Brahmasamhita Notes - Anuj
Brahma Samhita ISKCON...
“Hare Kṛṣṇa” All Glories to Śrīla Prabhupāda
Dedicated to His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda Founder Ācārya of International Society for Krishna Consciousness
Special Thanks to H.G. Gaurānga Prabhu (RNS) and numerous devotees of Śrī Śrī Rādhā Gopīnāth Mandīr, Chowpatty, Mumbai
Based on the commentary by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Prabhupāda and Study Material Prepared by Vrindavana Institute of Higher Education (www.vihe.org ).
“We must cultivate philosophical knowledge in order to have a proper understanding by which we can proceed without being bewildered by the temptations of the world. To learn simply for the sake of accumulating knowledge is one of the greatest obstacles to spiritual advancement.” His Holiness Rādhānāth Swami Mahārāja
Contents Overview............................................................................................................. Forward................................................................................................................ A. Text 1-6: The Paribhasa Sutra, and Description of Lord Krsna’s Abodes................................................................................................................. Text 1 – The Preamble............................................................................9 Text 2 – The Spiritual Place of Krsna’s Transcendental Pastimes..........10 Text 3 – Realisation of Krsna’s Pastimes...............................................12 Text 4 – Krsna’s Abode.........................................................................15 Text 5 – Svetadvipa..............................................................................16 Text 6 – Krsna’s unalloyed position.......................................................20 B. Text 7-21: The Material Creation................................................................... a. The Process of Creation from Maha Visnu, though Sambhu (Text 7-10) .................................................................................................................... Text 7 – The Creative Glance................................................................21 Text 8 – Association With Maya............................................................22 Text 10 – The Manifest State [Mahat Tattva]........................................24 b. The Position and Function of Maha Visnu (Text 11-20)............................ Text 11 – Maha Visnu, The Master of the Mundane World....................25 Text 12 – Lord Maha Visnu As Narayana...............................................25 Text 13 – The Birth of the Universes.....................................................26 Text 14 – Garbhodaksayi Visnu.............................................................27 Text 15 – Visnu, Brahma and Sambhu..................................................28 Text 16 – Sambhu in relation to jivas....................................................29 Text 17 – Preservation, Creation and Destruction.................................30 Text 18 – Brahma’s Origin....................................................................31 Text 19 – The universes develop..........................................................31 Text 20 – Garbhodaksayi Visnu Enters The Universe............................32 Text 21 – The Jivas................................................................................33 C. Text 22-28: Brahma’s Birth and Initiation..................................................... Text 22 – The Divine Lotus....................................................................34 Text 23 – Brahma’s Birth......................................................................35 Text 24 – Brahma Receives Instruction.................................................35 Text 25 – Spiritual Austerity..................................................................36 Text 26 – Brahma’s Desire....................................................................36 Text 27 – Initiated into kama-gayatri....................................................37 Text 28 – Brahma’s Eternal Identity......................................................39
D. Text 29-55: Govindam Adi-Purusam, Tam Aham Bhajami............................. a. The Unprecedented Glory of Lord Krsna (Text 29-38)............................. Text 29 – Cintamani Dhama..................................................................40 Text 30 – Krsna’s Matchless Beauty......................................................41 Text 31- Krsna’s Amorous Pastimes......................................................43 Text 32 – Krsna’s Transcendental Form................................................43 Text 33 – Krsna’s Transcendental Nature..............................................44 Text 34 – Krsna is Rarely Achieved.......................................................46 Text 35 – Acintya bhedabheda-tattva...................................................47 Text 36 – Five Kinds of Devotion...........................................................48 Text 37 – Srngara Rasa.........................................................................52 Text 38 – The eye of devotion...............................................................57 b. Krsna is the basis of all existence (Text 39-42)....................................... Text 39 – Krsna is the source of all incarnations...................................58 Text 40 – Krsna is the basis of Brahman...............................................59 Text 41 – Krsna is the support of all existence.....................................60 Text 42 – Govinda’s Glorious Pastimes.................................................61 c. Krsna is the Supreme Lord of All Lords (Text 43-52)................................ Text 43 – Gradation of realms...............................................................61 Text 44 – Goddess Durga......................................................................63 Text 45 – Lord Sambhu.........................................................................64 Text 46 – The presiding deities of Hari Dhama.....................................66 Text 47 – Ananta Sesa..........................................................................67 Text 48 – Maha Visnu’s Breath..............................................................67 Text 49 – Lord Brahma..........................................................................68 Text 50 – Sri Ganesha...........................................................................68 Text 51 – Govinda is the basis..............................................................69 Text 52 – Sri Suryadeva........................................................................69 d. The Laws of Karma are under Krsna’s control (Text 53-54)..................... Text 53 – The wheel of karma...............................................................70 Text 54 – Freedom from karma.............................................................71 e. The process of Sadhana Bhakti (Text 55)................................................ Text 55 – Sadhana Bhakti.....................................................................72 E. Text 56: Goloka Vrindavana, the Lord’s Supreme Abode.............................. Text 56 – A view of Goloka....................................................................73 F.
Text 57-62: Lord Krsna Instructs Brahma....................................................
Text 57 – The Lord empowers Brahma.................................................74 Text 58 – Sambandha, Abhideya and Prayojana...................................75 Text 59 – Sri Nama Tattva.....................................................................76 Text 60 – Prema Bhakti.........................................................................77 Text 61 – Gauna Dharma......................................................................78 Text 62 – Acintya Bhedabheda Tattva...................................................80
Overview A. Text 1-6: The Paribhasa Sutra, and Description of Lord Krsna’s Abodes B. Text 7-21: The Material Creation a. The Process of Creation from Maha Visnu, though Sambhu (Text 7-10) b. The Position and Function of Maha Visnu (Text 11-20) C. Text 22-28: Brahma’s Birth and Initiation D. Text 29-55: Govindam Adi-Purusam, Tam Aham Bhajami a. The Unprecedented Glory of Lord Krsna (Text 29-38) b. Krsna is the basis of all existence (Text 39-42) c. Krsna is the Supreme Lord of All Lords (Text 43-52) E. Text 56: Goloka Vrindavana, the Lord’s Supreme Abode F. Text 57-62: Lord Krsna Instructs Brahma
Forward Overview Para 1 to 6 – Brahma Samhita will help all varieties of mental speculators to understand that the Absolute Truth is Krsna Para 7 to 11– Glory of Brahma Samhita – Presents Absolute Truth Authoritatively. BCS: This is the most difficult BBT book. Srila Prabhupada would sometimes didn’t understand lectures of his guru but he did understand that it is transcendentally beneficial. SBSST appreciated his quality of hearing – that he stays even if he didn’t understood completely. SBSST personally knew him when he was given initiation. Pancaratric by nature means it has to do with worship in its formal sense. It revolves around high level of worship – 3rd, 4th and 5th verse discuss actual mode of worship.
Srila Prabhupada mentions in above verse purport all the subjects it contains. It is like condensed nectar. Brahma Samhita is like condensed Srimad Bhagawatam. Sukadeva G keeps everything to the point in SB and not repeat himself. If he has to repeat something – like in Paundraka chapter, and also importance of association of devotees – he has to really struggle. And Srimad Bhagwatam is considered a small book. So how much more condensed in Brahma Samhita. Srila Jiva Goswami offers a mangalacarana in beginning of his commentary.
Explanation Para 1 to 6 – Brahma Samhita will help all varieties of mental speculators to understand that the Absolute Truth is Krsna Para 1 By acting on material platform one cannot reach The Absolute Truth.
Absolute Truth invites us to associate with Him through devotional service. Material sense objects invite jivas. People do so much philosophical speculation even though the transcendental subjects are beyond the capacity of their senses. People try to find origin of everything in material world through pratyaksa and anumana. They apply the similar pratyaksa and anumana to understand the Absolute Truth, who is beyond material sense perception. Meaning of difficult words: (1) Immanent: quality of being within the limits of possible experience or knowledge. Para 2 Purpose 1: Brahma Samhita will help such confused people. The very first verse lets readers know that the Absolute Truth is Krsna. Mental speculators will not accept Abolute Truth to be a person, they will prefer “creator” or “impersonal” who is devoid of all qualities and is unchangeable. They would not like The Absolute Truth to be known by a person named Krsna. o TKG: They will say why are you limiting God by making Him a person? But being form does not limit. Still they try to understand the unconceivable through their limited thinking capacity. They refer to works of scholars who give their nasty imaginary theories. They find various names to address the Absolute Truth and they select the one which they like as per their own limited conception. Such incorrect nomenclatures are insults to the Absolute Truth. Still the foolish men preach their theories to other unintelligent people. To drive out all such imaginations, we have to accept the nomenclature offered by the accepted progenitor of the material world. Meaning of difficult words: (1) Invective: characterized by insult or abuse. (2) Savant: scholar Para 3 First Text establishes the Supremacy of The Absolute Truth, who is sat-cit-ananda and the cause of all causes. He is the cause of everything – time, material world and spiritual world. Meaning of difficult words: Substratum: the material of which something is made and from which it derives its special qualities. Para 4 Purpose 2: Subsequent texts will determine the different attractive aspects of the all-attractive Absolute Truth. These subsequent qualities will indicate an unending, uninterrupted and transcendental great happiness. Krsna is the source of everything material and spiritual and contains both material and spiritual rasas. Meaning of difficult words: felicity: great happiness
Para 5 Purpose 3: Brahma Samhita explains origin of all material and spiritual world. Purpose 4: Brahma Samhita deals with the issue of ordinary mortals being chosen as equal to god. Brahma Samhita explains various aspects of Absolute Truth which distinguish Him from ordinary enjoyers of this world. Meaning of difficult words: Noumenic: divine Para 6 Brahma Samhita will help all - be he a materialist, a downright atheist, an agnostic, a sceptic, a naturalist, a pantheist or a panantheist. Para 7 to 11– Glory of Brahma Samhita – Presents Absolute Truth Authoritatively. Para 7 This book is only the 5th chapter out of 100 chapters. o TKG: Other 99 are not available. (1) Lord Śrī Caitanya picked up this chapter from the temple of Ādikeśava at Tiruvattar, a village in Travancore o TKG: Lord was very happy to see this book because it contained all the truths, from the most authoritative source, that Lord wanted to establish. Purpose 7: For the assurance of all God-loving, and especially Kṛṣṇaloving, people in this conditioned jurisdiction. (2) Classified under Pancaratra scriptures. (3) Has same ideas as Bhagavatam. Para 8 (4) Consider this book and Bhagavatam to be identical to Lord Krsna. Para 9 (5) All the descriptions given in this book are completely correct and there is no mistake. Meaning of difficult words – (1) aspersion – false or misleading charge meant to harm someone’s reputation. (2) calumniation – false statement Para 10 – Present Book follows previous acaryas and it is not mere stories. (6) This book based on Bengali purports by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura which itself are based on purports of Srila Jiva Goswami. o TKG: Lord CaitanyaRupa and SanatanaJivaSBVTSBSST. So what are reading comes directly from Lord Caitanya. Purpose 5: This text will satisfy all those interested in pure love of God. Materialists say that descriptions in such books are imaginary stories and do stand test of logic and reasoning. But this will be found false if we look at transcendence properly and not from view of mundane historians or thinking them to be allegories. Our senses have defects and so Absolute Truth is beyond that. Para 11
Purpose 6: Book published for English speaking people who are interested in subject of transcendental truth. (7) Subject matter is quite different from material literatures written by material senses. Purpose 7: Book originally found in India four centuries ago and again being presented for benefit of the same country. o Analogy: Worshipping the Ganges by her own water.
A. Text 1-6: The Paribhasa Sutra, and Description of Lord Krsna’s Abodes BCS: Lord Brahma starts with the most difficult section – text 1 to 5.In SB the paribhasa sutras are 1.3.28 – ete ca kala pumsa (primary), 1.2.11 – brahmeti parmatmeti (secondary). Paribhasa sutra defines what a book is about and resolves any possible misunderstanding. Paribhsasa sutra governs all the words that will come later in the book. 5 th chapter is the paribhasa sutra of the entire 100 chapters. Jiva G‘s comment on Text 1 is 25% of his whole commentary. Text 1 – The Preamble TRANSLATION: Kṛṣṇa who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes. a) The Paribhasa Sutra b) The glories of Sri Krishna Para 1 Krsna has eternal name, form, qualities and pastimes. “Krsna” means – He attracts love in all. TKG: VCT - Krish – attractive feature of Lord’s existence, Na – Spiritual pleasure. Krishna – (1) Absolute Truth (2) perfection of transcendental knowledge and bliss. Blue body glowing in ever-existing knowledge has flute in hands. By His energy He is all pervading but still He maintains a personal identity. o TKG: Sarva karana karanam – so God does everything through His potency. US president may look like a human, but behind him is so much power. So if we want to understand Krsna then we have to understand His potencies. This will be gradually explained in the book. His form is sat-cit-ananda. His mundane manifestive portion is called Paramatma, Isvara or Visnu. It is evident that Kṛṣṇa is sole Supreme Godhead. There is no difference in Krsna and His body.
He has spiritual senses – each sense can perform task of another sense. Still He maintains a medium sized form. o TKG: Medium sized means like a human but not a human. Isopanisad – asnāviram. o TKG: All 10 subjects of bhagavatam are discussed in BS. So why study BS? It will be like index of all siddhantas. BS is overview of all philosophy gathered from all literatures. Best way to read BS – read it over and over again. SP had problem even in understanding SBSST in Bengali. It means problem is not language but the subject. Not everyone will understand. There has to be a certain degree of prayer to understand the subject. Can’t be understood academically. A sleeping person gradually hears if someone is calling him repeatedly. So if we read repeatedly we will understand. The point is to awaken the love of Godhead not to understand everything. Srila Prabhupada will not allow us to leave even if he was lecturing for an hour in Hindi or Bengali because the vibration is purifying. So by the vibration our faith was increased, he was pleased, and then yasya prasadad… Para 2 This sat-cit-ananda form is supreme and Brahman effulgence is penumbra of complete light of sat-cit-ananda body. The form of Krsna is basis of impersonal brahman and localized paramatma. Krsna as Govinda performs many pastimes in Vrindavana o TKG: Such details are not found in any other scriptures of the world. He is the root cause of all causes who are the predominating and predominated agents of the universe. The glance of His portion – Paramatma – in sacred originating water gives rise to Lord Brahma who creates this universe. Supersoul’s marginal energy brings forth the individual souls o Analogy: Like rays emanated from the sun Para 3 This book is a treatise of Kṛṣṇa; so the preamble is enacted by chanting His name in the beginning. Text 2 – The Spiritual Place of Krsna’s Transcendental Pastimes TRANSLATION: The superexcellent station of Kṛṣṇa, which is known as Gokula, has thousands of petals and a corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part
of His infinitary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of Kṛṣṇa. Overview a) General characteristics of Krsna’s Abode b) Goloka and Gokula are Identical Explanation Para 1-General characteristics of Krsna’s Abode Gokula is not limited in power or space like material world. Baladeva is the mainstay of Gokula’s energy. o Infinite spiritual manifestations TKG – means Baladeva manifests unlimited Vaikuntha planets. Though Krsna and Balarama are equally potent, Krsna is more powerful.
o Infinite accommodating space for material world which is ¼ of the total creation. Spiritual world is ¾ of creation and is sat-cit-ananda. Spiritual world Far from material world / both the worlds separated by River Viraja. Covered by brahman effulgence Goloka is the topmost planet in the spiritual world Goloka and Gokula are identical. In material world Goloka is called Gokula. Para 2 – Goloka and Gokula are identical TKG: One disciple said Vrndavana is so dirty – pigs, stool, etc. Prabhupada said you are not seeing Vrndavana – it is cintamani dhama. Brhad-Bhagavatamrta o Kṛṣṇa plays exactly the same part in Goloka as He exhibits on the mundane plane of Gokula. o There is no difference between Gokula and Goloka save that Goloka in the upper region is the same as Gokula on the mundane plane. o TKG: Krsna’s eternal associates have same potency as Krsna. So both Krsna and His associates are simultaneously present in both Goloka and Gokula. Srila Prabhupada uses example of embassy. US embassy is like US in India. US law apply in US embassy not Indian laws. o TKG: Mrtyunjaya Tantra – Bhakti Devi brought highest Vaikuntha planet and placed in material world. Garg Samhita -
Once Brahma came to Krsna for help. Krsna was with Radharani. Krsna agreed to go. What about Radharani? Also you also come with Me. But I cannot go without giriraj, tamal trees, etc. Ok, by your mercy everything will manifest in material world. Bhagavat-sandarbha o Goloka-Vṛndāvana is the eternal abode of Kṛṣṇa o Goloka and Vṛndāvana are identically one o By Krsna’s inconceivable energy though Goloka and Gokula are same, Goloka is the topmost spiritual planet and Gokula of Mathurā province forming a part of the mundane plane is a manifestation of spiritual world. Poor human understanding cannot understand this fact. TKG: Another example of inconceivability – so many palaces within small area of Dwarka. Narada Muni saw Lord was present simultaneously in all 16,108 palaces. In some He was doing morning duties, in some afternoon and in some evening. Gokula is a spiritual plane, hence is in no way restricted but unlimitedly manifested with his full boundless propriety. Unintelligent people think they can understand Gokula by their material senses. Analogy: Cloud may hide vision of sun from us, but that doesn’t mean the cloud can cover the sun. We can see Gokula from Goloka which is eternal. This is also a mystery. Success – removal of gross and subtle body over the soul. Goloka and Gokula will seem different till unalloyed devotion is achieved. TKG – Only difference between 2 is mercy. In Goloka only liberated souls go, but in Gokula even non-liberated souls can go. TKG – One’s Srila Prabhupada was lecturing in LA. He said you think I am in LA, but actually I’m in Vrindavana.
