Bunge, Mario - Filosofía para médicos.pdf

September 8, 2017 | Author: zovsky | Category: Homeopathy, Holism, Empiricism, Hypothesis, Medicine
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Mecanismo = Proceso(s) que mantienen al sistema como tal (digestión, circulación de la sangre, etc.). Este análisis evoca seis grupos de doctrinas ontológicas (metafísicas), algunas de ellas de añeja prosapia: Ambientalismo El entorno es omnipotente. Ejemplos: la hipótesis de que todas las enfermdades son causadas por las «miasmas», y el conductismo. Estructuralismo Un todo es el conjunto de las conexiones. Ejemplos: la psicología conexionista y la tesis sociológica de que lo único que importa en una sociedad son las redes de comunicación (como si pudiera haber grafos sin nodos). Procesualismo Una cosa concreta es un atado de procesos. Ejemplo: la metafísica procesual de Alfred North Whitehead. Holismo El todo precede y domina a sus partes. Ejemplos: la metafísica de Aristóteles) y la medicinas orientales tradicionales. Individualismo Un todo no es sino el conjunto de sus partes. Ejemplos: el atomismo antiguo y la tesis de que la salud depende exclusivamente de los hábitos del individuo. Sistemismo El universo es el sistema de todos los sistemas. Ejemplos: Holbach (1996), Bunge (1979). Las cinco primeras doctrinas son lógicamente erróneas. El holismo y el individualismo son erróneos porque los conceptos de todo y de parte se definen recíprocamente: no hay el uno sin el otro. El ambientalismo es factualmente falso porque todo ente concreto es activo: su entorno lo influye pero no lo crea. El estructuralismo es falso porque, por definición, no hay red sin nodos (individuos). Y el procesualismo es falso porque, también por definición, todo proceso (por ejemplo, movimiento y metabolismo) es una sucesión de estados de alguna cosa concreta: no hay proceso sin cosas cambiantes ni cosas inmutables. En definitiva, sólo el sistemismo queda indemne. Esta ontología, propuesta inicialmente por el Barón Thiry d'Holbach a mediados del siglo XVIII, postula que todo cuanto existe realmente (materialmente) es un sistema o un componente de un sistema. Se ha argüido que el sistemismo es la ontología adecuada a las ciencias modernas, de la física cuántica a la historiografía (Bunge, 2012a). La medicina científica es sistémica, en tanto que admite que las partes del organismo humano, aunque distintas, están conectadas 30

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