BSNL Summer Training Report
A report on BSNL services & NGN exposure to working of Digital Exchange/Systems/Networks in BSNL ....
Summer Training Report
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) In Computer Science
Faculty of Engg. & Technology, Agra College, Agra Department of CSE & IT
June/July, 2016 1
BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (A Govt. of India Enterprise)
This is to certify that Bhoomika Verma, student of B.Tech III year (Computer Science & Engg.) Faculty of Engg. & Technology, Agra College, Agra has successfully completed 4 weeks training at BSNL (Shahganj) Agra, starting from 27 June, 2016 to 23 July, 2016 under the supervision of this office. During the period of training program, she was hardworking and sincere. Certified further her performance has been observed to be satisfactory. We wish her good luck for future endeavors.
B.D. Rawat (Sub Divisional Officer) BSNL, Agra 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO BSNL
WORKING OF BASIC TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK
INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET AND BROADBAND
SERVICES OF BSNL
NGN exposure to working of Digital Exchange/Systems/Networks
OVERVIEW OF NGN
SERVICES AND REQUIREMENTS
QoS, SECURITY AND MOBILITY
USE CASES OF NGN
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
It is with profound gratitude that I express my deep indebtedness to all the employees of B.S.N.L. without whose support and guidance it would not have been possible for this training to have materialized and taken a concrete shape. I owe my personal thanks to my trainers in charge – Mr. B.D. Rawat (SDO), who extended full support and co-operation at every stage of my training period. I would also like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the guidance from Girish Saini (JE) for undergoing training at a reputed company like B.S.N.L.
I am also indebted to my parents and friends for their constant encouragement and helping me in my endeavor. Last, but not the least, I would like to thank everyone who has contributed for the successful completion of my training.
Organizations are made up of people and function through people. Without people, organizations cannot exist. The resources of men, money, material, machinery, and mechanism are connected, coordinated and utilized through people. Engineers need to concentrate more on mechanism and the way in which things have been made. The need of training arises for doing things yourself, understanding its way.
Practical exposure for doing things makes a person conversant to the technicalities involved in any job. In view of such benefits, imparting of vocational training has been made an integral part of any academic structure.
In B.S.N.L., training is given to Engineering Aspirants to secure future in the dynamic world of telecommunications. Today telecommunication industry is one of the very fastest growing industries in the world.
1. INTRODUCTION TO BSNL
India is the fourth largest telecom market in Asia after China, Japan and South Korea. The Indian telecom network is the eighth largest in the world. COMPANY NAME: BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM Ltd. TYPE: STATE OWNED ENTERPRISE INDUSTRY: COMMUNICATION SERVICE PROVIDER. COUNTRY: INDIA. PRODUCTS: WIRELESS, TELEPHONE, INTERNET, TELEVISION. OWNER: THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. WEBSITE: www.bsnl.com
1.1 HOW BSNL CAME IN TELECOM MARKET: The initial phase of telecom reforms began in 1984 with the creation of Center for Department of Telematics (CDOT) for developing indigenous technologies and private manufacturing of customer premise equipment. Soon after, the Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) were set up in 1986.The Telecom Commission was established in 1989. A crucial aspect of the institutional reform of the Indian telecom sector was setting up of an independent regulatory body in 1997 – the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), to assure investors that the sector would be regulated in a balanced and fair manner. In 2000, DoT corporatized its services wing and created Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited.
` 1.2 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK: It is defined as the system of formal laws, regulations, and procedures, and informal conventions, customs, and norms, that broaden, mold, and restrain socio-economic activity and behavior. The country has been divided into units called Circles, Metro Districts, Secondary Switching Areas (SSA), Long Distance Charging Area (LDCA) and Short Distance Charging Area (SDCA). In India, DoT is the nodal agency for taking care of telecom sector on behalf of government. Its basic functions are:
Policy Formulation Review of performance Licensing Wireless spectrum management Administrative monitoring of PSUs Research & Development Standardization/Validation of Equipment
1.3 BSNL CONTRIBUTION TO DEVELOPMENT OF TELECOM: Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited was formed in year 2000 and took over the service providers role from DOT. BSNL’s roadmap for providing customer with access to the latest telecommunications services without losing sight of universal service access has been by way of utilizing optimally the existing infrastructure and accelerating advances in technological component by innovative absorption. 1.4 VISION: To become the largest telecom Service Provider in India. 1.5 ACHIEVEMENTS OF BSNL:
BSNL has a customer base of over 9 crore and is the fourth largest integrated telecom operator in the country. BSNL is the market leader in Broadband, landline and national transmission network. BSNL is also the only operator covering over 5 lakh village with telecom connectivity. Area of operation of BSNL is all India except Delhi & Mumbai.