Text 3 – Realisation of Krsna’s Pastimes TRANSLATION: The whorl of that transcendental lotus is the realm wherein dwells Kṛṣṇa. It is a hexagonal figure, the abode of the indwelling predominated and predominating aspect of the Absolute. Like a diamond the central supporting figure of self-luminous Kṛṣṇa stands as the transcendental source
transcendental letters is manifested in a hexagonal figure with sixfold divisions.
Overview a) Krsna’s Transcendental Pastimes b) Methods for seeing the non-manifestive pastimes c) The glories of the 18-lettered mantra d) Kama-bija (klim) Explanation Para 1 and 2 Twofold transcendental pastimes of Kṛṣṇa o Manifested - The pastimes in Vṛndāvana visible to mortal eyes o Nonmanifested - not so visible. Always visible in Goloka and the same is visible to human eyes in Gokula, if Kṛṣṇa so desires. TKG: SB 3.2.12 – “When the Lord’s pastimes are visible to the human eye, they are called prakaṭa, and when they are not visible they are called aprakaṭa. In fact, the Lord’s pastimes never stop, just as the sun never leaves the sky. The sun is always in its right orbit in the sky, but it is sometimes visible and sometimes invisible to our limited vision. Similarly, the pastimes of the Lord are always current in one universe or another, and when Lord Kṛṣṇa disappeared from the transcendental abode of Dvārakā, it was simply a disappearance from the eyes of the people there.” E.g. sages of Dandkaranya saw Krsna’s prataka lila as Gopis. Kṛṣṇa-sandarbha / Bhagvatamrta- "Nonmanifestive pastimes are expressed in manifestive kṛṣṇa-līlā. and goloka-līlā is the nonmanifestive pastimes of Kṛṣṇa visualized from the mundane plane." The eternal pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, although not visible in Gokula, are eternally manifested in Goloka. How conditioned souls can see the non-manifestive pastimes: o TKG: The word conditioned souls here refers to everyone physically dwelling in this world. o TKG: Anyone who beholds the Lord is called siddha – perfect. CC 2.8.139 o Worship through the channel of the mantras (inaudibly recited, liberating, self-dedicatory. transcendental sounds), Possible permanently in the proper place, when confined to one pastime. TKG – e.g. venu-kvnantam…aham bhajami. So Srila Prabhupada has given necessary ingredients to perform mantropasana if we become qualified. Qualification – faith in vaisnvas, guru, Krsna, sastra and serve all of them. One can achieve only if Krsna is pleased. Srila Prabhupada said everything will be revealed by chanting Hare Krsna. Different devotee has different meditation. A new devotee may hear govindam adi purusam and see the deity but the feeling may not be same as a 30year devotee. The vision will be different.
o Spontaneous outflow of heart's spiritual love for Kṛṣṇa (svarasiki)- the pastimes that are performed in different planes and in different moods, are autocratic in diverse ways TKG: Continuous pastimes going on one after another. Each prayer of such devotee becomes a mantropasana. Each mantra is like a lake and the svariski is like flowing ganges which is flowing through each of these lakes one after another. One is able to directly see Krsna and His associates. In mantropasana one longs to see those pastimes. We come in Vrindavana to learn this mantropasana. SB full of wonderful mantropasana prayers. E.g. of svarasiki – Gopis. Two-fold meaning of the sloka (Gopal Gayatri Mantra) o One mantra containing of 18-letter make a manifestation of only one lila. E.g. klīṁ kṛṣṇāya govindāya gopījana-vallabhāya svāhā TKG: Mantra discussed in Gopala Tapani Upanisad. o Krsna – delivers from Sins o Govinda – gives pleasure to cows o Gopijana vallabha – One who sports with the gopīs o Krsnaya – deity that establishes our relation with the Lord – Madan Mohan o Govindaya – deity that establishes means to reach the Lord o Gopijana Vallabha – Gopinath – that helps us to achieve the final goal. 6 words make a transcendental hexagonal machinery. Klim – central pivot o TKG – VCT - Ka – Krsna, I / L – Radhika, M – their embracing, dot over M – kiss between Radha and Krsna. So this word is kama bija – seed that contains all elements of love between Radha and Krsna. Kama transcendental lust to satisfy Krsna. Anybody with an impression of such an instrument in his mind and concentrating his thought on such spiritual entities, can attain, like Candradhvaja, to the knowledge based on empiricism. svā - kṣetrajña i.e., one who is conversant with one's inner self hā - the transcendental nature. Meaning of the mantra - one who is desirous of entering into the esoteric pastimes of Kṛṣṇa will have to practice His transcendental service along
with the culture of the devotional knowledge relative to Him. TKG: Means we have to understand our relation with Krsna in following way: (1) kṛṣṇa-svarūpa—the proper Self of Kṛṣṇa; TKG: One must understand Krsna, form, qualities, etc. (2) kṛṣṇasya cin-maya-vraja-līlā-vilāsa-svarūpa— the true nature of Kṛṣṇa's transcendental pastimes in Vraja; TKG: Regularly read NOD, SB 10th canto, Krishna book and read explanations of acaryas. Or go to the places where Lord actually performed those pastimes and read those pastimes and chant on beads at that places. In this way you will be saved from horrible effect of Kali Yuga cities. This is why Prabhupada wanted everyone to come to these holy places – very potent way. (3) tat-parikara-gopījana-svarūpa—the true nature of His spiritual associates in Vraja, viz., the spiritual milkmen and the milkmaids; TKG: We are worshipping Govinda / Radhanath / Gopinath not Dwarkanath or Vaikunthanatha. (4) tad-vallabha—the true nature of self-surrender to Kṛṣṇa in the footsteps of the spiritual milkmaids of Vraja; TKG: That is mood of Lord Caitanya M and Rupanugas and we are Their followers. (5) śuddha-jīvasya cid-(jñāna)-svarūpa—the true nature of the spiritual knowledge of the unalloyed individual soul; TKG: Not dry knowledge. This knowledge is filled with Hladini Sakti. Without blessing on Radharani one cannot understand this subject. Now the understanding is academic. (6) cit-prakṛtir arthāt kṛṣṇa-sevā-svabhāva—the true nature of transcendental service to Kṛṣṇa is this that the esoteric relation is established on the awakening of one's pure cognition. TKG: Pure realisation happens by mercy of Radharani. TKG: So this mantropasana and svarasiki reveals everything. Still simpler meaning: One should serve Krsna in one of the rasas with full devotion and surrender. The pastime in Goloka or in Gokula during the stage of devotional progress, is the meditative worship through the mantra, and during
the stage of perfection the pastimes manifest themselves as the unrestrained transcendental jubilations. jyotī-rūpeṇa manunā - the transcendental meaning is expressed in the mantra by means of which, on transcendental desire of love for Kṛṣṇa and the service of Kṛṣṇa being added, one is established in the eternal love of Kṛṣṇa. Such eternal pastimes are eternally manifested in Goloka. Text 4 – Krsna’s Abode TRANSLATION: The whorl of that eternal realm Gokula is the hexagonal abode of Kṛṣṇa. Its petals are the abodes of gopīs who are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa to whom they are most lovingly devoted and are similar in essence. The petals shine beautifully like so many walls. The extended leaves of that lotus are the gardenlike dhāma, i.e. spiritual abode of Śrī Rādhikā, the most beloved of Kṛṣṇa. Overview The centre of the lotus whorl Explanation TKG: Krsna and His servants are of the same spiritual essence. Krsna has 3 potencies – external, marginal and internal (cit sakti). Cit – Sandhini (Krsna maintains the spiritual realm, manifests Krsna’s form and form of His eternal associates, abode of Goloka, bed, flute, etc.), Samvit (Krsna understand everything and makes everyone else understands KC expands in other form of Godheads) and Hladini (Personified by Srimati Radharani. Bliss giving potency). All three potencies are on level of Visudha Sattva – no tinge of goodness, passion or ignorance. Centre of Goloka is Nandagaon. Top of the Nandagaon hill is Nanda bhavana. That is the seat of vatsalya rasa. Krsna’s various madhurya activities take place from this place. Once Radharani was burning in separation. R receive book from Durvasa Muni whoever aids her cooking will have long life. Yasoda coaxed mother in law of RR to send her to cook for Krsna. All of her friends were with her only. When at her in laws house she is so much burning in separation that water bodies in miles will dry. But when she enter kitchen of Yasoda with lot of ovens everything is cool. So not much personal contact between them at Nanda Bhavan, but it makes basis for their longing for meeting and other activities later in the day. TKG: Gopis are expansion of Hladini sakti. Each gopi has one particular quality coming from Radharani. Syama Kunda, Radha Kunda, etc. are those petals. Very few can go there – priya narma sakhas. Nanda Maharaja, etc. never go there. This lotus open and
close to facilitate Krsna’s movement in the dhama. Because planet is fully KC. So if we are KC we’ll also be able to move in vraja very conveniently. In Gokula vatsalya rasa is prominent. In Vrindavana – Paugunda Rasa is prominent. I Nandagrama – Pauganda and Kisora Lila. In Govardhana, especially in Radhakunda – K’s kisora lila is prominent. Gokula o Shaped like the lotus. o Like a hexagonal figure; o Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, appearing in the form of a mantra consisting of eighteen transcendental letters, are centered. o The propagating manifestations emanating from the cit potency are present there with the said entities as the center. o Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa is the primary cause or the seed Himself. Gopāla-tāpanī says, "Oṁkāra" signifies the All-Powerful Gopāla and His potency; and "klīṁ" is the same as oṁkāra. Hence kāma-bīja or the primary cause of all-love, is connotative of the entities Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. Text 5 – Svetadvipa TRANSLATION: There is a mysterious quadrangular place named Śvetadvīpa surrounding the outskirts of Gokula. Śvetadvīpa is divided into four parts on all sides. The abode of Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are separately located in each of these four parts. These four divided abodes are enveloped by the fourfold human requirements such as piety, wealth, passion and liberation, as also by the four Vedas, viz., Ṛg, Sāma, Yajur and Atharva, which deal with the mantra and which are the bases of achievements of the fourfold mundane requirements. Ten tridents are fixed in the ten directions, including the zenith and nadir. The eight directions are decorated with the eight jewels of Mahāpadma, Padma, Śaṅkha, Makara, Kacchapa, Mukunda, Kunda, and Nīla. There are ten protectors [dik-pālas] of the ten directions in the form of mantra. The associates of the hues of blue, yellow, red and white and the extraordinary potencies bearing the names of Vimala, etc., shine on all sides. Overview
Explanation Para 1 Gokula is the seat of transcendental love and devotion. Hence Yamunā, Śrī Govardhana, Śrī Rādhā-kuṇḍa, etc., of the terrestrial Vraja-maṇḍala lie within Gokula. TKG: Quadrangular Svetadvipa – Dwarka and Mathura. K in Mathura and Vrindavana is Yadukumar Krsna. Son of Nanda Maharaja never leaves Vrindavana. Ref Yamala Tantra. Vrindavana K has always 2 arms never 4. He eternally enjoys pastimes with a certain gopi. Vasudev K has sometimes 2 arms and sometimes 4. Vasudev K is an expansion of Vrindavana K. Each Vasudev, Aniruddha, Pradyumna and Sankarsana have Their residents on 4 sides. Mathura and Dwarka of this world are manifestations of Mathura and Dwarka there. The paravyoma Vaikuṇṭha has got its extension from the display of the four propagating manifestations. Salvation as of Vaikuṇṭha, and piety. Wealth and passion pertaining to worldly people, are in the proper places in Gokula as their original seed, i.e., primary cause. TKG: Dharma, artha, kama, moksa are in proper place in Goloka. TKG: Krsna’s pastimes are sweeter than that of Narayana. So even if Krsna was incarnation of Narayana still He is higher due to this sweetness. In Mathura and Dwarka ppl have some conception that K is God. But in Vrindavana no one knows that. Ref SB 10.8.45. In Mathura sometimes aisvarya is covered and madhurya revealed – K covered Devaki and Vasudeva with Yogamaya when they were freed from Kamsa’s prison. In Dvarka madhurya is very very rare. There is great show of opulence. E.g. Brahma visiting K in Dvarka. Vrindavana also has maximum aisvarya. E.g. K showed opulence to Brahma when he visited in Him Vrindavana. He duplicated all cows and cowherd boys. Vedas - engaged in singing the song of the Lord of Gokula. Ten tridents in ten directions - to prevent those who aspire entering into Goloka through meditations without the grace of Kṛṣṇa. The mundane threefold attributes and the threefold divisions of time represent the trident. o TKG: Spiritual demigods prevent the entry of unqualified persons.
Yogis are attracted to the siddhis. They fall back to material world and Goloka remains unknowable and inaccessible. Different incarnations along with Their associates greet devotees who reach through pure devotional service. They reach Svetadvipa. Navadvipa bears the name Svetadvipa. In Śvetadvīpa the concluding portions of the pastimes of Gokula exist eternally as the pastimes of Navadvīpa. Hence the region of Navadvīpa, Vraja and the realm of Goloka are one and the same indivisible entity; The difference only lies in the manifestations of the infinite variety of sentiments, corresponding to the diverse nature of their devotional love. This is a most hidden principle which only the greatest souls who are possessed of the highest transcendental love, are enabled to realize by the direct grace of Kṛṣṇa. 14 planetary systems in this material world. Jivas move up and down in it. Upper 4 - Mahar, Janaḥ, Tapaḥ and Satya- achieved by – o Brahmacārīs of great austerities, o Ascetics and persons addicted to hypothetical truth, o Persons of a neutral disposition adopting non-fruitive works by an aptitude which seeks to be free from all mundane desires Above them – Brahma loka Above that – unlimited Vaikuntha where Ksirodaksayi Visnu sleeps on ocean of milk. Paramahaṁsa-sannyāsīs and the demons killed by Śrī Hari – reach impersonal Brahman. Who can go? The devotee actuated by knowledge (jñāna-bhakta), the devotee actuated by the pure devotional aptitude (śuddhabhakta), the devotee imbued with loving devotion (prema-bhakta), the devotee actuated by pure love (premapara-bhakta), and the devotee impelled by overwhelming love (premātura-bhakta). TKG: Brhad Bhagavatamrta – 4.5 types of bhaktas o 0.5 jnana-bhakta: have desire for knowledge. E.g. Bharata Maharaja o Suddha bhaktia – nine devotional processes. NO karma, jnana etc. E.g. Maharaja Ambarisa o Prema Bhakta – want to only serve Lord’s lotus feet with love. E.g. Hanuman o Premapara bhakta – Lord’s affectionate associates who by Lord’s boundless mercy are tied by chain of affectionate love and always gazing at the Lord with a longings of love, friendship with Lord and close friendship where they joke with Lord. E.g. Pandavas. o Prematura – overwhelmed by treasure of wonderful love e.g. Uddhava and Yadavas.
