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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-71375-7 - Grammar for CAE and Proficiency with Answers Martin Hewings Frontmatter More information

Grammar for CAE and Proficiency

with answers

Self-study grammar reference and practice


© Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-71375-7 - Grammar for CAE and Proficiency with Answers Martin Hewings Frontmatter More information


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Information on this title: © Cambridge University Press 2009 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2009 Printed in Italy by G. Canale & C. S.p.A. A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data Library of Congress Cataloguing data applied for. ISBN 987 0 521 71375 7 Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, train times and other factual information given in this work are correct at the time of going to print but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.

© Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-71375-7 - Grammar for CAE and Proficiency with Answers Martin Hewings Frontmatter More information

Acknowledgements Literary Agents for the text on p.117 from Natural Flights of the Human Mind. Copyright © 2006 by Clare Morrall, published by Sceptre. Reproduced by permission of Hodder & Stoughton Limited and MBA Literary Agents on behalf of the author; Penguin Books Ltd for the text on p. 127 from Eyewitness Travel Guides: Spain (Dorling Kindersley 1996, 1997). Copyright © 1996, 1997 Dorling Kindersley Limited, London. Reproduced by permission of Dorling Kindersley Ltd; for the text on p. 143 from /nature/animals/mammals/explore/ instincts.shtml, and for the text on p. 159 from /psychology/ what_is_psychology.shtml. Reproduced by permission of; Nick Rennison for the extracts on pp. 206-207, from the Waterstone’s Guide to Popular Science. Reproduced with permission of the editor, Nick Rennison

My thanks go firstly to Fiona Davis for her encouragement, constructive suggestions, and eye for detail. Fiona’s considerable editorial expertise has helped me enormously in writing the book. Thanks, too, to Lynn Townsend for guiding the project so professionally, and to Lynn, Nora McDonald and Linda Matthews for their work in the final stages. Nick Witherick and Peter Sunderland gave extensive feedback on drafts of the book. Their experience was invaluable in helping me revise the grammar reference and exam practice material in particular. Thanks are also due to Sam Brown, Claire Fooks, Nathalie Key, Suzanne Hewings and Hannah Templeton for their assistance in drafting sample answers. At home, thanks to Ann and Suzanne for being always willing to listen, help and support.

Alamy/Adrian Sherratt p129(r), Alamy/Aflo Co Ltd p90, Alamy/Andrew Paterson p179, Alamy/Arco Images GmbH p95(t), Alamy/Chad Ehlers p62(t), Alamy/ Clare Burdier p81, Alamy/Classic Stock 101(c), Alamy/ David Frazier Photolibrary Inc p33, Alamy/David Noble Photography p225 (l), Alamy/DBImages p24 (tr), Alamy/ Dennis MacDonald p43, Alamy/Direct pp1(tr), 149, Alamy/Helene Rogers p108, Alamy/Image Source Pink p190, Alamy/JBP p129(l), Alamy/Jennifer Sena p53 (r), Alamy/John van Decker p78, Alamy/Jon Arnold Images Ltd p141, Alamy/Keith Morris p153, Alamy/Ken Weingart p53 (l), Alamy/Miguel Angel Munoz p95(b), Alamy/Nagelestock p62(b), Alamy/Peter Carroll p101(e), Alamy/Peter Casolino p61, Alamy/Rob Bartee p227 Alamy/Science Photos 101(a), Alamy/South West Images, Scotland p62(c), Alamy/Tony Clements p201 (t), Alamy/ Travel & Landscape UK/Mark Sykes p148(t), Alamy/ Wolfgang Kaehler p129(c), Alamy/Woodystock p224 (b); Corbis/Jens Buettner/epa p24 (cl), Corbis/Betmann p101(d), Corbis/Mimi Mollica p148; Getty Images/Axiom Photographic Agency p225 (r), Getty Images/Ted Spiegel p201(tr); Punchstock/Blend Images p192, Punchstock/ Comstock p53 (c), Punchstock/Digital Vision p1 (tl), Punchstock/FStop p172, Punchstock/Imageshop p1 (tc); Rex Features/James Fraser p168, Rex Features/Jamies Jones p148 (r), Rex Features/Kubacsi/Phanie p42; Sam Hallas p101(b); Science Photo Library/Maximilian Stock Ltd p120; Shutterstock pp5, 31, 70, 148, 159, 224 (t).

