Caesar Unit Plan with Good Resources

July 9, 2017 | Author: Alan Florence | Category: Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare, Pompey, Reading Comprehension, Sonnets
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A full unit plan for teaching Julius Caesar in a sophomore English class....

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Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare

Literature Guide Developed by Kristen Bowers for Secondary Solutions®

ISBN 13: 978-0-9772295-6-7 ISBN 10: 0-9772295-72 © 2006 Secondary Solutions. All rights reserved. A classroom teacher who has purchased this guide may photocopy the materials in this publication for his/her classroom use only. Use or reproduction by a part of or an entire school or school system, by for-profit tutoring centers and like institutions, or for commercial sale, is strictly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, translated or stored without the express written permission of the publisher. Created and printed in the United States of America.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Julius Caesar Complete Literature Guide About This Literature Guide ........................................................................................... 4 How to Use Our Literature Guides .................................................................................. 5 Exploring Expository Writing ......................................................................................... 6

Author Biography: William Shakespeare ............................................................................................................... 6

Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing ............................................................. 7 Standards Focus: Historical Context...............................................................................8

The Real Julius Caesar............................................................................................................................................ 8

Anticipation/Reaction Guide .......................................................................................... 9 Anticipation/Reaction Guide Response ........................................................................ 10

Pre-Reading Individual Reflection....................................................................................................................... 10

Standards Focus: Elements of Drama ............................................................................ 11

Literary Terms to Know......................................................................................................................................... 11

Standards Focus: Approaching Shakespeare’s Language .............................................. 12 Shakespeare’s Style....................................................................................................... 13

The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter ............................................................................................................13

Vocabulary List ..............................................................................................................15 Words and Phrases to Know ......................................................................................... 16 Allusions throughout the Play........................................................................................17 Act One ......................................................................................................................... 18

Scene Guide .......................................................................................................................................................... 18 Comprehension Check...........................................................................................................................................19 Standards Focus: Setting, Tone, and Mood ......................................................................................................... 20 Assessment Preparation: Word Parts .................................................................................................................. 22

Act Two ......................................................................................................................... 24

Scene Guide .......................................................................................................................................................... 24 Comprehension Check.......................................................................................................................................... 25 Standards Focus: Character Map ......................................................................................................................... 26 Standards Focus: Characterization and Character Motivation ........................................................................... 27 Assessment Preparation: Vocabulary in Context................................................................................................. 29

Act Three ...................................................................................................................... 31

Scene Guide ...........................................................................................................................................................31 Comprehension Check.......................................................................................................................................... 32 Standards Focus: Rhetoric ................................................................................................................................... 33 Standards Focus: Analysis of Rhetoric................................................................................................................. 35 Assessment Preparation: Word Roots ................................................................................................................. 37

Act Four ........................................................................................................................ 39

Scene Guide .......................................................................................................................................................... 39 Comprehension Check.......................................................................................................................................... 40 Standards Focus: Figurative Language .................................................................................................................41 Standards Focus: Dialogue, Monologue, and Soliloquy ...................................................................................... 43 Assessment Preparation: Connotation/Denotation ............................................................................................ 45

Act Five .........................................................................................................................48

Scene Guide .......................................................................................................................................................... 48 Comprehension Check.......................................................................................................................................... 49 Standards Focus: Tragedy and the Tragic Hero................................................................................................... 50 Standards Focus: Theme ...................................................................................................................................... 52 Assessment Preparation: Analogies ..................................................................................................................... 54

Anticipation/Reaction Guide ........................................................................................ 56

Post-Reading Individual Reflection ..................................................................................................................... 56

Act One Quiz ................................................................................................................. 57 Act Two Quiz ................................................................................................................. 58 Act Three Quiz .............................................................................................................. 59 Act Four Quiz ................................................................................................................60 ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Act Five Quiz ................................................................................................................. 61 Final Test ...................................................................................................................... 62 Final Test: Multiple Choice ........................................................................................... 65 Teacher Guide...............................................................................................................68

Summary of the Play............................................................................................................................................. 68 Vocabulary List with Definitions.......................................................................................................................... 70 Pre-Reading Ideas and Activities ..........................................................................................................................71 Post-Reading Extension Activities and Alternative Assessment ..........................................................................71 Essay/Writing Ideas ............................................................................................................................................. 73 Project Rubric ....................................................................................................................................................... 74 Response to Literature Rubric.............................................................................................................................. 75

Answer Key................................................................................................................... 77

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

About This Literature Guide Secondary Solutions is the endeavor of a high school English teacher who could not seem to find appropriate materials to help her students master the necessary concepts at the secondary level. She grew tired of spending countless hours researching, creating, writing, and revising lesson plans, worksheets, quizzes, tests and extension activities to motivate and inspire her students, and at the same time, address those ominous content standards! Materials that were available were either juvenile in nature, skimpy in content, or were moderately engaging activities that did not come close to meeting the content standards on which her students were being tested. Frustrated and tired of trying to get by with inappropriate, inane lessons, she finally decided that if the right materials were going to be available to her and other teachers, she was going to have to make them herself! Mrs. Bowers set to work to create one of the most comprehensive and innovative Literature Guide sets on the market. Joined by a middle school teacher with 21 years of secondary school experience, Secondary Solutions began, and has matured into a specialized team of intermediate and secondary teachers who have developed for you a set of materials unsurpassed by all others. Before the innovation of Secondary Solutions, materials that could be purchased offered a reproducible student workbook and a separate set of teacher materials at an additional cost. Other units provided the teacher with student materials only, and very often, the content standards were ignored. Secondary Solutions provides all of the necessary materials for complete coverage of the literature units of study, including author biographies, pre-reading activities, numerous and varied vocabulary and comprehension activities, study-guide questions, graphic organizers, literary analysis and critical thinking activities, essay-writing ideas, extension activities, quizzes, unit tests, alternative assessment, online teacher assistance, and much, much more. Each guide is designed to address the unique learning styles and comprehension levels of every student in your classroom. All materials are written and presented at the grade level of the learner, and include extensive coverage of the content standards. As an added bonus, all teacher materials are included! As a busy teacher, you don’t have time to waste reinventing the wheel. You want to get down to the business of teaching! With our professionally developed teacher-written literature guides, Secondary Solutions has provided you with the answer to your time management problems, while saving you hours of tedious and exhausting work. Our guides will allow you to focus on the most important aspects of teaching—the personal, one-on-one, hands-on instruction you enjoy most—the reason you became a teacher in the first place. Secondary Solutions®—The First Solution for the Secondary Teacher!®

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

How to Use Our Literature Guides Our Literature Guides are based upon the National Council of the Teachers of English and the International Readers Association’s national English/Language Arts Curriculum and Content Area Standards. The materials we offer allow you to teach the love and full enjoyment of literature, while still addressing the concepts upon which your students are assessed. These Guides are designed to be used in their sequential entirety, or may be divided into separate parts. Not all activities must be used, but to achieve full comprehension and mastery of the skills involved, it is recommended that you utilize everything each Guide has to offer. Most importantly, you now have a variety of valuable materials to choose from, and you are not forced into extra work! There are several distinct categories within each Literature Guide: • Comprehension Check: Exploring Expository Writing—Worksheets designed to address the exploration and analysis of functional and/or informational materials. 9 Author Biography 9 Biographies of non-fiction characters 9 Relevant news and magazine articles, etc. • Comprehension Check—Similar to Exploring Expository Writing, but designed for comprehension of narrative text—study questions designed to guide students as they read the text. • Standards Focus—Worksheets and activities that directly address the content standards and allow students extensive practice in literary skills and analysis. Standards Focus activities are found with every chapter or section. Some examples: 9 Figurative Language 9 Irony 9 Flashback • Assessment Preparation—Vocabulary activities which emulate the types of vocabulary/ grammar proficiency on which students are tested in state and national assessments. Assessment Preparation activities are found within every chapter or section. Some examples: 9 Context Clues 9 Connotation/Denotation 9 Word Roots • Quizzes and Tests—Quizzes are included for each chapter or designated section; final tests as well as alternative assessment are available at the end of each Guide. These include: 9 Multiple Choice 9 Matching 9 Short Response • Pre-Reading, Post-Reading Activities, Essay/Writing Ideas plus Sample Rubrics—Each Guide also has its own unique pre-reading, post reading and essay/writing ideas and alternative assessment activities. Each Guide contains handouts and activities for varied levels of difficulty. We know that not all students are alike—nor are all teachers! We hope you can effectively utilize every aspect our Literature Guides have to offer—we want to make things easier on you! If you need additional assistance, please email us at [email protected] For specific information on how our Guides are directly correlated to your state’s content standards, please write us an email including the name of your state to: [email protected] Thank you for choosing Secondary Solutions®!

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Exploring Expository Writing Author Biography: William Shakespeare William Shakespeare is widely believed to have been the greatest playwright in history. His plays are continually produced and students around the world read his works in school. Shakespeare is known for his ability to depict the depth of human character and his skill in illustrating issues to which for hundreds of years, people around the world can relate. Shakespeare’s father, John Shakespeare, was a wealthy business owner and active citizen of Stratford-upon-Avon in England. He married Shakespeare’s mother, Mary Arden, in 1557, and they had William on April 23, 1564. During the sixteenth century, waves of the Black Plague ravaged England and William was lucky to have survived. Two of his sisters, Joan and Margaret, died from the affliction. William’s younger brother, Gilbert, fortunately escaped the deadly epidemic and had a long and successful career as a tradesman. Later, John and Mary Shakespeare had four more children: Joan (named after their firstborn), Anne (who died at age eight), Richard, and Edmund, who eventually followed in William’s footsteps as an actor. Shakespeare began his education at the age of six or seven at the Stratford grammar school, known as the King’s New School of Stratford-upon-Avon. His lessons were primarily in Latin, but William also likely learned in English. Shakespeare was taken out of school at about the age of thirteen, due to his father’s financial problems at this time. It is believed that William continued his studies on his own, however, educating himself as much as possible. The events of William’s life between the age of thirteen and when he emerged in London as an actor, is generally unknown. However, it is recorded that in 1582, at the age of eighteen he married Anne Hathaway, who was eight years older than him and pregnant at the time. Shakespeare’s first child, Susanna, was born in 1583. Two years later, twins Hamnet and Judith were born. In 1596, Hamnet died of unknown causes. The loss was said to have affected William deeply; his grief and loss is expressed in his writing. Little is known about Shakespeare’s life during the years of 1585 to 1592, before he appeared as an actor in London. It is believed he spent this time perfecting his craft as an actor and playwright. By 1592, Shakespeare was already an established and respected actor in London. Productions of Henry IV and The Comedy of Errors were performed by Pembroke’s Men, a popular acting troupe who often performed for Queen Elizabeth. In 1594, Shakespeare joined another acting troupe, Lord Chamberlain’s Men, and it was while he was with this group that Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet, Richard II, King John, and others. Although Shakespeare was never wealthy, he lived a comfortable life, buying a home in Stratford in 1597. He became part-owner of the most popular theater in London, the Globe Theater, in 1599, and the Blackfriars Theater in 1603. Shakespeare continued to act until 1613, when he returned to Stratford to retire. Shakespeare is believed to have died on April 23, 1616, exactly 52 years to the day of his birth.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences. 1. When and where was William Shakespeare born? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2. Write an original thesis statement which best summarizes the article. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 3. Rewrite the following paragraph to improve cohesion and logic: Shakespeare’s first child, Susanna, was born in 1583. Two years later, twins Hamnet and Judith were born. In 1596, Hamnet died of unknown causes. The loss was said to have affected William deeply; his grief and loss is expressed in his writing. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 4. If you were given an assignment to find out more information about the life of William Shakespeare, what 3 questions would you like to find answers for in your research? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 5. What is significant about the date of Shakespeare’s death? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 6. Does this article primarily contain facts or opinions? How do you know? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 7. How is the information in this article arranged: problem/solution, cause/effect, compare/contrast, or chronological? How can you tell? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Standards Focus: Historical Context The Real Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar born July 12, 100BC, is one of the most well-known political leaders in history. Caesar was considered to be a military genius and brilliant politician, and his life and conquests continue to be widely revered and studied throughout the world. It was believed that Caesar was a direct descendant of the Trojan prince Aeneas, who was the son of the goddess Venus. His father, whom he was named after, was a war hero and respected politician. Although a member of the aristocracy, Caesar and his family lived in one of the lower-class neighborhoods in Rome. Little is known about Caesar’s early years, other than having two sisters, both of whom were apparently named Julia. Caesar’s father died in 84BC, and Caesar found himself the patriarch of the family at age sixteen. A year later, Caesar married Cornelia, daughter of the famous orator Cinna. As a young man, Caesar saw plenty of political and social unrest under the harsh dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Shortly after Caesar married Cornelia, Civil War erupted and Cinna was killed, leaving Caesar without an inheritance. In fear for his own life, he fled to Asia and joined the army, serving under Marcus Thermus. He received numerous honors, including the Civic Crown which was the second highest Roman military award at the time. In 78BC, Sulla died unexpectedly in his sleep, and Caesar returned to Rome. He began his political career, becoming a renowned orator and powerful politician. In 63BC, Caesar was elected to the position of Pontifex Maximus, which gave Caesar great political and religious influence. Three years later, Caesar was elected senior Counsul of the Roman Republic. Needing support both politically and financially, Caesar formed the First Triumvirate with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) and Marcus Licinius Crassus, an extremely wealthy businessman. Caesar then took the post of Proconsular Governor of Gaul and Illyria. Desperate for power, Caesar began the Gallic War, which lasted from 58BC to 49BC. His conquest was successful, and Caesar seized enormous parts of Europe for the Roman Empire. This war would become only one small element of Caesar’s takeover as he continued to annex parts of Europe for Rome. Despite Caesar’s military and leadership success, he was disliked by many, who believed Caesar wanted to have solitary rule. It was at this time that Caesar’s daughter Julia died during childbirth, leaving both Caesar and Pompey (who had married Julia) devastated. Later, Pompey married one of Caesar’s enemies’ daughters, which would prove to drive a wedge into the already crumbling relationship of the triumvirate. In 50BC, Pompey ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome. After Caesar refused, Pompey accused Caesar of treason. In 49BC Caesar returned to Rome with a small faction of his army, igniting civil war. Caesar defeated Pompey in 48BC, although heavily outnumbered by Pompey. Caesar was then appointed sole ruler of Rome. In 47BC, Caesar battled in the Middle East, conquering King Pharneaces II of Pontus. He declared his famous words Veni, Vidi, Vici (I came, I saw, I conquered) after his swift annihilation. His victories in battle made Caesar’s popularity soar; he became an icon and a god to the Romans who immediately built statues and minted coins with his countenance. Caesar’s growing power and popularity only inflated his ego and personal agenda. He did what he wanted, with no opposition. He erected buildings, enacted laws, pardoned criminals, appointed his friends and followers to important positions in government, and declared holidays in his honor. This disregard for the electoral system that had been in place in Rome incensed many Romans. Caesar became an enemy of the state with a growing number of powerful underground factions. After Caesar was named dictator for life (Dictator Perpetuus), concern intensified for the future of Rome. Marcus Brutus, once Caesar’s close friend and confidant, began to conspire with his brother-in-law and friend Cassius and others. They called themselves the Liberators, and built a plan to assassinate Caesar. On March 15 (the Ides of March), Caesar was lured to the forum to discuss a fake petition. Once there and distracted by the petition, Caesar was stabbed to death by his conspirators; by most accounts, he was stabbed twenty-three times, although Shakespeare increased that number to thirty-three wounds. It is reported that over 60 men either witnessed or participated in the assassination of one of the most powerful rulers of all time. ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Anticipation/Reaction Guide Directions: Before reading the play, write “yes” if you agree with the statement, “no” if you disagree with the statement, and “?” if you don’t have a strong opinion about the statement. After reading, you will complete the last column, revisiting your original responses. Yes = I agree

No = I disagree

Before Reading

? = I don’t know After Reading

Statement 1.

Be careful whom you trust.

2. Excessive pride can lead to your own ruin. 3. Too much ambition can be dangerous. 4. Good leaders acknowledge their own weaknesses. 5. We cannot control our fate. 6. Politicians are only concerned with what the majority of people want. 7.

Superstition can be a powerful driving force.

8. People want to see the good in others. 9. Weak people can be easily manipulated. 10. One man’s hero is another man’s enemy. 11. Words can be powerful weapons.