2. WORKING OF BASIC TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK
This section includes brief introduction of how a call is processed when we dial a call from basic telephone to another basic telephone or from basic to mobile or vice versa. 2.1 CALL SETUP:
When a subscriber calls to another subscriber first its request goes to the nearest switching centre that is PSTN (Public Switching Telecommunication Network). Then it processes the caller and subscriber’s number if it exists in the same BSC then call setup is completed. If subscriber is not in the same BSC (Base Switching Centre) then call transfer to MSC (Main Switching Centre) then it transfers the call to prior BSC then call setup is completed. If Caller calls to a mobile subscriber then call transfer is done by MTSO now call transfer is done on BTSs (Base Transceiver Station) and call setup is completed.
` 2.2 FUNCTION OF EXCHANGE:
Exchange of information with subscriber lines with other exchange. This is done by two type of signaling: 1. Inchannel signaling 2. Common channel signaling Processing of signaling information and controlling the operation of signaling network. Charging and billing.
2.3 COMPONENTS OF EXCHANGE:
MDF POWERPLANT SWITCHING ROOM
2.4 ELECTRONIC EXCHANGE:
All control functions by series of instructions are stored in memory. Memories are modifiable and control program can always be rewritten. For each call processing step decision is taken according to class of service.
2.5 CARRIER ROOM: Leased line connectivity is provided in carrier room. This room has two parts: 1. Conventional leased line system 2. MLLN 2.5.1
CONVENTIONAL LEASED LINE SYSTEM: It consists of modems and routers that are provided by the company requesting for that network. Connectivity of different ATM, banks etc. is provided by BSNL here. For this, we have 4 modems (2 in Exchange, 1 at sender and 1 at receiver) Modems are used for short distances i.e. trans and receive part are received here and local lead connection is given to the subscriber. Local lead faults can be handled here but the trans and receive faults can be handled by the department meant for it. Accept 64Kbps or 2 Mbps. For long distance communication we have MUXS and data is sent through optical fibers. MUXS are present at both the ends.
MANAGED LEASED LINE NETWORK:
No open wiring. Route can be changed by the computer software In Agra Gate Exchange, we have 3 VMUX of type II.
MDF(MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME):
M.D.F. is a media between switching network and subscriber’s line. It is a termination point within the local telephone exchange where exchange equipment and terminations of local loops are connected by jumper wires.
FUNCTIONS OF MDF:
All cable copper wires supplying services through user telephone lines are terminated and distributed through MDF. The most common kind of large MDF is a long steel rack accessible from both sides. Each jumper is a twisted wire. It consists of local connection and broadband connection frames for the main Exchange area. The MDF usually holds central office protective devices including heat coils and functions as a test point between a line and the office. It provides testing of calls. It checks whether fault is indoor or external. All lines terminate individually. POWER PLANT: It provides -48V to the switch rooms and 48V to the connections. Batteries are artificially discharged once in a year for their maintenance. Cooling is provided through fans & AC. There is earth region too for protection.
3. INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET AND BROADBAND
3.1 INTERNET The internet connection requires a computer which has Internet Explorer software signal and analog signal to digital signal, a telephone line connection. The data is sent through telephone line connection to the local exchange, from where it is then sent to the main exchange. The main exchange consists of a Node. The Node consists of a control card and a modem from where it is sent to its main. Node is in the form of packets. It has two parts- LAN and Control Card.
The main Node is connected to the main server which is located at New Delhi. From here it is sent to gateway, which is connected to the World Wide Web (WWW)
3.1.1 INTERNET CONNECTIVITY
Local Exchange (through PCM)
Control Card (routers, packet switching) Patna (through OFC, B2 Node)
LAN WAN Network Connection Gateway
` 3.2 OVERVIEW OF BROAD BAND Definition of Broad Band Broadband is often called high-speed Internet, because it usually has a high rate of data transmission. In general, any connection to the customer of 256 kbit/s or more is considered broadband.
How is broadband different from Dial-up service?
