Botany Gym No Report
Botany Gymno rep...
Gymnosperm A plant’s reproductive system is another characteristic used for classification. Based on their mechanism for sexual reproduction, there are two main groups of plants. One group, the seed plants, form seeds for protection and nourishment of the plant embryo. This group can be further divided according to whether the seeds are formed in a cone or fruit. A second group, the seedless plants, do not form seeds. Mosses and ferns are examples of seedless plants in which they employ spores for reproduction. For the seed plants, they are further subdivided into two categories. A nonflowering vascular plant that produces seeds that lack a fruit is called a gymnosperm. A division of gymnosperm called conifers produces their seeds in cones which are specialized structures with many compartments. Gymnosperms include pines, firs, spruces, cypresses, and redwoods. After fertilization occurs, the seeds of gymnosperms develop within cones and are released when the cones open. Gymnosperms are also called “naked seeds” by botanists because they are not enclosed in fruits like those of the angiosperms. A vascular plant that produces seeds enclosed in fruit is called an angiosperm. A fruit is a structure that provides a means for protecting and spreading seeds. Seeds usually do not sprout and grow until the fruit that encloses them has been removed from the parent plant.
Gymnosperm A nonflowering vascular plant that produces seeds that lack a fruit is called a gymnosperm. A division of gymnosperm called conifers produces their seeds in cones which are specialized structures with many compartments. Gymnosperms include pines, firs, spruces, cypresses, and redwoods. After fertilization occurs, the seeds of gymnosperms develop within cones and are released when the cones open. Gymnosperms are also called “naked seeds” by botanists because they are not enclosed in fruits like those of the angiosperms. Family: Zamiaceae Class: Cycadopsida Order: Cycadales Family: Zamiaceae Genus: Zamia Species: Z. furfuracea L. f. Common name: Cardboard Palm Economic Importance: Used as a houseplant and in subtropical areas, as a container or bedding plant outdoors. Etymology: Comes from the Latin zamia, for "pine nut", and furfuracea, meaning "scurfy".
Description: This plant is native to southeastern Veracruz state in eastern Mexico. Zamia furfuracea can reach a height of 4+ feet tall, with a diameter reaching 6 feet over time. Leaves grow from 2-5 feet long, emerging soft and light brownish-green, becoming stiff and light green, while retaining their "fuzzy" surface. It prefers partial shade, but can be grown in full sun in a humid environment. With many habitats near the ocean, this plant is salt- and drought-tolerant, but should be protected from extreme cold.
Class: Cycadopsida Order: Cycadales Family: Zamiaceae Genus: Zamia Species: Z. floridana Common name: Wild sago Economic Importance: It is a coldtolerant and attractive landscape plant, which can be used in groupings because of its clumping growth habit. Etymology:
Gymnosperm Description: It is native to Florida, Georgia and lower Alabama. Its feather-like, light green, leathery foliage emerges from a large underground stem, its storage root in early years before a trunk develops. Zamia floridana provides a tropical landscape effect, and its unique growth habit is well suited as a specimen or in a container. In the garden, when planted on 3-5 feet on center for a massing effect, it forms a 3-foot-tall, mediumgreen ground cover. Zamia floridana grows well in part shade/part sun, in welldraining soil. It is drought resistant with non-invasive roots, but like any plant, plenty of water is needed following transplanting. Class: Cycadopsida Order: Cycadales Family: Zamiaceae Genus: Dioon Species: D. edule Lindl. Common name: Palma de la Virgen Economic Importance: Used for horticulture and medicinal purposes. Etymology: Comes from the Latin "Dioon" means "two-egged", referring to the two ovules. 3. Description: It is a woody dioecious plant that superficially resemble a palm or a tree fern. They grows in tropical deciduous oak forests, and in harsh, dry conditions in steep hillsides on extremely steep slopes where the soils are skeletal and poor with few nutrients, in limestone, serpentine or in sandy soil, but they can also be found in more hospitable soils and shelter. Interestingly, Dioon edule specifically has the ability to contract its stem underground as it grows thus maintaining relativity in the amount of trunk exposed. One suggested explanation for this strange activity is to reduce its exposure to environmental stress and predation. Also, they may go through prolonged periods of rest, revealed as narrowing in the diameter of the trunk. Family: Cycadaceae
Gymnosperm Class: Cycadopsida Order: Cycadales Family: Cycadaceae Genus: Cycas Species: C. revoluta Common name: King sago Economic Importance: Starch can be extracted from this pith and is used for making dumplings. Etymology: Comes from the Latin revoluta means "curled back", in 1. reference to the leaves. Description: King Sago Palm is a slow growing cycad usually with a single trunk that can grow up to 6 m in height. Sometimes a plant will produce offshoots, which can be removed and potted up. The plant has glossy dark green feather-like leaves that grow in a circular pattern. As with other cycads, the King Sago Palm is dioecious, with male and female reproductive parts being born on separate plants. The female inflorescence is a feather-like and gold or tan-yellow in color, which produces brownish-red seeds that are about 4 cm in diameter.