After completing the “Before Reading” column, get into small groups, and record your group members’ names. As a group, tally (using tic marks: |||| ) the number of “yes”,“no” and “?” responses for each question using the chart below. Group Members:

Statement #

Yes

No

I Don’t Know

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Once you have collected your data, discuss those issues about which your group was divided. Make your case for your opinions, and pay attention to your classmates’ arguments. Once you have discussed all of the issues, answer the questions on the next page. ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Anticipation/Reaction Guide Response Pre-Reading Individual Reflection Directions: Use the information and discussion from the “Before Reading” responses to answer the following questions. Be sure to use complete sentences. 1. Which statement triggered the most thought-provoking or interesting discussion? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. Summarize your group’s most interesting discussion/debate. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. For any of the statements that you discussed, what were some of the strongest or most memorable points made by your group members? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. How did you feel when a group member disagreed with the way you feel about an issue? Did they accept your personal opinion or disrespect it? What was your response? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. Was any argument strong enough to make you change your mind or want to change any of your initial responses? Why or why not? What made the argument effective? How could your own arguments have been more effective? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ *Your teacher will collect your chart and responses to be used again when you have finished reading the play.* ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Standards Focus: Elements of Drama Literary Terms to Know Drama is a form of literature designed to be performed in front of an audience. There are two main types of drama: comedy and tragedy. Like fiction, dramatic works have a plot, characters, setting, conflict, and one or more themes. It is essential to know the elements of drama when reading a dramatic work. 1.

act: a division within a play, much like chapters of a novel

2.

aside: lines that are spoken by a character directly to the audience

3.

cast of characters: a list of characters presented before the action begins

4.

comedy: a humorous work of drama

5.

dialogue: conversation between two or more characters

6.

drama: a work of literature designed to be performed in front of an audience

7.

dramatic irony: when the audience or reader knows something that the characters in the story do not know

8.

foil: a character who is nearly opposite of another character; the purpose of a foil (or character foil) is to reveal a stark contrast between the two characters, often the protagonist and antagonist

9.

iambic pentameter: a line of poetry that contains 5 iambs of two syllables each

10. monologue: a long speech spoken by a character to himself, another character, or to the audience 11.

scene: a division of an act into smaller parts

12. soliloquy: thoughts spoken aloud by a character when he/she is alone, or thinks he/she is alone 13. stage directions: italicized comments that identify parts of the setting or the use of props or costumes, give further information about a character, or provide background information 14. tragedy: a serious work of drama in which the hero suffers catastrophe or serious misfortune, usually because of his own actions 15. tragic hero: a protagonist with a fatal flaw which eventually leads to his demise Activity: Using the words from the list above, create a 15-question Multiple-Choice quiz. You must use the information/definitions from this page, but you may also add your own knowledge to create your questions. Be sure to create an answer key and keep it on a separate piece of paper. For example: 1. The two main types of drama are: a. plays and monologues c. histories and biographies b. comedies and tragedies d. monologues and soliloquies When you have finished, give the “quiz” to a partner and take his or her quiz. Then, check each other’s answers, and turn in your quizzes, your answer key, and your scores to your teacher. Your teacher can even find the best questions and use them on a real quiz. ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Standards Focus: Approaching Shakespeare’s Language When approaching the works of Shakespeare, it is important to remember that Shakespeare intended his works to be performed in front of an audience. If you are having trouble understanding what you are reading when you are reading silently to yourself, remember that this could be one of the reasons you may be having difficulty. The following are some guidelines to help you approach the language, and to comprehend the reading a little better. 1. blank verse: most of Shakespeare’s plays are written in this form, which is very close to normal speech rhythms and patterns. Often Shakespeare will deviate from this form in order to make a point about the character’s state of mind or for other emphasis, like a change in the mood. 2. double entendre: phrases or words which have double meanings, one of which is usually sexual in nature 3. iambic pentameter: a 10-syllable line divided into 5 iambic feet (one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable). This is the basic rhythm of Shakespeare’s verse. 4. imagery: language which works to evoke images in your mind (i.e. “And with thy bloody and invisible hand / Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond / Which keeps me pale.”) 5. metaphor: a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is replaced by another, often indicating a likeness or similarity between them (ie. “Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player…”) 6. prose: normal speech rhythm; Shakespeare often wrote certain characters speaking either in all verse or all prose, indicating some personality trait of the character. If the character deviates from its normal form, be aware of a changing state of mind…often prose signals a character slipping into insanity! 7. pun: a play on words that either sound alike or that have multiple meanings 8. rhyming couplet: two rhyming lines at the end of a speech, signaling that a character is leaving the stage or that the scene is ending 9. simile: a figure of speech comparing two unlike things that is often introduced by like or as (i.e. “My love is like a red, red rose”)

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Shakespeare’s Style The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter Shakespeare wrote over 80 sonnets in addition to his plays. In fact, he even added sonnets into his plays. Before we dive into reading an entire play, we will be approaching Shakespeare’s style in a smaller poem, called a sonnet. The Shakespearean sonnet always follows the same format. It has 14 lines with approximately 10 syllables each line. Each line of the sonnet is written in iambic pentameter. A line of iambic pentameter consists of 10 syllables, or five iambs of two syllables each. An iamb is an “unstressed” syllable followed by a “stressed” syllable. When written, the “U” symbols mean unstressed, and the “/” indicates a stressed syllable. To understand the idea of a stressed or an unstressed syllable, think about the syllables of some common names. The name Christopher can be divided into three syllables: Chris/to/pher. If we place the stress, or the emphasis, on the “Chris” it would look like this: / U U Chris / to / pher If we place the emphasis on the “to” the name would sound odd to our ears, and look like this: U / U Chris / to / pher When analyzing a line of Shakespeare’s work, it would look like this: U / Let me

U / not to

U / U / the mar riage of

U / true minds

(from Sonnet 116)

Finally, Shakespearean sonnets always follow the same rhyme scheme: ABABCDCDEFEFGG, ending with the rhyming couplet, or two rhyming lines. Now that the technical terms have been introduced, it is time to put that knowledge to work in a practical activity. Directions: Read the sonnet on the next page. This sonnet is one of the most famous of Shakespeare’s sonnets: Sonnet 18. Read and analyze this sonnet, paying careful attention to the rhyme scheme and the pattern of syllables. Then, using the chart, divide the sonnet into syllables and label its rhyme scheme. The first line has been done for you.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Shakespeare’s Style The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter As an imperfect actor on the stage Who with his fear is put beside his part, Or some fierce thing replete with too much rage, Whose strength's abundance weakens his own heart. So I, for fear of trust, forget to say The perfect ceremony of love's rite, And in mine own love's strength seem to decay, O’ercharged with burden of mine own love's might. O, let my books be then the eloquence And dumb presages of my speaking breast, Who plead for love and look for recompense More than that tongue that more hath more express'd. O, learn to read what silent love hath writ: To hear with eyes belongs to love's fine wit. 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Rhyme Scheme

As

an

im

per

fect

ac

tor

on

the

stage

A

Now You Try It! Using the rhyme scheme and form of a Shakespearean sonnet, write your own sonnet about new love, lost love, a beautiful day, a terrible day, or anything you wish! Draw the same grid as above on a separate piece of paper to plan and organize the sonnet. Then rewrite your sonnet and share it with the class for an exercise in public speaking and performance! ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Vocabulary List Directions: Before you read each act, look up the definitions for each of the vocabulary words below. Be sure to keep all of your definitions for worksheets and quizzes! Act One 1. barren 2. chidden 3. cogitations 4. exalted 5. fain 6. idle 7. infused 8. lamented 9. mettle 10. portentous 11. prodigies 12. tyrant

Act Four 1. apparition 2. chastisement 3. engendered 4. ensign 5. envenomed 6. exigent 7. fret 8. gallant 9. levying 10. presume 11. provender 12. vex

Act Two 1. affable 2. appertain 3. augmented 4. beseech 5. emulation 6. imminent 7. prevail 8. shrewd 9. spurn 10. valiant 11. valor 12. visage

Act Five 1. assure 2. avenged 3. bidding 4. bondage 5. demeanor 6. fawned 7. gorging 8. misconstrued 9. peevish 10. perils 11. spoils 12. virtue

Act Three 1. abide 2. appeased 3. apprehensive 4. banished 5. base 6. coffers 7. compel 8. consent 9. conspirator 10. ingratitude 11. legacy 12. malice

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Words and Phrases to Know Below are common words and phrases found throughout Shakespeare’s works. Many of these words and phrases were common in the 17th Century, but may have new meanings today. Use the list below to help you understand these words and phrases as you read Julius Caesar. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

adieu: goodbye an: if anon: at once attend: listen to betimes: at once bootless: useless break with: discuss; break the news to cobbler: a shoemaker coronets: small crowns or wreaths of vines or flowers 10. counsel: advice 11. crossed: opposed 12. decree: order 13. discourses: speaks 14. dispatch: to send away or to kill 15. doth: does 16. falling sickness: epilepsy 17. falls purpose: is false 18. fashion: to make; to design 19. foe: enemy 20. gentle: noble, prominent; also calm and reserved 21. good-den or do-den: Good Evening 22. hart: a male deer 23. heavy: sad 24. hie: go 25. high-sighted: ambitious 26. hither: here 27. humour: a mood or feeling; “ill humour” may be a bad feeling about something or in a bad mood 28. mark: pay attention to

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29. marry: of course; indeed 30. methinks: I think 31. moe: more 32. naught: nothing 33. nay: no 34. praetor: a judge of the court 35. pray: beg 36. quick mettle: mentally sharp; witty 37. rated: reprimanded 38. resolve: plan 39. rheumy: damp 40. sick offence: harmful illness or something that is said that comes across rudely 41. sirrah: fellow 42. soft: hush 43. sounded: proclaimed 44. stay: wait 45. swounded: fainted 46. taper: candle 47. thee: you 48. thither: there 49. thou art: you are 50. thy: your 51. tidings: news 52. vile contagion: something said or done that has the ability to make one physically ill 53. will: desire 54. withal: with 55. woe: grief 56. wot: know 57. would: wish

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Allusions throughout the Play 1. Aenas (or Aeneas): a Greek legend and Trojan hero; son of Anchises and Aphrodite

9. Ides of March: the 15th of March; the ides are simply the middle of the month

2. Até: the personification of recklessness and menace and eventual downfall or punishment for this behavior

10. Nervii: a group of warriors, considered by Julius Caesar to be one of the most brutal tribes in Gaul (now southern France)

3. Colossus: the word “colossus” means enormous; in this case, the “Colossus” is the large bronze statue of Apollo at the harbor of Rhodes; it was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World until it fell in 255BC after an earthquake

11. Olympus: the mountain in Greece which was believed to have been the home of the twelve gods of Olympus in Greek Mythology

4. drachma: ancient currency (money)

13. Pluto’s mines: Pluto was the equivalent of the Greek god Hades, the god of the underworld; it was believed that Pluto gave the Romans gold, silver, and other precious metals which he mined from below the surface of the earth

5. Epicurus: an ancient Greek philosopher who founded Epicureanism, the idea that one should indulge in the pleasures in life (including materialistic and physical desires) in order to stave away any pain 6. Fates: in Greek mythology, the three goddesses who were believed to control the events and length of one’s life

12. Phillipi: an ancient city in Macedonia (now an area in northern Greece)

14. Pompey: refers to Pompey the Great, who was defeated by Julius Caesar in 48BC, then later murdered 15. Sardis: an ancient city in what is now Turkey

7. Feast of Lupercal (Lupercalia): an ancient Roman festival held on February 15; it is believed to have been a ceremony to encourage fertility for animals and humans alike; Julius Caesar was crowned at this time

16. suicide, the Roman’s view of: contrary to the Christian view of suicide, the ancient Romans believed that committing suicide was acceptable and honorable, especially when facing the possibility of capture or enslavement in battle

8. Hybla: a city in ancient Sicily

17. triumvirate: a group of three rulers sharing authority and control

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act One Scene Guide Directions: For each act, you will be completing a Scene Guide to help you understand and follow the important elements of your reading. For each scene, in short phrases or words summarize: 1) the setting, 2) the action (plot), and 3) the main characters involved in the action.

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Now that you have read all of Act One, make a prediction as to what you believe will happen next in the play. Write your prediction on the lines below.

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act One Comprehension Check To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play, answer the following questions for Act One. Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.

Scene One 1. 2. 3. 4.

What is the setting of the first scene? Why have the shopkeepers left work? What is Marullus and Flavius’s reaction to the citizens’ behavior? Why? What important information about the political and social atmosphere does Shakespeare provide us in the first scene?

Scene Two 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13. 14.

What does Caesar want Antony to do when he runs by Calpurnia? Why? What does the soothsayer tell Caesar? What is Caesar’s reaction? How has Brutus been feeling lately? How does this open a door for Cassius? What is your reaction to Brutus’s lines: “Into what dangers would you lead me, Cassius, / that you would have me seek into myself / for that which is not in me?” What might this hesitation or caution foreshadow? What does Brutus love (even more than his own life)? Why does Cassius tell Brutus the story about Caesar swimming the Tiber River? What does this reveal about Caesar? What does this reveal about Cassius? Describe Brutus’ reaction to Cassius’s ideas. Why does Caesar distrust Cassius? Why does Caesar not fear Cassius, however? Why does Caesar tell Antony to “Come on [his] right side”? Explain why the crown was offered to Caesar three times. What is your reaction to this spectacle? Why does Caesar faint? Why does Cassius say: “No, Caesar hath it now; but you, and I / And honest Casca, we have the falling sickness”? To what is Cassius referring? The phrase “It’s all Greek to me” has become a common saying referring to something incomprehensible or meaningless. This saying comes from Casca’s line: “...but for my own part, it was Greek to me,” which originates from the Medieval Latin proverb Graecum est; non potest legi, meaning “It is Greek; it cannot be read.” Explain how Casca’s line is ironic. What doubts does Cassius reveal about Brutus in his soliloquy? How does Cassius plan to convince Brutus that he is more noble and loved than Caesar?

Scene Three 1. What is the weather like at the opening of this scene? How does this contribute to the mood? Why is this mood significant? 2. Why does Cassius say “I have exposed my naked chest to the thunder-bolt”? To what could Cassius be referring? 3. Why is Casca eager to convince Brutus to join the conspiracy? 4. What directions does Cassius give Cinna? What does Cassius hope to accomplish with this task?

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act One Standards Focus: Setting, Tone, and Mood Setting is the time, place, and atmosphere in which the action of a story takes place. Setting can include time of day, weather, season, era, location, and social or political atmosphere; for example: It is night; an old barn outside of Greenbow, Alabama; Spring, 1932; Depression Era. Tone is the author’s feeling toward his subject; a clever writer can use a sympathetic tone to make the reader feel sorry for a character, for example. Conversely, writers can use a distant, detached tone to keep the reader from relating to or feeling sentiment for a character. Mood is the general emotional response that a reader feels when reading. Writers use figurative language, details, dialogue, and foreshadowing to help set the mood in a piece of literature. Mood is often expressed in adjectives which describe how the writer intends to make you feel, like: tense, serene, somber, optimistic, dark, and depressed. In Act One, Shakespeare creates a mood of tension and unrest from the very first moment the characters appear onstage. Although the men are engaged in humorous wordplay, it is clear that Caesar’s rise to power has created tension in Rome. Directions: For each of the quotes from the text, underline the words that reveal the setting, including clues about time, place, and atmosphere. Then explain how these particular words indicate specifics about the setting. Next, explain the tone Shakespeare uses to create mood. Include comments on the use of figurative language, imagery, etc., if apparent. Finally, describe the mood of the excerpt using as many details and appropriate adjectives as possible. An example has been done for you. Ex. “Wherefore rejoice? What conquest brings he home? / What tributaries follow him to Rome / To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels? / You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things! / O you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome, / Knew you not Pompey?” (scene i, lines 31-36) a. Setting: Rome is the city in which the story takes place; captive bonds refers to slaves and slavery, which was legal at the time; chariot wheels indicate they used chariots, which were used for transportation and in sport; Pompey was the ruler of Rome until Caesar took power. b. Tone: defiant, ironic, condescending, bitter, “preachy” c. Mood: anxious, hostile, tense, offensive 1. “And when you saw his chariot but appear, / Have you not made an universal shout, / That Tiber trembled underneath her banks / To hear the replication of your sounds / Made in her concave shores? / And do you now put on your best attire? / And do you now cull out a holiday? / And do you now strew flowers in his way / That comes in triumph over Pompey’s blood? / Be gone!” (scene 1, lines 42-51) a. Setting: b. Tone: c. Mood:

2. CASCA: “Bid every noise be still. Peace yet again.” / CAESAR: “Who is it in the press that calls on me? I hear a tongue shriller than all the music / Cry ‘Caesar!’ Speak; Caesar is turned to hear.” / SOOTHSAYER: “Beware the ides of March.” (scene ii, lines 14-17) ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________ a. Setting: b. Tone: c. Mood:

3. BRUTUS: “Into what dangers would you lead me, Cassius, / That you would have me seek into myself / For that which is not in me? / CASSIUS: “Therefore, good Brutus, be prepared to hear. / And since you know you cannot see yourself / So well as by reflection, I, your glass, / Will modestly discover to yourself / That of yourself which you yet know not of.” (scene ii, lines 63-70) a. Setting: b. Tone: c. Mood:

4. “Are you not moved, when all the sway of earth / Shakes like a thing unfirm? O Cicero / I have seen tempests, when the scolding winds / Have rived the knotty oaks, and I have seen / Th’ ambitious ocean swell and rage and foam, / To be exalted with the threat’ning clouds; / But never till tonight, never till now, / Did I go through a tempest dropping fire. / Either there is a civil strife in heaven, / Or else the world, too saucy with the gods, / Incenses them to send destruction.” (scene iii, lines 3-13) a. Setting: b. Tone: c. Mood:

5. “But if you would consider the true cause— / Why all these fires; why all these gliding ghosts; Why birds and beasts, from quality and kind; / Why old men, fools, and children calculate; / Why all these things change from their ordinance / Their natures, and performed faculties, / To monstrous quality—why you shall find / That heaven hath infused them with these spirits / To make them instruments of fear and warning / Unto some monstrous state.” (scene iii, lines 64-73) a. Setting: b. Tone: c. Mood:

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act One Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Word Parts Directions: Complete the following chart, finding the word parts and meanings for each of the vocabulary words from Act One. Use a dictionary for help. Two examples have been done for you. Word

barren

chidden

Base and Part of Speech of Base

barren

chide

Meaning of Base

producing no fruit or offspring

to scold or reproach

Root and meaning of Root

baraigne "barren"

cidan "quarrel, strife”

Affix(es)

none

-en

How the Affix Changes the Word

n/a

changes from present to past tense

Inferred Meaning of Vocabulary Word

unable to have children

scolded; criticized; punished

Vocabulary Word’s Part of Speech and Dictionary Definition

adj.; unable to produce results, fruit, or offspring

verb; censured severely or angrily

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Secondary Solutions

cogitations

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exalted

fain

idle

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act One Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Word Parts

Word

infused

lamented

mettle

portentous

prodigies

tyrant

Base and Part of Speech of Base Meaning of Base Root and Meaning of Root

Affix(es)

How the Affix Changes the Word

Inferred Meaning of Vocabulary Word

Vocabulary Word’s Part of Speech and Dictionary Definition

©2006

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Scene Guide Directions: Just as for Act One, complete the Scene Guide for Act Two to help you understand and follow the important elements of your reading. For each scene, in short phrases or words summarize: 1) the setting, 2) the action (plot), and 3) the main characters involved in the action.