Broadband service provides higher speed of data transmission—Allows more content to be carried through the transmission “pipeline.” Broadband provides access to the highest quality Internet services—streaming media, VoIP (Internet phone), gaming and interactive services. Many of these current and newly developing services require the transfer of large amounts of data which may not be technically feasible with dial-up service. Therefore, broadband service may be increasingly necessary to access the full range of services and opportunities that the Internet can offer. Broadband is always on—does not block phone lines and no need to reconnect to network after logging off.
What is Broadband Service? Broadband refers to a connection that has capacity to transmit large amount of data at high speed. Presently a connection having download speeds of 256 kbps or more is classified as broadband. When connected to the Internet broadband connection allows surfing or downloading much faster than a dial-up or any other narrowband connections. BSNL offers 2 Mbps minimum download speed for its Broadband connections. Requirement for providing Broad Band connection
Personal Computer ADSL Modem Land Line Connection Splitter for separating telephone from Personal computer.
Services available through Broadband
High speed Internet Access: This is the always-on Internet access service with speed ranging from 256 kbps to 8 Mbps. Bandwidth on Demand: This will facilitate customer to change bandwidth as per his / her requirement. For example a customer with 256 kbps can change to 1 Mbps during the video Conferencing session. Multicasting: This is to provide video multicast services, video-on-demand etc. for application in distance education, telemedicine etc. Dial VPN Service: This service allows remote users to access their private network securely over the NIB-II infrastructure. 12
Video and Audio Conferencing: Content based Services: Like Video on Demand, Interactive Gaming, Live and time shifted TV Video on Demand: Customers can view any movie of their choice from a pool of movies stored in a central server. The movies can be viewed either on a TV or a PC. Audio on Demand: It is a similar service where person can listen to any music of his choice. TV channels through broadband connection: The TV channels may be available in the broadband connection. In fact, there may be other new channels, particularly the educational and scientific channels, depending on demand. Additional equipments required in the customer's premises are Set Top Box (STB) - The STB converts the digital IP based signal to a form compatible with the TV set. PC and TV The TV services envisaged are: i. ii. iii. iv.
S-VoD : Subscription based Video Content, as in Pay Channels. Video-On-Demand N-VoD : Near Video-On-Demand. NVOD provides playouts on fixed time bands which people can watch against payment. T-VOD : Transaction or Pay-Per-View service.
The video content will have Hindi, international and regional movies, music, soaps and serials, sports, news, interactive gaming, e-learning and niche channels. "The driver in entertainment will be on-demand movies, interactive gaming, broadband Internet connectivity and e-learning,"
Billing: To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either time-based or volume-based billing. It shall provide the customer with the option to select the services through web server To provide both prepaid and post paid broadband services IP Telephony Messaging: plain and feature rich, Multi-site MPLS VPN with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. Wi-Fi Web hosting & web co-location. Lease line service.
4. SERVICES OF BSNL
Universal Telecom Services : Fixed wireline services and landline in local loop (WLL) using CDMA Technology called bfone and Tarang respectively.
Cellular Mobile Telephone Services: BSNL is major provider of Cellular Mobile Telephone services using GSM platform under the brand name Cellone & Excel (BSNL Mobile).
Internet: BSNL provides Internet access services through dial-up connection (as Sancharnet through 2009) as Prepaid, NetOne as Postpaid and ADSL broadband as BSNL Broadband[
3G: BSNL offers the '3G' or the ‘3rd Generation' services which includes facilities like video calling, mobile broadband, live TV, 3G Video portal, streaming services and video on demand etc.
Intelligent Network (IN): BSNL offers value-added services, such as Free Phone Service (FPH), India Telephone Card (Prepaid card), Account Card Calling (ACC), Virtual Private Network (VPN), Televoting, Universal Access Number (UAN).
WiMax: BSNL has introduced India's first 4th Generation High- Speed Wireless Broadband Access Technology with the minimum speed of 256kbit/s. The focus of this service is mainly rural customer where the wired broadband facility is not available.
IPTV:BSNL also offers the 'Internet Protocol Television' facility which enables customers to watch television through internet.
NGN exposure to working of Digital Exchanges/ Systems/ Networks
1. INTRODUCTION Today, telephony, the Internet, and the cellular mobile networks continue to be different domains, each has its own protocols and services. NGN will be the foundation for the creation of a new range of multimedia applications that takes full advantage of the characteristics of the broadband network and the “always on” capability.
The general idea behind the NGN is that one network transports all type of data and provide services (voice, data, and all sorts of media such as video) by encapsulating these into packets, similar to those used on the Internet. NGNs are commonly built around the Internet Protocol (IP), and therefore the term all IP is also sometimes used to describe the transformation toward NGN.
