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Aditya Dandotia 091156


Sanchar Nigam Limited (abbreviated BSNL)is an Indian state owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi. It is the largest provider of fixed telephony and fourth largest mobile telephony provider in India, and is also a provider of broadband services. •Technological developments in the field of telecommunication in India have been taking place at much faster as per the global trend. Particularly during last three years. •There has been a major transformation in the switching technology.


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Universal Telecom Services Cellular Mobile Telephone Services WLL-CDMA Telephone Services Internet Intelligent Network (IN) 3G IPTV FTTH WiMax

OVERVIEW OF TELECOMMUNICATION Telephone is a telecommunication device that is used to transmit and receive electronically or digitally encoded speech between two or more people conversing. Telecommunication networks carry information signals among entities , which are geographically apart. The telecommunication links and switching were mainly designed for voice communication

TELEPHONE EXCHANGE Telephone exchange is a hub to which all subscribers are connected. For smooth working of exchange following unit are very important 1.Computer Unit 2.Power Supply 3.AC 4.MDF

Computer Unit: - it deals with additional services of the exchange to the customers with the help of computers. Power Plant:- to feed proper power supply to exchange AC Plant: - to maintain the continuous temperature + or – 2 degree Celsius to the digital switch (exchange).

MDF(MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME) The fault of telephone number is removed in the MDF; it is called as Fault Remove Section. These testing are T.T.Y. testing, Group testing, etc. The telephone numbers are also disconnected in the MDF because of some specific reason ORGANISATION OF THE MDF PARTS:Horizontal side Vertical side

HORIZONTAL SIDE It is subdivided into two parts Exchange side Line side Description of the horizontal side:Rack-On the rack, the tags are situated. One rack is having eight tags. WEDGE:-If we want to disconnect any two numbers then we insert a wedge between subscriber side and exchange side. Here wedge works as insulator made of plastic.

VERTICAL SIDE The vertical side connected to the underground cable. This cable is having 100 pairs. These pair is distributed when we allot the telephone number to the subscriber. Vertical side is again subdivided in two parts: One part is connected with the horizontal side and another with the subscriber line by using 100 pair underground cable.

NIB(NETWORK INTERNET BACKBONE) Networking is a key component of any Internet Services Provider (ISP) operations. The Internet Backbone refers to the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected networks and core routers in the Internet. BASIC BLOCKS OF NIB 1.MDF 2.Router 3.DSLAM 4.BNG


Maximum capacity of each DSLAM is 480 kbps Minimum capacity of each DSLAM is 120 kbps 480 kbps DSLAM has 16 cards, each card has 48pairs of broad band customers One end of the DSLAM is connected to MDF through the cables which are filled

PULSE CODE MODULATION(PCM) Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) converts analog signals to a digital format(signal).This process has four major steps. 1.Filtering 2.Sampling 3.Quantizing 4.Encoding

OPTICAL FIBRE The latest technology that we use today is optical fibre communication system. In this system sound energy is converted to light which is transmitted over optical fibres. This has 99% efficiency. The fibre is made up of borosilicate glass.

ADVANTAGES OF FIBRE OPTICS : Fibre Optics has the following advantages : • SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds up into the gigabits • BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity • DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be "refreshed" or strengthened. • RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables. • MAINTENANCE: Fiber optic cables costs much less to maintain.

OVERVIEW OF BROADBAND TECHNOLOGY Broadband is the nonspecific term for high-speed digital Internet access. Communication of data with different throughput is feasible by following technologies:  Narrow Band 2.4Kbps – 128Kbps.  Broadband 256Kbps – 8000Kbps.  LAN 1000 – 100Mbps.

Broadband communication technology can be divided broadly in to categories:  Wire line Technology.  Wireless Technology. Wireline Technologies include:

Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) on copper loop.  Optical Fibre Technologies.  Cable TV Networks.  PLC (power line communication). 

WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDE: Satellite Media  Terrestrial Wireless  3G Mobile  Wi-Fi (wireless Fidelity)  Wi Max.  FSO (free space optics). 


Network and switching subsystem NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM  switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system control Components  Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC  Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low delay)  Home Location Register (HLR) central master database containing user data, permanent and semipermanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several HLRs)  Visitor Location Register (VLR) local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR

GSM : (SYSTEM ARCHITECHTURE) This system structured hierarchically as shown:     

It consist of one administrative region, which is assigned to a MSC(Mobile Switching Center). Each administrative Region is made up of atleast one Location Area(LA). LA is also called the visited area. An LA consists of several cell groups. Each cell group is assigned to a base station controller(BSC). Cells of one BSC may belong to different LA’s.


The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation, management, and maintenance of all GSM subsystems Components  Authentication Center (AUC)  generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR  authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system  Equipment Identity Register (EIR)  registers GSM mobile stations and user rights  stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized  Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)  different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem




- Temporary Subscriber Identity

Permanent Subscriber

Identity - Current Location

Key/Algorithm for

Authentication. - Ciphering Data

Provides access to the GSM n/w Consists of Mobile equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

THE GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Time division multiple access-TDMA  124 radio carriers, inter carrier spacing 200khz.  890 to 915mhz mobile to base - UPLINK  935 to 960mhz base to mobile - DOWNLINK  8 channels/carrier 

GSM combines FDM and TDM: bandwidth is subdivided into channels of 200khz, shared by up to eight stations, assigning slots for transmission on demand.

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