April 14, 2019 | Author: cptmehmetkaptan | Category: Maritime Pilot, Situation Awareness, Navigation, Risk, Transport
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Asst.. Prof. Dr Asst Dr.. Cpt. Ender ASY ASYALI ALI 2002 Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002 Asyalı-2002 ©


A cru i se shi p grounds gr ounds due to l ac ack k of co commun mmun i ca cati ti on betwe be twee en th t h e br brii dge watch and an d pil pi l ot. A wars war sh i p col col l i de des s wi with th an anchor an chor ed ves vessel due to the th e i ne nexpe xperr i ence of watch off of f i ce cerr s, whi whi l e the comma commandi nding ng off of f i ce cerr talk s ne nearby arby with wi th visi visi tor tors s. A tanke tank er str i kes a re r eef wh whe en th t h e mas maste terr i s bus busy y an an d the

 junior third mate fails to communicate the ship’s ship’s position. D i f f er ent shi ps ps.. D i f f er ent op ope er ati ations ons.. A common common f ail ur e to us u se br brii dg dge e r esou ourr ce man manage ageme men n t tech techn n i qu que es. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002 Asyalı-2002


Weakness in bridge organization and management has been cited as a major cause for marine casualties worldwide.  Frequently accidents in operations are caused by resource management errors.  Bridge Resource Management reduces the risk of marine casualties by helping a ship’s bridge crew anticipate and correctly respond to their ship’s changing situation. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002 Asyalı-2002


Pr i n ci cipl ple es of Goo Good d M anage anageme men n t prac pr acti ti ce ces s are:  Shared view of goals;  Delegation of responsibilities;  Effective organization; and  Sense of team ownership in achieving goals.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002 Asyalı-2002


What is Bridge Resource Management? Bridge Resource Management (BRM), or as it is also called Bridge Team Management (BTM), is the effective management and utilization of all resources, human and technical, available to the Bridge Team to ensure the safe completion of the vessel’s vessel’s voyage.  voyage.

Bridge Resource Management (BRM) is a program designed to ensure effective use of personnel and equipment during vessel operations . Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002 Asyalı-2002


BRM focuses on  bridge officers’  skills such as teamwork, teambuilding, communication, leadership, decision-making and resource management and incorporates this into the larger picture of organizational and regulatory management. BRM addresses the management of operational tasks, as well as stress, attitudes and risk. BRM recognizes there are many elements of job effectiveness and safety, such as individual, organizational, and regulatory factors, and they must be anticipated and planned for. BRM begins before the voyage with the passage plan and continues through the end of the voyage with thepassage debrief. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


What Are My Available Resources To Manage? A mariner has many resources available to him/her for safe passage planning and execution. Some examples include: • Electronic equipment (i.e. radar, depth sounder, GPS/DGPS, ARPA, gyro compass) • Charts and publications, including electronic publications • Environmental factors (i.e. tide, wind, currents) • Electronic Charting and Display Information Systems (ECDIS) • Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) • Passage plan • Internal and external communication equipment • NAVTEX • Automatic Identification System (AIS) • Persons with local knowledge (i.e. Pilot) • Bridge Personnel (i.e. Master, Officer On Watch (OOW), helmsman, lookout)

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Similar to Aviation’s Cockpit Management, BRM is designed to reduce errors and omissions in bridge operations through a simple system of checks and delegation of duties.

BRM emphasizes a coordinated effort among bridge personnel to ensure smooth, efficient, and safe operation of the vessel

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


The 1995 amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) includes a requirement for training in bridge team procedures and a recommendation for training in BRM techniques.

BRM is r ecognized as a way to pr event i ncidents  Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


What are the objectives of Bridge Resource Management? n

To assist the ship master in managing the vessel’s bridge team for each voyage so personnel are rested, trained and prepared to handle any situation. To help the ship master recognize workload demands and other risk factors that may affect decisions in setting watch conditions. To ensure bridge team members are trained and aware of their responsibilities. nTo help bridge team members interact with and support the master and/or the pilot.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


CON’T *Share a common view of the intended passage and the agreed procedures to transit the passage with all members of the Bridge Team. *Develop and use a detailed passage plan to anticipate and manage workload demands and risks. • Set appropriate manning levels and make contingency plans based on anticipated workload and risks. • Make roles and responsibilities clear to Bridge Team members. • Involve all team members in problem solving. • Acquire all relevant information early and anticipate dangerous situations. • Team members clearly understand the chain of command including the way decisions and instructions are made, responded to, and challenged.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