CONVERGENCE TOWARDS NGN Today’s network is divided into: The Public Switched Telephone Network, The packet Switched Networks(e.g. the Internet) and The Mobile networks. Convergence is the process of interconnection of traditional switched circuit networks (the PSTN and mobile networks) and packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP) for routing.
2. OVERVIEW OF NGN
2.1DEFINITION OF NGN
Next Generation Network (NGN):
ITU-T Rec. Y2001a packet-based network able to provide telecommunication services and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies. It enables unfettered access for users to networks and to competing service providers and/or services of their choice. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users.
ETSI’s (European Telecommunication Standardization Institute) definitionNGN is a concept for defining and deploying networks, which, due to their formal separation into different layers and planes and use of open interfaces, offers service providers and operators a platform which can evolve in a step by step manner to create, deploy and manage innovative services.
Thus, Next Generation Network is a:
Service-driver network Separation of call and service Separation of call control and bearer Base on IP, including voice, fax, data, video and multimedia Standard protocol
` 2.2 PRACTICAL MEANING OF NGN
NGN is a Broadband Managed IP-based Network
NGN got benefits from today’s broadband capabilities; over fixed, over mobile and over wireless NGN has capabilities to support managed features of IP based network, especially QoS, Security and Mobility.
2.3 KEY PRINCIPLES OF NGN
Open architecture: open to support service creation, service updating, and incorporation of service logic provision by third parties and also support “Distributed control” as well as enhanced security and protection.
Independent provisioning: service provision process should be separated from network operation by using distributed, open control mechanism to promote competition.
Multiplicity: The NGN functional architecture shall offer the configuration flexibility needed to support ` multiple access technologies.
` 2.4 FEATURES OF NGN
Packet-based transfer; Separation of control functions among BC, call/session, and application/ service; Decoupling of service provision from transport; Support for a wide range of services based on service building blocks; Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS; Interworking with legacy networks via open interfaces; Generalized mobility; Unfettered access by users to different service providers; A variety of identification schemes; Unified service characteristics for the same service as perceived by the user; Converged services between fixed/mobile; Independence of service-related functions from underlying
Support of multiple last mile technologies; Compliant with all regulatory requirements (e.g. emergency, privacy, lawful interception, etc.)
2.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF NGN
` 2.6 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NGN AND TRADITIONAL NETWORK SYSTEM
Use of different signaling and protocols to support multiple eservices.
Use of standard SS7 signaling
High initial deployment and expansion costs
Packet/label switched – bandwidth acquires & releases it as it is needed.
Circuit switched – it reserves the required bandwidth in advance
Resources not consumed when idle.
Path reserved for the duration of the cell
Dynamic policy based traffic routing.
Pre –determined routing of calls based on dialed numbers
Multiple services, one platform (IP) approach.
Different services, different platform (voice, data or video)
Flat network- it simplifies management, operation and maintenance of the network.
Designed for bursty data transmission.
Poorly matched for bursty data transmission
Supports variable information transfer rates (voice, data, and video)
Non-variable information transfer rates
Distributed switch functions with standard open interfaces
Switch function in a single box
Allows choices of network elements from multiple vendors
Switching vendors based upon feature availability and overall performance
Services and applications can be implemented and customized by vendors or third party developers
Services and features depend on vendor implementation
3. SERVICES AND REQIUREMENTS 3.1 NEXT GENERATION SERVICES
From legacy networks •Services are typically “vertically integrated” •Services require specific infrastructure components for their delivery
to NGN : flexible service creation and provisioning •Horizontal Convergence: services are no more vertically integrated •Network functions are componentized •New paradigm of standard “CAPABILITIES” as service enabling toolkit
A new challenge for regulation •NGN moves the competition from lower layers to service layers
3.2 SERVICES DEVELOPMENT
Key objectives in NGN service developments Not just a new voice network “Service level equal or better than in circuit-switched networks” Services specified in terms of required “capabilities” Precise service definitions are not an objective like in legacy world •Public Interest Services are a special case Services expected to be supported in NGN Multimedia services Data communication services PSTN/ISDN Simulation services PSTN/ISDN Emulation services Public Interest Services It’s a Provider decision which services will be actually deployed
` 3.3 MULTIMEDIA SERVICES: expansion of the service features Real-time Conversational Voice Point-to-point interactive multimedia, e.g. real-time voice/text/video Collaborative interactive communication, e.g. multimedia conferencing Push to talk over NGN Content delivery, e.g. Radio/Video streaming Broadcast services (relying on Multicast), e.g. emergency community notification Messaging, e.g. IM, SMS, MMS Location-based services, e.g. tour guide service Presence and general notification services Push-based services, e.g. MMS notification Information services Hosted and transit services for enterprises, e.g. IP Centrex 3GPP/3GPP2 OSA-based services.