o More love defined by quality of intimacy. o These persons cannot go to Goloka. Para 2 TKG: In Vrindavana each devotee feels K is either equal or dependent. There is no feeling of inferiority to K. Even if there is dasya, like servants of Nanda Maharaja, a feeling of paternity or friendship, etc. if there. In Vaikuntha it is pure dasya. E.g. Hanuman. The devotees who are imbued with all-love and who walk in the footsteps of the spiritual maids of Vraja, alone attain to the realm of Goloka. The different locations of the devotees in Goloka according to the respective differences in the nature of their rasa, i.e., mellow quality. are settled by the inconceivable power of Kṛṣṇa. The pure devotees following the devotees of Vraja and those following the pure devotees of Navadvīpa are located in the realm of Kṛṣṇa and Gaura respectively. The identical devotees of Vraja and Navadvīpa simultaneously attain to the pleasures of service in the realm of Kṛṣṇa and Gaura. Gopāla-campū - "Goloka - the abode of go, transcendental cows, and gopa, transcendental cowherds. This is the seat of the rasa pastimes of the absolute Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Śvetadvīpa - the realization of some of the rasas which are the inconceivable manifestation derived from the untouched purity of that supreme realm. The twofold entities of the supreme Goloka and the supreme Śvetadvīpa are indivisibly the realm of Goloka." Goloka as Śvetadvīpa is eternally manifest because the pleasures of enjoyment of the rasa could not be had in its entirety in the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa in Vraja. He accepts the emotion and effulgence of Śrī Rādhikā and makes an eternal pastime for the enjoyment of kṛṣṇa-rasa there. o TKG – Parisist Lila. Like appendix written by an author. 3 reasons for Krsna taking this mood: to realize o (1) the nature of the greatness of love of Śrī Rādhā; o (2) the nature of the wonderful sweetness of His love of which Śrī Rādhikā has got the taste; o (3) the nature of the exquisite joy that accrues to Śrī Rādhā by Her realization of the sweetness of His love Proof: various scriptural statements. Pastimes of birth in Gokula and Navadvipa under yogamaya. Not imaginations. TKG: Special feature of CM – audarya – His munificent mood. This is the only difference between Navadwip and Vrindavana, i.e. audarya and madhurya. So to reach there closely study words of Ramananda
Raya, Rupa Goswami, worship Sri Sri Gaura Nitai and very soon you will be able to appreciate Sri Sri Radha Krsna and Vrindavana. TKG: What is the position of Purusottama Ksetra? More significance than Mathura and Dwarka. Diff between Dwarkanath and Jagannath – Lord Dwarkanath remembering His Vrindavana Lila – especially feeling separation from Gopis and Srimati Radharani.. That is Jagannath. In Dwarka and Mathura one does not develop desire to see Vrindavana. But when one sees Jagannath he surely develops desire to see Vrindavana. In Lalita Madhava of Rupa Goswami, Dwarkanath says on seeing a drama – “this dramatic act is like my own self….” Even Lord of Dwarka is attracted by form of Lord of Vrindavana. TKG: Mood of Laxmi is mostly dasya – she sees mostly as servant only. Difficult for Vasudeva K to play Syamsundara, but Syamasundara does it with ease. Text 6 – Krsna’s unalloyed position TRANSLATION: The Lord of Gokula is the transcendental Supreme Godhead, the own Self of eternal ecstasies. He is the superior of all superiors and is busily engaged in the enjoyments of the transcendental realm and has no association with His mundane potency. Overview a) The Spiritual Energy b) The mundane or deluding energy Explanation The Cit potency of Kṛṣṇa has manifested His pastimes of Goloka or Gokula. By her grace individual souls can have admission into even those pastimes. The deluding energy, the perverted reflection of the cit potency, has got her location on the other side of the river Virajā. The deluding energy feels ashamed to appear before His view. TKG: Deluding energy feels her task is thankless because she cannot go to Vaikuntha. She prays like this in Navadwip Dham Mahatamya. TKG – Mahamaya – Durga and Yogamaya – Paurnamasi. When samvit potency is joined by Hladini potency then one can actually behold the spiritual world.
B. Text Creation
BCS: 2nd most difficult part of the book. a. The Process of Creation from Maha Visnu, though Sambhu (Text 7-10) Text 7 – The Creative Glance Translation Kṛṣṇa never consorts with His illusory energy. Still her connection is not entirely cut off from the Absolute Truth. When He intends to create the material world the amorous pastime, in which He engages by consorting with His own spiritual [cit] potency Ramā by casting His glance at the deluding energy in the shape of sending His time energy, is an auxiliary activity. Overview
Explanation TKG – Rama is Laxmi Devi. Mahā-SaṅkarṣaṇaKaranodaksayi ViṣṇuGlance (time energy) towards mahamaya while consorting with Rama. Glance travels by time factor. Using this time factor Rama Devi delivers the living entities to material energy. TKG: Simile - Rama and mahamaya are both Lord’s wives. Lord is actively engaged with Rama. Mahamaya was sleeping. Lord wanted to engage her too, so He glanced upon her. Second reason, he wanted jivas to enjoy their karmic reactions. So creation was necessary. Lord never directly contacted maya. Shows Lord’s omnipotence. Rama is expansion of Srimati Radharani. Time energy represents 2 aspects – force of activity as well as instrumentality of Rama Devi. Spiritual potencies of Rama - Icha sakti – will of the Lord (instrumentality), Jnana sakti – Knowledge giving potency of the Lord and Kriya sakti – force of activity. Text 8 – Association With Maya TRANSLATION: Ramādevī, the spiritual [cit] potency, beloved consort of the Supreme Lord, is the regulatrix of all entities. The divine plenary portion of Kṛṣṇa creates the mundane world. At creation there appears a divine halo of the nature of His own subjective portion [svāṁśa]. This halo is divine Śambhu,
the masculine symbol or manifested emblem of the Supreme Lord. This halo is the dim twilight reflection of the supreme eternal effulgence. This masculine symbol is the subjective portion of divinity who functions as progenitor of the mundane world, subject to the supreme regulatrix [niyati]. The conceiving potency in regard to mundane creation makes her appearance out of the supreme regulatrix. She is Māyā, the limited, nonabsolute
productivity. The intercourse of these two brings forth the faculty of perverted cognition, the reflection of the seed of the procreative desire of the Supreme Lord. Overview
Explanation TKG: Why this is called an auxiliary / secondary process? Because this is not primary function for Lord which is enjoying with Rama. Saṅkarṣaṇa desires the birth of the mundane world. He glances towards Maya. (the efficient cause). Sambhu is dim circle of light of this reflected effulgence. o TKG: Sambhu is an expansion of the Lord in the form of shadow of personal body of Maha Visnu. Later comparison of milk and yogurt. Sambhu is applied to the organ of generation of Maya. TKG: Who is the Supreme Regulatrix – Rama? So Sambhu works under Visnu through the agency Rama. The first phase of the appearance of the mundane desire created by Mahā-Viṣṇu is called the seminal principle of mahat. By will of Maha-visnu the material principle (Sambhu / the procreative masculine organ) and the efficient principle (Maya / productive feminine organ) create. Pradhana / mundane entities is the substantive principle. Nature / maya /adhara is accommodating principle. o TKG: Just like womb of mother is accommodating chamber of embryo, so Durga is mother of material nature. o TKG: So maya is both the efficient principle and the accommodating principle – Pradhana (ingredient aspect) and
Prakriti / maya (immediate cause). E.g. woman provides both ingredient and place for development of embryo. Sambhu is the Lord of Pradhana, but he is not Pradhana. Another example: Potter is SPG, the wheel is the adhara sakti (nimitya maya) and ingredients are upadana (substantive principle). Pot is the material transformation. Another e.g. electric power house. Visnu is power house. Electricity is Rama Devi. Copper wire is Sambhu. Electrified object is maya. Another example from BG 8.10 – person smelling flower is SPG, smelling power is Sambhu and the fragrance is maya. o TKG: Factors part of the immediate cause –Kala (time), Karma (activity), Daiva (providence) and Traigunya (three modes) o TKG: Before any creation there is nirguna Brahman – spiritual energy without any presence of 3 modes. Saguna Brahman – spiritual energy mixed with 3 modes – this is called pradhana. Pradhana has all ingredients necessary fro creation but they are not manifest. When glance comes upon pradhana factor of material energy it is mixed with time factor and living entities, and the unmanifested starts becoming manifested. This manifest is called mahat-tattva. Mahat-tattva is when all of the ingredient which are present in Pradhana become manifest. o TKG: Original form of Sambhu is Sadasiva who is a form of Narayana. He has an eternal abode. Sadasiva is eternally present. o TKG: Adulterating principle in Sambhu that makes him not Visnu – (1) deluding quality of material energy, (2) quality of non-plentitude of marginal energy – he absorbs some of the limited nature of jivas. (3) Lord has full potency of Rama Devi, Sambhu has small degree of ananda and cit potency, i.e. Durga or Parvati. o TKG: About Advaita Acarya. Lord Maha Visnu has 2 forms for creation. Lord Visnu is Himself the efficient cause and the immediate cause (Nimitya), while Narayana as Advaita Acarya is the material cause (upadana). Ref. CC. The intercourse happens by the will of Maha Visnu. o My comment: So He is the actual cause. So there are 3 creators. The seed of pure sexual creative desire in Goloka, is the embodiment of pure knowledge. It is very far from material world. The seed of sex desire to be found in this mundane world (Kali, etc.) are the shadows / perverted reflection of the divine potency. More about Sambhu in Text 10 and 15.
Text 9 – Procreation
TRANSLATION: All offspring of the consort of the great lord [Maheśvara] of this mundane world are of the nature of the embodiment of the mundane masculine and feminine generative organs. Overview a) The Original Creative Desire b) The seed of mundane sex Explanation
Lord’s majesty consists of both spiritual and material world. Spiritual realm is sat-cit-ananda. Material world is the majesty of the limited potency. Living entities in this world are created by union of male and female sexual organs. All knowledge of this world possess nature of sexual co-union. Trees, plants and insentient beings have same nature. Such words to describe supreme science may be against acceptable good taste, but understanding this is supreme science is important. Same words have to be used to describe the seed of mundane sex desire. Therefore same words have to be used to describe the supreme science of creation so people can understand. TKG: We should not feel adverse to use these terms. Difficult word: indecorous - conflicting with accepted standards of good conduct or good taste.
Text 10 – The Manifest State [Mahat Tattva] TRANSLATION: The person embodying the material causal principle, viz., the great lord of this mundane world [Maheśvara] Śamhhu, in the form of the male generating organ, is joined to his female consort the limited energy [Māyā] as the efficient causal principle. The Lord of the world Mahā-Viṣṇu is manifest in him by His subjective portion in the form of His glance. Explanation Sambhu can do nothing independently of the energy of Mahā-Viṣṇu. Mahat tattva is produced only when Maha Visnu is favorably disposed towards the active mutual endeavors of Maya and Pradhana.
Then Maya creates false ego (ahankara), the 5 mundane elements (bhutas), their attributes (tan-matras) and the limited senses of the conditioned souls (jiva). The constituent particles, in the form of pencils of effulgence of Mahā-Viṣṇu, are manifest as the individual souls (jīvas). Difficult word: propitious – favorably disposed. b. The Position and Function of Maha Visnu (Text 11-20) Text 11 – Maha Visnu, The Master of the Mundane World TRANSLATION: The Lord of the mundane world, Mahā-Viṣṇu, possesses thousands of thousands of heads, eyes, hands. He is the source of thousands of thousands of avatāras in His thousands of thousands of subjective portions. He is the creator of thousands of thousands of individual souls. Overview The Lord’s inconceivable power Explanation TKG: Now we are going to understand the 3 purusa avataras. They are same one person. They are all eternal It is not that at one point they did not exist. “From this came this”. Words like this are used to give our limited intelligence an idea of the relationship. All 3 are described in more or less same words – 1000s of this. MV possess 1000s heads etc. – each of Garbhodaksayi Visnu and living entities are included in that. Mahā-Viṣṇu o The object of worship of the hymns of all the Vedas o Possessed of an infinity of senses and potencies o The prime avatāra-puruṣa, the source of all the avatāras. Text 12 – Lord Maha Visnu As Narayana TRANSLATION: The same Mahā-Viṣṇu is spoken of by the name of "Nārāyaṇa" in this mundane world. From that eternal person has sprung the vast expanse of water of the spiritual Causal Ocean. The subjective portion of Saṅkarṣaṇa who abides in paravyoma, the above supreme puruṣa with thousands of subjective portions, reposes in the state of divine sleep [yoga-nidrā] in the waters of the spiritual Causal Ocean.
Overview a) Maha Visnu is called Narayana b) Yoga-nidra Explanation Yoga-nidrā o Divine sleep o Ecstatic trance which is of the nature of the bliss of the true subjective personality. o Ramādevī is yoga-nidrā in the form of Yogamāyā. TKG: Why MV is called Narayana? In 10th canto – (1) Brahma’s prayers Narayana – one whose abode is water from Nara. CC – Nara is aggregate of all living beings and yana means refuge. (2) K sustains the 3 purusas. Since Narayana is one who gives shelter to all living entities anyone of Them can be called Narayana. (3) Word Narayana refers to one who witnesses everything. Since 3 the three purusas witness everything They can be called Narayana. Text 13 – The Birth of the Universes TRANSLATION: The spiritual seeds of Saṅkarṣaṇa existing in the pores of skin of MahāViṣṇu, are born as so many golden sperms. These sperms are covered with five great elements. OVERVIEW
In the pores spring up myriads of seeds of the universes.
Those universes are the perverted reflections of the infinite transcendental region.
As long as they remain embedded in His divine form they embody the principle of spiritual reflection having the form of golden eggs.
By the creative desire of Mahā-Viṣṇu the minute particles of the great elements envelop them.
When those golden sperms, coming out with the exhalation of MahāViṣṇu, enter into the unlimited accommodating chamber of Māyā they become enlarged by the nonconglomerate great elements.
TKG: Non-conglomerate means the elements are in separated condition. They are not co-operating together. Elements have their personalities controlling. They were not co-operating. SB2.5 – Great elements are like parts of automobiles, not assembled till now.
Text 14 – Garbhodaksayi Visnu TRANSLATION: The same Mahā-Viṣṇu entered into each universe as His own separate subjective portions. The divine portions, that entered into each universe are possessed of His majestic extension, i.e., they are the eternal universal soul Mahā-Viṣṇu, possessing thousands of thousands of heads. OVERVIEW
Explanation TKG: There is an interruption of affairs. Continuation of Text 13 is Text 19. Instead of describing a continuous process of creation the personalities
understanding these personalities is important. GV is almost identical in form to MV.
These individual portions represent the second divine puruṣa lying in the ocean of conception. Is identical with Mahā-Viṣṇu in every respect. He is the divine guide, from within, of all souls – (TKG: Paramatma) Text 15 – Visnu, Brahma and Sambhu TRANSLATION: The same Mahā-Viṣṇu created Viṣṇu from His left limb, Brahmā, the first progenitor of beings, from His right limb and, from the space between His two eyebrows, Śambhu, the divine masculine manifested halo. OVERVIEW
Ksirodaksayi Visnu o Created from left limb. o Lies in the ocean of milk o The same who is the regulator of all individual souls, is Śrī Viṣṇu;
Is the inner guiding oversoul of every individual soul.
TKG: He is the antaryami of samasi – all living entities.
TKG: Because He is the Paramatma.
o Viṣṇu is the integral subjective portion of Mahā-Viṣṇu. o He is the great Lord of all the other lords. o Appears in the left limb of Mahā-Viṣṇu from the unalloyed essence of His cit potency.
TKG: Radharani is always on left side of Krsna.
o He is of the measure of a thumb.
TKG: It is a metaphor to encourage for meditation. Otherwise He is not of size of a thumb.
o He is the nourisher. o The karmīs worship Him as Nārāyaṇa, the Lord of sacrifices o The yogīs desire
Paramātmā. o TKG: Where is this happening? These 3 live within layers of the universe. Visnu protects layers of universe. Brahma is creator of demigods in respective layers. Siva is destroyer of planets. Hiraṇyagarbha o Created from right limb. o The seminal principle o A portion of the Supreme Lord, o Is the prime progenitor o Different from the four-faced Brahmā. o Is the principle of seminal creating energy of every Brahmā belonging to each of the infinity of universes. Śambhu o Created from space between eyebrows of Maha Visnu o The divine masculine manifested halo o Is the plenary manifestation of his prototype Śambhu o Is the same as the primary divine masculine generative symbol Śambhu whose nature has already been described.
The progenitor (Brahmā) and Śambhu are the dislocated portions of Mahā-Viṣṇu. Hence they are gods with delegated functions.
TKG: Dislocated means they are not Godhead in full. They are demigods. They are delegated powers, not delegator.
Text 16 – Sambhu in relation to jivas TRANSLATION: The function of Śambhu in relation to jīvas is that this universe enshrining the mundane egotistic principle has originated from Śambhu.
Explanation The basic principle is the Supreme Lord Himself who is the embodiment of the principle of existence of all entities devoid of separating egotisms. o TKG: Means Lord is the source of living entities. In this mundane world the appearance of individual entities as separated egotistic symbols, is the limited perverted reflection of the unalloyed spiritual (cit) potency; Representing the primal masculine divine generative function Śambhu, it is united to the accommodating principle, viz., the mundane female organ which is the perverted reflection of the spiritual (cit) potency, Ramādevī. At this function Śambhu is nothing but the mere material causal principle embodying the extension in the shape of ingredient as matter. Later, in the principle of Śambhu there appears the manifestation of the personality of Rudra; yet under all circumstances Śambhu fully enshrines the mundane egotistic principle. The innumerable jīvas as spiritual particles emanating from the oversoul in the form of pencils of rays of effulgence, have no relation with the mundane world when they come to know themselves to be the
incorporated into the realm of Vaikuṇṭha. But when they desire to lord it over Māyā, forgetting their real identity, the egotistic principle Śambhu entering into their entities makes them identify themselves as separated enjoyers of mundane entities. Hence Śambhu is the primary principle of the egotistic mundane universe and of perverted egotism in jīvas that identifies itself with their limited material bodies.