Class: Cycadopsida Order: Cycadales Family: Cycadaceae Genus: Cycas Species: C. nitida Common name: King sago Economic Importance: The seeds of king sago palm is used to make “date miso” or “sotetsu miso”. A starch can be extracted from this pith and is used for making dumplings. Etymology: Comes from the Latin nitida means "sharp”.
Description: It is a cicade with stem -limbed arboreal. The leaves , pinnate are placed at the apex of the stem and crown are governed by a petiole 30-60 cm long, each leaf is composed of 80-100 pairs of leaflets lanceolate, margin entire, long, bright green color. It is a species dioecious with male specimens that have microsporofilli arranged to form cones terminal fusiform, orange in color, and female specimens with macrosporofilli that are found in large numbers in upper part of the stem, with the appearance of
Gymnosperm pinnate leaves from thorny margins, enclosing the ovules , the number of 2-4. The seeds are roughly ovoid, 55-66 mm long, covered by an integument orange-brown. Family: Pinaceae Class: Pinopsida Order: Pinales Family: Pinaceae Genus: Pinus Species: P. kesiya Royle ex Gordon 1. Common name: Benguet pine Economic Importance: Used to make boxes, paper pulp, and temporary electric poles. It is also used for timber and for the production of turpentine Description: Pinus kesiya is a tree reaching up to 30–35 m tall with straight, cylindrical trunk. The branches are robust, red brown from the second year, the branchlets horizontal to drooping. The leaves are needle-like, dark green, usually 3 per fascicle, 15–20 cm long, the fascicle sheath 1–2 cm long and persistent. The cones are ovoid, 5–9 cm long, often curved downwards, sometimes slightly distorted; the scales of second-year cones are dense, the umbo a little convex, sometimes acutely spinous. The seeds are winged, 6–7 mm long with a 1.5-2.5 cm wing. Family: Araucariaceae Class: Pinopsida Order: Pinales Family: Araucariaceae Genus: Araucaria Species: A. heterophylla Common name: Norfolk island pine Economic Importance: Used as masts and yards for sailing ships. The timber is good for woodturning, and is extensively used by Hawaiian craftspeople. 1.
Description: A conical tree 50-70 m. tall, 1.25-1.75 m. in girth. Juvenile leaves awlshaped, incurved, green, needle-like, to 1.2 cm. long. Adult leaves scale-like, 4-5 mm.
Gymnosperm long, incurved, densely arranged, bright dark green; on fertile branchlets overlapping, broadly ovate, spine-tipped, 6 mm. long by 4-6 mm. wide. Male cone in clusters, elongated, 4 cm. long, yellowish-brown or reddish; microsporophylls acute, margins ciliate, denticulate. Female cone broader than long, 12-15 cm. long, with triangular scales and a long incurved bract. Seeds 2.5-3 cm. long by 1.2 cm. wide, with broad wings. 2. Class: Pinopsida Order: Pinales Family: Araucariaceae Genus: Araucaria Species: A. cunningham Common name: Hoop pine Economic Importance: The wood is used in the plywood industry and for furniture, veneer, joinery and flooring.