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Scene Four

Now that you have read all of Acts One and Two, make a prediction as to what you believe will happen next in the play. Write your prediction on the lines below. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ©2006

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Comprehension Check To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play, answer the following questions for Act Two. Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences. Scene One 1. Through the analogy of a ladder, how does Brutus explain what happens when someone gains power? 2. To what does Brutus compare Caesar? Why does Brutus feel that he must kill Caesar immediately? 3. What day is it? Why is this significant? 4. Brutus explains that he has not been able to sleep. How does he explain what happens to a man’s conscience between the “acting of a dreadful thing / And the first motion”? 5. How are Cassius and Brutus related? 6. Why does Brutus insist that the men do not need an oath? 7. Why do the men want Cicero on their side at first? Why do they change their minds? 8. Who does Cassius want to murder in addition to Caesar? 9. What is Brutus’s response to this idea? 10. How does Decius plan to get Caesar to come to the Capitol? 11. What has Portia noticed about Brutus’s recent behavior? 12. What reasons does Portia give to insist that Brutus reveal his feelings to her? 13. What does Portia do to prove her strength to Brutus? What is your reaction to this act? BONUS: An anachronism is when an author unknowingly or purposefully inserts something from a different period of time into his or her writing. Shakespeare uses an anachronism in this scene. See if you can find it. Why do you think Shakespeare might have used this anachronism? Scene Two 1. Why has Calpurnia been unable to sleep? About what omens does Calpurnia tell Caesar? 2. Why does Caesar insist on leaving the house? 3. On what evidence do the priests (“augerers”) recommend that Caesar not leave the house? 4. How does Decius convince Caesar to leave? 5. Caesar instructs his men to keep close to him. What is the irony? Scene Three 1. Artemidorus reads from a letter at the beginning of this scene. Who wrote the letter and what does Artemidorus plan to do with it? Scene Four 1. What is ironic about Portia’s statement: “How hard it is for women to keep a secret”? (Hint: think about her speeches in Scene One.) 2. What instructions has Portia given Lucius? 3. Whom do Portia and Lucius run into? Where is he going? Why?

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Standards Focus: Character Map Directions: There are numerous characters in Julius Caesar, which can make reading and following the plot quite confusing. Complete the Character Map below as much as you can from the information you have been given in Acts One and Two. As you read the rest of the play, fill in each blank with the names of other characters. When you finish reading the play, your Character Map should be complete.

Tries to warn with a dream Tries to warn with a date

Tries to warn with a letter

Julius Caesar

Loyal follower

Backstabbing “friend”

2nd Triumvirate

Brother-in-Law/Main conspirator

Put to death

Conspirators

Collateral damage

Servants, supporters, and soldiers Die in battle

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Secondary Solutions

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_________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Standards Focus: Characterization and Character Motivation Characterization is the technique by which authors develop characters. • Direct characterization is when the author or narrator tells the reader what the character is like. For example, “Rhonda works diligently to make sure her cookies are the best in town.” • Indirect characterization is when the author gives information about a character and allows the reader to draw his or her own conclusions about that character. Two ways we can learn about a character through indirect characterization are: o A character’s own thoughts, feelings and actions— the reader witnesses what the character does or says, and learns something about the character from these thoughts, feelings or actions. For example, “On her way to class after lunch, Susan saw some trash on the ground that wasn’t hers. She decided to pick it up anyway, and threw it in the trash can.” → The reader can make some assumptions about Susan from this excerpt: she cares about the environment, she takes pride in her school, she likes things neat and tidy, etc. Each of these are appropriate assumptions based on Susan’s actions. o Interactions with other characters— the reader witnesses the interactions between characters, such as how other characters act, and what they say about another character. For example, “Emma said, ‘Julia seems to not care about her school work anymore. It’s as if she is distracted or concerned about something. What do you think?’ ‘I don’t know, but it is certainly unlike her to get bad grades,’ Ashley replied.” → The reader can make assumptions about Julia from the conversation between Emma and Ashley. The reader can conclude that Julia used to work hard and get good grades in school, that she is distracted about something, and that she is not behaving like her usual self. In a play, there is often very little direct characterization. We learn about the characters through their dialogue; therefore, much of the character development comes from what characters say about each other or what they say about themselves through indirect characterization. Motivation is what drives a character to do what they do. In other words, ask yourself: what is this character’s strongest desire? Characters’ decisions are important to the plot, and in many cases, their decisions will affect the play’s outcome. Just as we can tell a great deal about a person by the way he or she lives his or her life, we can also learn a lot about characters by what they say and do. Similarly, just as some of the decisions we make in our lives are minor and trivial, and others change our lives forever, a skilled writer develops characters that also make both seemingly unimportant as well as life-altering choices. Directions: For each of the characters below, complete the chart with textual examples of indirect characterization from Act One or Two of the play. First, find a quote in which another character describes something about that character, and then find a quote in which the character describes himself. Be sure to give scene and line numbers from where you obtained the quote. Then in your own words, fill in what you think is the character’s main motivation this far in the play. An example has been done for you.

Character

Brutus

Another Character’s Description

“Brutus, I do observe you now of late. / I have not from your eyes that gentleness / And show of love as I was wont to have. / You bear too stubborn and too strange a hand / Over your friend that loves you.” (Act I, Scene ii, lines 32-36)

Description of Himself

“Cassius, / Be not deceived. If I have veiled my look, / I turn the trouble of my countenance / merely upon myself. Vexed I am / Of late with passions of some difference, / Conceptions only proper to myself, / Which five some soil, perhaps, to my behaviors.” (Act I, Scene ii, lines 36-42)

Motivation

While Brutus likes Caesar, and is his friend, he does not think that Caesar is the best ruler of Rome. His heart is with his people, and he fears Caesar is a tyrant. His main motivation is to see that his people are not harmed, which means that he must remove Caesar from power any way he can.

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Standards Focus: Characterization and Character Motivation Character

Caesar

Another Character’s Description Description of Himself

Motivation Character

Cassius

Another Character’s Description Description of Himself

Motivation Character

Antony

Another Character’s Description Description of Himself

Motivation Character

Casca

Another Character’s Description Description of Himself

Motivation ©2006

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Vocabulary in Context Directions: For each vocabulary word, answer the question or respond to the statement that follows, using complete sentences and as much detail as possible. Be sure to include the vocabulary word in your response. 1. spurn—verb; to reject with disdain or contempt Describe a time when you felt spurned by your peers.

2. appertain—verb; to belong or relate to Detail some of the problems that appertain to a new student’s first day of school.

3. emulation—noun; drive or ambition to equal or excel others; imitation When a younger brother emulates his older brother, what kinds of things might he do?

4. prevail—verb; to prove to be stronger and more in control; win In a confrontation between Superman and Batman, whom do you think would prevail? Explain your answer.

5. beseech—verb; to implore; beg About what kinds of things might you beseech your parents?

6. valiant—adj. possessing valor; courageous Describe the characteristics of a valiant hero from a book you have read.

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Vocabulary in Context 7. augmented—adj.; made larger in number or strength; increased Describe how a bad day might be augmented to an even worse day.

8. imminent—adj.; ready to take place; impending When a hurricane is imminent, how does it look outside?

9. shrewd—adj.; clever and cunning; often in a deceitful manner Describe the behaviors of a shrewd businessperson.

10. affable—adj.; pleasant and at ease; friendly to others Describe the behavior of an affable person.

11. valor—noun; strength of mind or spirit; heroism In what occupations might you see people exhibiting a great deal of valor?

12. visage—noun; the appearance or look of something; a face or facial expression Where might you see the visage of Washington?

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Three Scene Guide Directions: Complete the Scene Guide below for Act Three. For each scene, be sure to summarize: 1) the setting, 2) the action (plot), and 3) the main characters involved in the action.

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Now that you have read Acts One through Three, make a prediction as to what you believe will happen next in the play. Write your prediction on the lines below. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ©2006

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Three Comprehension Check To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play, answer the following questions for Act Three. Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.

Scene One 1. What does the Soothsayer mean by “Ay, Caesar, but not gone”? (line 2) 2. What does Metellus Cimber beg Caesar to do? What is Caesar’s response? 3. What does Caesar mean by “Et tu, Brute?” as he falls? How do you think Caesar is feeling at this moment? 4. What message does Antony send to Brutus? What does Antony do when he meets the men? 5. What does Antony request? 6. What warning does Brutus give Antony? 7. In his soliloquy, what does Antony vow? 8. What does Antony want Octavius Caesar’s servant to do? Why?

Scene Two 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What reason does Brutus give for Caesar’s assassination? After Brutus speaks, how do the citizens feel about him? about Caesar? Why doesn’t Brutus stop Antony’s speech? What does Antony say that he has in his possession? What does the crowd want Antony to do? What does Antony show the citizens? What is their reaction? What did Antony claim that Caesar left his citizens in his will?

Scene Three

1. What happens to Cinna as he travels to Caesar’s funeral? 2. Who do the citizens mistake him for? 3. This scene is often referred to as a scene providing comic relief. Why do you think Shakespeare included this here?

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Three Standards Focus: Rhetoric Rhetoric in its simplest form is the art of persuasive speech or writing. For thousands of years, politicians and orators have been known for their use of rhetoric to influence and persuade an audience to their side or way of thinking. One of the most famous orators happens to be Antony from Julius Caesar. Antony skillfully uses several types of rhetorical devices to earn the citizens’ trust and turn them against Brutus, Cassius, and the other conspirators. Antony’s talent lies in his ability to persuade the audience before his enemies even realize his scheme. Today, rhetoric is all around us, in the form of political speeches, commercials, art, television, movies, newspaper and magazine articles—even in our everyday conversations. Each time we want to get our way, or take out our money to buy a product we saw in a commercial, we are either using rhetoric or are persuaded by the use of rhetoric. While various media use different ways of appealing to an audience, they each have the same purpose: to persuade. In order to understand how Antony persuaded the citizens of Rome to turn against Brutus and the other conspirators, it is important to know what rhetorical devices are and how they can be used. There are different ways a speaker or writer can appeal to his or her audience: 1) logic or reason (logos), 2) emotion (pathos), and/or 3) ethics and morals (ethos). •

logos: by appealing to an audience’s sense of reason and logic, the speaker or writer intends to make the audience think clearly about the sensible and/or obvious answer to a problem



pathos: by appealing to the audiences emotions, the speaker or writer can make the audience feel sorrow, shame, sympathy, embarrassment, anger, excitement, and/or fear



ethos: the overall appeal of the speaker or writer himself or herself; it is important that this person have impressive credentials, a notable knowledge of the subject, and/or appear to be a likeable and moral person

It is not only important what a speaker or writer has to say, but how he or she actually says or presents it. There are literally hundreds of rhetorical devices, dating back to the famous orators Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Besides using devices you may already be familiar with, such as figures of speech (metaphor, simile, personification) and sound devices (alliteration, assonance, consonance), writers and speakers use many other rhetorical devices to communicate their message. Below and on the next pages is a short list of rhetorical devices, their definitions, and a brief example of the device in use. • •





©2006

alliteration: repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words → ex. "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers." anaphora: repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines. → ex. "Mad world! Mad kings! Mad composition!" (King John, II, i) antithesis: opposition or juxtaposition of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction → ex. "Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more." (Julius Caesar, III, ii) aporia: questioning oneself (or rhetorically asking the audience), often pretending to be in doubt → ex. “The baptism of John, whence was it? From heaven, or of men?” (Matthew 21:25)

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________ •









• •





• •



• •

©2006

aposiopesis: a sudden pause or interruption in the middle of a sentence (often for dramatic effect) → ex. “I will have revenges on you both / That all the world shall— I will do such things — What they are yet, I know not; but they shall be / The terrors of the earth! (King Lear II, iv) apostrophe: a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person, either absent or present, real or imagined → ex. “Oh death, where is thy sting? Oh grave, where is thy victory? (1 Cor. 15:55) asyndeton: the absence of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words → ex. "Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, / Shrunk to this little measure?" (Julius Caesar, III, i) conduplicatio: repetition of a key word over successive phrases or clauses → “We will have difficult times. We've had difficult times in the past. And we will have difficult times in the future.” Robert F. Kennedy’s Eulogy for Martin Luther King, Jr. (1968) euphemism: a substitution of a more pleasant expression for one whose meaning may come across as rude or offensive → ex. “He passed away,” rather than “He died.” hyperbole: exaggeration for emphasis or for rhetorical effect → ex. “I died laughing.” irony: (verbal) expression in which words mean something contrary to what is actually said → ex. Looking at your wallet full of nothing but a few pennies, and exclaiming, “Lunch is on me, guys— I am rich!” metonymy: a reference to an object or person by naming only a part of the object or person → ex. She stood in the driveway watching as the beards moved her furniture into her new house. paralipsis: pretending to omit something by drawing attention to it → ex. A politician saying: “I will not even mention the fact that my opponent was a poor student.” personification: giving human characteristics to non-human objects → ex. The pen danced across the author’s page. polysyndenton: using conjunctions to emphasize rhythm, and therefore emphasize a certain point → ex. “In years gone by, there were in every community men and women who spoke the language of duty and morality and loyalty and obligation.” William F. Buckley synecdoche: a part or quality of something which is used in substitution of the larger whole, or vice versa → ex. The hospital worked for hours to revive him. (referring to the doctors and nurses inside the hospital) OR She took us outside to look at her new set of wheels. (referring to her new car) rhetorical question: a question that is posed for emphasis, not requiring an answer → ex. "Art thou mad? Is not the truth the truth?" (Henry IV, Part 1, II, iv) understatement: deliberately de-emphasizing something in order to downplay its importance → ex. To say the Internet improved our means of communication is an understatement.

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Three Standards Focus: Analysis of Rhetoric Directions: For each of the following underlined excerpts from Antony’s speech in Act Three, scene 2, identify which rhetorical device is being used and explain how it is used, according to the definitions and examples on the previous pages. Note: not all devices will be used. An example has been done for you. Example: For Brutus is an honorable man; / So are they all, all honorable men— (lines 77-78); But Brutus says he was ambitious; / And Brutus is an honorable man. (lines 81-82); Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; / And Brutus is an honorable man. (lines 88-89); Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; / And, sure, he is an honorable man. (lines 93-94); I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong, / Who, you all know, are honorable men (lines 118-119) Rhetorical device: 1.

irony through the constant, deliberate repetition of “ambitious” and “honorable”

Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears (line 68) Rhetorical device:

2. Did this in Caesar seem ambitious? (line 85) Rhetorical device: 3. I thrice presented him a kingly crown, / Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition? (line 92) Rhetorical device: 4. I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, / But here I am to speak what I do know. (lines 95-96) Rhetorical device: 5. What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him? / O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts, / And men have lost their reason. (lines 98-99) Rhetorical device: 6. My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, / And I must pause till it come back to me. (lines 101-102) Rhetorical device: 7.

I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong, Who, you all know, are honorable men. / I will not do them wrong; I rather choose / To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you, / Than I will wrong such honorable men. (lines 118-122) Rhetorical device:

8. Let but the commons hear this testament, / Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read, (lines 125-126) Rhetorical device: 9. And they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds / And dip their napkins in his sacred blood, / Yea, beg a hair of him for memory, / And, dying, mention it within their wills, / Bequeathing it as a rich legacy / Unto their issue. (lines 127-132) Rhetorical device: 10. Will you be patient? Will you stay awhile? / I have o’ershot myself to tell you of it. (lines 144-145) Rhetorical device: 11. I fear I wrong the honorable men / Whose daggers have stabb’d Caesar; I do fear it. (lines 146-147) Rhetorical device: ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________ 12. For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel: / Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him! (lines 175-176) Rhetorical device: 13. Kind souls, what, weep you when you but behold / Our Caesar's vesture wounded? (lines 189-190) Rhetorical device: 14. Good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up / To such a sudden flood of mutiny. (lines 203-204) Rhetorical device: 15. I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts: / I am no orator, as Brutus is; / But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man, / That love my friend; and that they know full well / That gave me public leave to speak of him (lines 209-213) Rhetorical device: 16. For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth, / Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech (lines 214-215) Rhetorical device: 17. Show you sweet Caesar's wounds, poor poor dumb mouths, / And bid them speak for me (lines 218-219) Rhetorical device: 18. Here was a Caesar! When comes such another? (line 245) Rhetorical device:

Directions: Answer the following based upon Antony’s entire speech in Act Three, scene 2. 19. Using Antony’s entire speech (omitting lines from the other characters), find one example

each of the use of pathos, ethos, and logos. Be sure to indicate which line you are quoting in your response. pathos: ethos: logos: 20. Which rhetorical device did Antony seem to use most? Was this the best choice? Why or why

not?

21. Compare Antony and Brutus’s speeches. Which was more effective? How? Explain.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Three Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Word Roots Directions: Use the vocabulary list from Act Three to answer Part a. To find other words that have the same root as the vocabulary word and hint word, (such as “spirit” in question one) look up the vocabulary word, hint word, root, or all three in a dictionary. Look at words located around these key words to find related words. Be sure to read their origins to verify that they come from the same root. 1.

The word spirit comes from the Latin spirare, which means "to breathe." a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

2.

___________________________

The word peace comes from the Latin pacem, meaning “treaty; absence of war.” a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

3.