Text 17 – Preservation, Creation and Destruction TRANSLATION: Thereupon the same great personal Godhead, assuming the threefold forms of Viṣṇu, Prajāpati and Śambhu, entering into the mundane universe, plays the pastimes of preservation, creation and destruction of this world. This pastime is contained in the mundane world. Hence, it being perverted, the Supreme Lord, identical with Mahā-Viṣṇu, prefers to consort with the goddess Yoganidrā, the constituent of His own spiritual [cit] potency full of the ecstatic trance of eternal bliss appertaining to His own divine personality. Explanation Prajāpati and Śambhu, both identifying themselves as entities who are separate from the divine essence, sport with their respective nonspiritual (acit) consorts, Sāvitrī-devī and Umā-devī, the perverted reflections of the spiritual (cit) potency. TKG: Brahma and Siva are not separated from Visnu like us. But still they are not on the level of Visnu. The Supreme Lord Viṣṇu is the only Lord of the spiritual (cit) potency. Ramā or Lakṣmī. Text 18 – Brahma’s Origin TRANSLATION: When Viṣṇu lying in the ocean of milk wills to create this universe, a golden lotus springs from His navel-pit. The golden lotus with its stem is the abode of Brahmā representing Brahmaloka or Satyaloka. EXPLANATION
TKG: To be taken after text 19, 20 and 21 as it deals with birth of Brahma.
Garbhodaksayi Visnu? KV and GV are one and only so it is mentioned lying in ocean of milk. "Gold" here means the dim reflection of pure cognition. Text 19 – The universes develop TRANSLATION: Before their conglomeration the primary elements in their nascent state remained
conglomerating process is the cause of their separate existence. Divine Mahā-Viṣṇu, primal Godhead, through association with His own spiritual [cit] potency, moved Māyā and by the application of the conglomerating principle created those different entities in their state of cooperation. And alter that He Himself consorted with Yoganidrā by way of His eternal dalliance with His spiritual [cit] potency. Overview
Explanation Māyā was at first inactive and the material cause was also in the separately dislocated state. As per the will of Kṛṣṇa this world is manifested by the union of the efficient and the material causal principles of Māyā. In spite of that, the Supreme Lord Himself remains united with His cit potency. Yoganidrā. TKG: All the elements prayed to Lord and the KV entered with Rama into each of the element. The elements combined and they made a universal egg. All eggs remained floating in ocean for the very long time. For a very long time because at the same time Lord was consorting with Yogamaya and He wanted to show how everything goes on without His personal involvement. What is Yogamaya?
o The nature of cit potency is manifestive of the Absolute Truth, while the nature of her perverted reflection, Māyā, is envelopment in the gloom of ignorance. o When Kṛṣṇa desires to manifest something in the mundane world, He does this by the conjunction of His spiritual potency with His inactive nonspiritual potency. This is known as Yogamāyā. o Twofold notion – (1) transcendental and (2) mundane inert. Kṛṣṇa, His subjective portions and His unalloyed devotees, realize the transcendental notion in that conjunction, while conditioned souls feel the mundane inert notion. o The external coating of transcendental knowledge in the conscious activities of conditioned souls, bears the name of Yoganidrā. This is also an influence of the cit potency of the Divinity. Text 20 – Garbhodaksayi Visnu Enters The Universe TRANSLATION: By conglomerating all those separate entities He manifested the innumerable mundane universes and Himself entered into the inmost recess of every extended conglomerate [viraḍ-vigraha]. At that time those jīvas who had lain dormant during the cataclysm were awakened. Overview a) b) c) d)
Awakening of the Jivas. The Universal Form The Garbhodaka Ocean The Lord divides the Virat
Explanation The place which is hidden from the view of men in general, is designated guhā. Those jīvas that were merged in Hari at the end of the life of Brahmā in the great cataclysm during the preceding great age of the universe, reappeared in this world in accordance with their former fruitive desires. TKG: GV is also knows as Hiranyagarbha Supersoul. Since it was sealed the Lord felt hot. So He perspired. His perspiration filled half of the universe. Then He laid down on that ocean. Next universal form of the Lord took place. This form is not an eternal form. SP compares this form to form of the deity. Ref. SB 3.6.4. When GV enters into universe, He brings all the jivas who have to be born in that universe – including Brahma. The universal form is simultaneously form of Visnu and form of Brahma. UF is the subtle
form of Brahma before he is born. Lord teaches Brahma through the UF. UF is like the blueprint Lord gives to Brahma. Ref SB 3.15.8 purport. Each universe may be identical or different – Ref Laghu Bhagvatamrita. After Brahma learns Lord withdraws the Virat Rupa into Himself and lies in YN for 1000 years. Awakening of Jiva their karma, their destiny is awakened. A major explosion happens – that is Text 21. Text 21 – The Jivas TRANSLATION: The same jīva is eternal and is for eternity and without a beginning joined to the Supreme Lord by the tie of an eternal kinship. He is transcendental spiritual potency. Explanation Analogy: Just as the sun is eternally associated with his rays so the transcendental Supreme Lord is eternally joined with the jīvas. The jīvas o the infinitesimal particles of His spiritual effulgence o not perishable like mundane things. o exhibit on a minute scale the qualities of the Divinity. o Are identical with the principles of knowledge, knower, egoism, enjoyer, meditator and doer. o Kṛṣṇa is vibhu while jīvas are anu. o The Supreme Lord is the eternal master and jīvas are His eternal servants. o Superior to acit or maya potency. o Is called tatastha or marginal potency. o Located on the line demarcating the spheres of the spiritual and mundane potencies. o Susceptible to the influence of the material energy owing to his small magnitude. So long as he remains submissive to Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of Māyā, he is not liable to the influence of Māyā. o Conditioned souls affected by janma, mrityu, jara, vyadhi since they fall into the clutches of deluding potency from a time that has no beginning. TKG: Where do they fall from SBSST doesn’t say. o TKG: MV, GV and KV are one and same. E.g. A person’s name is Visnu Sharma. At office He is known as Mr. Sharma and at home as Visnu. So if one day someone says Visnu went to office does that make a different person? o TKG: Viraja river is part of Causal ocean.
C. Text 22-28: Brahma’s Birth and Initiation Text 22 – The Divine Lotus TRANSLATION: The divine lotus which springs from the navel-pit of Viṣṇu is in every way related by the spiritual tie with all souls and is the origin of four-faced Brahmā versed in the four Vedas. Overview a) Padma Kalpa b) The lotus emerges Explanation The divine lotus o The superior plane of aggregation of all individual souls. The Brahmā o Four-faced o The image of self-enjoyment o Derives
Hiraṇyagarbha. o The delegated god
The dislocated portion of Kṛṣṇa.
Text 23 – Brahma’s Birth TRANSLATION: On coming out of the lotus, Brahmā, being guided by the divine potency tuned his mind to the act of creation under the impulse of previous impressions. But he could see nothing but darkness in every direction. Explanation
Brahmā's impulse for creation arises from his previous impressions from previous kalpa. o Those deeds made him eligible for the post of Brahma. The
Unseen: All jīvas get their nature conformably to their
impressions of previous births and accordingly their activity can have a beginning.
TKG: Jivas are put in Visnu’s abdomen by kala sakti. When Lord glanced upon them, He realized they should be able to fulfill their desires. Lord’s glance is carried by kala sakti too. Now because the modes of nature are there, this glance is through the mode of passion. Kala sakti passes through mode of passion. This agitates the destiny of the jivas. The sum total of karma of all jivas pierce through abdomen of GV as the lotus and this lotus is the original form of the universe. GV enters the lotus as the Supersoul (KV) and He also enters the heart of Brahma. Brahma has only father, but no mother. So he is called svayambhu. First he was confused. What is origin was? He circumambulated in space and turned around in all directions and as a result he developed 4 heads. He dove down into the lotus bud to search his origin. But he was unsuccessful. SP – first example of how one cannot know using mental speculation or sense perception. So Brahma came out and sat upon the lotus.
Text 24 – Brahma Receives Instruction Then the goddess of learning Sarasvatī, the divine consort of the Supreme Lord, said thus to Brahmā who saw nothing but gloom in all directions, "O Brahmā, this mantra, viz., klīṁ kṛṣṇāya govindāya gopī-jana-vallabhāya svāhā, will assuredly fulfill your heart's desire." Overview a) Lord Brahma’s Confusion b) Tapasya c) Brahma Instructed
Translation TKG: SB mentions he heard “Ta Pa”. Why different here? Different kalpas are described. Common features (1) Confused (2) Performs austerities (3) Initiated and enlightened. So everyone is confused in the beginning. Brahma didn’t claimed high class by birth alone. He himself is confused – so he has to perform austerities and get initiated to be in knowledge. Brahma was initiated by divine Saraswati, i.e. Laxmi. Doesn’t refer from Brahma’s wife. This superexcellent mantra has a twofold aspect. o For Pure Devotee: Give pure love for Śrī Kṛṣṇa – the Lord of Gokula and the Gopis. o For Mixed Devotee: Fulfills his heart's desire also. o TKG:
entanglement. o TKG: In SB 2.9.30 Brahma is in sakhya. Here he is in madhurya. So a different Brahma. Text 25 – Spiritual Austerity TRANSLATION: "O Brahmā, do thou practice spiritual association by means of this mantra; then all your desires will be fulfilled." Explanation TKG: SBSST translates austerity as spiritual association. Very interesting translation. Text 26 – Brahma’s Desire TRANSLATION: Brahmā, being desirous of satisfying Govinda, practiced the cultural acts for Kṛṣṇa in Goloka, Lord of Śvetadvīpa, for a long time. His meditation ran thus, "There exists a divine lotus of a thousand petals, augmented by millions of filaments, in the transcendental land of Goloka. On its whorl,
there exists a great divine throne on which is seated Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the form of eternal effulgence of transcendental bliss, playing on His divine flute resonant with the divine sound, with His lotus mouth. He is worshiped by His amorous milkmaids with their respective subjective portions and extensions and also by His external energy [who stays outside] embodying all mundane qualities." Overview Brahma’s Devotion Explanation
Demigods – Durga, Brahma, etc. meditated on the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa as the object of their worship.
Even if there is any material desire one should worship Krsna because all desires are ultimately fulfilled by Him – akamah sarva kamo va...
The devotion of demigods is mixed devotion. TKG: Brahma performed cultural acts. What does that mean? 64 arts that are later to be explained in Brahma Samhita.
TKG: Brahma is performing Raganuga Bhakti. So how his bhakti still mixed? What was mixed? His desire for being a creator. But his desire is dovetailed because that is also the desire of the Lord. Brahma is not saying that I will do whatever you say, but I want to this creation under your direction.
One can reach pure bhakti while first performing mixed bhakti.
This has been fully described in the concluding five ślokas of this work.
That is the easiest method of divine service, prior to the attainment of self-realization, by fallen souls.
Text 27 – Initiated into kama-gayatri TRANSLATION:
Then Gāyatrī, mother of the Vedas, being made manifest, i.e. imparted, by the divine sound of the flute of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, entered into the lotus mouth of Brahmā, born from himself, through his eight ear-holes. The lotus-born Brahmā having received the Gāyatrī, sprung from the flute-song of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, attained the status of the twice-born, having been initiated by the supreme primal preceptor, Godhead Himself. OVERVIEW
HISTORY OF KAMA GAYATRI
EXPLANATION OF KAMA GAYATRI
The sound of Kṛṣṇa's flute is the transcendental blissful sound; hence the archetype of all Veda, is present in it.
The Gāyatrī is Vedic rhythm. It contains a brief meditation and prayer.
Kāma-gāyatrī is the highest of all the Gāyatrīs, because the meditation and prayer contained in it are full of the perfect transcendental sportive activities which are not to be found in any other Gāyatrī.
TKG: 24.5 syllables. Brahma chanted the gopal mantra he received earlier for 1000s of years. Then he got this mantra.
Attained as the sequel of the eighteen-lettered mantra runs thus: klīṁ kāma-devāya vidmahe puṣpa-bāṇāya dhīmahi tan no 'naṅgaḥ pracodayāt.
TKG: Brahma chanted brahma-gayatri and it came out from his mouth. Gayatri is mother of vedas. She had a discussion with upanisads. She heard about gopīs. She desired to take birth. So she tool birth in Vrindava as gopi along with Gopal Tapani Upanisad. So later she was named as kama gayatri.
Kama gayatri is eternal but these explanations are given just to give us an idea. o TKG: Divided into 3 parts. (1) Klim kama-devaya vidmahe: Kama deva refers to Madanmohan – deity that refers our relationship with Krsna. This mantra specifically for madhuray rasa. (2) puspa-banaya dhimahi: Govinda who carries arrows made of flower and accept our devotional service. (3) tan no nangah pracodayat: Anangah or Gopijan Vallabh satisfies all gopīs and is the ultimate goal of life. Same kind of division as gopal mantra but all 3 related to madhurya rasa. o TKG: In CC KKG explain how 24.5 syllables describe different parts of body of Krsna. When VCT read this he became very astonished because in Sanskrit there is no half syllable. He was trying to understand what is that syllable. But he couldn’t. So he decided to give up his life. He threw himself in Radha Kunda and began to fast. RR appeared and said – when syllable ya is followed by vid, those 2 are called half syllable. She gave name of the Sanskrit grammar text to check this out. If you count is that way you will find. VCT woke up and kept in his heart. In the morning he woke up and searched for that book. He found that. She also instructed him to write meaning of kama gayatri so everyone can understand. Ref CC M.1.125-130 and CC.M.8.138.
Meditation: the transcendental pastimes of Śrī Gopījanavallabha
Prayer: the attainment of the transcendental god of love. In the spiritual world there is no better mode of endeavor for securing the superexcellent rasa-bedewed love.
As soon as that Gāyatrī entered into the ear-holes of Brahmā, he became the twice-born and began to chant the Gāyatrī.
Whoever has received the same Gāyatrī in reality, has attained his spiritual rebirth.
The status of a twice-born by birth is far inferior to that of the twiceborn who obtains admission into the transcendental world
Why? because the spiritual initiation is the highest of glories in as much as the jīva is thereby enabled to attain to the transcendental realm.
Text 28 – Brahma’s Eternal Identity TRANSLATION: Enlightened by the recollection of that Gāyatrī, embodying the three Vedas, Brahmā became acquainted with the expanse of the ocean of truth. Then he worshiped Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the essence of all Vedas, with this hymn. Explanation Brahmā thought "it seems to me that I am the eternal maidservant of Kṛṣṇa." Though the other mysteries in regard to the condition of the maidservant of Kṛṣṇa were not revealed to him, Brahmā, by dint of his searching self-consciousness, became well acquainted with the ocean of truth. All the truths of the Vedas were revealed to him and with the help of those essences of the Vedas he offered this hymn to the Supreme Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. TKG: Gopala and kama-gayatri are complementary. What was the main qualification that VCT and Brahma had – laulyaṁ. One Can get it only by the grace of guru. Śrīmān Mahāprabhu has taught this hymn to His favorite disciples in as much as it fully contains all the transcendental truths regarding the Vaiṣṇava philosophy. Readers are requested to study and try to enter into the spirit of his hymn with great care and attention, as a regular daily function.
TKG: Ppl in Satya Loka have no gross body.
D. Text 29-55: Govindam AdiPurusam, Tam Aham Bhajami a. The Unprecedented Glory of Lord Krsna (Text 29-38) Text 29 – Cintamani Dhama TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor who is tending the cows, yielding all desire, in abodes built with spiritual gems, surrounded by millions of purpose trees, always served with great reverence and affection by hundreds of thousands of lakṣmīs or gopīs. Overview
EXPLANATION TKG: Srila Prabhupada wrote a letter in 1967 to Pradyumna Prabhu stating that BS contains everything that is there is SB. It contains conclusions regarding Krsna’s supreme position. Written by my guru maharaja. Each one of my disciple should read it. TKG: Brahma composed it is svarisiki.
Cintāmaṇi means "transcendental gem."
Serves as material in the building of Goloka A far rarer and more agreeable entity than the philosopher's stone (TKG: Philosopher’s stone I touchstone - transform iron into gold. Medieval alchemists of Europe tried to make it. They failed. Correct process by yogis – swallow mercury and urinate on iron. That will make it into gold).
The purpose tree yields only the fruits of piety, wealth, fulfillment of desire and liberation; but the purpose trees in the abode of Kṛṣṇa bestow innumerable fruits in the shape of checkered divine love.
