BOTANY Chapter 7
BOTANY LEC CHAPTER 7...
88CHAPTER 7: DIVERSITY AND CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWERING PLANTS
parts “+”- denotes separation of floral parts “”- denotes a less common or rare condition “ ”- denotes numerous parts
MAJOR ANGIOSPERM CLADES APG III system- is system- is based on published cladistic analyses primarily utilizing molecular data or a combination of morphological and molecular. Classifies one to several families into orders ( Ending in “-ales”). Orders can Orders can be viewed simply as convenient placeholders for one or more families that appear to compromise a monophyletic group. Great bulk of Angiosperms in terms of species are contained within the monocots and eudicots. Monocotyledon- 22% of all angiosperms Eudicots- 75% of all angiosperms
“()”- denotes fusion of floral
Most basal angiosperm group Absence of vessels, as vessels, as an ancestral condition Absence of aromatic oil cells
1st paragraph contains description about plant characteristics of the family members ( root,stem ( root,stem and leaf; inflorescence, flower, perianth) 2nd paragraph lists familial classification, distribution and economically important members 3rd paragraph contains the diagnostic features of the family, most important diagnostic features boldface italic italic . are shown in boldface Floral formulas- used formulas- used to summarize the number and fusion of floral parts. “P”- refers to perianth parts “K”- represents the numbers of sepal or calyx “C” – number of petals or corolla lobes “A”- Androecium and number of stamens “G”- denotes the gynoecium and number of carpels, followed by superior and inferior denoting ovary position
Amborella family Single specie, Amborella trichopoda Dioecious Leaves: alternate, Leaves: alternate, spiral to distichous, evergreen Inflorescence: axillary cyme Flowers: unisexual, Flowers: unisexual, actinomorphic Perianth: 5-8, Perianth: 5-8, spiral, distinct Stamens: are Stamens: are numerous in males Anthers: longitudinal Anthers: longitudinal dehiscence Gynoecium- 5-6, Gynoecium- 5-6, superior Placentation: marginal Placentation: marginal Ovule: solitary Ovule: solitary
*The Amborellaceae are distinctive in being vesselless , evergreen shrubs with unisexual flowers having an undifferentiated , s pir al perianth, numerous , laminar stamens, and an apocarpous , apically-open gynoecium, with 1-ovuled carpels. Male flowers: P 5 –8 A ∞. Female flowers: P 5 –8 G 5 –6, superior.
Water lily family Aquatic with a milky latex often present Stems: underground, rhizomatous Leaves: simple, Leaves: simple, often peltate,, floating Inflorescence: solitary, Inflorescence: solitary, emergent flower Flowers: bisexual, Flowers: bisexual, actinomorphic with long peduncles arising from the underground stem Perianth: differentiated Perianth: differentiated into calyx or corolla Calyx- 4-6 Calyx- 4-6 separate sepals Corolla- 8-many Corolla- 8-many separate petals Stamens: numerous, Stamens: numerous, spiral, apostemonous Gynoecium- is Gynoecium- is syncarpous with either superior or inferior ovary Fruit- berry Fruit- berry *The Nymphaeaceae are distinguished from related families in being aquatic herbs with floating leaves and s olitary , floating to emergent flowers with mostly s pir al radi ng into in to floral parts and petals g rading us ually ually laminar laminar stamens. K 4 –6 [ – –14] C 8 –∞  A ∞ G (3 –∞), superior or inferior.
Ovules: anatropous Ovules: anatropous Fruit: aggregate Fruit: aggregate of follicles Seeds: endospermous Seeds: endospermous The Illiciaceae are distinctive in being evergreen trees or shrubs aromatic oil c ells ells , with having aromatic pelluci dglabrous, spiral, pellucid punc tate tate, exstipulate leaves, the flowers with numerous , s pir al tepals (outer sepal-like, inner petal-like), few-numerous stamens, and few-numerous, one-seeded , apocarpous pistils in a sing le whorl, the fruit a
follic etum. P ∞ [7–33] A ∞ [4–50] G ∞ [5– 21], superior. MAGNOLIIDS LAURALES LAURACEAE Laurel family Tree or shrubs with aromatic oil glands Leaves: evergreen, simple, Inflorescence: axillary Inflorescence: axillary cyme, rarely a solitary flower Flowers: small, Flowers: small, bisexual or unisexual Perianth: 1-3 Perianth: 1-3 whorled Stamens: 3-12 Stamens: 3-12 or more Gynoecium: single Gynoecium: single superior Fruit:berry, Fruit:berry, drupe
Star anise family Consist of trees and shrubs with aromatic oil cells Leaves: simple, spiral, evergreen and glabrous Inflorescence: axillary Inflorescence: axillary or supraaxillary,solitary flower or group of 2 or 3 flowers Flowers: small, Flowers: small, bisexual Perianth: distinct Perianth: distinct tepals (7-33) Stamens: few Stamens: few to numerous (450) Anthers: longitudinal Anthers: longitudinal dehiscence Gynoecium: separate Gynoecium: separate (521),superior ovary Style: open Style: open Placentation: Ventrally Placentation: Ventrally subbasal
The Lauraceae are distinguished in being
perennial perenn ial trees or s hrubs hr ubs [rarely vines] with aromatic aromatic oi l g lands lands , everg everg reenea reeneaves , an undifferentiated perianth, peri anth, valvular anther anther dehis - cence, and a sing le, le, s uperior uperior ovary ova ry having having one ovule per carpel with apic al placentation placentation,, s eeds lack lack ing endos endos perm. perm.