___________________________

The word malfeasance comes from the prefix mal-, which comes from the Latin male, meaning "badly.” a. Which vocabulary word has this same prefix? ____________________ b. What other words have this same prefix? _____________________

4.

__________________________

The word expel comes from the Latin expellere, meaning "drive out," from the combination of ex-, meaning "out,” plus pellere, meaning "to drive." a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

5.

___________________________

The word bide comes from the Old English bidan, meaning "to stay, continue, live, remain." a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

6.

___________________________

The word bathe comes from the Greek. bathys, meaning "deep.” a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Three Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Word Roots 7. The word sarcophagus comes from the L. cophinus, meaning “basket.” a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

___________________________

8. The word grace comes from the Latin gratus, meaning "pleasing; agreeable." a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

___________________________

9. The word fame comes from the Old Irish bann, meaning “law,” which comes from the Latin bha, meaning "to speak; say." a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

___________________________

10. The word impregnable comes from the Old French in-, meaning "not,” plus prenable, meaning “vulnerable,” which originates from the Latin prehendere, meaning “grasp; sieze.” a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

___________________________

11. The word sensible comes from the Latin sentire, meaning "to perceive; feel." a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

___________________________

12. The word privilege comes from the Old French privilege from privus, meaning "individual,” plus lex, meaning “law.” a. Which vocabulary word has this same root? ______________________ b. What other words have this same root? _____________________

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Four Scene Guide Directions: Complete the Scene Guide below for Act Four. For each scene, be sure to summarize: 1) the setting, 2) the action (plot), and 3) the main characters involved in the action.

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Now that you have read all of Acts One through Four, make a prediction as to what you believe will happen next in the play. Write your prediction on the lines below. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Four Comprehension Check To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play, answer the following questions for Act Four. Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.

Scene One

1. To what does Lepidus consent? 2. How does Antony feel about Lepidus? To what does Antony compare him?

Scene Two 1. How has Brutus been feeling towards Cassius lately? 2. To where do Brutus and Cassius go at the end of this scene? Why?

Scene Three 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

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Why is Cassius angry with Brutus? What is Brutus’s reaction to Cassius’s complaint? What is happening between Cassius and Brutus? Why is this important? Why does Cassius take out his dagger? On whom does Cassius blame his temper? Who interrupts Cassius and Brutus? Why? What has happened to Portia? How did this happen? What is Brutus’s plan of attack? What does Brutus ask Lucius to do for him? What happens to Lucius? What does Caesar’s ghost tell Brutus?

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Four Standards Focus: Figurative Language One of the most captivating aspects of Shakespeare’s work is his mastery of figurative language, or ideas communicated beyond their literal meaning to create an image in the reader’s mind. There are several types of figurative language: • metaphor - a comparison made between two unlike objects o “the pillow was a cloud” • simile - a comparison between two unlike objects using the words “like” or “as” in the comparison o “the pillow was like a marshmallow” • personification - giving human qualities or characteristics to non-human objects o “the wind sang its sad song” • imagery - using words to appeal to the senses: sight, touch, taste, hearing, or smell o “Fast fading violets cover'd up in leaves; / And mid-May's eldest child, / The coming musk-rose, full of dewy wine, / The murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves.” Ode to a Nightingale, John Keats Directions: Read each quote from Act Four. First, decide what type of figurative language is being used, then explain the comparison. An example has been done for you. Example: These many then shall die; their names are prick'd. (scene i, line 1) Figure of speech: metaphor Comparison: substitution of prick’d for picked or chosen; makes the idea of killing the men sound much more sinister 1. He shall not live; look, with a spot I damn him. (scene i, line 6) Figure of speech: Comparison: 2. Octavius, I have seen more days than you (scene i, line 18) Figure of speech: Comparison: 3. He shall but bear them as the ass bears gold (scene i, line 21) Figure of speech: Comparison: 4. And some that smile have in their hearts, I fear, / Millions of mischiefs. (scene i, lines 50-51) Figure of speech: Comparison: 5. When love begins to sicken and decay, / It useth an enforced ceremony. (scene ii, lines 20-21) Figure of speech: Comparison: 6. There are no tricks in plain and simple faith; / But hollow men, like horses hot at hand, / Make gallant show and promise of their mettle (scene ii, lines 22-24) Figure of speech: Comparison: ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________ 7. They fall their crests, and, like deceitful jades / Sink in the trial. (scene ii, lines 26-27) Figure of speech: Comparison: 8. The name of Cassius honors this corruption, / And chastisement doth therefore hide his head. (scene iii, lines 15-16) Figure of speech: Comparison: 9. A flatterer's would not, though they do appear / As huge as high Olympus. (scene iii, lines 90-91) Figure of speech: Comparison: 10. O Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb / That carries anger as the flint bears fire; / Who, much enforced, shows a hasty spark, / And straight is cold again. (scene iii, lines 110-112) Figure of speech: Comparison: 11. My heart is thirsty for that noble pledge. (scene iii, line 158) Figure of speech: Comparison: 12. I cannot drink too much of Brutus' love. (scene iii, line 160) Figure of speech: Comparison: 13. There is a tide in the affairs of men / Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; / Omitted, all the voyage of their life / Is bound in shallows and in miseries. / On such a full sea are we now afloat; / And we must take the current when it serves, / Or lose our ventures. (scene iii, lines 216-222) Figure of speech: Comparison: 14. The deep of night is crept upon our talk, / And nature must obey necessity (scene iii, lines 225226) Figure of speech: Comparison: 15. This is a sleepy tune.—O murderous Slumber, / Lay'st thou thy leaden mace upon my boy, / That plays thee music?— (scene iii, lines 266-268) Figure of speech: Comparison:

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Four Standards Focus: Dialogue, Monologue, and Soliloquy Plays are different from novels in that plays rely solely on dialogue and action to convey a story. Novels use dialogue and action as well, but the majority of the text is a story told by a narrator. The narrator can either be an outside observer of the action, or a character in the story itself. Plays are meant to be performed in front of an audience; therefore dialogue, monologue, and soliloquy are important characteristics of plays. Dialogue is a conversation between two or more people. A monologue is a speech by one person in the presence of other characters. A soliloquy is similar to a monologue, however, a soliloquy is a speech given by a character when he is alone or thinks he is alone on stage. Shakespeare skillfully uses dialogue, monologue, and soliloquy to create some of the most powerful and effective speeches in all of literature. Directions: For each of the following excerpts from Act Four of Julius Caesar, a) determine who is on stage at that particular point (may not only be the people who are actually speaking), b) determine whether the excerpt is a dialogue, monologue, or soliloquy, and c) answer the questions that follow. 1. ANTONY : [Lepidous] is a slight unmeritable man, / Meet to be sent on errands: is it fit, / The three-fold world

divided, he should stand / One of the three to share it? OCTAVIUS : So you thought him; / And took his voice who should be prick'd to die, / In our black sentence and proscription. ANTONY : Octavius, I have seen more days than you: / And though we lay these honours on this man, / To ease ourselves of divers slanderous loads, / He shall but bear them as the ass bears gold, / To groan and sweat under the business, / Either led or driven, as we point the way; / And having brought our treasure where we will, / Then take we down his load, and turn him off, / Like to the empty ass, to shake his ears, / And graze in commons. OCTAVIUS : You may do your will; / But he's a tried and valiant soldier. ANTONY : So is my horse, Octavius; and for that / I do appoint him store of provender: / It is a creature that I teach to fight, / To wind, to stop, to run directly on, / His corporal motion govern'd by my spirit. / And, in some taste, is Lepidus but so; / He must be taught and train'd and bid go forth; / A barren-spirited fellow; one that feeds / On abjects, orts and imitations, / Which, out of use and staled by other men, / Begin his fashion: do not talk of him, / But as a property. And now, Octavius, / Listen great things:--Brutus and Cassius / Are levying powers: we must straight make head: / Therefore let our alliance be combined, / Our best friends made, our means stretch'd / And let us presently go sit in council, / How covert matters may be best disclosed, / And open perils surest answered. OCTAVIUS : Let us do so: for we are at the stake, / And bay'd about with many enemies; / And some that smile have in their hearts, I fear, / Millions of mischiefs. a.

On stage:

b.

Dialogue, Monologue, or Soliloquy?

c.

Questions: i. How does Antony feel about Lepidous?

ii. To what does Antony compare Lepidous? What does this tell you about Lepidous (at least from Antony’s point of view)?

2. BRUTUS: Bear with me, good boy, I am much forgetful. / Canst thou hold up thy heavy eyes awhile, / And touch thy instrument a strain or two? LUCIUS: Ay, my lord, an't please you. BRUTUS: It does, my boy: / I trouble thee too much, but thou art willing. LUCIUS: It is my duty, sir. BRUTUS: I should not urge thy duty past thy might; / I know young bloods look for a time of rest.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________ LUCIUS: I have slept, my lord, already. BRUTUS: It was well done; and thou shalt sleep again; / I will not hold thee long: if I do live, / I will be good to thee. Music, and a song This is a sleepy tune. O murderous slumber, / Lay'st thou thy leaden mace upon my boy, / That plays thee music? Gentle knave, good night; / I will not do thee so much wrong to wake thee: / If thou dost nod, thou break'st thy instrument; / I'll take it from thee; and, good boy, good night. / Let me see, let me see; is not the leaf turn'd down / Where I left reading? Here it is, I think. Enter the Ghost of CAESAR How ill this taper burns! Ha! who comes here? / I think it is the weakness of mine eyes / That shapes this monstrous apparition. / It comes upon me. Art thou any thing? / Art thou some god, some angel, or some devil, / That makest my blood cold and my hair to stare? / Speak to me what thou art. GHOST Thy evil spirit, Brutus. BRUTUS Why comest thou? GHOST To tell thee thou shalt see me at Philippi. BRUTUS Well; then I shall see thee again? GHOST Ay, at Philippi. BRUTUS Why, I will see thee at Philippi, then. Exit Ghost a.

On stage:

b.

Dialogue, Monologue, or Soliloquy?

c.

Questions: i. Why do you think Brutus sees the ghost of Caesar? Is it real or his imagination?

ii. Why do you think Shakespeare included this brief conversation between Brutus and his servant? What does it reveal about Brutus as a person?

3. CASSIUS Messala, / This is my birth-day; as this very day / Was Cassius born. Give me thy hand, Messala: / Be thou my witness that against my will, / As Pompey was, am I compell'd to set / Upon one battle all our liberties. / You know that I held Epicurus strong / And his opinion: now I change my mind, / And partly credit things that do presage. / Coming from Sardis, on our former ensign / Two mighty eagles fell, and there they perch'd, / Gorging and feeding from our soldiers' hands; / Who to Philippi here consorted us:/ This morning are they fled away and gone; / And in their steads do ravens, crows and kites, / Fly o'er our heads and downward look on us, / As we were sickly prey: their shadows seem / A canopy most fatal, under which/ Our army lies, ready to give up the ghost. a.

On stage:

b.

Dialogue, Monologue, or Soliloquy?

c.

Questions: i. What does this speech reveal about Cassius’s motivations? ii. Who are the “two mighty eagles” to which Cassius refers? iii. What does Cassius mean when he says that his army lies “ready to give up the ghost”?

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Four Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Connotation/Denotation Denotation is the dictionary definition of a word; whereas, connotation is the feeling or emotional attachment to the word. For example, there is a different connotation for both of the following words: slim and emaciated. Although they both have the same definition, there is a different connotation associated with each. The word slim has a more positive connotation: in other words, we would probably assume that someone who is slim is fit and healthy. The word emaciated has a negative connotation: it gives the impression that the person is unhealthy, withered, or weak. Directions: One the first line, write the denotation of the given vocabulary word from Act Four. On the second line, write the word which has the most negative connotation of each of the underlined words. Finally, explain why this particular word has the most negative connotation—in other words, what images come to mind when hearing this word? An example has been done for you. Example: apparition Denotation: a ghostly figure; a sudden or unusual sight Word with most negative connotation: d. ghoul a. The homeowner claims to have seen an apparition in the hallway of the old house. b. The homeowner claims to have seen a vision in the hallway of the old house. c. The homeowner claims to have seen a presence in the hallway of the old house. d. The homeowner claims to have seen a ghoul in the hallway of the old house. Image: I see a glowing transparent-green figure pointing at me with his long, bony finger. 1.

chastisement

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a.

Janie received ten full minutes of chastisement when she arrived home after curfew.

b.

Janie received ten full minutes of discipline when she arrived home after curfew.

c.

Janie received ten full minutes of scolding when she arrived home after curfew.

d.

Janie received ten full minutes of lecture when she arrived home after curfew.

Image: 2.

engendered

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a.

The Hastings girls were naturally engendered with beauty, brains, and a kind demeanor.

b.

The Hastings girls were naturally concocted with beauty, brains, and a kind demeanor.

c.

The Hastings girls were naturally produced with beauty, brains, and a kind demeanor.

d.

The Hastings girls were naturally created with beauty, brains, and a kind demeanor.

Image: 3.

ensign

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a.

The American ship displayed its ensign as it entered the harbor.

b.

The American ship displayed its cloth as it entered the harbor.

c.

The American ship displayed its flag as it entered the harbor.

d.

The American ship displayed its rag as it entered the harbor.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Four Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Connotation/Denotation 4.

envenomed

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a. After sitting in traffic, Jessica became more and more envenomed that she lived in the city. b. After sitting in traffic, Jessica became more and more angry that she lived in the city. c. After sitting in traffic, Jessica became more and more mad that she lived in the city. d. After sitting in traffic, Jessica became more and more annoyed that she lived in the city. Image: 5.

exigent

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a. Monica quit her job because of her exigent and uncompromising boss. b. Monica quit her job because of her tough and uncompromising boss. c. Monica quit her job because of her challenging and uncompromising boss. d. Monica quit her job because of her demanding and uncompromising boss. Image: 6.

fret

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a. “Don’t fret,” Kahlid said reassuringly, “you will find your wallet somewhere.” b. “Don’t agonize,” Kahlid said reassuringly, “you will find your wallet somewhere.” c. “Don’t sweat” Kahlid said reassuringly, “you will find your wallet somewhere.” d. “Don’t fuss,” Kahlid said reassuringly, “you will find your wallet somewhere.” Image: 7.

gallant

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a. A gallant young man, Jeff opened the car door for his date. b. A domineering young man, Jeff opened the car door for his date. c. A valiant young man, Jeff opened the car door for his date. d. A chivalrous young man, Jeff opened the car door for his date. Image: 8.

levying

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a. Claire proposed levying a higher tax on all supplies bought from the student store. b. Claire proposed imposing a higher tax on all supplies bought from the student store. c. Claire proposed putting a higher tax on all supplies bought from the student store. d. Claire proposed introducing a higher tax on all supplies bought from the student store. Image: ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Four Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Connotation/Denotation 9.

presume

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a. One should not presume they know someone by their appearance alone. b. One should not believe they know someone by their appearance alone. c. One should not deduce they know someone by their appearance alone. d. One should not guess they know someone by their appearance alone. Image: 10.

provender

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a. The cows’ provender consisted of a healthy blend of barley and grains. b. The cows’ victuals consisted of a healthy blend of barley and grains. c. The cows’ cuisine consisted of a healthy blend of barley and grains. d. The cows’ chow consisted of a healthy blend of barley and grains. Image: 11.

vex

Denotation: Word with most negative connotation: a. Whenever he got the chance, Raymond worked diligently to vex his younger brother. b. Whenever he got the chance, Raymond worked diligently to perplex his younger brother. c. Whenever he got the chance, Raymond worked diligently to torment his younger brother. d. Whenever he got the chance, Raymond worked diligently to bother his younger brother. Image:

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Five Scene Guide Directions: Complete the Scene Guide below for Act Five. For each scene, be sure to summarize: 1) the setting, 2) the action (plot), and 3) the main characters involved in the action.

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Scene Four

Scene Five

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Five Comprehension Check To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play, answer the following questions for Act Five. Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.

Scene One 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Where does this scene take place? How does Octavius contradict Antony early in this scene? What happens when the men meet before their battle? Whose birthday is it? What omens does Cassius finally believe? What are Cassius and Brutus worried about?

Scene Two

1. What message does Brutus send to Cassius?

Scene Three 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What move does Brutus make that virtually destroys Cassius’s “side”? What does Cassius ask Pindarus to do? Why? How does Caesar finally get revenge against Cassius? What do we find out about Pindarus’s report to Cassius before Cassius takes his life? What does Titinius do after he sees Cassius’s body? How does Caesar again get his revenge?

Scene Four

1. Explain why the soldiers think they have captured Brutus.

Scene Five 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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What does Brutus ask Clitus to do? What is Clitus’s response to this request? What does Brutus then request of Volumnius? Who finally gives in to Brutus’s request? How does Antony feel about Brutus? What does Octavius say that they will do for Brutus? Why do you think they omit mention of Cassius? Explain your reasoning.