How do I implement Bridge Resource Management on my vessel? The Master can implement BRM by considering and addressing the following: • Passage Planning –  covering ocean, coastal and pilotage waters. Particular attention is paid to high traffic areas, shallow waters, or pilotage waters where the  plan incorporates appropriate margins of safety and contingency plans for unexpected incidents. • Passage Plan Briefing - all bridge team members are briefed on the passage plan and understand the intended route and procedures to transit the route. • Bridge Manning –  Master uses passage plan to anticipate areas of high workload and risk and sets manning levels appropriately. • Bridge Team Training (ashore and on-the-job) - is given all bridge crew members and they are sure of their roles and responsibilities, both for their routine duties and their duties in the event of an incident/emergency.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


What are the benefits of BRM when correctly practiced on my vessel?

When BRM is practiced correctly onboard the result should be a Bridge Team that: • maintains its situational awareness; • continually monitors the progress of the vessel making appropriate adjustments and corrections as necessary to maintain a safe passage; • acquires relevant information early; Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


• appropriately delegates workload and authority; • anticipates dangerous situations; • avoids becoming pre-occupied with minor technical problems and losing sight of the big  picture; • undertakes appropriate contingency plans when called for; • recognizes the development of an error chain; and • takes appropriate action to break the error -chain sequence. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


*Master’s Standing Orders –  are read and signed before the commencement of the voyage. Orders are clear on the chain of command, how decision and instructions are given on the bridge and responded to, and how bridge team members bring safety concerns to the notice of the Master. • Master/Pilot Exchange –  the passage plan is discussed by the Master and the pilot and changes made as necessary. Any new information is communicated to the rest of the bridge team. When the pilot is onboard he/she should be supported as a temporary bridge team member. • End of Voyage Debriefing –  provides the opportunity for the bridge team to review the passage plan’s strengths and weaknesses, make suggestions for improvedsafety or communications, and improve team  problem solving skills.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Who is involved in a bridge team? A bridge team consists of those crew members responsible for the safe navigation of the ship.The team may include licensed and unlicensed crew, both on and off watch. Bridge team members should occasionally monitor other team members and offer assistance in their areas of responsibility. This cross checking helps make the team a safe, cohesive, efficient group. The number of active bridge team members at any given time will be determined by the prevailing watch condition and the operational needs of the vessel.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


What is a watch condition? A watch condition structures the bridge team based on the environment in which the shipis operating. The environment consists of both internal and external factors affecting thevessel. These factors include the mechanical condition of the vessel, weather, traffic,location, and sea state. The next chart gives an example of watch condition criteria. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


 NOTE: There are many combinations of the above environmental and other factors for setting different watch conditions. These should be set by company policy and supplemented by the master’s Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


How does Bridge Resource Management structure bridge team duties? BRM groups bridge duties into three general areas: 1- Collision Avoidance — Detecting and avoiding other craft and objects. 2-Navigation — Keeping the vessel safely clear of shoal water, close to her intended track,and on schedule. 3-Administration — Routine watch duties such as communications, log keeping, andsupervising watch personnel. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


The chart below provides an example of the division of bridge team duties under different watch conditions.

 Note: “OTHER DUTIES” may include logbook keeping, equipment checks, and tending the engine order telegraph and thruster control. Overlap among bridge team members indicates duties that may be shared. Cadets, when onboard, may be used to supplement and complement other members of the team. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


How does the bridge team interact with the pilot? A BRM program should contain specific guidelines for exchanging information between the bridge team and the pilot. Information is usually communicated through the master. While aboard, the pilot becomes part of the bridge management team. The master maintains overall responsibility for safe navigation, but the pilot serves as the principal advisor to the master on local conditions. The list at the right represents the type of information that should be exchanged. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Master/Pilot Information Exchange

q Items required by the local pilotage authority. q Language proficiency of bridge team members. A copy of a Pilot Card showing the vessel’s condition and maneuvering characteristics. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Master/Pilot Information Exchange (con’t)

q Navigation procedures and considerations for the passage including destination, route, planned speed and ETAs, vessel traffic services, and tug escorts or assists. q Any important local conditions such as weather, tide, currents, sea conditions, and other vessel traffic. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


In addition to formal training, how can the goals of BRM be reinforced? At the start of each voyage, the master should hold a deck officers’ conference. At this conference the BRM policy, the standing orders, and the voyage plan should all be reviewed. A time for questions at the end of the review will ensure that team members understand how the bridge will be managed at sea. This conference should be noted in the ship’s  log book.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