Description: The species is found in the dry rainforests of New South Wales and Queensland and in New Guinea. The bark is rough, splits naturally, and peels easily. The leaves on young trees are awl-shaped, 1–2 cm long, about 2 mm thick at the base, and scale-like, incurved, 1–2 cm long and 4 mm broad on mature trees. The cones are ovoid, 8–10 cm long and 6–8 cm diameter, and take about 18 months to mature. They disintegrate at maturity to release the nut-like edible seeds.
Class: Pinopsida Order: Pinales Family: Araucariaceae Genus: Agathis Species: A. philippinensis Common name: Dayungon Economic Importance: The tree is used to support areas which do not experience adequate crop growth and is also planted inside of existing plantations to replace existing trees.
Description: It is a large coniferous evergreen tree growing up to 65m tall with smooth, grey coloured bark. The leaves are oval, 4-6 cm long and 1.5-2 cm broad on adult trees, slightly larger, up to 7 cm long and 3 cm broad, on young trees. The seed
Gymnosperm cones are squat ovoid, 7-9 cm long and 12 cm diameter, containing numerous spirally arranged scales 28-32 mm long and 35-45 mm broad, each scale bearing a single winged seed. The pollen cones are 25-45 mm long and 10-11 mm broad. It is the northernmost species of Agathis occuring on the Philippine Calayan islands north of Luzon. Family: Taxaceae 1. Class: Pinopsida Order: Pinales Family: Taxaceae Genus: Taxus Species: T. sumatrana Common name: Chinese yew Economic Importance: The oil is used to mark the forehead of a Brahmin. They are also used for clogs, whip handles, bed frames and bows. Description: The Taxus sumatrana is a wide trunked, bushy tree that grows to an average height of 14 m. Its leaves are 1.2–2.7 cm long and 2–2.5 mm wide, and grow in two ranks along the branches, abruptly spiraling into an apex at the tip, with a pale yellow-green color on top, and light green underneath. The Chinese yew has fleshy seeds that ripen into a red color, and a grey-red bark which exfoliates in irregular 1.5 mm thick flakes and leaves scars on the trunk that appear yellow quickly after cutting. Family: Podocarpaceae Class: Pinopsida Order: Pinales Family: Podocarpaceae Genus: Nageia Species: N. wallichiana Common name: mala almaciga Economic Importance: The wood is used in house construction and for building canoes.
Gymnosperm Description: Leaves opposite, simple, parallel-veined, glabrous. Flowers ca. 2 mm diameter, green-yellow, placed in elongate cones (catkin-like). Fruits ca. 16 mm long, green, drupe-like structure containing only one seed. Usually on hillsides and ridges, but also on alluvial sites near or along rivers and streams. In secondary forests usually present as a pre-disturbance remnant. Family: Cupressaceae Class: Pinopsida Order: Pinales Family: Cupressaceae Genus: Juniperus Species: J. chinensis Common name: Chinese juniper Economic Importance: Used for landscaping, container plants and Bonzai
1. Description: This is a slow-growing evergreen shrub with a formal appearance, with its narrow, columnar form and outstanding gray-green foliage. It grows to 15 feet tall and 10 feet wide at maturity. Its growth remains dense as it matures. Silvery-blue, waxy berries are highly decorative. Family: Gnetaceae Class: Gnetopsida Order: Gnetales Family: Gnetaceae Genus: Gnetum Species: G. gnemon Common name: Paddy oats Economic Importance: The young leaves and inflorescences are used as vegetable. The fruit is used to make a kind of 'krupuk' called 'emping'. 1. Description: Leaves opposite, simple, penni-veined, glabrous, secondary veins conspicuously looping. Flowers ca. 2 mm diameter, yellowish, placed in short racemes.
Gymnosperm Fruits ca. 20 mm long, yellow-red, drupe. In undisturbed mixed dipterocarp forests up to 300 m altitude. Found mostly on hillsides and ridges with clay to sandy soils. References: http://www.conifers.org/ar/Araucaria_heterophylla.php http://www.cactus-art.biz/schede/DIOON/Dioon_edule/Dioon_edule/Dioon_edule.htm http://www.asianplant.net/Gnetaceae/Gnetum_gnemon.htm http://www.asianplant.net/Podocarpaceae/Nageia_wallichiana.htm http://www.cycadpalm.com/zamia-furfuracea.html http://www.arkive.org/cycad/zamia-furfuracea/