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Five Standards Focus: Tragedy and the Tragic Hero Over 2,300 years ago, the Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote his definition of a tragedy. According to Aristotle: “Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions.” In other words, to be a true tragedy, a play must make the audience pity the characters and make them fear the same consequences the character (usually the protagonist) experiences. Similarly, Aristotle defined the concept of a tragic hero. A tragic hero is a protagonist with a tragic flaw (also called hamartia), which eventually leads to his downfall. The Aristotelian tragic hero is introduced as happy, powerful, and privileged, and ends up dying or suffering immensely because of his own actions or mistakes. The tragic hero must have four characteristics: goodness (a moral and ethical person), superiority (such as someone with supreme or noble authority or control), a tragic flaw (will eventually lead to his own demise), and the eventual realization that his decisions or actions have caused his own downfall (faces death or suffering with honor). There is much debate about who is the actual protagonist of the play Julius Caesar. Some say the protagonist is Julius Caesar himself and that Brutus and Cassius are the antagonists; others say that Brutus is the protagonist and Antony is the antagonist. Directions: Compare and contrast the characters of Julius Caesar, Brutus, and Antony in the chart below. For each box, write a very brief answer to each of the questions in the first column. A few examples have been completed for you. As you complete the chart, pay attention to the characteristics you feel make a protagonist and antagonist. When you have completed the chart, answer the questions on the next page. Characteristic

Julius Caesar

Brutus

Antony

Is he happy with his life? How might he be considered a privileged person? Is he considered a moral and ethical person? Is he in a position of authority or control?

yes; he is the top ruler of Rome

What is his tragic flaw? Does he end up dying or suffering immensely? Is his death a result of his hamartia?

no yes; his extreme pride, ego, and false sense of immortality lead to his murder

Does he die realizing his death was his own fault? no; he commits suicide with his own sword

Does he face his death with honor?

n/a

If he is the protagonist, who is his antagonist? If he is the antagonist, who is his protagonist? ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Standards Focus: Tragedy and the Tragic Hero Directions: Answer the following questions below using complete sentences. 1. According to your findings, who do you feel is the tragic hero? Explain how he fits the definition of a tragic hero, and how you came to this conclusion.

2. Why do you think there is so much debate about who is the tragic hero of this play? Explain your answer using the evidence you have collected in your chart.

3. According to the definition, is Julius Caesar a tragedy? Why or why not? Support your response with evidence from the play. Do you feel pity for the characters, especially the character you’ve decided is the tragic hero?

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Five Standards Focus: Theme Theme is the central idea in a work of literature. The theme of a piece of literature should not be confused with the subject of the work, but rather, it is a general statement about life or human nature. Most themes are not completely obvious and must be inferred by the reader. The reader must take a good look at the characters, plot, setting, mood, even the title, and how they work together, to understand and recognize the reasons an author wrote that particular piece of literature. Directions: Reflect on the possible themes of the novel below. For each theme, find a direct quote or explain in your own words how the theme applies to the play. Once you have found evidence to support the theme within the play, answer the questions that follow. An example has been done for you. Example: Excessive pride can lead to one’s ruin Caesar’s pride and ego cause him to ignore Calpurnia and the augurer’s warnings. “No, Caesar shall not: danger knows full well / That Caesar is more dangerous than he: / We are two lions litter'd in one day, / And I the elder and more terrible: / And Caesar shall go forth.” 1. Be careful whom you trust Example: 2. Too much ambition can be dangerous Example: 3. Good leaders acknowledge their own weaknesses Example: 4. We cannot control our fate Example: 5. Politicians are only concerned with what the majority of people want Example: 6. Superstition can be a powerful driving force Example: 7. People want to see the good in others Example:

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Standards Focus: Theme 8. Weak people can be easily manipulated Example: 9. One man’s hero is another man’s enemy Example:

Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences. Use a separate piece of paper for your answers and attach it to this sheet. 10. What do you feel is the most important theme of the play? Explain your answer. 11. What do you feel are the characteristics of a good leader? Do you feel that Caesar, Brutus, or Antony were good leaders? Why or why not? 12. To whom in modern politics or leadership can you compare Julius Caesar? Explain why you chose this person and the characteristics this person has in common with Caesar. 13. To whom in modern politics or leadership can you compare Brutus? Explain why you chose this person and the characteristics this person has in common with Brutus. 14. To whom in modern politics or leadership can you compare Antony? Explain why you chose this person and the characteristics this person has in common with Antony. 15. Why do you think Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar is required reading for students throughout the United States? What can students your age learn from this text? Explain.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Five Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Analogies An analogy is a shortened way of stating the relationship between words and ideas. One type of analogy expresses the relationship between synonyms. Below is an example: rare : scarce :: abundant : plentiful This means that the relationship between rare and scarce is the same as the relationship between abundant and plentiful. (The symbol “:” means “is to” and the symbol “::” means “as”.) An analogy may also involve antonyms. For example: narrow : wide :: long : short Another way to state this analogy is: “narrow is to wide as long is to short.” Directions: On the line provided, write the letter of the choice which best completes the analogy. 1. assure : guarantee :: a. alleviate : aggravate

b. pressure : force

c. drive : road

d. anxiety : reassurance

2. bidding : request :: a. cooperate : hinder

b. wait : bus

c. quarrel : dispute

d. trouble : ease

3. freedom: bondage :: a. emulate : copy

b. worry : distress

c. gather : flowers

d. indulge : deny

4. fawned : flattered :: a. benign : malignant

b. offer : refuse

c. motivate : stimulate

d. reduce : stress

5. gorging : nibbling :: a. dangerous : safe

b. chance : opportunity

c. rabbit : fur

d. serious : grave

6. avenged : retaliated ::

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a. lazy : languid

b. dark : damp

c. seethe : soothe

d. energetic : lethargic

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Five Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Analogies 7. demeanor : mien :: a. possible : impossible

b. intimidate : threaten

c. push : pull

d. prey : pray

8. peevish : genial :: a. gracious : hospitable

b. marker : sign

c. relinquish : surrender

d. mature : juvenile

9. perils : dangers :: a. rural : urban

b. faithful : pious

c. employee : boss

d. honest : deceitful

10. spoils : awards :: a. sculptor : sculpture

b. trivial : inconsequential

c. excellent : average

d. menial : important

11. virtue : vice :: a. perfect : ideal

b. monument : column

c. possible : likely

d. transparent : opaque

12. misconstrued : comprehended ::

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a. burly : brawny

b. label : answer

c. dirty : clean

d. temerity : audacity

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Anticipation/Reaction Guide Post-Reading Individual Reflection Directions: Revisit your Anticipation/Reaction Guide from page 9 and your answers to the discussion questions. Now that you have read the play, complete the “After Reading” column and answer the following questions, comparing your responses. Answer each question using complete sentences. 1. How have your responses to the statements changed since reading the play? ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 2. Describe an important part of the play that affected your opinion or made you think differently after reading. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. In small groups, talk to some of your classmates about their responses. How have their responses changed since reading the play? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. Overall, how are the feelings of your other group members the same or different from yours? Do any of their responses surprise you? Which ones? How? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 6. Why do you think there might be so many different opinions and viewpoints? What do you feel has contributed to the way you and your other classmates responded to each statement? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Act One Quiz Part One: Reading Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences. 1. Why were the citizens celebrating?

2. Who first attempted to talk Brutus into turning against Caesar? 3. What warning was Caesar given? 4. Explain what Caesar did when he was offered the crown.

5. How did the conspirators plan to convince Brutus to join their plot?

6. How did the weather contribute to the mood of this act? Explain.

Part Two: Vocabulary Directions: Match each vocabulary word with the correct definition or synonym. Write the correct letter on the line provided. 7. barren

a. revered; elevated

8. cogitations

b. people with significant talent or ability

9. exalted

c. strength of character

10. idle

d. unable to bare fruit

11. lamented

e. an absolute ruler, often oppressive

12. mettle

f.

13. portentous

g. deep thoughts

14. prodigies

h. mourned

15. tyrant

i.

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Secondary Solutions

inactive; lazy

significant; harbinger of future events - 57 -

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Act Two Quiz Part One: Reading Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences.

1. Why did Brutus feel that Caesar must be assassinated soon?

2. Who suggested that Antony’s life be spared? Why?

3. How did Calpurnia’s dreams act as foreshadowing?

4. How did Decius convince Caesar to leave the house?

5. Who tried to warn Caesar with a letter?

Part Two: Vocabulary Directions: Match each vocabulary word with the correct definition or synonym. Write the correct letter on the line provided. 6. affable

a. belong to or relate to something

7. appertain

b. copying in attempt to equal or surpass someone

8. augmented

c. to reject

9. emulation

d. good at judging people or situations; suspicious

10. imminent

e. about to occur; certain to occur

11. prevail

f.

12. shrewd

g. enlarged

13. spurn

h. face; appearance (also: ghost or apparition)

14. valor

i.

courage

15. visage

j.

likeable; friendly

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Secondary Solutions

win

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Act Three Quiz Part One: Reading Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences. 1. Who was the first to stab Caesar? 2. What did Caesar say before he died? What does this mean?

3. What reason did Brutus give the citizens for Caesar’s assassination?

4. What did Antony show the citizens? How did this win the citizens to Caesar and Antony’s favor?

5. How did the citizens react to Antony’s speech? What innocent bystander was killed as a result?

Part Two: Vocabulary Directions: Match each vocabulary word with the correct definition or synonym. Write the correct letter on the line provided. 6. abide

a. satisfied; pleased

7. appeased

b. money or property left in a will; reputation

8. apprehensive

c. fearful; doubtful

9. banished

d. one who conspires; plots against

10. compel

e. to give permission; allow

11. consent

f.

12. conspirator

g. exiled; thrown out

13. ingratitude

h. to drive forward

14. legacy

i.

to follow or tolerate

15. malice

j.

failure to show or express thanks

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Secondary Solutions

spitefulness; showing evil

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Act Four Quiz Part One: Reading Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences. 1. Why didn’t Antony want Lepidus to be a part of their triumvirate?

2. What was the problem between Brutus and Cassius? What was the final result?

3. What happened to Portia? 4. What was Brutus’s plan of attack? 5. What happened after the men fell asleep in Brutus’s tent?

Part Two: Vocabulary Directions: For each statement, write out the entire word “true” if the statement is true; write “false” if the statement is false. 6. an apparition is a spirit or ghost 7. chastisement is to be chaste or pure 8. engendered means sorted by gender 9. an ensign is a flag showing allegiance or nationality 10. to be envenomed means to be angry or bitter 11. fret means the same thing as worry 12. a gallant man is one who is weak and lazy 13. imposing a tax or raising an army is called levying 14. to presume is to believe something to be true 15. one who is vexed has had a curse placed upon them

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Act Five Quiz Part One: Reading Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences. 1. Where did the battle take place? 2. Why did Cassius feel he had no other choice than to kill himself? How did he do it?

3. How did Caesar gain revenge from Cassius’s death?

4. Why did Antony’s soldiers think they had captured Brutus? 5. How did Brutus kill himself? Why? 6. Why did Antony consider Brutus “the noblest Roman of them all”?

Part Two: Vocabulary Directions: For each statement, write out the entire word “true” if the statement is true, “false” if false. 7. to assure means to make confident, sure 8. if one is avenged, it means that they got revenge 9. bidding is when physical restraints are placed on a prisoner 10. bondage is a written contract, like a will 11. an evil demeanor means that one is outwardly malicious 12. something that is misconstrued is poorly constructed 13. perils are small jewels found in ocean mollusks 14. when someone behaves selfishly, that means that they have spoils 15. one who shows virtue shows goodness or admirable qualities

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Final Test Part One: Matching Directions: Match the character with the correct action, description or quote. Write the letter of the correct answer on the line provided. 1. Julius Caesar

_____

a. “Caesar, now be still: I kill'd not thee with half so good a will.”

2. Brutus

_____

b. Brutus’s wife; killed herself

3. Cassius

_____

c. adopted son and Caesar’s heir

4. Calpurnia

_____

d. “Cry ‘Havoc!’ and let slip the dogs of war.”

5. Portia

_____

e. had ominous dreams

6. Octavius

_____

f. held the sword for Brutus to kill himself

7. Antony

_____

g. weakest member of the Second Triumvirate

8. Lepidus

_____

h. “Cowards die many times before their deaths; the valiant never taste death but once.”

9. Strato

_____

i. “Upon what meat doth this our Caesar feed, that he is grown so great?”

Part Two: Multiple Choice 10. Julius Caesar’s most loyal follower was: a. Lepidus

c. Antony

b. Brutus

d. Casca

11. According to the play, Caesar was stabbed _______ times: a. 300

c. 13

b. 33

d. 3

12. The fortune-teller warns Caesar: a. “Beware St. Patrick’s Day”

c. “Beware the Ides of March”

b. “Beware the Ides of May”

d. “Beware Brutus and Cassius”

13. The Feast of Lupercal was a celebration of: a. fertility

c. Calpurnia’s marriage to Caesar

b. weather

d. Caesar’s victory at Lupercal

14. Brutus was visited by the ghost of: a. Cassius

c. Cinna

b. Casca

d. Caesar

15. All of the following characters killed themselves EXCEPT:

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a. Brutus

c. Portia

b. Cassius

d. Casca

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________ 16. How was Caesar physically challenged? a. he was blind in his left eye

c. he was deaf in his left ear

b. he was deaf in his right ear

d. his right arm was partially paralyzed

17. Who had his birthday in the play? a. Cassius

c. Caesar

b. Antony

d. Brutus

18. Who spares Antony’s life? a. Cassius

c. Brutus

b. Caesar

d. Strato

19. Octavius and Antony form a triumvirate with: a. Cassius

c. Young Cato

b. Lepidus

d. Flavius

Part Three: True/False Directions: For each statement, write out the word “true” if the statement is true; write “false” if the statement is false. 20.

Brutus said the conspirators needed no oath because they were bound by their cause and not by empty words.

21.

Brutus made an ultimately fatal mistake by allowing Antony to speak at Caesar’s funeral.

22.

Brutus viewed Caesar’s assassination as necessary because Brutus wanted to rule Rome himself.

23.

One of Caesar’s fatal flaws was his sense of immortality.

24.

One of Brutus’s fatal flaws was that his military record was too perfect.

25.

Artemidorus tried to warn Caesar.

26.

Brutus charged Cassius with accepting bribes.

27.

Cassius could be described as greedy and driven.

28.

Calpurnia served as comic relief throughout the play.

29.

The play began after Caesar’s victory at Philippi.

Part Four: Short Response Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper. 30.

Briefly compare and contrast the effectiveness of Brutus’s and Antony’s speeches to the citizens of Rome.

31.

Explain how the weather contributes to the mood of the play.

32.

Explain why at the end of the play Antony hails Brutus as “the noblest Roman of them all.”

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________ Part Five: Vocabulary Matching Directions: Match the vocabulary word with the correct definition or synonym(s). Write the letter of the correct answer on the lines provided. 33. cogitations

_____

a. face; appearance

34. fain

_____

b. an absolute ruler

35. lamented

_____

c. enlarged

36. tyrant

_____

d. to reject

37. augmented

_____

e. imitation; copying in admiration

38. emulation

_____

f.

39. spurn

_____

g. mourned; cried

40. valiant

_____

h. honorable; noble in action

41. visage

_____

i.

42. base

_____

a. to annoy, irritate, or confuse

43. conspirator

_____

b. a flag showing allegiance or nationality

44. malice

_____

c. property that has been taken by force

45. ensign

_____

d. sought revenge against

46. fret

_____

e. spitefulness; showing evil

47. provender

_____

f.

48. vex

_____

g. one who plots against someone else

49. avenged

_____

h. fodder for livestock

50. spoils

_____

i.

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Secondary Solutions

deep thoughts; musings

eagerly; preferably

to worry

raw; vulgar

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Final Test: Multiple Choice Directions: Fill in the bubble of the correct answer on your answer sheet. 1. Who said: “Caesar, now be still: I kill'd not thee with half so good a will”? a. Brutus c. Antony b. Cassius d. Casca 2. Who was Brutus’s wife? a. Calpurnia c. Portia b. Strato d. Cinna 3. Who was Caesar’s adopted son and heir? a. Antony c. Octavius b. Lepidus d. Flavius 4. Who said: “Cry ‘Havoc!’ and let slip the dogs of war”? a. Antony c. Brutus b. Cassius d. Caesar 5. Who had ominous dreams? a. Calpurnia c. Portia b. Lepidus d. Brutus 6. Who held the sword for Brutus to kill himself? a. Cassius c. Strato b. Titinius d. Philippi 7. Who were the members of the Second Triumvirate? a. Cassius, Brutus, Casca c. Antony, Lepidus, Octavius b. Brutus, Titinius, Murellus d. Brutus, Cassius, Lepidus 8. Who said: “Cowards die many times before their deaths; the valiant never taste death but once”? a. Caesar c. Brutus b. Antony d. Cassius 9. Who said: “Upon what meat doth this our Caesar feed, that he is grown so great”? a. Caesar c. Brutus b. Antony d. Cassius 10. Julius Caesar’s most loyal follower was: a. Lepidus c. Antony b. Brutus d. Casca 11. According to the play, Caesar was stabbed _______ times: a. 300 c. 13 b. 33 d. 3 12. The fortune-teller warns Caesar: a. “Beware St. Patrick’s Day” c. “Beware the Ides of March” b. “Beware the Ides of May” d. “Beware Brutus and Cassius” 13. The Feast of Lupercal was a celebration of: a. fertility c. Calpurnia’s marriage to Caesar b. weather d. Caesar’s victory at Lupercal 14. Brutus was visited by the ghost of: a. Cassius c. Cinna b. Casca d. Caesar 15. All of the following characters killed themselves EXCEPT: a. Brutus c. Portia b. Cassius d. Casca 16. How was Caesar physically challenged? a. he was blind in his left eye c. he was deaf in his left ear b. he was deaf in his right ear d. his right arm was partially paralyzed

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________ 17. Who had his birthday in the play? a. Cassius c. Caesar b. Antony d. Brutus 18. Who spares Antony’s life? a. Cassius c. Brutus b. Caesar d. Strato 19. Octavius and Antony form a triumvirate with: a. Cassius c. Young Cato b. Lepidus d. Flavius 20. Who said that the conspirators needed no oath because they were bound by their cause and not by empty words? a. Cassius c. Brutus b. Caesar d. Strato 21. Brutus made an ultimately fatal mistake by allowing: a. Antony to speak at Caesar’s funeral c. Antony to become his partner b. Cassius into the conspiracy d. Portia to talk him into surrendering 22. Brutus viewed Caesar’s assassination as necessary because he: a. wanted to rule Rome himself c. was afraid of Caesar’s wrath b. thought it would be best for the citizens of Rome d. wanted Cassius to rule Rome 23. One of Caesar’s fatal flaws was his: a. self-pity c. false sense of immortality b. unconcern for the well-being of his citizens d. unconcern for his friends’ wishes 24. One of Brutus’s fatal flaws was that: a. his military record was too perfect c. he didn’t think things through b. he was too ambitious d. he was too concerned about others 25. Who tried to warn Caesar? a. Portia c. Calpurnia b. Octavius d. Cinna 26. Brutus charged Cassius with: a. treason c. accepting bribes b. murder d. giving false information 27. Cassius could be described as: a. greedy and driven c. honorable and valiant b. malicious and vengeful d. all of the above 28. The play began immediately after: a. Caesar’s victory at Philippi c. Caesar’s crowning b. the announcement of Caesar’s heir d. Caesar’s victory over Pompey Vocabulary Fill-in the letter on your answer sheet that corresponds with the vocabulary word that best fits the definition or synonym given. 29. face; appearance a. lamented b. fain 30. an absolute ruler a. tyrant b. provender 31. enlarged a. augmented b. spurn 32. to reject a. avenged b. vex ©2006

Secondary Solutions

c. visage d. base c. vex d. conspirator c. chidden d. fret c. exalted d. spurn - 66 -

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________ 33. imitation; copying in admiration a. malice c. b. emulation d. 34. deep thoughts; musings a. cogitations c. b. chidden d. 35. mourned; cried a. barren c. b. chidden d. 36. honorable; noble in action a. spoils c. b. valiant d. 37. eagerly; preferably a. base c. b. shrewd d. 38. to annoy, irritate, or confuse a. beseech c. b. vex d. 39. a flag showing allegiance or nationality a. valiant c. b. valor d. 40. property that has been taken by force a. prevail c. b. legacy d. 41. sought revenge against a. augmented c. b. affable d. 42. spitefulness; showing evil a. imminent c. b. malice d. 43. to worry a. spurn c. b. abide d. 44. one who plots against someone else a. conspirator c. b. apparition d. 45. fodder for livestock a. base c. b. provender d.