In addition to formal training, how can the goals of BRM be reinforced? (Con’t)

A debriefing at the end of a voyage also provides the master an opportunity to reinforce bridge teamwork. This debriefing should include a review of voyage plan strengths and weaknesses, communications, and suggestions for improving bridge team performance. These meetings should encourage the open flow of ideas, stressing the value of each team member’s contribution.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


What items should a Bridge Resource Management Program include? A BRM program should include the following: Establishment of watch conditions based on internal and external operating factors. Clearly defined bridge team assignments and duties for each watch condition, including goals, objectives, and priorities. Responsibility, station, and communication guidelines for bridge team response to emergencies (to include pollution incidents) and/or equipment failures. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


What items should a Bridge Resource Management Program include? (Con’t) Procedures for navigating with a pilot, and guidelines for communication among bridge team members and the pilot. Team leadership concepts, including delegation of duties, responsibility, and authority. A company policy for the use of checklists and standing orders. Procedures for turning over the watch to oncoming bridge team members. Comprehensive voyage planning. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


What is a voyage plan and what role does it play in BRM?

A voyage plan is a written navigational guide used by the bridge team to determine intended routes, to identify potential problems or hazards, and to adopt measures to ensure a safe passage.Through voyage planning, risks are appraised, demands on the bridge team are anticipated, and watch conditions are considered in advance. The list next identifies items that should be considered when creating avoyage plan. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Voyage Planning Elements Review or consider: q Charts and navigational publications.

q Waterway characteristics, navigational obstructions, and water depths. q  Notices to mariners and nautical publications. q Applicable regulations, including Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) requirements. q

Predicted weather, currents, and tides. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002



Expected vessel traffic.

q Internal and external communication  procedures. q

Pilotage requirements.


Tug escort or assist services.


Emergency procedures.


Engineering conditions. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


What role should the owner/operator play in BRM? One of the most important roles an owner/operator plays is to provide training for bridge teams. An owner/operator should also: Develop and standardize safe bridge practices and procedures throughout the fleet. Set manning levels for the bridge based on watch conditions.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


What role should the owner/operator play in BRM? (Con’t)

n Establish responsibilities of bridge team members based on watch conditions. Ensure company safety, operations, and environmental protection policies are followed. Provide assistance to assure compliance with applicable international, federal, state, and local rules and regulations.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Bridge Team Management Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Modern Transportation Systems Simple Hierarchical or Team Management

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


BTM combines the elements of:  Human factors  Organizational behavior  Case study and lessons learned from the

maritime industry

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


BTM is a different way of looking at what mariners have been doing all along...

 Different labels....  Different emphasis...  New ways of looking at how we do


Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


BTM definition  The effective use of all available resources

(people, equipment, procedures and systems) to achieve a safe and efficient  passage - particularly though areas of greatest risk.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Four concepts to consider  Human error  Areas of greatest risk  Situational awareness  Error chains

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Marine Casualty Statistics Source: SAS flight, BRM project, E. Wahren

Wrong assessment,Improper watchstanding, Falling asleep, Lack of Planning

Improper use of nav aids, Lack of competence, Fail traffic rules

Other causes, Alcohol, Drugs, Human Interaction...




Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


100% 44

Marine Casualty Statistics Source :UK P&I club





Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Break down of the 58% Human factors segment 20.7%



43.1% Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Human Error accidents are NOT defined as accidents which are caused by:  Missing information...  Malfunctioning equipment...  Lack of equipment...

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Causes of Human Error Accidents  Preoccupation with minor technical problems.  Inadequate leadership  Failure to prioritize  inadequate follow-up  Failure to use all available resources  Failure to communicate plans or intentions Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Voyage Areas of Greatest Risk  Five miles from the sea buoy  Five miles from traffic chock points  The shortest part of the voyage  Heaviest navigation workload  Where most accidents occur

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Situational Awareness  Having an accurate perception of your

situation.  Being able to recognize a change in the

situation.  Understanding the full impact of that

“change”....  Being able to accurately predict (project)

your situation in the near term future. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Higher level of Situation Awareness


Lower level of RISK

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


Signs indicating the loss of S.A.  Ambiguity  Distraction  Breakdown of Communication  Sense of inadequacy or confusion  Failure to have or to follow a plan  Not following established procedures  Violating rules  Complacency

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ender Asyalı-2002


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