The author and publishers acknowledge the following sources of copyright material and are grateful for the permissions granted. While every effort has been made, it has not always been possible to identify the sources of all the material used, or to trace all copyright holders. If any omissions are brought to our notice, we will be happy to include the appropriate acknowledgements on reprinting. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd for the text on p. 9 from Bel Canto. Copyright © Ann Patchett 2001. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd; The Economist for the adapted text on p. 10 The Economist. Copyright © The Economist Newspaper Limited, London, 19 December 2006; Alite Ltd for the adapted text on p. 11 from Alite Ltd Newsletter,; Tom Kirkwood for the text on p. 21 from BBC Reith Lecture, Radio 4, 2001; BBC News Online for the text on p. 22. Copyright ©; Sir David Attenborough for the text on p. 78 ‘Why do birds eat seeds?’ from The Life of Birds by Sir David Attenborough; International Masters Publishers for the adapted text on p. 79 from Reflexology Leaflet. Reproduced with the permission of International Masters Publishers AB. Copyright © 1999 International Masters Publishers AB. All rights reserved; Text on p. 97 ‘My life as a human speed bump’ by George Monbiot, The Green Living Guide, The Guardian 23 October 2006; Telegraph Media Group Ltd for the adapted text on p. 116 from ‘Gadgets to make your home energy efficient’ Daily Telegraph 14 April 2007, for the text on p. 168 ‘Terrible Orchestra’ by Alexander McCall Smith, Daily Telegraph 1 November 2007. Copyright © Telegraph Media Group Limited; Hodder & Stoughton Limited and MBA

Recordings produced by Leon Chambers at The Soundhouse, London. Design by Kamae Design.

iii © Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-71375-7 - Grammar for CAE and Proficiency with Answers Martin Hewings Frontmatter More information

Contents Introduction


1 Tenses Simple and continuous tenses; perfect tenses; present perfect continuous and past perfect continuous


2 The future Will, be going to + infinitive, shall; present tenses for the future; future continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous; be to + infinitive; future in the past


3 Modals 1 Ability; possibility; conclusions, willingness, habitual events; necessity, deduction; ‘not necessary’; obligation


4 Modals 2 Complex modal forms; dare and need; had better; be allowed to; be supposed to; other verbs with modal meanings


5 Nouns, agreement and articles Compound nouns and noun phrases; subject–verb agreement; countable and uncountable nouns; articles


6 Determiners and quantifiers No, none, not a, not any; much, many, a lot of, lots of; all, both, whole; every, each; (a/the) few, little; less, fewer; much, many, etc. + (of)


7 Adverbs and adjectives Position of adverbs; quite, rather, already, yet, still, even, only, really; position of adjectives; gradable adjectives; patterns after adjectives


8 Comparison Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs; comparisons with as ...; comparisons with so ..., too ..., enough


9 Verb patterns 1 Verbs with two objects; verb + object + adjective; verb + reflexive pronoun; verb + each other / one another


10 Verb patterns 2 Verb + to-infinitive / -ing; verb + (object) + bare infinitive; verb + object + to-infinitive / -ing; verb + object / possessive + -ing; other patterns after verbs


iv © Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-71375-7 - Grammar for CAE and Proficiency with Answers Martin Hewings Frontmatter More information

11 Relative clauses 1 Defining and non-defining relative clauses; relative pronouns; other words beginning relative clauses; prepositions in relative clauses


12 Relative clauses 2 Participle clauses; to-infinitive clauses; adjective phrases; prepositional phrases


13 Adverbial clauses Adverbial clauses including time clauses, contrast and concession clauses, reason clauses, purpose and result clauses


14 Conditionals Real and unreal conditionals; if … not and unless; even if and even though; if only and wish; other conditional expressions


15 Participle, to-infinitive and reduced clauses Participle clauses including present participle (-ing) clauses, past participle (-ed) clauses, participle clauses after conjunctions and prepositions, to-infinitive clauses, 138 reduced clauses

16 Noun clauses That- noun clauses; wh- noun clauses; whether and if


17 Conjunctions and connectors Sentence conjunctions and connectors including: before, until; hardly, no sooner, scarcely; first(ly), at first, last(ly), at last; however; even so, even though; on the other hand, on the contrary; as well as, apart from, because of, besides, despite / in spite of, due to, during


18 The passive Using the passive; active and passive verb forms; passive forms of verbs with two objects; get + past participle; get/have + object + past participle


19 Reporting Structures in the reported clause – that- clause, to-infinitive and -ing; verb tense in reporting; modal verbs in reporting; reporting questions; should in that- clauses; 172 present subjunctive

v © Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-71375-7 - Grammar for CAE and Proficiency with Answers Martin Hewings Frontmatter More information

20 Substitution and ellipsis One/ones; so + auxiliary verb + subject; neither; nor, not … either; do so; leaving out words after auxiliary verbs and after to


21 Word order and emphasis Fronting; cleft sentences; inversion; inversion in conditional sentences


22 Nominalisation 201

Nominalised forms; do, give, have, make, take + noun

23 It and there Introductory it as subject and object; there; common expressions with it’s no … and there’s no …


24 Complex prepositions and prepositions after verbs Complex prepositions; verb + preposition: common patterns; phrasal verbs: word order