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Secondary Solutions

avenged exalted infused fain lamented exalted tyrant prodigies affable fain emulation appertain ensign provender provender spoils avenged appertain appeased vex visage fret coffers ensign coffers peevish

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Teacher Guide Summary of the Play Act One Scene One: Flavius and Marullus, two tribunes of Rome, come across a group of Roman citizens who have closed their shops in order to attend the celebration of Julius Caesar’s victory over Pompey the Great. The men scold the citizens for their hypocrisy, since it was not long ago that they celebrated Pompey’s rule. Flavius insists that he and Marullus tear down the decorations which only serve to honor and commemorate a tyrant. Scene Two: It is the celebration of the Feast of Lupercal, and Caesar instructs Antony to touch Calpurnia as he participates in the great race at the feast celebrations in order to enhance her fertility. A Soothsayer then calls to Caesar, warning him to “Beware the Ides of March.” Caesar dismisses the Soothsayer, brushing off his warning. Cassius pulls Brutus aside and questions his recent mood. Cassius claims to know why Brutus is acting strange, and hints that Brutus’s problem is also Cassius’s problem: Caesar. Cassius suggests that Caesar must be assassinated, and goes on to give a list of reasons to support his claim. Caesar enters, and as Casca passes, the men stop him to ask for news about Caesar. Casca tells the men of Caesar’s theatrical antics, refusing the crown three times, and then having a seizure. The antics convince Cassius that Brutus’s help is necessary to their assassination plot. Scene Three: Cicero and Casca meet that evening. They discuss the terrible, ominous weather. Cassius convinces Casca to join the conspiracy. Cinna arrives, and Cassius instructs him to throw a message in Brutus’s window which is intended to convince Brutus that the assassination would be honorable and a victory for the citizens of Rome.

Act Two

Scene One: Left alone, Brutus broods over his involvement in Caesar’s assassination. Lucius brings Brutus the letter Cinna threw in his window. The other conspirators arrive and Cassius suggests they seal their bond with an oath, which Brutus scoffs at. After the men leave, Brutus’s wife Portia enters, distraught and concerned about her husband’s recent behavior. She begs Brutus to reveal his concern, and to prove her loyalty and strength to Brutus, she stabs herself in the leg. Brutus then promises to reveal the men’s plot to her at a later time. Scene Two: As the weather continues to set the mood, Calpurnia warns Caesar of her ominous dreams. Caesar orders the augerers to present a sacrifice and guide him. Calpurnia begs Caesar to stay home. A servant enters with the news that no heart was found within the sacrificed animal, therefore the augerers also suggest that Caesar stay home. Convinced for a moment, Caesar tells Decius that he will not be leaving. After Decius tells Caesar that the men will make fun of his belief in his wife’s dreams, Caesar decides to go to the Capitol as planned. Scene Three: Artemidorus reads from a letter he plans to give to Caesar, warning him of his impending doom. Scene Four: Portia tells Lucius that she knows Brutus’s plans, even though Brutus has never had a chance to tell her. The Soothsayer meets them and tells them that he is on his way to the Capitol to see Caesar. Afraid that the Soothsayer knows more than he is telling, Portia sends Lucius to find out what is happening with Brutus.

Act Three

Scene One: As Caesar enters the Capitol, Artemidorus tries to make Caesar read the letter he has written, but Caesar refuses. The men gather and ambush Caesar. They stab Caesar to death, then bathe their hands with his blood. Antony, who had been distracted from the slaying, enters and pays his respects to Caesar, and feigns reconciliation with the conspirators. He then asks to speak at Caesar’s funeral. Despite several objections, Brutus gives Antony permission to speak. Left alone, Antony begs forgiveness and vows revenge for Caesar’s murder.

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Scene Two: Brutus and Cassius meet the Roman citizens and attempt to explain Caesar’s death. Brutus gives his speech, explaining that he had no other intentions than to protect the citizens of Rome. After feeling as if he has won the crowd to his side, Brutus introduces Antony, then leaves. In his famous speech, Antony convinces the citizens that Caesar’s death was wrong and that the conspirators should be punished. He stirs them to riot. Scene Three: Enraged by Antony’s speech, the citizens of Rome accost Cinna the poet, mistaking him for Cinna the conspirator.

Act Four Scene One: Antony, Lepidus, and Octavius have joined to form the Second Triumvirate. They meet to decide who will be killed for their treason: Lepidus agrees to his brother’s death; Antony gives up a nephew. After Lepidus leaves, Antony confesses to Octavius his reservations about Lepidus’s abilities as a leader. Octavius defends Lepidus. They agree that they must strengthen their plans against Brutus and Cassius. Scene Two: Brutus complains to Titinius and Pindarus about Cassius’s recent behavior. Cassius arrives and expresses his own disappointment with Brutus. They agree to step inside Brutus’s tent to discuss their differences away from the eyes of their men. Scene Three: In the privacy of the tent, the men discuss their issues and get everything out into the open. Their relationship is falling apart, as Brutus accuses Cassius of accepting bribes. The two men quarrel until Cassius finally invites Brutus to kill him. They anxiously make amends. At this time, Cassius tells Brutus that Portia has killed herself. They make their plans for the attack at Philippi, then retire to bed. In his tent, Brutus asks his servant to play for him. Exhausted, his servant falls asleep. Brutus is then interrupted by Caesar’s ghost, who warns Brutus that they will meet again at Philippi.

Act Five

Scene One: At Philippi, Antony and Octavius wait for Brutus, Cassius and their army. The opposing sides meet, throw insults at each other, then challenge each other again. Before their fight escalates, they depart, ready to meet on the battlefield. Scene Two: The battle begins. Brutus sends Messala to Cassius, urging him to attack Octavius’s forces. Scene Three: Antony’s men encircle Cassius’s troops. Fearing that Titinius has been captured after receiving a false report, Cassius believes that the end is near. He asks Pindarus to stab him; Pindarus agrees. Minutes later, Titinius and Messala find Cassius’s body. When Messala leaves to send word of Cassius’s death, Titinius stabs himself with Cassius’s sword. Scene Four: The fight continues, and Young Cato is killed. Antony’s soldiers think they have captured Brutus, but it is actually Lucilius, claiming to be Brutus. Scene Five: Realizing he is losing the battle, Brutus asks his men to kill him. The men refuse. Finally, Strato agrees, and Brutus runs into his sword. Octavius, Antony, and the others enter, finding Brutus’s body. Antony commends Brutus’s noble fight, and promises a proper burial for the man who fought and died for the good of the citizens of Rome.

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Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Julius Caesar Vocabulary List with Definitions Act One 1. barren—unable to bear fruit; unable to bear children 2. chidden—reproached; scolded 3. cogitations—deep thoughts 4. exalted—revered; elevated 5. fain—preferably; eagerly 6. idle—inactive; lazy 7. infused—filled with strong emotion 8. lamented—mourned 9. mettle—strength of character 10. portentous—significant; harbinger of future events 11. prodigies—people with significant talent or ability 12. tyrant—an absolute ruler, often oppressive Act Two 1. affable—easygoing; likeable 2. appertain—to belong to or relate to something 3. augmented—enlarged 4. beseech—to beg 5. emulation—imitation; copying in attempt to equal or surpass someone 6. imminent—about to occur 7. prevail—win 8. shrewd—good at judging people or situations; intuitive 9. spurn—to reject 10. valiant—honorable; noble in action 11. valor—courage 12. visage—face; appearance (also: ghost or apparition)

12. malice—spitefulness; showing evil Act Four 1. apparition—a spirit or ghost 2. chastisement—a punishment or scolding 3. engendered—created; came into existence 4. ensign—a flag showing allegiance or nationality 5. envenomed—made poisonous; made angry or bitter 6. exigent—needing immediate action 7. fret—worry 8. gallant—courageous; courteous 9. levying—imposing a tax or raising an army 10. presume—believe something to be true 11. provender—fodder for livestock 12. vex—to annoy, irritate, or confuse Act Five 1. assure—make confident, sure 2. avenged—sought revenge 3. bidding—orders or instructions 4. bondage—control; physical or emotional restraints 5. demeanor—outward behavior 6. fawned—tried to please, flatter 7. gorging—greedy eating or consuming 8. misconstrued—misinterpreted or understood incorrectly 9. peevish—irritable; bad-tempered 10. perils—dangers; risks 11. spoils—property taken by force 12. virtue—goodness; admirable qualities

Act Three 1. abide—to follow or tolerate 2. appeased—satisfied; pleased 3. apprehensive—fearful; doubtful 4. banished—exiled; thrown out 5. base—raw; vulgar 6. coffers—chests or boxes used for keeping valuables 7. compel—to drive forward 8. consent—to give permission; allow 9. conspirator—one who conspires, plots against 10. ingratitude—failure to show or express thanks 11. legacy—money or property left in a will; reputation ©2006

Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Pre-Reading Ideas and Activities Suggested activities prior to the study of Julius Caesar: 1. Have students read and answer the questions on William Shakespeare’s biography on pages 6 and 7. 2. Have students complete the Anticipation/Reaction Guide and questions on pages 9 and 10. 3. Using the biography of Shakespeare on page 6, have students create a timeline of the events of Shakespeare’s life. Or, have students research more information about Shakespeare and his works and create a timeline with their information. 4. Have students read/discuss “The Real Julius Caesar” on page 8. 5. Have students research more on the life of the real Julius Caesar, including major accomplishments, military awards and honors, political connections, etc. Have students make a poster or brochure of their findings. 6. Have students complete the activity for “Elements of Drama” on page 11. 7. Have students complete the activity on Shakespeare’s Style on pages 13 and 14. 8. Have students look up definitions for the vocabulary list on page 15. 9. Have students discuss/journal a time when they wanted something so badly they would do almost anything to get it. What was it? When? What was the result? If they were able to get what they wanted, how did it feel? If they didn’t, how did that feel? 10. Have students discuss/journal a time when they wanted revenge. Did they get it? How did it feel? Did they have any regrets or guilt? Discuss “an eye for an eye.” Is this philosophy justifiable? Explain. 11. Have students discuss/journal avaricious characters from movies, books, video games, etc. How are they characterized? How do these characters behave? How do they get what they want? How do other characters treat them? 12. Have students discuss/journal the qualities of a good and bad leaders. Are leaders born or are they made? Have students list the attributes of their ideal “leader,” how he/she would act, reason, negotiate, follow, etc. Can this leadership be used for evil deeds? How? 13. Some say that our dreams often reflect our subconscious desires and fears. Have students discuss/journal the concept of dreams or supernatural visions. Are they omens? Do our dreams and/or visions have meaning? Have students explore a time when they dreamt something that actually came true, or they felt a very strong feeling something was going to happen, and it did. Discuss these dreams/visions as a class. Are these our subconscious speaking to us? 14. Have students research theater in Shakespeare’s time; famous theaters (The Globe, The Rose), how plays were performed (costumes, location, actors), who saw the plays, how much they cost, what the environment was like, etc. 15. Have students do an Internet search and brochure/report on Elizabethan Era food, dress, social classes, games, weapons, etc. They can be divided into small groups and given a topic to share with the rest of the class, or work individually on some or all topics.

Post-Reading Extension Activities and Alternative Assessment Suggested activities after reading Julius Caesar: 1. Create a newspaper front page which includes local news (such as Caesar’s crowning or murder), an advice column, classified ads, a “fashion” column, gossip, Reader’s Opinion column, sports news, recipes and restaurant reviews, announcements (such as Caesar’s crowning or murder), weather, a crossword, the funny page, etc. Be sure all articles relate to the correct era. 2. Choose a scene or an act from the play to “translate” into text-message “language.” Note: While this activity can be fun, it also must accurately tell the story. 3. Write a rap “translation” of an important scene from the play. Note: While this activity can be fun, it also must accurately tell the story. ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

4. Use a computer program or draw/paint an original CD cover depicting one of the themes in Julius Caesar. Put together a compilation of songs you feel represent the themes of the play and include a short explanation as to why you chose each song. 5. Create a board game which includes the following: • Game Cards (at least 20) which contain quotations from Julius Caesar • Game Pieces (at least 4 different ones) representing the characters in Julius Caesar • Game Board, complete with your art work, which relates to Julius Caesar • Typed directions on how to play the game, the object of the game, and how to win 6. Create Portia or Calpurnia’s scrapbook of photos, artwork, poems, etc. of important events throughout the play. Be sure to include pictures and an explanation or journal-like thoughts and reflections about each event. Be sure to keep in mind the women’s feelings, such as Calpurnia’s dreams and Portia’s declining state of mind as she becomes more and more concerned about Brutus’s well-being. 7. Pretend you are the costume designer for a theatrical production of Julius Caesar. Draw accurate costumes for Caesar, Antony, Brutus, Cassius, Octavius, Portia, and Calpurnia. Each drawing must be on a plain 8½” X 11” page, colored, with fabric swatches attached. Write a one-page report explaining what each character would wear, and in which scene they would wear the costume. 8. Read/analyze Plutarch’s biography on Julius Caesar or Brutus, comparing and contrasting Plutarch’s biography with Shakespeare’s fictional account. 9. Write a series of letters (5 to 10, one page each) from either Caesar to Calpurnia or Brutus to Portia about the events of the play. Be sure to write these letters in the persona of the character of your choice, from the first-person perspective. Include their inner-most thoughts, fears, concerns, and personal victories and celebrations through these letters. 10. You are a psychologist, and your patient is a character of your choice from Julius Caesar. He or she has come seeking advice. What questions would you ask your patient? What advice would you give? Compose notes and/or a tape recording of your thoughts from five “sessions.” Also consider dream analysis and role-playing exercises. You must include notes from at least five consecutive sessions and include a final diagnosis/recommendation for your patient. 11. Create a giant timeline of the important events of the play. Be sure to include pictures and a paragraph about each event and its importance to the plot. 12. You have just been hired to produce a play or movie production of Julius Caesar. Cast your characters with popular celebrities that would fit each of the main roles. Announce your production with an eye-catching poster, including dates and times of performances, location of performances, a teaser summary of the movie or play, and names and/or pictures of your stars. On the reverse side of your poster, briefly explain how each star you have chosen for your cast fits the character they portray. 13. Research the history of Rome, particularly the First and Second Triumvirates and their influence on the political changes in Rome. 14. Conduct a research project on Roman mythology. Put together a poster including pictures and descriptions of the famous gods and goddesses of Roman mythology, their special powers and “responsibilities,” and how they influenced the Romans in Julius Caesar’s time. 15. Create your own web-page on some aspect of Julius Caesar. It can be a website comparing and contrasting the real to the fictional Julius Caesar, all about Antony and the Second Triumvirate, or a page about Shakespeare’s interpretation of true events. Or, it can be a “translation” of your favorite scene, or a summary of the scene, plus quiz questions to accompany the scene. 16. Make a three dimensional model of the Globe Theater using clay, foam, soap, wood, marshmallows— anything that will yield a 3-D design. Additionally, write a one-page report giving a history of the importance of the Globe Theater. 17. Choose either a monologue or a soliloquy to perform in front of the class or on video tape. Be sure to dress as the character and use appropriate props. Lines must be memorized!

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Essay/Writing Ideas Suggested essay or writing activities for use after reading Julius Caesar: 1.

2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9. 10. 11.

12.

13. 14.