3.4 PSTN/ISDN Emulation and Simulation In evolution path to NGN, NGN shall support: legacy terminal equipment (e.g. PSTN/ISDN phones) PSTN/ISDN-like capabilities PSTN/ISDN Emulation From the end user perspective, the NGN “appears” supporting the same types of services offered .by the existing PSTN/ISDN Legacy terminals are enabled to continue to use existing telecommunication services while connected to NGN PSTN/ISDN Simulation NGN terminals in an NGN network are enabled to use PSTN/ISDN-like service capabilities But legacy terminals with terminal adaptations may be used too Implemented over IP-based control infrastructure (e.g. using SIP)
3.5 REGULATORY AND LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: Public Interest Services
Emergency telecommunications (including Early Warning) •individual-to-authority, e.g. calls to Emergency SP •authority-to-authority, e.g. TDR •Authority-to-individual, community notification services Support for users with disabilities Lawful Interception Service unbundling 22
Number portability Network or Service Provider selection Prevention of unsolicited bulk telecommunications Malicious communication identification User identifier presentation and privacy
NGN shall provide capabilities for support of Public Interest Services required by regulations or laws of national or regional administrations and international treaties .
3.6 NGN CAPABILITIES
Transport connectivity Communication modes Media resource management Codecs Access Networks and network attachment User networks Interconnection, Interoperability and Interworking Routing QoS Accounting and Charging Numbering, naming and addressing Identification, authentication and authorization Security Mobility management OAM Survivability Management Open Service Environment Profile management Policy management Service enablers PSTN/ISDN emulation and simulation Public Interest Services support Critical infrastructure protection Non disclosure of info across NNI Inter-provider exchange of user-related information.
4. FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE 4.1 NGN BASIC REFERENCE MODEL
Separation Transport (Access and Core) from Services But keeping 3 Planes for basic function: User, Control and Management
` 4.2 LAYERS OF NGN
Access Layer Transport Layer Control Layer (Soft-Switch) Service Layer
` 4.2.1 ACCESS LAYER
Access Layers is responsible for direct subscriber attachment function. NGN is capable of processing traffic originated from PSTN, GSM, CDMA, xDSL, WiMAX or any other access system. Access Layer consists of Gateways. Trunk Media Gateway, Line Media gateway and Signaling gateway.
(a) MEDIA GATEWAY The MG performs the task of packetizing voice and providing connections from switched circuits (TDM) to packetized circuits (IP) Functions of media gateway:
voice encoding packetization of voice channels CNF ( comfort noise generation) VAD ( voice activity detection) Echo cancellation
(b) SIGNALING GATEWAY The SG should be capable of providing conversions between SS7 addresses (point codes) and IP addresses.
4.2.2 TRANSPORT LAYER
Transport Layer forms the core of the Network. It basically consists of Routers Transport Layer of NGN is based on IP/ MPLS.
4.2.3 CONTROL LAYER It consists of call servers NGN may work on soft switch principle. MGC (Media Gateway Controller)
` Softswitch (Media gateway controller)
The call handling is performed at the MGC The MGC is responsible for controlling all the MGs within its zone. The MGC also determines the QoS required for any one connection at the MG.
Functions of Soft Switch
Based upon open architecture Provide all existing services available in TDM network Performs Media Gateway Control function Performs Call control, signaling and Interworking Traffic measurement and recording functions Interacts with Application Server to supply services not hosted on Softswitch
4.2.4 SERVICE OR APPLICATION LAYER
Enhanced services to the subscribers will be provided with the help of application servers. It may include prepaid servers, announcement servers, Service servers
Announcement server performs the function of giving the announcements as per requirements in the network
4.3 NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
The Network Management System (NMS) manages all network elements in a Soft switch network. It typically uses SNMP to communicate with the network elements.
4.4 INTEGRATED ACCESS DEVICES The Integrated Access Device (IAD) provides voice or voice and data services for individuals, and SOHO subscribers by connecting the subscribers´ terminal equipment such as PC, telephone and fax machine into the packet network.
