dry

chih gon

•• ~n

tJUO

doctor dessert dress

da yi sang tihm ban kwahn sihjong dim

ttffl ll iZ

1R7.J<

12 11 15

.g:

n

!tr§a

m

~&liS It!~

dress shop dull sky

yam tin

eye east entree

ng6ahn dung tauh pun

OS

engineer

gungchihngs dihnheip6u

I~IW

electrical appliance store expensive

gwai

end of the street gaai h6u eyeliner ng6ahn sin beat egg and ham teui daan jih Excuse me, please mh goi economy class p6 tOng w6i

14 8

dry-fried rice gon ch6au ngauh fZ~~jijJ noodles with beef h6 diving chihm seui dollar man ~ deep fried ja wahn tan ~~~a dumpling dozen

6 6

m

10 13 14

8

3 14 8 7

13 4 7

HRIB

14 3

-~-

7

•DSfl¥ tfJD

8 7 8

DI«B

15

simm

10

118~

E

11

187

N o Swe4 t Ct

10 14 5 3 3 3 13 15



14 3

ferry French toast

G

f6

>n~M

15 4 14 14

goodbye good morning good night good sky guava juice ginger good afternoon

188

ch6au

j6u sahn j6u tau h6u tin faan sehk lou jap geung ngh on

~

m=a

fiH1! !11!~

!11!!4

q:a

Appendix: Ill

garage glasses grate girlfriend go go travelling garlic grapes good quality garden gate good weather green tea how far how long (how much time) honeymelon hiking Hainan chicken half how hotel here hair salon have a look hair hot high-heels here

c=.tossary

che fohng ngaahn gimg moh neuih pohng yauh heui heui leuih hohng syun taih ji Ieng fa yun jaahp hau h6u tin luhk choh geiyuhn gei noih maht gwa hoahng scan hoi noahm ga bun dim j6u dim ni-douh foot yihng uk tai tai touh foot yiht gou joang hoaih ni douh

m5§

OHM

6 8

R

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14 3

n nmfi

5,11 12

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II ?till IJJD

14 8 8 6

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10 13 15 5 10

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7

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8

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13 5,10 189

No Swet

mf1

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7J 1111111 Pfilt

14 12 12 15 14 8 8

15 15 3 3 14 5 6

Appendix Ill

lawyer left side lemon tea left lottery station Indian tea Indian style dish listening to pop music listening to the radio lady's market living room long hair look for laptop last night ladle let's leather shoes lychee last night lipstick lightning lettuce lamb lemon lotus seed paste listening to rock lamp

t:E,tossary

leuhtsi j6 bin ning chah j6 mihn tauh jyu jaahm Yon douh chah Yon douh choi temg lauh hahng kok t€mg sou yam gei neuih yon goai hook teng cheuhng tauh wan sau taih dihn l6uh kahm maahn hok bat yuh peih haaih laih ji syuhn gou sim dihn soang choi yeuhng yuhk lihng mung lihn yuhng teng yiuh gwun dang

f!Bili

liil liM liim

11

li)liffi!HI

15 7 7 15 14 12

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12

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8

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13

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8 8 8

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15 12

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m

L

3

6

191

No SweHIM

11111m

13 10 15 14 15 12

Appendix Ill

C::,tossary

watching movies tai hei weather

tin hei

warm

nyuhn

west

sai

want to have

seung yiu

what time

geidfm

watermelon

sa i gwa

washbasin

sci sou puhn washing machine sci yi gei

llilfi

II im

12 13 13 14 11 10

imffi\

8

~=

Jm~ ~Iii

m:3=1B m:n111

wet

sap

)I

water-skiing

waaht seui

ii7.J<

water

seui

7.J<

would like to have seung yiu warning

gfng gou

wish

jok

Jm~

.iS ~

window-shoppinghaahng gaai

fiffj

when

~~

gei sih

for luggage) welcome

fun yihng

wind

fung

.II! II

oa

well

gam

white wine

baahkjau

~)I

where

bin douh

window seat

cheung h6u we i

llftl iiBDm

wear

daoi

young

houh saong

~g:

yesterday

kahmyoht

Jj8

m

6 6

13 12 15 10,11 13 10 12 10 3 13 10 15 11 10 4 4 9

y

201

No Swe;Jt C4ntonese

202

Appendix IV: A Chinese Recipe This is the English translation of the recipe featured at the end of Chapter 14 {pg. 147). Drunken Chicken Ingredients:

2 1/2 lbs fresh chicken 1 teaspoon salt 2/3 tablespoon chicken stock 1 1/3 cups rice wine 2 tablespoons olive oil a few slices of ginger 1/2 teaspoon sugar 1 clove minced garlic a bit of coriander 1I 4 teaspoons pepper Steps:

1. Wash the chicken and place it in a deep container (e.g. a pot) . 2. Cover the chicken with 2/3 tablepoon chicken stock, 1/3 cup of rice wine and water to bring out the taste . Use enough water to ensure that the liquid covers the chicken . Bring to a boil. 3. Reduce the heat and tightly cover and simmer for 20 minutes. 4. Drain the chicken and place on a plate. 5. Pour the marinating ingredients -sugar, 1 cup wine, salt, pepper and olive oil - over the chicken . 6. Cover the chicken with plastic wrap and marinate in the fridge overnight. 7. Next day, slice the chicken and serve cold . 203