What do you think is Brutus’s tragic flaw and how do you think it led to his demise? Why did he hesitate to kill Caesar? Do you think he was aware of his own limitations or weaknesses? Do you think that Brutus was really trying to do the “right” thing? Explain your answer using examples from the text. What do you think was the true climax of the play? Why? Explain your response. Discuss the roles of the women in this play. Were they important? How were they treated? Consider Calpurnia’s dreams and Caesar’s reaction to her warnings, as well as Portia’s concern for Brutus, which eventually caused her suicide. Write an alternate ending to the play. What if Brutus had lived? What if both Brutus and Cassius had lived? What if everyone had lived, including Caesar, and the conspirators were caught? What might have happened next? You choose from where the story changes, how, and what happens to each character as a result. Conduct an interview with one of the characters from Julius Caesar. For those who died, the interview can be when the character was alive, or after his or her death. Write at least 10 questions that will give the character a chance to tell his or her story from his or her point of view. You may ask questions, challenge a situation, express a complaint or make a suggestion. Once you have written the questions, answer each question from the point of view of the character. Antony exclaims that Brutus was an honourable Roman, and only had the best intentions for his people in mind when he conspired to murder Caesar. With this in mind, write Brutus’s obituary. Be sure to include his important life accomplishments, as well as information about how he died, and why, and what services will be held. Remember that Antony has promised Brutus a hero’s burial. Watch the 1953 movie version of Julius Caesar and compare/contrast it to the play. Are the characters as you imagined them? Why or why not? What parts of the play are omitted? What parts are added? What is the most emotionally charged scene in the movie? Is it the same scene you found when you read the play? Why or why not? Write about what you would have done in the same situation, had you been Antony or Brutus. Be sure to include the name of the character, the situation you would have handled differently, as well as the specific way(s) you would have dealt with it. Create a 15-line poem based upon the play Julius Caesar. Your poem can be on a chosen theme, a particular character, or a specific scene or event. Your poem can be as structured or unstructured as you wish (i.e. rhyme, rhythm, etc.). Create a 15-line poem from Caesar’s, Brutus’s, or Cassius’s perspective. Your poem can be as structured or unstructured as you wish (i.e. rhyme, rhythm, etc.). Compare and contrast the leadership, eloquence, and charisma of Antony and Brutus. Consider their personalities, motivations and relationships. What kind of character is each man? What motivates each of them? What kind of relationship do they have with their families? With the citizens of Rome? How are their views on life, revenge, and honor similar or different? Pretend that Caesar actually received and read the letter from Artemidorus, but never let on that he knew about the conspiracy. Rather than being tricked with the false contract, pretend that Caesar planned to trick the conspirators himself. Tell how Caesar “got” the conspirators and what happened to them next. How does Shakespeare use the technique of rhetoric in Julius Caesar? Give examples from the text to support your response. Add a new character to Julius Caesar. Why would he or she be added? What would he or she contribute to the plot? Explain using details and examples, or re-write a scene which includes the new character.

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Project Rubric Category Required Elements

Score of 4

Score of 3

Score of 2

Score of 1

Includes all required elements as stated in the directions/ instructions.

Includes all but one of the required elements as stated in the directions/ instructions.

Missing more than one of the required elements, as stated in the directions/ instructions.

Several required elements are missing from the project.

All pictures, photographs, drawings, diagrams, graphs, etc. are related to the topic and enhance the understanding and enjoyment.

Some graphics/ illustrations are used and are relevant, enhancing the project.

Few, if any graphics/ illustrations are used, and/or detract from the project and/or are not relevant to the topic.

No graphics/ illustrations are used, and/or are unrelated, distracting and/or inappropriate.

Exceptionally clever and unique; approach and presentation enhance the project.

Clever at times; thoughtfully and uniquely presented.

A few original touches enhance the project.

Shows little creativity, originality, and/or effort.

Acceptably attractive, but may be messy at times and/or show lack of organization.

Distractingly messy or very poorly designed. It is not attractive and does not show pride in work.

SCORE _____ Graphics/ Illustrations

SCORE _____ Creativity

SCORE _____ Neatness/ Attractiveness

Exceptionally attractive Attractive and neat in design and and particularly neat in layout. design and layout.

SCORE _____ Grammar

No grammatical/ mechanical mistakes in the project.

A few grammatical/ mechanical mistakes. Mistakes are not distracting.

Several grammatical/ mechanical mistakes. Mistakes are distracting.

Many grammatical/ mechanical mistakes throughout the project. Project was clearly not proofread.

All sources are properly and thoroughly cited; the maximum number/ types of sources are used to complete the project.

The minimum number/types of sources are present and are cited properly.

Number/types of sources are below the minimum and/or citations are not formatted properly.

Project does not cite sources.

Engaging, provocative, and captures the interest of the audience. Work clearly shows sense of pride and exceptional effort.

Well done and interesting; is presented in a unique manner and is well organized. Work shows pride and good effort.

At times interesting and clever, and organized in a logical manner. Work shows some pride and effort.

Not organized effectively, not easy to follow, and does not keep the reader/ audience interested. Shows little or no pride or effort in work.

SCORE _____ Citation of Sources

SCORE _____ Overall Effectiveness

SCORE _____

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Response to Literature Rubric Adapted from the California Writing Assessment Rubric California Department of Education, Standards and Assessment Division

Score of 4 ‰

Clearly addresses all parts of the writing task.

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Provides a meaningful thesis and thoughtfully supports the thesis and main ideas with facts, details, and/or explanations.

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Maintains a consistent tone and focus and a clear sense of purpose and audience.

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Illustrates control in organization, including effective use of transitions.

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Provides a variety of sentence types and uses precise, descriptive language.

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Contains few, if any, errors in the conventions of the English language (grammar, punctuation, capitalization, spelling). These errors do not interfere with the reader’s understanding of the writing.

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Demonstrates a clear understanding of the ambiguities, nuances, and complexities of the text.

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Develops interpretations that demonstrate a thoughtful, comprehensive, insightful grasp of the text, and supports these judgments with specific references to various text.

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Draws well supported inferences about the effects of a literary work on its audience.

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Provides specific textual examples and/or personal knowledge and details to support the interpretations and inferences.

Score of 3 ‰

Addresses all parts of the writing task.

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Provides a thesis and supports the thesis and main ideas with mostly relevant facts, details, and/ or explanations.

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Maintains a generally consistent tone and focus and a general sense of purpose and audience.

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Illustrates control in organization, including some use of transitions.

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Includes a variety of sentence types and some descriptive language.

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Contains some errors in the conventions of the English language. These errors do not interfere with the reader’s understanding of the writing.

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Develops interpretations that demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the text and supports these interpretations with references to various text.

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Draws supported inferences about the effects of a literary work on its audience.

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Supports judgments with some specific references to various text and/or personal knowledge.

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Provides textual examples and details to support the interpretations.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Score of 2 ‰

Addresses only parts of the writing task.

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Suggests a central idea with limited facts, details, and/or explanations.

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Demonstrates little understanding of purpose and audience.

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Maintains an inconsistent point of view, focus, and/or organizational structure which may include ineffective or awkward transitions that do not unify important ideas.

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Includes little variety in sentence types.

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Contains several errors in the conventions of the English language. These errors may interfere with the reader’s understanding of the writing.

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Develops interpretations that demonstrate a limited grasp of the text.

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Includes interpretations that lack accuracy or coherence as related to ideas, premises, or images from the literary work.

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Draws few inferences about the effects of a literary work on its audience.

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Supports judgments with few, if any, references to various text and/or personal knowledge.

Score of 1 ‰

Addresses only one part of the writing task.

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Lacks a thesis or central idea but may contain marginally related facts, details, and/or explanations.

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Demonstrates no understanding of purpose and audience.

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Lacks a clear point of view, focus, organizational structure, and transitions that unify important ideas.

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Includes no sentence variety; sentences are simple.

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Contains serious errors in the conventions of the English language. These errors interfere with the reader’s understanding of the writing.

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Develops interpretations that demonstrate little grasp of the text.

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Lacks an interpretation or may be a simple retelling of the text.

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Lacks inferences about the effects of a literary work on its audience.

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Fails to support judgments with references to various text and/or personal knowledge.

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Lacks textual examples and details.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Answer Key

Due to space constraints, answers may not be given in complete sentences, as student answers should be. Page 6: Exploring Expository Writing 1. Stratford-Upon-Avon, England; April 23, 1564 2. Answers will vary. Shakespeare led a fascinating life as an actor and writer, eventually becoming someone who many regard as the greatest playwright who ever lived. 3. Answers will vary. Shakespeare had three children: Susanna, and twins Judith and Hamnet. After Hamnet died in 1596, Shakespeare’s grief was evident in his writing. 4. Answers will vary. 5. exactly 52 years after the date of his birth 6. facts; dates, lack of emotional words, written in an informative manner 7. chronological from birth to death; explanations will vary Page 14: The Sonnet Form 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

As Who Or Whose So The And O’er O And Who More O To

an with some strength’s I per in charged let dumb plead than learn hear

im his fierce a for fect mine with my pres for that to with

per fear thing bun fear cer own bur books a love tongue read eyes

fect is re dance of e love’s den be ges and that what be

ac put plete weak trust mo strength of then of look more si longs

tor be with ens for ny seem mine the my for hath lent to

on side too his get of to own el speak re more love love’s

the his much own to love’s de love’s o ing com ex hat fine

stage part rage heart say rite cay might quence breast pense press’d writ wit

Rhyme Scheme A B A B C D C D E F E F G G

Page 18: Act One Scene Guide See Teacher’s Guide Summary of the Play Page 19: Act One Comprehension Check Scene One 1. Rome, on a street 2. to celebrate Caesar’s victory over Pompey 3. disgust over their hypocrisy; they were just celebrating Pompey as their leader, now they celebrate Caesar’s victory 4. There is a division between the Romans: some favor Caesar, some fear him. It is the beginning of the Feast of Lupercal. Marullus and Flavius are not happy about Caesar’s victory: they want to tear down the decorations. Scene Two 1. touch her; fertility 2. “Beware the Ides of March”; he ignores the warning and dismisses the man 3. concerned, preoccupied; not his usual self; Brutus’s concern for the people of Rome gives Cassius the opportunity to exploit Brutus’s concerns for Cassius’s cause. 4. Answers will vary; Brutus is hesitant and wary and knows the plot is malicious; this foreshadows an unhappy ending for Brutus as it may end up badly for everyone involved. 5. the citizens of Rome 6. Caesar dared Cassius to swim in the turbulent water during a storm; they both jumped in, but Caesar panicked and almost drowned in fear; Cassius saved Caesar from drowning. This shows that Caesar may not be as strong as he portrays, and that Cassius is a strong man who sees Caesar as a weak tyrant. 7. He hesitates and asks that he have some time to think about it. 8. Caesar says Cassius has an evil look about him, and that he reads too much, observes too well, hates going to plays, dislikes music, doesn’t smile and when he does manage to sneak a smile, Caesar believes Cassius is thinking evil thoughts. Caesar does not fear Cassius, however, because Caesar feels that he is untouchable. 9. he is deaf in his left ear 10. Answer will vary. Caesar refused the crown three times in a show of spectacle and pomposity. 11. At first, the men believe it is all a part of Caesar’s “show,” but then it is speculated that Caesar has epilepsy, called the “falling sickness” at the time. The men make a play on words that the conspirators also have the falling sickness because they are “falling” from their duty and honor towards Caesar. 12. Answer will vary. It is ironic because the men were speaking Greek and Casca knew that they were speaking Greek. Casca also prefaces his answer with “if I tell you that, I could never look you in the face again,” alluding to the fact that he understood what the men were talking about, but could not reveal it. Casca would have also been aware of the popular Latin saying, and therefore uses it as a pun. ©2006

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13. Cassius doubts that Brutus will join the conspiracy without some prodding. Cassius knows that Caesar and Brutus have always been very close, and that if they do not get Brutus on their side, there could be trouble for the conspirators very soon. 14. He plans to throw letters which will appear to have been written by the Roman citizens, begging Brutus to do something about Caesar. Scene Three 1. dark, stormy, windy, ominous; it makes the audience feel as if something very bad is about to happen; as the audience, we know that Caesar’s days are numbered and wonder whether Caesar will be assassinated tonight or be spared another day 2. Cassius tells the men that he has spoken to Brutus; now, either Brutus will be on their side, or will turn them in and they will all suffer the consequences; he feels vulnerable and knows that he could very easily die for his treason. 3. Casca knows that the people love Brutus and will listen to him. 4. Cassius tells Cinna to drop the papers from the “citizens” in Brutus’s window. Cassius hopes Brutus will be convinced that the letters are from the citizens, and that Brutus will join the conspiracy. Pages 20-21: Standards Focus: Setting, Tone, and Mood Answers will vary. 1. a. Rome, on a street; chariots were used for transportation, telling us it was in ancient times; refers to Pompey who was defeated thousands of years ago b. condescending, bitter, “preachy,” irritated, disappointed c. anxious, fearful, ashamed 2. a. on a street in Rome; there is a Soothsayer in the audience; today we might call them fortune-tellers; he refers to the Ides of March, which is an ancient way of saying the 15th of March b. exclamatory, warning, omniscient c. tense, ominous, anxious, hesitant 3. a. same; refers to a mirror or reflection as “glass” b. pompous, deceitful, malicious, manipulative c. tense, anxious, fearful, hesitant, unsure 4. a. on the street during a storm; refers to the storm as a tempest; also refers to the “gods,” noting the absence of Christianity b. tumultuous, shocking, portentous, cruel, chilling, admonishing, malevolent c. apprehensive, fearful, astonished, amazed, afraid, alerted to possible evil 5. a. on the street during a storm b. tumultuous, shocking, portentous, admonishing, malevolent c. apprehensive, fearful, astonished, alerted to evil coming in the future Pages 22-23: Assessment Preparation: Word Parts cogitations verb; cogitate to ponder; meditate co- + agere; to drive -ion and -s verb into a noun; -s changes singular to plural will vary noun; an act of reflection or meditation

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exalted verb; exalt to lift up; raise in rank or honor exaltare; to lift up; ex-+altere; high -ed changes the present to past tense will vary verb; raised or elevated, as in rank or character

fain adverb; fain gladly; willingly

idle adj.; idle

infused verb; fuse

inactive or lazy

to unite or blend into a whole

fagan; happy

idel; empty, trifling

none n/a

none n/a

will vary adverb; gladly; willingly

will vary adj.; inactive or lazy

Secondary Solutions

lamented verb; lament expressing grief

mettle noun.; mettle courage and fortitude

portentous verb; portend to indicate in advance; as an omen

fusus or fundare; to pour, cast

lamentum; plaint

metaphoric usage of metal

in- and -ed -in is a variant; “into” to “fuse”; -ed present to past tense will vary verb; introduced together, as if by pouring; penetrated

-ed changes the present to past tense

none n/a

por-; forth, forward + tendere; to stretch -ous changes the verb to an adjective

will vary verb; mourned; grieved

will vary adj.; courage and fortitude

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will vary adj.; ominously significant; foretelling

prodigies noun; prodigy

tyrant noun; tyrant

a person having extraordinary talent or ability prodigium; prophetic sign

ruler who uses his power oppressively tyrranus; an absolute ruler

-ies makes sing. noun plural

none n/a

will vary noun; persons with special talent or ability

will vary noun; a sovereign or other ruler who uses his power oppressively

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Page 24: Act Two Scene Guide See Teacher’s Guide Summary of the Play Page 25: Act Two Comprehension Check Scene One 1. “That lowliness is young ambition's ladder, / Whereto the climber-upward turns his face; / But when he once attains the upmost round. / He then unto the ladder turns his back, / Looks in the clouds, scorning the base degrees / By which he did ascend. So Caesar may.” He says that once someone reaches the top of their ambitions, they will scorn and abandon those below him. 2. He compares him to a serpent’s egg; and that he must kill him fast before he is able to cause harm and evil to his own. 3. The Ides of March; the soothsayer warned Caesar about this day 4. Brutus explains that he is caught up in the idea of the action, and the actual commitment of the action. He says men get caught up in this inner struggle which is the worst part of the entire act. 5. the are brothers-in-law (it says “brothers” in the text) 6. he says that their action is their bond, and that words mean nothing 7. they want Cicero because he is old, wise, and influential; they change their minds because they believe Cicero will not follow anything that wasn’t his own idea in the first place 8. Antony 9. there will already be too much bloodshed; he does not want to be “butchers”; they do not see Antony as a threat 10. he plans to flatter him with stories of flattery 11. he is distracted; not sleeping; not himself 12. She insists that she can keep a secret, and that she is strong enough to hear the truth; she gets on her knees and begs to know; she threatens him; she says that if he doesn’t tell her, then he is only using her as his whore, and not a wife 13. She stabs herself in the leg with a knife; answer will vary Bonus: there were no clocks in ancient times: only sundials; Shakespeare added a clock to this act, which is an anachronism; whether he did this on purpose or it is an error scholars do not know. Have your students discuss the reasons Shakespeare might have done this on purpose (i.e. an obsession with time?) Scene Two 1. She is having nightmares about Caesar being murdered. “A lioness hath whelped in the streets; / And graves have yawn'd, and yielded up their dead; / Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the clouds, / In ranks and squadrons and right form of war, / Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol; / The noise of battle hurtled in the air, / Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan, / And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets.” 2. He insists that if the gods have death in his plan, then that is his fate. 3. They found no heart in the sacrificed animal. 4. Decius tells Caesar that the men will make fun of him if he tells them that he would not leave because of his wife’s dreams. 5. The irony is that these are the men who plan to kill him. Scene Three 1. Artemidorus wrote the letter, and he plans to give it to Caesar as soon as possible. The letter warns of the assassination plot. Scene Four 1. She claims that she is not one of those women who cannot keep a secret, but goes and tells everything the moment she can tell what she thinks she knows (even though Brutus has told her nothing at this point). 2. Portia tells Lucius to take a note to Caesar to spy on Caesar’s activities. 3. the Soothsayer; he is on his way to the Capitol to warn Caesar again