TKG: Originally there was only one desire tree in Vrindavana, later others acquired same quality by its association. Trees are just like incarnation of SPG. Ppl misunderstand their glories. So they should not be cut. E.g. SP didn’t allowed to cut Tamala Tree in KB Mandir. I was waiting to cut it down to make my chanting beads. At that time it was very small, but as soon as deities were installed it became very big. Gopis would embrace Tamala trees and relieved of pain of suffering.
Kāma-dhenus (cows yielding the fulfillment of desire) give milk when they are milked; but the kāma-dhenus of Goloka pour forth oceans of milk in the shape of the fountain of love showering transcendental bliss that does away with the hunger and thirst of all pure devotees.
TKG: They are just like cintamani jewels. Nanda Maharaja had 900,000 cows. When K was born he gave 300,000/100,000 cows to brahmanas.
The words lakṣa and sahasra-śata signify endless numbers. The word sambhrama or sādara indicates "being saturated with love."
Here lakṣmī denotes gopī. TKG: Rupa Goswami states in Radha Krsna Ganopadesa Dipika that out of 100 million gopīs, 800,000 are eternally perfect. In spiritual world there are billions of gopīs.
Text 30 – Krsna’s Matchless Beauty TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is adept in playing on His flute, with blooming eyes like lotus petals with head decked with peacock's
feather, with the figure of beauty tinged with the hue of blue clouds, and His unique loveliness charming millions of Cupids. Overview
Explanation Kṛṣṇa, the all-pervading cognition, has a spiritual form of His own. The form of Kṛṣṇa is not an imagination. What Brahmā saw in his ecstatic trance of pure devotion, is being described. Kṛṣṇa is engaged in playing upon His flute. That flute by his enchanting musical sound attracts the hearts of all living beings. TKG: One of the 4 qualities that only K has – flute playing. In 10 th canto – when He plays flute, Siva, Brahma and Indra become bewildered. His flute playing stopped Siva from playing damru. Disturbed 4 kumaras. Brahma was astonished. Ananta Deva moves hears and there due to this. 10.28-32 it is most vividly described. Gopis would sometime envy the flute. They considered flute as male and complained to the flute. Just as a lotus petal produces a pleasant sight, so the two beautiful eyes of Kṛṣṇa who causes the manifestation of our spiritual vision, display the unlimited splendor and beauty of His moonlike face. o TKG: Jiva G is Bhagavat Sandarbh – O Lord it i You that enable eyes of jivas to act. o TKG: Brihad aranyaka upanisad – the power of living force in the jiva in manifest by force of SPG and similarly power of eyes manifest from SPG. TKG: Ref Krsna Karnamrita of Srila Bilvamangala Thakura. SP said this book can produce ecstatic love of God when its verses are read.
The loveliness that adorns His head with peacock feather figures, the corresponding feature of the spiritual beauty of Kṛṣṇa. Just as a mass of blue clouds offers a specifically soothing, pleasant view, the complexion of Kṛṣṇa is analogously tinged with a spiritual dark-blue color. TKG: Hue is like Blueish-black monsoon cloud, Tamala tree, Indraneel Mani, new grown lotus flower. TKG: SRR felt ecstatic love by seeing monsoon clouds. The beauty and loveliness of Kṛṣṇa is far more enchanting that that of Cupid multiplied a millionfold. Text 31- Krsna’s Amorous Pastimes TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, round whose neck is swinging a garland of flowers beautified with the moon-locket, whose two hands are adorned with the flute and jeweled ornaments, who always revels in pastimes of love, whose graceful threefold-bending form of Śyāmasundara is eternally manifest. Overview
All the spiritual affairs that come within the scope of description in the narration of the rasa are included in the spiritual amorous sports of Govinda. TKG: Another of the 4 unique qualities – pastimes, especially Rasa Lila. One of the important lockets is moon locket – candrakanta. Lord Visnu and Krsna both wear it. Krsna’s beauty increased beauty of the ornaments. So He is bhusana-bhusanam.
TKG: K has many garlands and flower ornaments. Making flower garlands is one of 64 items of DS in NOD. Text 32 – Krsna’s Transcendental Form TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose transcendental form is full of bliss, truth, substantiality and is thus full of the most dazzling splendor. Each of the limbs of that transcendental figure possesses in Himself, the full-fledged functions of all the organs, and eternally sees, maintains and manifests the infinite universes, both spiritual and mundane. Explanation
Materialists think description of Krsna to be imaginary. With the object of removing this harmful doubt, Brahmā in this and the three following ślokas, after distinguishing between spirit and matter, in a rational manner, has tried to make one understand the pure līlā of Kṛṣṇa, obtained by his unmixed ecstatic trance.
Only by pure devotees amorous pastimes of Kṛṣṇa can at all be appreciated.
Just as Māyā is the perverted reflection of the spiritual potency, the variegatedness created by Māyā (ignorance) is also a perverted reflection of spiritual variegatedness.
The unwholesomeness of matter is its defect; but in the spirit there is variegatedness which is free from any fault or contamination.
The soul and the body of Kṛṣṇa are identical, whereas the body and soul of fallen creatures are not so.
His every limb is the whole entity. He performs all varieties of divine spiritual functions with every one of His limbs. Hence He is an indivisible whole and a perfect transcendental entity.
The jīva attains the nearest approach to the absolute identity only when the Hladini Sakti appears in him by the grace of Kṛṣṇa.
Krsna has 4 unique qualities not to be found in anyone else.
TKG: When Vedas say Lord has no senses means that He doesn’t have material senses. JG handles these in sandarbhas. E.g. Rukmini to K – hwo can anyone be attracted to body of moustache, nails, etc. Your body is sat-cit-ananda. She is original Maghalaxmi – so she is an authority.
Text 33 – Krsna’s Transcendental Nature TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is inaccessible to the Vedas, but obtainable by pure unalloyed devotion of the soul, who is without a second, who is not subject to decay, is without a beginning, whose form is endless, who is the beginning, and the eternal puruṣa; yet He is a person possessing the beauty of blooming youth. Overview
Explanation TKG: Favorite topics of Gosvamis- How Krsna maintains His contradictory qualities? This verse mentions many of them. Advaita means "indivisible truth who is knowledge absolute." (1st contradiction) Brahman, the infinite, emanates from Him as His effulgence and God-immanent (Paramātmā) as His constituent; but nevertheless He remains one and indivisible. (2nd contradiction) Acyuta means that though myriads of avatāras emanate from Him as subjective portions and millions of jīvas as separated spiritual particles, still He remains intact as the undivided whole of fullest perfection. TKG: SP gives example when you tear a piece of paper into 100 pieces you have the 100 pieces but not the original paper. Not like this with Krsna. TKG: (3rd contradiction) Ananta Rupam – but actually there is only one person. We worship only one God. Later Ramadi… (4ath contradiction) Though He indulges in exhibiting the pastimes of births, etc., still He is without a beginning. (4bth contradiction) Though He disappears after the pastimes of His appearance, still He is eternal. Though without origin, yet He is with an origin in His pastime of appearance.
(5th contradiction); and although eternal in essence, He is still a person in the full bloom of youth. TKG: A God is not God if He cannot reconcile contradictory qualities. This He does due to His acintya sakti. Some medicines have contradictory potencies. Certain jewels have inconceivable potencies – sparshamani, syamantaka jewel. If a jewel can have inconceivable potencies, why can’t source of all of them. The sum and substance of it is that though He possesses diverse and apparently mutually contradictory qualities, still they are in universal harmonious concordance by dint of His unthinkable potency. This is what is meant by cid-dharma (transcendental nature) as distinguished from the material. His graceful threefold-bending form with flute in hand, possesses eternal blooming youth and is above all unwholesomeness that is to be found in limited time and space. In the transcendental realm there is no past and future but only the unalloyed and immutable present time. In the transcendental sphere there is no distinction between the object and its qualities and no such identity as is found in the limited mundane region. Hence those qualities that seem to be apparently contradictory in the light of mundane conception limited by time and space, exist in agreeable and dainty concordance in the spiritual realm. The Vedas originate in sound and sound originates in the mundane ether. So the Vedas cannot present before us a direct view of the transcendental world (Goloka). How can the jīva realize such unprecedented existence? It is only when the Vedas are imbued with the cit potency that they are enabled to deal with the transcendental. TKG: This is why Vyasadeva wrote Puranas and itihaasas. They contain everything that contains in Vedas, but something more – intimate pastimes of Lord. Vedas come from Brahma. Vyasa is greater than Brahma because he is an incarnation. Knowledge in unison with devotion reveals goloka-tattva without asserting itself separately but as a subsidiary to unalloyed devotion. TKG: That is why SP constantly stresses devotional service in his purports. Text 34 – Krsna is Rarely Achieved TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, only the tip of the toe of whose lotus feet is approached by the yogīs who aspire after the transcendental and betake themselves to prāṇāyāma by drilling the respiration; or by the
jñānīs who try to find out the nondifferentiated Brahman by the process of elimination of the mundane, extending over thousands of millions of years. Overview
The attainment of the lotus feet of Govinda consists in the realization of unalloyed devotion.
Jnana and mystic yoga processes
Simply the outskirts of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa and not the lotus feet themselves.
Constitutes the line of demarcation between the world of limitation and the transcendental world.
Unless we step beyond them we can have no taste of the variegatedness of the transcendental sphere.
Are simply absence of misery arising from mundane affinity but are not real happiness or felicity. If the absence of misery be called a bit of pleasure then also that bit is very small and of no consequence.
Insufficient; real gain to the eternal existence in self-realized state by unalloyed devotion.
Text 35 – Acintya bhedabheda-tattva TRANSLATION: He is an undifferentiated entity as there is no distinction between potency and the possessor thereof. In His work of creation of millions of worlds, His potency remains inseparable. All the universes exist in Him and He is present in His fullness in every one of the atoms that are scattered throughout the universe, at one and the same time. Such is the primeval Lord whom I adore.
Explanation TKG: This verse explains acintya bheda abheda.
Kṛṣṇa is the highest of all entities. In Him is the unlimited cit (spiritual) potency. By His inconceivable external potency, He can at will create numberless universes.
His abode is beyond human conception. All worlds limited and spiritual (cit) exist in Him and He resides simultaneously in His fullness and entirety in all the atoms in all the worlds.
TKG: e.g. (1) Damodar Lila. (2) Yasoda saw universe in His mouth. She could do saw only because of her love.
Though He is all-pervasive yet in His existence everywhere in a medium shape consists His spiritual Lordship beyond human conception.
Text 36 – Five Kinds of Devotion TRANSLATION: I adore the same Govinda, the primeval Lord, in whose praise men, who are imbued with devotion, sing the mantra-sūktas told by the Vedas, by gaining their appropriate beauty, greatness, thrones, conveyances and ornaments. Overview
Explanation TKG: Devotional life of a devotee is like a creeper. SM plants seed within heart. By careful watering process of sravanam kirtanam, this seed fructifies and grows as creeper plant. One has to fence the garden to prevent intrusions. E.g. 10 offences especially offending devotees. TKG: DS is in 9 stages adau sraddha… Today’s verse mentions bhava. What is bhava? Five kinds of devotion or service or rasa and their destinations o TKG: Rasa is also sometimes called rati. o Śānta or unattached - Brahma-Paramātmā, the seat of eternal peace;
TKG: Stage between personalism and impersonalism. Yogis might receive this stage. One sees Lord Visnu as SPG, Supersoul and Brahman. Awe and reverence. Can be attained by impersonalist only when they are in association of pure devotees. Some persons don’t consider it devotion because there is no service. But since it consists of appreciation it is one of the 5 rasas. E.g. K’s cows, K’s stick, flute, flowers. But each of them is also mixed with other rasas. E.g. cows have maternal affection. Flute has element of conjugal love.
o dāsya or pertaining to reverential willing service - Vaikuṇṭha, the spiritual majestic abode of Śrī Nārāyaṇa
TKG: Element of service to receive Lord’s favor. Has reverence for Lord. Want to voluntarily renders service as he does his attachment increases.
TKG: Pure dasya bhaktas go to Vaikuntha, Dwarka or Mathura. If they have other rasas mixed they may go to Vrindavana. E.g. of mixed daysa – servants at Nanda M. Example of pure dasya devotees Siva and Brahma (appointed servants), Kaliya Naag (under protection of Lord), Uddhava, Daruka, Satyaki (constant associates of Lord – lustruos body features, lotus eyes, can defeat demigods, wear beautiful ornaments – Uddava is best). Finally Suchandra, Stambha and Sons of the Lord in Dwarka (follower of Lord).
TKG: Pure dasya is less elevated than dasya mixed with other rasas. E.g. K’s sons can sit on K’s lap, while Hanuman cannot.
o sakhya or friendship - Goloka-dhāma
TKG: One thinks himself equal to God. Yet no offense as mentioned in 10 namaparadhas. This is not due to envy. Main quality – conviction of equality.
TKG: 5 Pandavas, Draupadi, Sudama, fearless and equal level with K. They discharge their duties in that mood. Friends in Vrindavana in diff categories Well wishers: Little older than K. Think they have to protect K. E.g. Mandalibhadra. Allwtas carries colorful stick, Has peacock feather and looks beautiful. Friends:
Confidential friend: Equal age with K. Equal age of K. E.g. Madhumangal, Sridama (brother of Radharani). Don’t feel need to protect K or being protected by K. Intimate friends: Equal age with K. E.g. Subala, Ujjvala.Subala has body like molten gold, very very dear to K, always wear garlands, eyes like lotus, wears yellow garments, is very beautiful, his talks were K were not heard by others, very intelligent
instructions that other friends take great pleasure. o vātsalya or parental love - Goloka-dhāma
TKG: Devotee feels Lord has to be protected. Main quality – affection.
TKG: Superior position. 9 famous persons – Yasoda, Nanda, Rohini, Elderly Gopis mothers of gopas who were taken buy Brahma, Devaki, 15 wives of Vasudeva, Kunti, Vasudeva, Sandipani Muni. Order from most to least.
o śṛṅgāra / madhurya or juvenile love - Goloka-dhāma
TKG: When devotee is attracted to sweet qualities of the Lord. Main quality – sweetness.
Vrindavana. Diff groups of gopīs Asta Sakhis: Leader by Lalita Devi. They prefer to SRR. When SRR is there she is the group leader, else each one of them have their own groups. o Friends of Balarama: Lalita is leader here too. Vara Gopis: 8 in number. Doots: Messengers. Vrinda Devi. Million and billions of Gopis.
Manjaris o TKG: When a devotee is continuously feeling one of these particular attractions it is called sthayi bhava. This sthayi bhava is like king to all ecstasies that a devotee feels. Other types of emotions subordinate to this sthayi bhava – vibhava (causes of ecstasies), anubhava (subsequent ecstasies), sattvika
vyabhichari bhava (Transitory ecstasies). When sthayi bhava mixes with all of these they form bhakti rasa which the devotee relishes. o TKG: 7 subordinate rasas. Sometimes found within a devotee. E.g. if rains fall within swati nakstra on head of elephant – become jewel called gaja mukha, on snake – another jewel, cow – golocana, deer – kasturi (musk), sea – pearl. Similarly when principles of bhakti is applied according a devotee’s inherent particular sthayi bhava, it will develop accordingly. o TKG: Vibhava is divinded into 2 – alambana and udipana. Alambhana into 2 – visaya (object of one’s love ) and asraya (shelter for that love). E.g. Devotee is the shelter of the Lord and Krsna is the object of love. Udipana means stimulation for ecstatic love. .g. when RR sees dark cloud Her love for K arises. o TKG: Anubhava – ecstasy that comes by bhava. It has symptoms. Symptoms are called anubhava. Rolling on ground, etc. o TKG: Sattvika bhava – becoming stunned, perspiring. Hairs standing, voice falters, Ref. NOD 28. Sometimes person shows more than one symptoms. It is called Sudipta / Dipta. o TKG: Vyabhicaris are sometimes called sancharis – they are 33 in numbers. Sometimes they are adverse – guilt, fatigued, pride, forgetfulness, diseased. Ref ch 29-31 of NOD.