Acknowledgements

This book could not have been written without the support of my past and present students, including those who work for Pepsi Co, Four Seasons Hotel Hong Kong, Santa Fe, The MIGroup, Bank of America, Fuji Xerox Jardine Schindler, South China Morning Post, 97Group, Reuters, Watson Wayatt, Pricewaterhouse Coopers, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (Trowbridge Consulting), Sumitomo Bank, New World First Bus, China Star Entertainment and many others. My heartfelt thanks for their enthusiasm and eagerness to learn my language. Special thanks to Peter Boczar for coming up with the title of my first book "No Sweat Cantonese" which is not just a terrific name, but also a great platform for launching a whole series of books . I wish to express my deep appreciation to my beloved and supportive friends (Graham & Pat Baragwanath, Julian Russell, Mark Weir, David Hendry, Piers Alexander, Brian Smith, Bettina Dumler, Lisa Chu, Renate Beil, Peter Siddall, Karen Chan, Karen Cheung, Irene Chiu, Ada Kwan and many others) for their friendship and support. Finally, I would like to thank Mr. Mike Morrow, Managing Director of Asia 2000 Ltd . for his initial suggestion to me to publish this book, my editor, Julia Ng for her efforts, Sunshine for art work, Metternich Wong Studio and Nik Fung for voice over.

Amy Leung Man Wai Hong Kong 2007

About the Author

Amy Leung has on extensive background in teaching groups of people from many different countries. She was brought up in Hong Kong and completed her education in Australasia before graduating from the University of Auckland, New Zealand in 1994. She mode her first foray into the world of education when she started teaching Mandarin to local children (in Woiheke Island) in Auckland in 1993. In the years since her return to Hong Kong, she has been teaching Cantonese to a brood range of students, from senior personnel of multinational organizations to individuals wonting to gain on insight, into the local culture. Amy is the author of No Sweat Canto-Love. Amy also writes for IMPRINT2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, Rugby Sevens World Cup program 2005, does voice-overs and modeling on a port-time basis. Amy is a member of the Women in publishing in Hong Kong and gave lectures to expatriate groups on areas of Chinese culture. Her enthusiasm for her subject has been reflected in recent articles in the English-language newspapers in Hong Kong & TVB Pearl Report. Cantonese is the first language of the vast majority of the people of Hong Kong, Iorge ports of southern Chino and is used in many Chinese communities worldwide, Amy believes that it is still a valuable tool even after the Hondover of Hong Kong bock to Chino in 1997. Her mission is to help people to learn Cantonese in on effective and enjoyable way. Amy con be contacted via : Website www.omyleunglonguoge.com Email

[email protected] com

Commentary

No Sweat Cantonese is a fun and easy way to learning how to speak what is truly a diffcult langiage to learn. However, it is not just a book for learning the Cantonese language but also a way to learning the Hong Kong Cantonese culture. For instance, the book provides the reader with useful places to go for shopping, sightseeing, the beaches etc ... This book provides learning the language, culture, idiomatic and slang expressions. And therefore a comprehensive book. It is unique in the sense that it is very entertaining with cartoon drawing and pop-up culture boxes with information about Hong Kong . I found it very amusing that Amy has incorporated some very useful yet humorous and practical slang expressions. Which not only bring smile to your lips, but also; ensure that you can "get about" easily in Hong Kong and get your job done! It will work for you whether you need to use it in the office or with business colleagues . Or whether you just intend to roam the markets, streets, villages and shopping malls in Hong Kong or for that matter any place, where people speak the language. So stay motivated and don't give up to the challenge. Your attempt are sure to cause you laughter and fun filled education . You will get it right- No Sweat At All! Ramagopal Roo Managing Director Fuji Xerox, Hong Kong Office

"If you want to learn to speak Cantonese like a native, this is the book for you ." -ROB AGNEW, Finance and Administration Manager, Greater Chino , Reuters

No Swea-t Caf'\i:Of'\ese A FUN GUIDE TO SPEAKING CORRECTLY

What her students say: • ... a no nonsense system for putting practical , useful stuff within your grasp quickly .. . It gives you the need-to-know bits and pieces essential to understanding and being understood .• - Peter Boczor, Advertisting

Director, leo Burnett ltd . •Hong Kong Cantonese is a lively spoken language , and this book gives the beginner a sense of this while also addressing the fundamentals of tone and grammar.• - John R. Fadely, American & International lawyer, Debevoise & Plimpton an invaluable and practical guide . It includes many of the idioms and expressions that Hong Kongers use everyday. They will be amazed and amused when you use them , too! • - Richard Joggord, Senior Executive, Bonk of America , N .A.

"It will not only bring a smile to your lips , but also ensure you con get about easily in Hong Kong and get your job done!" - Ramagopol Roo , Managing Director, Fuji Xerox (Hong Kong) Limited

'lillllll11~1 1 1 1 [

9 789628 783298

The long-awaited textbook from one of the most popular and successful teachers of Cantonese! Amy Leung teaches Cantonese to managers of multinational corporations in Hong Kong in a fun new way. Na Sweat Cantonese distils her approach , fu l fill i ng the demand for an up -to - date textbook focusing on the pract ica l needs of expatriates in .. Hong Kong and elsewhere i n the Cantonese - speaking world . Like never before , Cantonese - "that impossible language! " - is now easy and enjoyable to le
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