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Page 26: Character Map Calpurnia

A Soothsayer

Artemedorus

Caesar

Mark Antony

Octavius Caesar

Marcus Brutus

Caius Cassius

Lepidus

Publius

Cicero

Casca

Decius Brutus

Trebonius

Metellus Cimber

Caius Ligarius

Cinna

Lepidus’s brother Lucius Paullus (unnamed in the play)

Cinna, the poet

Portia

Cicero

Titinius Young Cato

Flavius, Marullus, Lucius, Volumnius, Lucilius, Pindarus Messala, Varro, Claudius, Clitus, Dardanius, Strato

Page 28: Characterization and Character Motivation Answers will vary Caesar “Ye gods, it doth amaze me / A man of such a feeble temper should / So get the start of the majestic world, / And bear the palm alone.” (scene ii, lines 129-132) “I rather tell thee what is to be feared / That what I fear; for always I am Caesar. Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf, / And tell me truly what thou think’st of him.” (scene ii, lines 212-215) Caesar is pleased with his new post; he is not above dramatics to make the people beg for his leadership. He wants to remain as primary ruler, but knows there are others that want to see him stripped of power. His main motivation is to keep ultimate power. Cassius “I do not know the man I should avoid / So soon as that spare Cassius. He reads much, / He is a great observer, and he looks / Quite through the deeds of men. He loves no plays, / As thou dost, Antony; he hears no music. / Seldom he smiles, and smiles in such a sort / As if he mocked himself, and scorned his spirit / That could be moved to smile at anything.” (scene ii, lines 201-208) “Were I a common laugher, or did use / To stale with ordinary oaths my love / To every new protester; if you know / That I do fawn on men and hug them hard, / And after scandal them; or if you know / That I profess myself in banqueting / to all the rout, then hold me dangerous.” (scene ii, lines 72-78)

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Secondary Solutions

Cassius does not want Caesar in power. He is jealous and insists that Caesar is nothing special, and no more deserving of the dictatorship than he or Brutus. Cassius’s main motivation is to remove Caesar from power. Whether or not he wants the power himself is not certain, but is implicit throughout Act One. Antony “I lack some part / Of that quick spirit that is in Antony.” (scene ii, lines 28-29) “I shall remember. / When Caesar says, ‘Do this,’ it is performed.” (scene ii, lines 9-10) Antony has few speaking parts in this act. His motivation seems to be as a loyal follower of Caesar, and to support him. Casca “You are dull, Casca, / And those sparks of life that should be in a Roman / You do not? want, or else you use not.” (scene iii, lines 58-60) “You speak to Casca, and to such a man / That is no fleering telltale. Hold my hand. / Be factious for redress of all these griefs, / And I will set this foot of mine as far / As who goes farthest.” (scene iii, lines 118-122) Casca is on Cassius and Brutus’s side to overthrow Caesar. He wants to see Caesar out of power, and loyally follows Cassius’s plan.

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Pages 29-30: Vocabulary in Context Answers will vary; sample answers are given 1. I was spurned by my friends when they didn’t invite me to the movies when they were all going. 2. can’t find their way through the school; don’t know anyone 3. wear the same clothes; act like/copy his movements and actions 4. Superman—he can withstand anything and is faster than a speeding bullet 5. stay up late; stay out late; borrow the car; bigger allowance; my own bedroom 6. To me, Huck Finn is a valiant hero because he stood up for what he believed in, even though he knew it was against the law 7. stepping in gum; getting lost; falling in a puddle 8. dark sky, windy, hard rain 9. knows how to listen to his employees in order to make them feel valued; can be manipulative to get what he or she wants 10. laughs a lot; friendly; welcoming; warm 11. fireman, policeman, paramedic, teacher 12. on a dollar bill; in the White House; in an art museum Page 31: Act Three Scene Guide See Teacher’s Guide Summary of the Play Page 32: Act Three Comprehension Check Scene One 1. Caesar thinks the Soothsayer’s warning is not valid; the Soothsayer reminds him the day is not over yet. 2. He asks Caesar to pardon his brother, who has been banished. Caesar tells him to get up and stop making a fool of himself. Caesar insists that he will not give in and change his mind. 3. And you, Brutus?; betrayed 4. Antony sends a message saying that he will follow Brutus, and that he knows Brutus had good reason for killing Caesar. When Antony arrives, he pretends he is on their side, and asks to speak at Caesar’s funeral. 5. To speak at Caesar’s funeral. 6. Brutus warns Antony that he must not speak ill of Brutus and Cassius, but must only defend their actions. 7. he vows revenge 8. Antony tells the servant to warn Octavius about everything that has happened and to wait until after Antony speaks at the funeral to come near Rome. He wants to be sure Octavius is safe and that he has turned the people against Brutus and Cassius before his arrival. Scene Two 1. that he did it for the citizens and love of Rome 2. they are on his side, but they also feel (now that Brutus has explained) that it was Caesar’s time to die before things got out of hand; they want to bury him with honor and build a statue of him 3. he wasn’t there—he left Antony alone 4. Caesar’s will; read the will to them 5. Caesar’s body and all of the stab wounds that were inflicted upon him; they are mortified and furious at the “overkill”. 6. seventy-five drachmas Scene Three 1. he runs into an angry mob 2. he is mistaken as Cinna the conspirator and not Cinna the poet 3. things are getting too tense for the audience—they just witnessed a murder, and see that Brutus and Cassius are in trouble as Antony has vowed revenge Pages 35-36: Standards Focus: Analysis of Rhetoric 1. synecdoche 2. rhetorical question 3. rhetorical question 4. antithesis 5. apostrophe 6. aposiopesis 7. conduplicatio 8. paralipsis (or irony) 9. hyperbole 10. aporia 11. irony 12. apostrophe 13. alliteration 14. irony 15. understatement 16. polysyndenton ©2006

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

personification rhetorical question Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Pages 37-38: Assessment Preparation: Word Roots Part b will vary. 1. a. conspirator b. spirited; conspire 2. a. appeased b. peaceful; appease 3. a. malice b. maleficent; malignant 4. a. compel b. expelled; compelled 5. a. abide b. bid; abode 6. a. base b. basic; bath 7. a. coffers b. coffin 8. a. ingratitude b. gracious; ingrate 9. a. banished b. famous; banishment 10. a. apprehensive b. pregnant; reprehensible 11. a. consent b. sense; consensus 12. a. legacy b. private; legal Page 39: Act Four: Scene Guide See Teacher’s Guide Summary of the Play Page 40: Act Four: Comprehension Check Scene One 1. to his brother’s death 2. he feels he is too weak and ineffectual; a donkey who only carries the master’s load Scene Two 1. he is angry and distrusts him 2. to Brutus’s tent; to talk alone Scene Three 1. Cassius claims Brutus slandered him because Cassius took Lucius Pella’s side when he was accused of accepting bribes. 2. Brutus accuses Cassius of taking bribes and behaving dishonorably. 3. They are fighting; their relationship is on shaky ground; this will cause a breakdown in their communication and trust in each other when they need it the most 4. he challenges Brutus to kill him if he really doesn’t trust him 5. Cassius’s mother 6. a poet, Lucilius, Titinius, and Lucius; probably to interrupt the fight and get their orders 7. she has killed herself; she “swallowed fire,” meaning she probably drank a known poison 8. Brutus wants to leave for Philippi immediately, meeting the enemy there when they come 9. to play/sing for him; Lucius falls asleep 10. that he will see Brutus at Philippi Pages 41-42: Standards Focus: Figurative Language 1. metaphor; “spot” compared to his signature on the death warrant; it makes the deed sound much less evil 2. metaphor; “seen more days” means he is older 3. simile; “as the ass bears gold”; Antony is saying that Lepidus is useful for doing ordinary things, but that he would not make a good ruler in the triumvirate 4. metaphor; Octavius is saying that there are people who may look like they are friends, but are truly adversaries—they have to watch their backs 5. personification; love becomes ill and dies 6. simile; comparing the men to gallant horses showing off 7. simile; he compares the men falling from grace to horses that look like they are strong and sturdy, falling from exhaustion or weakness (jades are tired, old horses) 8. personification; chastisement hides his head 9. simile; Brutus is comparing Cassius’s comments to Mount Olympus; he is saying that Cassius’s flattery is overdone 10. imagery; Brutus sets up the image of a lamb bearing anger (lambs are traditionally meek) like a flint holds a spark. In other words, Brutus is saying that Cassius is really weak underneath it all; that he could not have done any of this without Brutus, and now that things are getting heated, Cassius is falling apart 11. personification; heart is thirsty 12. metaphor; drinking love; Cassius cannot get enough of Brutus’s love and support 13. imagery; comparing the recent incidents to the ebb and flow of a body of water; he uses the words “tide”, “flood”, “voyage”, “shallows”, “sea”, “afloat”. and “current” to paint this image 14. personification; night creeping, nature obeying 15. personification; murderous slumber; laying the mace upon Lucius ©2006

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Pages 43-44: Standards Focus: Dialogue, Monologue, and Soliloquy 1. a. Antony, Octavius b. dialogue c. i. He does not trust him; he thinks he will make a bad leader and is weak ii. a donkey; that Lepidus can only take orders—not give them as a true leader should; essentially, he calls Lepidus an “ass.” 2. a. Brutus, Lucius, Varro, Claudius, ghost of Caesar b. Dialogue or monologue c. i. answer will vary; Brutus’s fears are becoming more real; he is haunted by what he has done to Caesar, to whom he was supposed to be a friend and confidante. ii. answer will vary; it reveals a vulnerable and haunted Brutus, who knows in the depths of his mind that he did something very wrong 3. a. Cassius, Messala, (Brutus, Lucilius on a separate part of the stage) b. monologue c. i. Cassius was at one time very confident, but he is beginning to see his own fall ii. Cassius and Brutus iii. they are ready to fight and die in the process Pages 45-47: Assessment Preparation: Connotation/Denotation Images will vary. 1. a punishment or scolding; c. scolding 2. created; came into existence; b. concocted 3. a flag showing allegiance or nationality; d. rag 4. made poisonous; made angry or bitter; a. envenomed 5. needing immediate action; d. demanding 6. worry; b. agonize 7. courageous; courteous; b. domineering 8. imposing a tax or raising an army; b. imposing 9. believe something to be true; a. presume 10. fodder for livestock; d. chow 11. to annoy, irritate, or confuse; c. torment Page 48: Act Five Scene Guide See Teacher’s Guide Summary of the Play Page 49: Act Five Comprehension Check Scene One 1. on the battle field at Philippi 2. Antony wants Octavius to take his troops to the left; Octavius tells Antony to take his troops to the left—he will go to the right 3. they exchange words 4. Cassius 5. he saw two eagles feeding on dead soldiers; he now sees ravens and crows over them, ready to feed on their dead bodies 6. they fear they will never see each other again Scene Two 1. that Octavius is weakening Scene Three 1. Brutus moved upon Octavius too early, allowing Octavius to encircle Cassius’s troops 2. to check on Titinius’s status 3. Cassius is stabbed with the same sword he used to kill Caesar. 4. his report was either purposefully misleading or accidentally inaccurate 5. takes his own life 6. everyone is killing themselves; all those who turned against him are getting what they deserve Scene Four 1. Lucilius says that he is Brutus Scene Five 1. stab him with his sword; Clitus refuses 2. also to stab him with his sword 3. Strato ©2006

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4. 5.

that he was only doing everything for the love of the Roman people; he is honorable give him a proper hero’s burial; answers will vary

Pages 50-51: Standards Focus: Tragedy and the Tragic Hero (Page 51 answers will vary) Caesar yes ultimate ruler of Rome by most; others think he is a tyrant

Brutus not really; he is discontent and bothered revered and respected leader generally, but he did assassinate Caesar

Antony yes he was close to Caesar yes

yes; he was the top ruler of Rome

yes

not at first, but rises to the occasion out of revenge

his ego

his utmost honor for the citizens and his country

his sense of revenge

yes; suicide

no

yes; he was stabbed 33 times yes; his extreme pride, ego, and false sense of immortality lead to his murder no yes; “Then die, Caesar!” Brutus or Cassius Brutus

yes; he realizes he couldn’t win and realized the error of his mistakes yes no; he commits suicide with his own sword Antony Antony

n/a n/a n/a Brutus and Cassius Brutus

Pages 52-53: Standards Focus: Theme Sample answers given 1. Caesar is murdered by his friends; “Et tu, Brute?” 2. Julius Caesar is too ambitious, which leads to the assassination plot 3. Brutus ignored the fact that he had very little military experience; Cassius ignored this fact as well, giving in to Brutus at the end 4. Caesar ignored the warnings, ironically because he felt that one cannot control the fates 5. Caesar did not care about the majority; Brutus did everything for the needs and wants of the people; they each fell because of it 6. Calpurnia begs Caesar to heed her warnings; the Soothsayer warns “Beware the Ides of March”; had Caesar listened, things might have been very different in the end 7. We don’t know if Brutus is bad or good (protagonist or antagonist); he felt motivated for the good of the people of Rome; Antony also gives Brutus a hero’s burial; we as the audience want to see the good in Brutus, and clearly, so does Antony 8. Both Brutus and Antony are able to rouse the citizens their way. 9. People want to see Caesar as a hero; others think he is a tyrant Answers for 10-15 will vary. Pages 54-55: Assessment Preparation: Analogies 1. b. pressure : force 2. c. quarrel : dispute 3. d. indulge : deny 4. c. motivate : stimulate 5. a. dangerous : safe 6. a. lazy : languid 7. b. intimidate : threaten 8. d. mature :juvenile 9. b. faithful : pious 10. d. menial : important 11. d. transparent : opaque 12. c. dirty : clean Page 57: Act One Quiz 1. Caesar’s victory over Pompey 2. Cassius ©2006

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

“Beware the Ides of March” refused the crown three times; fainted; put on a “show” by throwing papers into Brutus’s window claiming to be citizens asking for Brutus’s help dark, ominous weather; stormy; foreshadows evil happenings on the horizon d. unable to bear fruit g. deep thoughts a. revered; elevated f. inactive; lazy h. mourned c. strength of character i. significant; harbinger of future events b. people with significant talent or ability e. an absolute ruler, often oppressive

Page 58: Act Two Quiz 1. before Caesar becomes more tyrannical 2. Brutus; he did not want more bloodshed; he felt Antony was no threat 3. She dreamt of blood on the Capitol; she feared Caesar was in danger 4. Decius said that the men would make fun of Caesar if he told them that he wouldn’t leave the house because his wife had a nightmare 5. Artemidorus 6. j. likeable; friendly 7. a. belong to or relate to something 8. g. enlarged 9. b. copying in an attempt to equal or surpass someone 10. e. about to occur; certain to occur 11. f. win 12. d. good at judging people or situations; suspicious 13. c. to reject 14. i. courage 15. h. face; appearance (also: ghost or apparition) Page 59: Act Three Quiz 1. Casca 2. “Et tu Brute?” He is caught off-guard by his friend’s betrayal. 3. that Caesar was a tyrant who had to be stopped before he caused more damage 4. the will and Caesar’s body; they were inflamed and vowed revenge 5. At first, the citizens were on Brutus’s side; Antony then won them over with the will and his persuasive speech; Cinna, the poet 6. i. to follow or tolerate 7. a. satisfied; pleased 8. c. fearful; doubtful 9. g. exiled; thrown out 10. h. to drive forward 11. e. to give permission; allow 12. d. one who conspires; plots against 13. j. failure to show or express thanks 14. b. money or property left in a will; reputation 15. f. spitefulness; showing evil Page 60: Act Four Quiz 1. he felt Lepidus was weak and useless as a leader 2. they lost trust in each other; Brutus thought Cassius was accepting bribes; Cassius didn’t like Brutus’s lack of support for him; they argued and hashed it out, then made up 3. she killed herself by drinking “fire” 4. he wanted to go to Philippi and surprise the enemy there 5. the ghost of Caesar appeared to Brutus 6. true 7. false 8. false 9. true 10. true 11. true 12. false 13. true 14. true ©2006

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15. false Page 61: Act Five Quiz 1. Philippi 2. he felt that he was surrounded and going to die or be taken, as he believed Titinius was; he had Pindarus stab him with his own sword 3. by Cassius stabbing himself with the same sword used to kill Caesar, it was like Caesar himself doing it 4. Lucilius told the guards that he was Brutus 5. Strato held the sword for Brutus to stab himself; he thought he was going to be captured 6. Because Antony truly believed Brutus had the citizen’s best intentions in mind when he assassinated Caesar 7. true 8. true 9. false 10. false 11. true 12. false 13. false 14. false 15. true Pages 62-64: Final Test 1. h 2. a 3. i 4. e 5. b 6. c 7. d 8. g 9. f 10. c 11. b 12. c 13. a 14. d 15. d 16. c 17. a 18. c 19. b 20. true 21. true 22. false 23. true 24. false 25. true 26. true 27. true 28. false 29. false 30. Accept most reasonably supported responses. 31. Accept most reasonably supported responses. 32. Accept most reasonably supported responses. 33. f 34. i 35. g 36. b 37. c 38. e 39. d 40. h 41. a 42. i 43. g 44. e 45. b ©2006

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46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

f h a d c

Pages 65-67: Multiple Choice Final Test 1. a 2. c 3. c 4. a 5. a 6. c 7. c 8. a 9. d 10. c 11. b 12. c 13. a 14. d 15. d 16. c 17. a 18. c 19. b 20. c 21. a 22. b 23. c 24. d 25. c 26. c 27. a 28. d 29. c 30. a 31. a 32. d 33. b 34. a 35. c 36. b 37. d 38. b 39. c 40. d 41. c 42. b 43. d 44. a 45. b

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