25 Prepositions after nouns and adjectives Noun + preposition: related verbs and adjectives; noun + preposition + -ing or noun + preposition + noun; noun + of + -ing or noun + to-infinitive; noun + in or noun + of; adjective + preposition

Key Recording scripts Appendices CD tracklist

227 234 259 287 296

vi © Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-71375-7 - Grammar for CAE and Proficiency with Answers Martin Hewings Frontmatter More information


To the student Who is this book for? This book is for anyone preparing for the Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English (CAE) or Certificate of Proficiency in English (Proficiency/CPE) exams and covers the grammar needed for these exams. You can use it to support a CAE or Proficiency coursebook, for extra grammar practice on a general English language course, or with practice tests as part of a revision programme. You can use in it class or for selfstudy.

C: Grammar exercises Write your answers to each exercise and then check them in the Key. You can refer back to section B when you are doing the exercises. D: Exam practice Each unit has a writing task and one other exam task. These have been designed to give you practice in the grammar for that unit as well as helping you to get to know the different parts of the CAE and Proficiency exams. The Use of English tasks test the grammar presented in that unit, but they also test other areas of grammar (which are presented in the rest of the book). Tasks similar to those in the Proficiency exam are indicated with a bar in the margin.

How do I use this book? There are two ways to use this book. You can either start at Unit 1 and work through to the end of the book, or you can do the online Entry test to find out which units you need most practice in and begin with those. Go to

Appendices The Appendices give more information about some of the grammar points presented in the units. They include lists of verbs commonly found in particular grammatical patterns, and further examples of points explained in Section B.

What is in this book? This book contains 25 units. Each unit is in four parts: A: Context listening This introduces the grammar of the unit in context. This will help you to understand the grammar more easily when you study section B. It also gives you useful listening practice. Play the recording and answer the questions. Then check your answers in the Key.

The Key The Key contains: • answers for all the exercises. Check your answers at the end of each exercise. • sample answers for all the writing tasks in the Exam practice section. Read these after you have written your own answer. Study the language used and the way the ideas are organised. Examples of the grammar points practised in the unit are highlighted in the sample answers.

B: Grammar Read through this section before you do the grammar exercises. Start points act as a brief reminder of grammar that you probably already know, and you should look at these before reading the more advanced explanations. Material likely to be relevant to students taking Proficiency is indicated with a bar in the margin.

vii © Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-71375-7 - Grammar for CAE and Proficiency with Answers Martin Hewings Frontmatter More information

B: Grammar This section is designed for private study, but you may wish to discuss those parts which are particularly relevant to your students’ needs.

The Recording scripts There are recording scripts for the Context listening in each unit, and for the Exam practice listening tasks. Do not look at the script until after you have answered the questions. It is a good idea to play the recording again while you read the script.

C: Grammar exercises This section can be done in class or set as homework. Students can be encouraged to check their own work and discuss any difficulties they encounter.

The Entry test The Entry test is available online at www. You can do this test before using the book to help you choose what to study. Answer the questions and then check your answers in the online Key. This Key tells you which units are most important for you.

D: Exam practice This section can be used to familiarise students with the task types found in the CAE and Proficiency exams, while offering further practice in the grammar for each unit. Each task is followed by a Grammar focus task. The Grammar focus task highlights how the grammar studied in the unit is used in the exam task. The book contains at least one task from most parts of the Reading, Writing, Use of English and Listening papers in the CAE and Proficiency exams. Although the tasks have the same format as those found in the exams, the content has sometimes been changed to reflect the focus on grammar found in this book. In addition, there are more tasks from the Use of English paper than the others because this paper tests grammar more than the others. The Writing tasks cover a wide range of the tasks which students may come across in the exams, including articles, essays, reviews and proposals. Tasks similar to those found in the Proficiency exam are indicated with a bar in the margin. The Writing hints offer extra support in the form of useful words and expressions.

To the teacher This book offers concise yet comprehensive coverage of the grammar students need to be successful in the Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English (CAE) and Certificate of Proficiency in English (Proficiency/CPE) exams. It can be used for self-study or with a class. It will be particularly valuable for revision, for students retaking one of the exams, and for candidates in classes where some students are not entered for the exam. Sections A, B and C are designed to be useful for all advanced level students whether or not they are entered for CAE or Proficiency. The Entry test The online Entry test can be used diagnostically as a means of prioritising the language areas to be covered, either for a class, or for individual students.

In classes where there are students who are not entered for either of the exams, you might prefer to set Exam tasks as extra work for exam candidates only. Alternatively, you could set the tasks for all students, as a further opportunity to practise the grammar of each unit.

What is in this book? A: Context listening This section is suitable for classroom use. Many of the tasks can be done in pairs or small groups if appropriate.

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