` 4.5 KEY FEATURES OF NGN FUNCTOINS
` 4.6 OVERALL NGN ARCHITECTURE
` 4.7 IMPACTS OF NGN ARCHITECTURE
` 4.8 PSTN V/S NGN
5 QoS, SECURITY AND MOBILITY 5.1 OBJECTIVES OF QoS AND SECURITY
End-to-end QoS environment for the services offered to end users via QoS coordination across the transport stratum NGN will provide an initial set of requirements, architectures, mechanisms and guidelines to enable end-to-end QoS Focus on Resource and Admission Control, including coordination between access and core, as well as between core and other NGN
NGN identified Security Requirements specification based on the application of ITU-T X.805 to NGN Addressing the following security dimensions: Access Control, Authentication, Non-repudiation, Data Confidentiality, Communication Security, Data Integrity, Availability and Privacy. Addressing the incremental security features required for secure interconnection with other NGN or existing networks
5.2 OBJECTIVES OF MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
Mobility objectives Mobile users requirements Seamless and transparent mechanisms for roaming between network operators and continual access to tailored services from a variety of environments while using a variety of terminals with varying capabilities No major new interfaces for mobility are proposed Existing interfaces will be used, as well as existing signaling capabilities for all types of mobility as currently defined Personal mobility will exist where users can register themselves to the services (existing interfaces with terminals and networks) Terminal Mobility will exist within and among networks where terminals can register to the network Nomadism (mobility without maintaining service continuity) It shall be supported between networks and within a network This does not exclude support for mobility with service continuity. 32
` 5.3 ENABLING FOR CONVERGENCES
Future should direct to the Convergence Vision: Any Time, Any Where, Any Services and Any Devices FMC and IPTV should be the instantiation Any information/services over any transport infrastructures: VoDSL, TVoMobile, etc.
Convergence classifies into following: Internal Convergences (within a industry): FMC, IPTV and others External Convergences: between/among different industries, e.g., Telematics/ITS, USN, e-Health, Networked Robotics and others.
` 5.4 CHANGING REGULATION FRAMEWORKS
6. USE CASES OF NGN 6.1 BROADBAND CONVERGENCE NETWORKS
` 6.2 Future use of NGN for OtO (inc. IoT/M2M)
7. NGN SERVICES Several services that will be important drivers in the NGN environment are: Voice Telephony: Call Waiting, Call Forwarding, 3-Way Calling Voice Portal: Provide callers with anywhere, anytime access to information like news, weather, stock quotes, and account balances using simple voice commands and any telephone,.. Data services: bandwidth-on-demand, connection reliability. Multimedia services: This allows customers to converse with each other while displaying visual information. Virtual Private Networks: allow large, geographically dispersed organizations to combine their existing private networks with portions of the PSTN, thus providing subscribers with uniform dialing capabilities. Public Network Computing: Provides public network-based computing services for businesses and consumers. Unified Messaging: Supports the delivery of voice mail, email, fax mail, and pages through common interfaces. E-Commerce: Allows consumers to purchase goods and services electronically over the network. Call Center Services: A subscriber could place a call to a call center agent by clicking on a Web page. Interactive gaming: Offers consumers a way to meet online and establish interactive gaming sessions. Home Manager: These services could monitor and control home security systems, energy systems, home entertainment systems, and other home appliances.
Next generation networks are not just a PSTN replacement but at a minimum they must provide the equivalent voice quality and reliability of today’s PSTN. The NGN will be the foundation for the creation of a new range of multimedia applications that take full advantage of the characteristics of the broadband network and the “always on” capability. The creation of the NGN is no overnight transformation, but it is an evolution that is already underway and gathering pace. The NGN is the shift from separate application-specific networks to a single network capable of carrying any and all services.
Practical training is one of the major steps in this direction. I did my training from BSNL, Agra which is one of the best known communication service provider companies of India. The training helps me in gaining in depth knowledge. In the end, I hereby conclude that I have successfully completed my industrial training on the above topics NGN exposure to working of Digital Exchanges/ Systems/ Networks.
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
(I) BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Data Communication And Networking- Behrouz A. Foruzan 2. Wireless Communication and Networks-William Stallings 3. Computer Networking – Kurose & Ross (II) REFERENCES: 1. www.bsnl.com 2. www.newbsnl.co.in 3. www.wikipedia.org