The devotees serve Kṛṣṇa eternally and ultimately reach the goal of their respective ideals. Befitting their rasas they attain their real nature, glories, conveyances, seats befitting and transcendental qualities of ornament. They worship Kṛṣṇa by the sūktas depicted in the Vedas with the ingredients and objects befitting their respective rasas. The Vedas, under the influence of the spiritual potency, in certain passages speak of the pastimes of the Supreme Lord. The liberated souls chant the name, qualities and pastimes of the Supreme Lord, under the guidance of the same spiritual potency. Text 37 – Srngara Rasa TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, residing in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, resembling His own spiritual figure, the embodiment of the ecstatic potency possessed of the sixty-four artistic activities, in the company of Her confidantes [sakhīs], embodiments of the extensions of Her bodily form, permeated and vitalized by His ever-blissful spiritual rasa. Overview
Explanation Para 1 (a) – Ingredients of conjugal love CCP: Ramananda Raya says conjugal love is highest. A higher rasa contains all of the lower rasas. When discussing Radha and Krsna we should keep in mind that They are fully spiritual personalities. Same with Their eternal associates. When you study these bhavas then when you read Krsna book and CC you will be able to
appreciate much more. E.g. an learned musician hears much more in a music than a normal person. One relishes reading more the scriptures. This relish brings one closer to himself being engaged in the lila. We are not sahajiya who don’t read books. This is science. Do not make to do a scientific study of this. Although the Lord Absolute and His potency are one and the selfsame, still They exist eternally as separate entities, as Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. In both Radha and Kṛṣṇa, there exists śṛṅgāra-rasa (amorous love) whose quality is inconceivable. The vibhāva (extension) of that rasa is twofold - ālambana (prop) and uddīpana (stimulation). Of these ālambana is twofold - āśraya (supported) and viṣaya (supporter). Āśraya - Rādhikā Herself and the extensions of Her own form and viṣaya means Kṛṣṇa Himself, Govinda. The gopīs are the facsimile āśraya of that rasa. With them Kṛṣṇa indulges in eternal pastimes in Goloka.
Para 1 (b) – 64 fine art and crafts TKG: These arts are part of Hladini Sakti. Manifest partially in this world, but full in Goloka. All these items are described in various books of Rupa G. The sixty-four activities in fine arts and crafts are the following: (1) gīta-art of singing. (2) vādya-art of playing on musical instruments. (3) nṛtya-art of dancing. (4) nāṭya-art of theatricals. (5) ālekhya-art of painting. (6)viśeṣakacchedya-art of painting the face and body with colored unguents and cosmetics. (7) taṇḍulakusuma-balī-vikāra-art of preparing offerings from rice and flowers. (8) puṣpāstaraṇa-art of making a covering of flowers for a bed. (9) daśana-vasanāṅga-rāga-art of applying preparations for cleansing the teeth, cloths and painting the body. (10) maṇibhūmikā-karma-art of making the groundwork of jewels. (11) śayyāracana-art of covering the bed. (12)udaka-vādya-art of playing on music in water. (13) udaka-ghāta-art of splashing with water. (14) citra-yoga-art of practically applying an admixture of colors. (15) mālya-grathana-vikalpa-art of designing a preparation of wreaths. (16) śekharāpīḍa-yojana-art of practically setting the coronet on the head. (17) nepathya-yoga-art of practically dressing in the tiring room. (18) karṇapātra-bhaṅga-art of decorating the tragus of the ear. (19) sugandha-yukti-art of practical application of aromatics. (20) bhūṣaṇa-yojana-art of applying or setting ornaments. (21) aindra-jāla-art of jugglery. (22) kaucumāra-a kind of art. (23) hasta-lāghava-art of sleight of hand. (24) citra-śākāpūpabhakṣya-vikāra-kriyā-art of preparing varieties of salad, bread, cake and delicious food. (25) pānaka-rasa-rāgāsava-yojana-art of
practically preparing palatable drinks and tinging draughts with red color. (26) sūcī-vāya-karma-art of needleworks and weaving. (27) sūtra-krīḍā-art of playing with thread. (28) vīṇā-ḍamurakavādya-art of playing on lute and small x-shaped drum. (29) prahelikā-art of making and solving riddles. (29-a) pratimālā-art of caping or reciting verse for verse as a trial for memory or skill. (30) durvacaka-yoga-art of practicing language difficult to be answered by others. (31) pustaka-vācana-art of reciting books. (32) nāṭikākhyāyikā-darśana-art of enacting short plays and anecdotes. (33) kāvya-samasyā-pūraṇa-art of solving enigmatic verses. (34) paṭṭikā-vetra-bāṇa-vikalpa-art of designing preparation of shield, cane and arrows. (35) tarku-karma-art of spinning by spindle. (36) takṣaṇa-art of carpentry. (37) vāstu-vidyā-art of engineering. (38) raupya-ratna-parīkṣā-art of testing silver and jewels. (39)dhātu-vāda-art of metallurgy. (40) maṇi-rāga jñāna-art of tinging jewels. (41) ākara jñāna-art of mineralogy. (42)vṛkṣāyurveda-yoga-art of practicing medicine or medical treatment, by herbs. (43) meṣa-kukkuṭa-lāvaka-yuddha-vidhi-art of knowing the mode of fighting of lambs, cocks and birds. (44) śuka-śārikāprapālana (pralāpana)?-art of maintaining or knowing conversation between male and female cockatoos. (45) utsādana-art of healing or cleaning a person with perfumes. (46) keśa-mārjana-kauśala-art of combing hair. (47) akṣara-muṣṭikā-kathana-art of talking with letters and fingers. (48) mlecchita-kutarka-vikalpa-art of fabricating barbarous or foreign sophistry. (49) deśa-bhāṣā-jñāna-art of knowing provincial dialects. (50) puṣpa-śakaṭikā-nirmiti-jñāna-art of knowing prediction by heavenly voice or knowing preparation of toy carts by flowers. (51) yantra-mātṛkā-art of mechanics. (52) dhāraṇa-mātṛkāart of the use of amulets. (53) samvācya-art of conversation. (54) mānasī kāvya-kriyā-art of composing verse mentally. (55) kriyāvikalpa-art of designing a literary work or a medical remedy. (56) chalitaka-yoga-art of practicing as a builder of shrines called after him. (57) abhidhāna-koṣa-cchando-jñāna-art of the use of lexicography and meters. (58) vastra-gopana-art of concealment of cloths. (59) dyūta-viśeṣa-art of knowing specific gambling. (60) ākarṣa-krīḍā-art of playing with dice or magnet. (61) bālakakrīḍanaka-art of using children's toys. (62) vaināyikī vidyā-art of enforcing discipline. (63) vaijayikī vidyā-art of gaining victory. (64)vaitālikī vidyā-art of awakening master with music at dawn. TKG: SRR knows all 64 arts to their highest extensions. Dancing and cooking are the best items that K likes. Most He likes dancing. Para 2 to 5 – Manifest and non-manifest pastimes (prakata lila and aprakata lila) All these arts manifesting their own eternal forms are ever visible in the region of Goloka as the ingredients of rasa; and, in the mundane
sphere, they have been exhibited in the pastimes of Vraja by Yogamāyā. Śrī Rūpa says Kṛṣṇa is ever manifest in His beauty with His infinite pastimes in Goloka. Sometimes the variant manifestation of those pastimes becomes visible on the mundane plane. Those pastimes that manifest themselves on the mundane plane, are His visible pastimes. All those very pastimes exist in their nonvisible form in Goloka beyond the ken of mundane knowledge. There is no distinction between the visible and nonvisible pastimes. Jīva Gosvāmī in Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi and Kṛṣṇa-sandarbha: "visible pastimes of Kṛṣṇa are creation of His cit potency. Being in conjunction with reference to mundane function they exhibit certain features which seem to be true by influence of Māyā; but these cannot exist in the transcendental reality. E.g. destruction of demons, illicit paramourship, birth, etc. The gopīs are extensions of ecstatic energy of Kṛṣṇa, and so are exceptionally His own. How can there be illicit connection in their case?" Why Jīva Gosvāmī’s words are authority and conversant with transcendental realities? o Always under the influence of Śrī Rūpa and Sanātana. o Śrī Jīva is one of the mañjarīs. Who can see that non-manifest lila? o A particularly fortunate person when he is favored by Kṛṣṇa, o Shaken off worldly shackles and connections, o After attaining the realized taste of the varieties of rasa that is available during the period when one is a novice. A person who can gad realized cid-rasa by grace of Krsna can also see the Goloka pastimes in Gokula. There is a difference between these two classes of eligible seekers of the truth. The vision of the transcendental reality varies according to the degree of self-realization. The vision of Goloka must also vary accordingly. Jnanis and karmis are devoid of this transcendental vision. They can see only material vision of pastimes of Lord in material world. In visible and nonvisible pastimes there is no difference; only there is some difference in the matter of realization in proportion to the self-realization of the seekers after the Absolute.
Para 6 to 7 – Parakiya Rasa Transcendental autocratic paramourship also exists in Goloka in inconceivable purity, judged by the same standard and reasoning. Jīva Gosvāmī established the transcendental paramourship as vibhrama-vilāsa, something seemingly different from what it appears to be; such are the pastimes of birth, etc., accomplished by Yogamāyā.
Para 8 - Purity of Krsna’s Parakiya Rasa In Goloka there is no husband-wife relationship. So the Gopis’ relation with Krsna is not immoral. There are separate entities called svakiya or parakiya. Concept of marriage exist in material world only. Difficult word: concubinage: cohabitation of persons not legally married. By showing parakiya bhava Krsna shows that He is beyond laws of this world. The rasa of paramourship is certainly the extracted essence of all the rasas. Kṛṣṇa, the fountainhead of all avatāras, tastes the same in a distinct form in Goloka and in another distinct form in Gokula. Lord’s wedded consort – Laxmi Ji – is mostly in dasya rasa. By the sentiments of ownership there cannot be the extreme inaccessibility of the rasa. So the gopīs have naturally, from eternity, the innate sentiment of being others' wedded wives. Para 9 – Sri Jiva Goswami’s Conclusions In Vaikuntha there is no vatsalya rasa. It exist in Goloka. Nanda and Yasoda eternally exist but there is no birth. So this rasa has no beginning, it is simply part of their nature. Similarly gopīs have that feeling eternally and hence there is no fault. When pastimes of Goloka becomes manifest in Vraja then those two rasas become somewhat more palpable to the mundane view. The sentiments of Nanda and Yaśodā that they are parents becomes manifest in the more tangible form in the pastimes of birth etc., and the corresponding sentiments of concubinage in the respective gopīs become manifest in the forms of their marriages with Abhimanyu, Govardhana, etc. In reality there is no such separate entity as husbandhood of the gopīs either in Goloka or in Gokula. Hence the śāstras declare that there is no sexual union of the gopīs with their husbands. It is also for the same reason that Śrī Rūpa writes that in the transcendental amorous rasa the hero is of two different types - the wedded husband and the paramour. Śrī Jīva, in his commentary by his words acknowledges the eternal paramourship of Kṛṣṇa in Goloka and Gokula and the husbandhood of Kṛṣṇa in Vaikuṇṭha and Dvārakā etc. Para 10 – Disputes Among Pure Devotees and Srila Visvanath Cakravarti’s Conclusions
In Govinda, the hero of Goloka, there exist both husbandhood and paramourship above all piety and impiety and free from all grossness. Such is also the case with the hero of Gokula although there is a distinction in realization caused by Yogamāyā. Argument: What is manifested by Yogamāyā is the highest truth being the creation of the cit potency and that, therefore, the impression of paramourship is also really true. Amswer: The unwholesome impression that is produced in the mundane judgment is offensive and as such cannot exist in the pure cit realm. So inconceivably both Jiva Goswami and the opposing parties are true. What the unalloyed devotee of the Supreme Lord says is all true and is independent of any consideration of unwholesome pros and cons. There is, however, the element of mystery in their verbal controversies. People who don’t have pure devotion cannot understand the spirit of all-loving controversies among pure devotees. Commenting on the śloka of Rāsa-pañcādhyāyī, gopīnāṁ tatpatīnāṁ ca, etc., what Śrīpāda Sanātana Gosvāmī has stated conclusively in his Vaiṣṇava-toṣaṇī has been accepted with reverence by the true devotee Śrīpāda Viśvanātha Cakravartī without any protest. Para 11 – A warning Whenever any dispute arises regarding the pure cognitive pastimes remember the precious advice from the Lord and the acaryas. the Truth Absolute is ever characterized by spiritual variegatedness that transcends the variegatedness of mundane phenomena; but He is never featureless. The divine rasa is lovely with the variegatedness of the fourfold distinction of vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika and vyabhicāri and the rasa is ever present in Goloka and Vaikuṇṭha. The rasa of Goloka manifests as vraja-rasa on the mundane plane for the benefit of the devotees by the power of Yogamāyā. All the features of Gokula exist in Goloka, disposed in an appropriate manner. There is only this peculiarity that the mundane conceptions of human beings possessed of material judgment, regarding those transcendental entities, do not exist there. The conception of Goloka manifests itself differently in proportion to the degree of realization of the various pastimes of Vraja and it is very difficult to lay down any definite criterion as to which portions are mundane and which are uncontaminated.
there is no need of further hypothetical speculation which does not improve one's spiritual appreciation, as the substantive knowledge of Goloka is an inconceivable entity. Analogy: To try to pursue the inconceivable by the conceptual process is like pounding the empty husk of grain, which is sure to have a fruitless ending. Stop trying to know and practice pure devotional service. Worldly devotees should not imitate the parakiya rasa. One should to accept the real spirit of Jiva Goswami’s statements. It is a great offense to disrespect the ācārya and to seek to establish a different doctrine in opposition to him. Text 38 – The eye of devotion TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is Śyāmasundara, Kṛṣṇa Himself with inconceivable innumerable attributes, whom the pure devotees see in their heart of hearts with the eye of devotion tinged with the salve of love. Overview a) Krsna reveals Himself b) Seeing Krsna face to face Explanation The Śyāmasundara form of Kṛṣṇa is His inconceivable simultaneous personal and impersonal self-contradictory form. o TKG: Confusing sentence. K is not a temporary personal form nor He is eternally impersonal form. He is eternally a person and His impersonal form is brahmajyoti. True devotees see that form in their purified hearts under the influence of devotional trance. o Proof: SB 1.7.4. The form Śyāma is not the blue color visible in the mundane world but is the transcendental variegated color affording eternal bliss, and is not visible to the mortal eye. When Kṛṣṇa manifested Himself in Vraja, both the devotees and nondevotees saw Him with this very eye; but only the devotees cherished Him, eternally present in Vraja, as the priceless jewel of their heart. o TKG: In temple some people see stone, some see God. We chant every day and we don’t see Krsna in the name.
Nowadays also the devotees see Him in Vraja in their hearts, saturated with devotion although they do not see Him with their eyes. The eye of devotion is nothing but the eye of the pure unalloyed spiritual self of the jīva. The form of Kṛṣṇa is visible to that eye in proportion to its purification by the practice of devotion. When the devotion of the neophyte reaches the stage of bhāvabhakti the pure eye of that devotee is tinged with the salve of love by the grace of Kṛṣṇa, which enables him to see Kṛṣṇa face to face. o TKG: Narada Muni’s vision in SB 1.6 The phrase "in their hearts" means Kṛṣṇa is visible in proportion as their hearts are purified by the practice of devotion. The form of Kṛṣṇa is not a mental concoction but is transcendental, and is visible with the eye of the soul of the devotee under trance. o TKG: Most difficult in preaching – people want proof by their material senses. But atah sri krsna namadi. b. Krsna is the basis of all existence (Text 39-42) Text 39 – Krsna is the source of all incarnations TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who manifested Himself personally as Kṛṣṇa and the different avatāras in the world in the forms of Rāma, Nṛsiṁha, Vāmana, etc., as His subjective portions. Overview
Explanation The avatāras, Rāma, etc., appear from Vaikuṇṭha and His own form Kṛṣṇa manifests Himself with Vraja in this world, from Goloka. TKG: Krsnastu bhagava svayam is the paribhasa sutra of SB.````````````` Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, identical with Kṛṣṇa Himself, also brings about by His appearance the direct manifestation of Godhead Himself. Text 40 – Krsna is the basis of Brahman TRANSLATION:
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose effulgence is the source of the nondifferentiated Brahman mentioned in the Upaniṣads, being differentiated from the infinity of glories of the mundane universe appears as the indivisible, infinite, limitless, truth. Overview
Explanation The Brahman: o Impersonal aspect of the Lord. o Far above the principles of mundane creation – space, time and gross things. o External effulgence emanating from the boundary wall of the transcendental realm of Vaikuṇṭha o Indivisible o One without a second o Infinite o Residual entity TKG: Famous verse, often quoted. Brahman region is sometime called Siddhaloka and Brahmaloka (different from abode of Brahma Ji). Essential nature – spiritual but without variety. E.g. – homogenous sunshine. Krsna is like sun and Brahman is like sunshine. We see sunshine and we have not seen the sun disc. So if conclude sun is like light only then it is an incomplete understanding. A slightly advanced person will go outside and see the sun disc. This is Paramatma understanding. But still that is not complete understanding. Complete understanding – bhagavan feature. Brahman is effulgence of the Lord, so it is the potency and potency depends on the potent not vice versa. TKG: Denying form of God is like killing God. So they are like demons. So both demons killed by Krsna and impersonalist get the same liberation. E.g. Sisupala. Similar verse in BS 5.55 and SB 7.1.30. E.g. If a plane goes up and does not land at destination then you have to come back. So impersonalists fall back. So their endeavor is futile unless they get association of a pure devotee. Very effective argument – do you think Hanuman will want to become to Ram? In India everyone becomes convinced by that. K
very easily grants not liberation but not devotion. Because He becomes controlled by that devotee’s love. Text 41 – Krsna is the support of all existence TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is the absolute substantive principle being the ultimate entity in the form of the support of all existence whose external potency embodies the threefold mundane qualities, viz., sattva, rajas, and tamas and diffuses the Vedic knowledge regarding the mundane world. Explanation TKG: This text is introduction to Text 43 onwards. The active mundane quality of rajas brings forth or generates all mundane entities. The quality of sattva (mundane manifestive principle) in conjunction with rajas stands for the maintenance of the existence of entities that are so produced, and The quality of tamas represents the principle of destruction. The substantive principle, which is mixed with the threefold mundane qualities, is mundane, while the unmixed substance is transcendental. The absolute entity is sat-cit-ananda. It is the deluding energy who has elaborated the regulative knowledge (Vedas) bearing on the threefold mundane quality. Text 42 – Govinda’s Glorious Pastimes TRANSLATION: I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose glory ever triumphantly dominates the mundane world by the activity of His own pastimes, being reflected in the mind of recollecting souls as the transcendental entity of ever-blissful cognitive rasa. Overview
Explanation TKG: Glorious verse though not very often quoted. Imp words – smaratam and lilayitam. RDG wrote a book – manas siksa that describes how to do remembrance. Those
instructions the name, figure, attributes and pastimes of the form of Krsna (Madan Mohan) are alone meditators of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa always manifests Himself with His realm only in the pure receptive cognition of such persons. The
dominates in every way all the majesty and beauty of the mundane world. c. Krsna is the Supreme Lord of All Lords (Text 43-52) Text 43 – Gradation of realms TRANSLATION: Lowest of all is located Devī-dhāma [mundane world], next above it is Maheśa-dhāma [abode of Maheśa]; above Maheśa-dhāma is placed Haridhāma [abode of Hari] and above them all is located Kṛṣṇa's own realm named Goloka. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, who has allotted their respective authorities to the rulers of those graded realms. Overview
The realm of Goloka stands highest above all others. Brahmā looking up to the higher position of Goloka is speaking of the other realms from the point of view of his own realm: The first in order is this mundane world called Devī-dhāma consisting of the fourteen worlds, Satyaloka, etc.; o the extension of Māyā o TKG: In traditional sense – Mahar Loka, Jana Loka, Tapa Loka and Satya Loka are for perfect brahmacārīs, vanaprasthas and sannyasis. Sinful person goes to hellish planets – patala, sutala, etc. Between are for householders. A householder can go to Brahmaloka if he perfectly observes dharma for 100 lifetimes. Each layer has different opulence. One has to withstand all these allurements. These kinds of allurements are presented to yogis. Above Devī-dhāma is Śiva-dhāma one portion of which, Mahākāladhāma, is enveloped in darkness; interpenetrating this portion there shines the Sadāśivaloka, full of great light. o Consisting of time, space and matter. o TKG: MKD is described in Krsna book too. With Lord Sadasiva are devotees who hold Hari Kirtan. He worships Lord Sankarsana.
(brahmajyoti / siddhaloka)brahmajyoti has maha kala loka (lower
portion of mahesh dhama)hari dhama TKG: We are studying all these to understand that other processes – karma, jnana and yoga are not useful, they can’t get us out of material world. Above the same
or the transcendental
Vaikuṇṭhaloka. o ever resplendent with transcendental majesty
o TKG: Very opulent. Devotees more at ease at glorifying Lord rather
Ayodhya, Dwarka and Mathura. The great splendor of all-sweetness predominates over all other majesties in Goloka. The potencies of Devī-dhāma and Śivaloka are the potency of the separated particles pervaded by the penumbral reflection of the subjective portion of the Divinity. The Supreme Lord Govinda by his own direct and indirect power has constituted those respective potencies of those realms. Text 44 – Goddess Durga TRANSLATION: The external potency Māyā who is of the nature of the shadow of the cit potency, is worshiped by all people as Durgā, the creating, preserving and destroying agency of this mundane world. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda in accordance with whose will Durgā conducts herself. Overview
The Presiding deity of Devi dhama o Ten-armed - the tenfold fruitive activities Samskaras – people use to achieve success materially or spiritually. o Rides on the lion - her heroic prowess o Tramples down Mahīṣāsura - the subduer of vices o The mother of Kārttikeya and Gaṇeśa - beauty and success o Placed between Lakṣmī and Sarasvatī - mundane opulence and mundane knowledge TKG: Krishna is Akincana gochara – Kunti M. o Armed with the twenty weapons - the various pious activities enjoined by the Vedas for suppression of vices. o Holds the snake -the beauty of destructive time. The prison master
o Possess Durga (citadel) – where jivas who have forgotten their service to Krsna are confined. o The wheel of karma is the instrument of punishment at this place. o By will of Govinda, incessantly engaged in purifying the penalized jivas. o When jivas come in contact with pure devotees their natural aptitude for loving devotional service is aroused and same Durga becomes agency of their deliverance. o So each one of us should help Durga in her service by worshipping Krsna. o The boons received from Durgā in the shape of wealth, property, recovery from illness, of wife and sons, should be realized as the deluding kindness of Durgā. o The mundane psychical jubilations of daśa-mahā-vidyā, the ten goddesses or forms of Durgā, are elaborated for the delusion of the fettered souls of this world. o Maya gives jiva gross body which is like dress of a prisoner and also a subtle body by which he changes the gross body. o One goes to Hari Dhama on leaving the subtle body. o TKG: SB text quoted is 2.5.13. The Spiritual Durga o Durgā, worshiped by the people of this mundane world, is the Durgā described above. o The spiritual Durgā (mentioned in the mantra) The outer covering of the spiritual realm of the Supreme Lord The eternal maidservant of Kṛṣṇa The transcendental reality Her shadow, the Durgā of this world, functions in this mundane world as her maidservant. Text 45 – Lord Sambhu TRANSLATION: Just as milk is transformed into curd by the action of acids, but yet the effect curd is neither same as, nor different from, its cause, viz., milk, so I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whom the state of Śambhu is a transformation for the performance of the work of destruction. Overview
TKG: Famous verse which Srila Prabhupada often quoted. The Nature of Sambhu Śambhu is not a second Godhead other than Kṛṣṇa. Those, who entertain such discriminating sentiment, commit a great offense against the Supreme Lord. The supremacy of Śambhu is subservient to that of Govinda; hence they are not really different from each other. o TKG: They are one and yet different Analogy: Just as milk treated with acid turns into curd so Godhead becomes a subservient when He Himself attains a distinct personality by the addition of a particular element of adulteration. Adulterating principle - a combination of the stupefying quality of the deluding energy, the quality of non-plenitude of the marginal potency and a slight degree of the ecstatic-cum-cognitive principle of the plenary spiritual potency. o TKG: husband shares nature of the wife. Non-plenitude – limited. This specifically adulterated reflection is Sadāśiva, in the form of the effulgent masculine-symbol-god Śambhu from whom Rudradeva is manifested. The fifty attributes of individual souls are manifest in a far vaster measure in Śambhu and five additional attributes not attainable by jīvas are also partly found in him – changeless, cognizant, everfresh, eternally blisfull body and all mystic perfection. So Śambhu cannot be called a jīva. He is the lord of jīva but yet partakes of the nature of a separated portion of Govinda. o TKG: CC Adi Lila – 6.79. Sadasiva is spiritual world is an expansion of Visnu (has spiritual body) and Sambhu in material world is his expansion who is a jiva empowered by Siva. The whole thing is inconceivable. Sambhu as Guna Avatara Sambhu is gunavatara for destruction. He also helps is creation and preservation. o TKG: Jiva performs destruction. We read about creation in beginning and do preservation by killing demons through Goddess Kali. o TKG: Siva means all-auspicious, why? Because of his meditation upon Sankarsana. Government considers education department as important as education department. So one should not minimize Lord Siva. Sambhu As Acarya (vaiṣṇavānāṁ yathā śambhuḥ)
Works in union with his consort Durgādevī by his own time energy. Teaches pious duties (dharma) as stepping-stones to the attainment of spiritual service in the various tantra-śāstras, etc., suitable for jīvas in different grades of the conditional existence. Maintains and fosters the religion of pure devotion by preached Māyāvāda and the speculative āgama-śāstras. o TKG: He removed atheists from Vaisnava sampradāyas. Text 46 – The presiding deities of Hari Dhama TRANSLATION: The light of one candle being communicated to other candles, although it burns separately in them, is the same in its quality. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda who exhibits Himself equally in the same mobile manner in His various manifestations. Overview
TKG: Another famous and oft quoted verse. We do not worship many Gods. There is only one God that we worship. Lord Narayana (majestic portion of Krsna) esp. Ksiro Visnu is being described. NarayanaKarano. VisnuGarbho. VisnuKsiro. Visnu. The
omniscient personality. Viṣṇu's subjective personality is on a level with that of Govinda. Both consist of the unadulterated substantive principle. Material quality of action and inertia found in Brahma and Sambhu but not in Visnu. His goodness is not material. Hence He is in category of Isvara. He is the Lord of the deluding potency and not alloyed with her. Viṣṇu is the agent of Govinda's own subjective nature in the form of the prime cause. All the majestic attributes of Govinda, aggregating sixty in number, are fully present in His majestic manifestation, Nārāyaṇa.
generated form body, origin source of incarnation, gives liberation to enemies when kills, attractor of liberated souls. Viṣṇu is Godhead Himself, and the two other guṇa-avatāras and all the other gods are entities possessing authority in subordination to Him. From
Kṣīrodakaśāyī and all other derivative subjective divine descents (avatāras) such as Rāma, etc., analogous to communicated light appearing in different candles, shining by the operation of the spiritual potency of Govinda. Text 47 – Ananta Sesa TRANSLATION: I adore the primeval Lord Govinda who assuming His own great subjective form, who bears the name of Śeṣa, replete with the all-accommodating potency, and reposing in the Causal Ocean with the infinity of the world in the pores of His hair, enjoys creative sleep [yoga-nidrā]. Overview
Explanation Ananta Sesa o TKG: Sesa is expansion of Balarama. Different names – Sankarsana – one who attracts K in womb of Devaki. o the infinite couch on which Mahā-Viṣṇu reposes o has the subjective nature of the servant of Kṛṣṇa.
TKG: Serves in very intimate way – bed, slippers, throne, etc. If even Balarama serves K then why not
others. Sesa and Sambhu devastate together. Siva is a devotee of Ananta and hence assists him. Text 48 – Maha Visnu’s Breath TRANSLATION: Brahmā and other lords of the mundane worlds, appearing from the pores of hair of Mahā-Viṣṇu, remain alive as long as the duration of one exhalation of the latter [Mahā-Viṣṇu]. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whose subjective personality Mahā-Viṣṇu is the portion of portion. Explanation
The supreme majesty of the subjective nature of Viṣṇu is shown here. Text 49 – Lord Brahma TRANSLATION: I adore the primeval Lord Govinda from whom the separated subjective portion Brahmā receives his power for the regulation of the mundane world, just as the sun manifests some portion of his own light in all the effulgent gems that bear the names of sūryakānta, etc. Overview
Brahmā is two types: sometimes jīva and in some kalpas He Himself acts. Brahmā is superior to ordinary jīvas but is not the direct Divinity. o TKG: Who can become Brahma? Super karmi (not liberated, takes birth again), super jnani (gets impersonal liberation) and a great devotee (goes to planet to Lord) or a Brahma from previous life. They can become Brahma. The aggregate of fifty attributes, belonging to the jīva, are present in a fuller measure in Brahmā who possesses, in a lesser degree, five more attributes which are not found in jīvas. But in Śambhu both the fifty attributes of jīvas as also the five additional attributes found in Brahmā are present in even greater measure than in Brahmā.
TKG: Functions (1) Engineers universe. (2) Inaugurates a sampradāya. TKG: Brahma is so great that sometimes he is mistaken to be Supreme Lord, e.g. Narada is SB. Text 50 – Sri Ganesha TRANSLATION: I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, whose lotus feet are always held by Gaṇeśa upon the pair of tumuli protruding from his elephant head in order to obtain power for his function of destroying all the obstacles on the path of progress of the three worlds. Overview
The power of destroying all obstacles to mundane prosperity has been delegated to Gaṇeśa who is the object of worship to those who are eligible to worship him. o TKG: For materialists he destroys obtabcles in mundane achievements. For devotees, remove obstacles from advancing in devotional service. How? Ganesa holds feet of Lord Nrsinghadeva. So if someone worships Ganesa, Nrsinghadeva removes the obstacles in devotional service. Tumuli means two little things sticking on head. Ganesa means Vinayaka, means the Lord of the misguided. So he helps Lord Siva is guiding the misguided. Ganesa has to assists Lord Siva to control – bhūta, pisaca, betala, brahma raksasa, etc. Ref Krishna fight with Banasura. SB describes those in mode of passion worship him or in mixed mode of goodness and ignorance. He has obtained a rank among the five gods as Brahmā possessing mundane quality. o TKG: 5 gods worshipped by impersonalists and materialists – Visnu, Surya, Durga, Siva and Ganesa. All his glory rests entirely on the grace of Govinda. Text 51 – Govinda is the basis TRANSLATION: The three worlds are composed of the nine elements, viz., fire, earth, ether, water, air, direction, time, soul and mind. I adore the primeval Lord
Govinda from whom they originate, in whom they exist and into whom they enter at the time of the universal cataclysm. Explanation This verse is summary of many verses before.
Text 52 – Sri Suryadeva TRANSLATION: The sun who is the king of all the planets, full of infinite effulgence, the image of the good soul, is as the eye of this world. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda in pursuance of whose order the sun performs his journey mounting the wheel of time. Overview
Suryadeva’s duties Certain professors of the Vedic religion worship the sun as Brahman. The sun is one of the hierarchy of the five gods. Some people target in heat the source of this world and therefore designate the sun, the only location of heat, as the root cause of this world. TKG: Some say he is jiva some say he is expansion of SPG. Both are correct. Srila Prabhupada’s purports state both. Ref. 5.23.3 and 5.20.25. Reconciliation – he is a saktyavesa avatara. TKG: There is only one sun in every universe. His duty – give heat and light, causing rainfall. Spiritual duty – receives BG from God and passes on. SB4.24 – helps jivas to steady mind in KC. He is expansion of Lord Anirudha. He witnesses man’s activities. The sun-god’s delegated authority The sun is after all only the presiding deity of a sphere of the sum total of all mundane heat and is hence a god exercising delegated authority. The sun performs his specific function of service certainly by the command of Govinda. TKG: In taittreya upanisad it is said sun rises and rets due to fear of Lord. Gives material boon to those in mode passion. We worship him thru gayatri manta.
d. The Laws of Karma are under Krsna’s control (Text 53-54) Text 53 – The wheel of karma TRANSLATION: I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, by whose conferred power are maintained the manifested potencies, that are found to exist, of all virtues, all vices, the Vedas, the penances and all jīvas, from Brahmā to the meanest insect. Overview
TKG: Prayers of Brahma coming to a conclusion. Everything is potency of Govinda. Dharma - the allotted functions of varṇa and āśrama manifested by the twenty dharma-śāstras. o All customary activities of mankind have been targeted in these twofold divisions – varna and asrama. Sins - nescience, the root of all sins and sinful desire, also the greatest iniquities and sins flowing from them and the ordinary sins, i.e., all sorts of unprincipled conduct. śrutis - Ṛg, Sāma, Yajur and Atharva and the Upaniṣads. tapas - all regular practices that are learnt with the view of the attainment of the proper function of the self. The conditioned souls are embarked on a sojourn of successive births from 84 lakhs of varieties of generating organs. o TKG: 900,000 of aquatics, 2,000,000 are trees and plants, 400,000 are human, 1,100,000 insects, 3,000,000 are quadrapods, 1,000,000 birds. Many of the humans are uncivilized. Among of those who are civilized very few have Vedic culture. Very few of them know how to properly behave Out of all of them very few are Brahmins and out of many Brahmins are Vaisnavas. So Vaisnavas are so rare. Those who know purpose of life are called Aryans. Aryans know the goal of life is to get freedom from birth and death. So they follow religious principles. Primary – teach devotional service. Secondary – regulate material desire to control sinful activities. For secondary Varnasrama Dharma has been
created. Prabhupada – without varnasrama civilized society is impossible. If one’s only desire is to serve Krsna then Varnasrama is not required. So we give more importance to 9fold devotional service, but we don’t neglect Varnasrama. But we don’t mundane varnasrama but daivi varnasrama in which 9-fold activities go on with the varnasrama duties. Varnasrama duties are not eternal. If not devotional purpose then srama eva hi kevalam. E.g. Brahmins who refused Krsna and Balarama. They make up the aggregate of the conditioned souls from the degree of Brahmā to that of the little fly and are the distinctive features within the revolving wheel of karma. They have some powers given by God. Text 54 – Freedom from karma TRANSLATION: I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, who burns up to their roots all fruitive activities of those who are imbued with devotion and impartially ordains for each the due enjoyment of the fruits of one’s activities, of all those who walk in the path of work, in accordance with the chain of their previously performed works, no less in the case of the tiny insect that bears the name of indragopa than in that of Indra, king of the devas. Overview
Explanation God impartially awards reactions of one’s previous actions.
But for His devotees He purges out by the fire of ordeal, the root of all karma, viz., nescience and evil desires. The karma of those, who work with the hope of enjoying the fruits of their labors, becomes everlasting and endless and is never destroyed. The function of sannyāsa is also a sort of karma befitting an āśrama and is not pleasant to Kṛṣṇa when it aims at liberation. They also receive fruition of their karma and, even if it be disinterested, their karma ends in ātma-mamatā, i.e., self-pleasure It is a great wonder that Kṛṣṇa, being impartial, is fully partial to His devotees.
e. The process of Sadhana Bhakti (Text 55) Text 55 – Sadhana Bhakti TRANSLATION: I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, the meditators of whom, by meditating upon Him under the sway of wrath, amorous passion, natural friendly love, fear, parental affection, delusion, reverence and willing service, attain to bodily forms befitting the nature of their contemplation. Overview
TKG: Very important verse of BS. Resembles text 36. Difference – includes some people averse to God. 2 types of bhakti – vaidhī sadhana bhakti and raganuga sadhana bhakti. Raga turns to bhava and the devotee gets the mercy of the Lord. It takes much time to reach to this state. TKG: Even in beginning some attraction arises – ratyabhasa. Seeing the deity and hearing activities of eternal associates of Lord are 2 most potent forms to arise raganuga bhakti. In ISKCON we have that from beginning. 5 rasas. Anger (Sisupala), fear (Kamsa) and delusion (mayavadis) are not devotional service. They attain impersonal Brahman – ye yatha maam prapadyate. The śāntas obtain bodily forms with aptitude for addiction to Brahman and Paramātmā. The dāsya and sakhya worshipers attain bodily forms characterized by masculine or feminine disposition according to their respective grades of eligibility. The vātsalya class of worshipers get bodily forms befitting fatherly and motherly sentiments. The amorous lovers of Kṛṣṇa attain the pure forms of gopīs.
E. Text 56: Goloka Vrindavana, the Lord’s Supreme Abode Text 56 – A view of Goloka TRANSLATION: I worship that transcendental seat, known as Śvetadvīpa whereas loving consorts the Lakṣmīs in their unalloyed spiritual essence practice the amorous service of the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa as their only lover; where every tree is a transcendental purpose tree; where the soil is the purpose gem, all water is nectar, every word is a song, every gait is a dance, the flute is the favorite attendant, effulgence is full of transcendental bliss and the supreme spiritual entities are all enjoyable and tasty, where numberless milk cows always emit transcendental oceans of milk; where there is eternal existence of transcendental time, who is ever present and without past or future and hence is not subject to the quality of passing away even for the space of half a moment. That realm is known as Goloka only to a very few self-realized souls in this world. Overview
Attained by best performance of rasa-bhajana. Not devoid of variegatedness o lover and beloved, trees and creepers, mountains, rivers and forests, water, speech, movement, music of flute, sun and moon, tasted and taste (i.e. unthinkable wonders of 64 aesthetic arts), milk cows yielding nectarean flow of milk and transcendental ever-existing time. o Evidence: Chandogya Upanisad Above Vaikuntha Achieved according to quality of rasa. Goloka known by the name Gokula, Vrindavana and Navadwipa in this world. Variegatedness of Goloka is centralized while in mundane world it is not. Variegatedness of Goloka is full of bliss and knowledge. By mercy of Krsna one can see that variagatedness Why Lord came as Gaurasundara? To enjoy (1) The glory of Rādhā's love for Kṛṣṇa,
(2) tasty quality (rasa) of Kṛṣṇa that is realized by Rādhā and (3) The bliss of which Rādhā is conscious in the process of such realization "even the Supreme that is also nevertheless the object of enjoyment" (param api tad āsvādyam api ca) o param api indicates that Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the only Truth Absolute in all the transcendental blissful principles and o tad āsvādyam api means His object of enjoyment. LC is both asraya and visaya. So this verse indirectly points to Lord Caitanya.
F. Text 57-62: Lord Instructs Brahma
Text 57 – The Lord empowers Brahma TRANSLATION: On hearing these hymns containing the essence of the truth, the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa said to Brahmā, "Brahmā, if you experience the inclination to create offspring by being endowed with the real knowledge of the glory of Godhead, listen, My beloved, from Me to this science set forth in the following five ślokas. Overview Brahma Satisfies the Lord Explanation
TKG: How has he satisfied? By chanting Govinda and Krsna eagerly, not mechanically. Kṛṣṇa then said to Brahmā how pure unalloyed devotion can be practiced by souls engaged in worldly occupations by combining the same with the desire for carrying out the behest of the Supreme Lord. TKG: Mood of Radha in Dwarka is of Satyabhama. Mood of Chandravali in Dwarka is in Rukmini Devi. Both their groups have transcendental competition. Text 58 – Sambandha, Abhideya and Prayojana TRANSLATION:
When the pure spiritual experience is excited by means of cognition and service [bhakti], superexcellent unalloyed devotion characterized by love for Godhead is awakened towards Kṛṣṇa, the beloved of all souls. Overview
TKG: This verse summarizes all teachings by Krsna to Brahma. Real knowledge is nothing but knowledge of one's relationship to the Absolute. Real knowledge is identical with the knowledge of subjective natures of cit (animate), acit (inanimate) and Kṛṣṇa and of their mutual relationship. Mental speculation is not alluded to, since that is antagonistic to service (bhakti). Sambandha: The knowledge that embraces only the first seven of the ten basic principles (daśa-mūla) is the knowledge of relationship. o TKG: Definition – Knowledge from Vedas of our relationship with Krsna. o TKG: Dasa (ten) mula (root) comes from Ayurveda where 10 roots are mixed to cure all disease. It also maintains good health. So SBVT uses this and says spiritual health can be maintained by understanding these 10 roots. All Vedic philosophies are contained in these 10 roots. o TKG: (1) Vedas are final authority (veda pramana). This is proof, other 9 as to be proven by the proof. They are prameya. (2) Krsna is the only source of wisdom (3) He is omnipotent (4) He is ocean of bliss (5) Living entities are His parts and parcels. (6) Some of the living entities are consditioned by the material nature. (7) Other are liberated (8) Everything is one and different from Hari. Abhideya: The substantive nature of the spiritual function (abhidheya) inculcated by the science of devotion hearing, chanting, meditation, tending His holy feet, worshiping by rituals, making prostrations, doing menial service, practicing friendship and surrendering oneself are identical with practicing the search for Kṛṣṇa. It is specifically described in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu. o TKG: Definition: The process by which we achieve the goal. o TKG: (9) Unalloyed devotional service is the only way to go back to Godhead.
Prayojana: Devotion (bhakti) characterized by love for Godhead makes her appearance by being awakened by such knowledge and practice. Such devotion is superexcellent bhakti and is no other than the final object of attainment of all spiritual endeavor of the individual soul (jīva). o TKG: Definition: the final goal of life. o TKG: (10) Love of God is the only goal. TKG: Story of Sarvagya astrologer in CC. Similarly we also have great treasure and we have to find it. South – karma kanda. West – attack by ghost – jnana kanda (speculative knowledge). North – snake – mystic yoga process (snake has jewel, siddhis are alluring). East – dig small, you will get treasure – bhakti. This story indicates sambandha, abhideya and prayojana. Sambandha is knowledge from guru, abhideya is the process- bhakti, not jnana, karma or yoga. Prayojana – treasure or bhakti. Prabhupada brought a booklet how to study BG in terms of abhideya, sambandha and prayojana. Catursloki Bhagavatam – 2.9.33-36. They form basis of all teachings of Vedas. 1st verse was expanded to 4 and 4 to 18000. 33 – sambandha, 34 – sambandha, 35 – prayojana / abhideya, 36 – abhideya. Text 59 – Sri Nama Tattva TRANSLATION: The highest devotion is attained by slow degrees by the method of constant endeavor for self-realization with the help of scriptural evidence, theistic conduct and perseverance in practice. Overview
TKG: Uttama Bhakti is described here. Comes by cultivation of 3 things. o Evidence (pramana) — the devotional scriptures. o Theistic conduct (sadachara)—the conduct of pure devotees (vaidhī bhaktas) and spontaneous loving devotees (raganuga bhaktas).
TKG: By associating with vaidhī bhaktas we become strict and strong. By Raganuga Bhakta we will get some actual enthusiasm. Nothing can more stimulating for a preaching mission than people who have spontaneous devotion. Their external conduct is almost identical, but internal conduct is different. CC is full of this ecstatic devotion examples. So SBSST simply read it in the end of his life. o Practice-to learn about the ten basic principles (daśa-mūla) from the śāstras and on receiving the name of Hari, to practice the chanting of the name by serving Him night and day. By this are meant study of the śāstras and association with the sādhus. TKG: By study mainly means studying dasa mula tattva. The tenfold offense to holy name ceases by serving the name of Hari and simultaneously practicing pious conduct. "Practice" is no other than following the mode of service of the name practiced by the sādhus without offense. By perseverance in such practice and devotion characterized by love which is the fruit of spiritual endeavor makes her appearance in the pure essence of the soul.
Text 60 – Prema Bhakti TRANSLATION: These preliminary practices of devotion [sādhana-bhakti] are conducive to the realization of loving devotion. [Loving devotion]—than whom there is no superior well-being, who goes hand in hand with the attainment of the exclusive state of supreme bliss and who can lead to Myself. Overview
The jīva-soul has no better well-being than loving devotion. In this is realized the final beatitude of jīvas. The lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa are attainable only by loving devotion.
He who cultivates the preliminary devotional activities anxiously keeping in view that realized state of devotion can alone attain to that object of all endeavor. None else can have the same. Text 61 – Gauna Dharma TRANSLATION: Abandoning all meritorious performances serve Me with faith. The realization will correspond to the nature of one's faith. The people of the world act ceaselessly in pursuance of some ideal. By meditating on Me by means of those deeds one will obtain devotion characterized by love in the shape of the supreme service. Explanation
TKG: After tackling sambandha abhideya and prayojana Lord directly deals with the question of how to carry out worldly duties while nt being entangled. The function characterized by unalloyed devotion is the real function of all individual souls (jīvas) Getting rid of all Gauna Dharmas, serve Me by pure devotion rooted in faith. Exclusive faith in Me is trust. The more transparent the faith, the greater the degree of realization. How will the preservation and conduct of worldly affairs be feasible if one is continuously engaged in the endeavor for the realization of bhakti? What also will be the nature of the endeavor for the realization of bhakti when the body will perish consequent on the cessation of the function of the body and of society? "This world subsists by the constant performance of certain activities. Fill all these activities with meditation of Me. This will destroy the quality that makes those activities appear as acts done by you. They will then be of the nature of My service (bhakti).” Activities of body: o Eating o Seating o Walking o Resting o Sleeping o Cleansing the body o Covering the body. etc. Activities of mind o Thinking o Recollecting
o Retaining an impression o Becoming aware of an entity o Feeling pleasure and pain, etc. Activities of society o Marrying, o Practicing reciprocal relationship between the king and subject, o Practicing brotherhood, o Attending at sacrificial meetings, o Offering oblations, o Digging wells, tanks, etc. for the benefit of the people, o Maintaining one's relations, o Practicing hospitality, o Observing proper civic conduct, o Showing due respect to others TKG: Upto Asakti one has to know how to perform these activities. A person on bhava platform does not need. Various exoteric and esoteric dharmas: o Non-differential knowledge of the Brahman aiming at extinction of individuality (jnana leading to impersonalism). When the desire for attainment of freedom from activity by knowledge underlies above actions. o the aṣṭāṅga-yoga-dharma having as its goal attainment of the state of exclusive existence (kaivalya), o Atheistical fruitive ritualism aiming at material enjoyment, (karma kanda). When above acts are performed for one's selfish enjoyment. o Jnana yoga dharma – thinking that karma will bind so better not perform action (barren asceticism) And when these activities are managed to be performed in this way that is conducive to our endeavor for attainment of bhakti they are called gauna-bhakta-yoga, i.e., the subsidiary devotional practices. o TKG: Misprint But only those activities that are characterized by the principle of pure worship are called bhakti proper. My meditation is practiced in every act when bhakti proper is practiced in due time while performing the subsidiary devotional activities in one's intercourse with the ungodly people of this world. In such position, a jīva does not become apathetic to Godhead even by performing those worldly activities. Act in spirit of isavasyam – everything given is a favor of God. Then the worldly activity will cease to be such and will turn into service of Godhead (bhakti). If the worldly acts are performed in the above manner one does not get entangled in karma even in hundreds of years of worldly life.
There is no occasion for such instruction in the case of a jīva in whom the spontaneous aversion for entities other than Kṛṣṇa manifests itself on his attainment of the substantive entity of spiritual devotion (bhāva). o TKG: These instructions are not important for someone is bhava. So why Brahma is being instructed? Brahma is under influence of Yogamaya. Brahma acts in conditioned ways to he can be instructed for other’s benefit. He is not an ordinary soul. Text 62 – Acintya Bhedabheda Tattva TRANSLATION: "Listen, O Vidhi, I am the seed, i.e., the fundamental principle, of this world of animate and inanimate objects. I am pradhāna [the substance of matter], I am prakṛti [material cause] and I am puruṣa [efficient cause]. This fiery energy that belongs specially to the Brahman, that inheres in you, has also been conferred by Me. It is by bearing this fiery energy that you regulate this phenomenal world of animate and inanimate objects." Overview
Explanation Para 1
Certain thinkers (monists) conclude that o the non-differentiated Brahman is the ultimate entity and by undergoing self-delusion (vivarta) exhibits the consciousness of differentiation; (vivartavada) o or, the limiting principle itself (Māyā), when it is limited, is the phenomenal world and is itself the Brahman, in its unlimited position; (mayavada) o or, the Brahman is the substance and this phenomenal world is the reflection; (same thing as above) o or, everything is an illusion of the jīva (Buddhism)
Some (Vaisnava thinkers) think that o TKG: These are such better because they are Vaisnava philosophies. o Godhead is evidently a separate entity. o Jīva is another different entity and o The phenomenal world, although it is a singular principle, exists separately as an eternally independent entity; (these 3 are tattvavada) o or, Godhead, is the substantive entity and all other entities, as cit and a-cit attributes, are one in principle.(visistadvaitavada) o TKG: All vaisnava acaryas accept SPG. o By the force of inconceivable potency sometimes the monistic and sometimes the dualistic principle is realized as the truth. (nimbarkacarya – dvaita advaitavada) o Some again arrive at the conclusion that the theory of the non-dual minus all potency is meaningless; whence the Brahman is the one eternally unalloyed entity vested with the pure potency. (pure monism – suddha advaitavada – Visnuswami) These speculations have originated from Veda relying on the support of the Vedānta-sutra. In these speculations although there is no truth that holds good in all positions, there is yet a certain measure of truth. Para 2 Above mentioned or Sāṅkhya, Patañjala, Nyāya, Vaiśeṣika and Pūrva-mīmāṁsā have come into existence by relying outwardly on the Vedānta itself. Ref.: CC 2.25.56. By discarding all these speculations (TKG: He says other philosophies are speculations, not the vaisnava philosophies mentioned above), you and your bona fide community should adopt the ultimate principle identical with the doctrine of acintyabhedābheda (inconceivable simultaneous distinction and nondifference). This will make you eligible for being a true devotee. The basic principle is that o This animate world is made up of jīvas and the inanimate world is constituted of matter. o Of these all the jīvas have been manifested by My supreme (parā) potency and this phenomenal world has been manifested by My secondary (aparā) potency. o I am the cause of all causes. In other words, I regulate all of them by the power of My will although I am not a different entity from the marginal and material (taṭasthā and acit) potencies.
o By the transformation of those distinct potencies pradhāna (substantive material principle), prakṛti (material cause) and puruṣa (efficient cause) have been produced. o Hence although as regards the subjective nature of all potency I am pradhāna, prakṛti and puruṣa, yet as the possessor of power I am eternally distinct from all those potencies. o This simultaneous distinction and non-difference has also sprung from My inconceivable power. So let the attainment of love for Kṛṣṇa by the practice of pure devotion through the knowledge of their mutual true relationship that subsists between the jīva, the jaḍa (matter) and Kṛṣṇa based on the principle of inconceivable simultaneous distinction and nondifference, be My instruction for being handed down in the order of spiritual preceptional succession in your community (Śrī Brahmasampradāya).