Style: absent Style: absent or solitary Stigmas: 1 Stigmas: 1 or 3-4 Placentation: basal Placentation: basal Ovules: orthotropous Ovules: orthotropous Fruit: 1-seeded Fruit: 1-seeded berry or drupe Seeds: starchy Seeds: starchy perisperm
P 3+3 [6, 2+2, or 3+3+3] A 3 –12+ G 1 [ – –(3)], superior, rarely inferior, hypanthium present.
The Piperaceae are distinctive in having an atactostelic stem, a s pik e or spadix s padix with numerous , very s mall mall, unisexual or bisexual flowers lacking a perianth, the ovary solitary, 1-ovueeded berr berr y or late, the fruit a 1-s eeded drupe.
Birthwort family Hermaphroditic shrubs, vines Leaves: simple Inflorescence: solitary Inflorescence: solitary flower or terminal or lateral racemes Flowers: bisexual, Flowers: bisexual, actinomorphic Perianth: three Perianth: three lobed, synsepalous Coralla: absent, Coralla: absent, of 3 petals Stamen: 6-40 Stamen: 6-40 free or fused Gynoecium: syncarpous, Gynoecium: syncarpous, inferior or half-inferior
P 0 A 3+3 [1 –10] G 1 or (3,4), superior. SAURURACEAE
The Aristolochiaceae are distinguished in being usually climbing plants, having an enlarged , petaloid petaloid calyx, an abs abs ent to reduced corolla, often adnate stamens (forming ynoss temium), and an a g yno inferior to s uperior uperior , 3 –6carpeled and loculed ovary.
K (3) C 0  A 6 –∞, usu. adnate to style G (3 –6), inferior, half-inferior, or superior. PIPERACEAE
Pepper family Herbs, shrubs, vines and trees Leaves: spiral,simple, stipulate Inflorescence: spike Inflorescence: spike or spadix Flowers: very Flowers: very small, bisexual or unisexual Perianth: absent Perianth: absent Stamens: 3+3 Stamens: 3+3 [1-10] Anthers: longitudinally Anthers: longitudinally dehiscent, dithecal Gynoecium: single Gynoecium: single pistil with superior ovary
Lizard’s tail family Perennial herbs Leaves: simple, spiral and stipulate Inflorescence: bracteates Inflorescence: bracteates spike or raceme Flowers: bisexual Flowers: bisexual Perianth: absent Perianth: absent Stamens: 3, Stamens: 3, 3+3, or 4+4, separate Gynoecium: Gynoecium: syncarpous Styles: 3-5 Styles: 3-5 Placentation: parietal Placentation: parietal Ovules: orthotropous Ovules: orthotropous Fruit: apically Fruit: apically dehiscent capsule Seeds: perispermous Seeds: perispermous
MONOCOTYLEDONS MONOCOT APOMORPHIES: 1.
Sieve tube plastids proteinaceous/ cuneateunknown adaptive significance Vasculature atactostelicconsists of two or more rings appear to be randomly organized but are actually highly complex, NO MONOCOT HAS A TRUE VASCULAR CAMBIUM Leaf venation parallel
Most basal monocot Sweet flag family Stems: rhizomatous Leaves: ensiform Leaves: ensiform Inflorescence: terminal Inflorescence: terminal spadix borne on a leaf like peduncle Flower: bisexual, Flower: bisexual, actinomorphic, sessile Perianth: biseriate, Perianth: biseriate, 3+3 distinct petals Stamens: biseriate, Stamens: biseriate, 3+3 apostemonous Anthers: longitudinal Anthers: longitudinal and introse Gynoecium: syncarpous, Gynoecium: syncarpous, superior ovary, 2-3 carpels , 23 locules Placentation: apical-axile Placentation: apical-axile Ovules: are Ovules: are numerous per carpel Fruit: 1-5 Fruit: 1-5 [-9] seeded berry
Flowers: Flowers: small, bisexual or unisexual, sessile Perianth: Perianth: biseriate and 2+2 or 3+3 [4+4] Stamens: 4,6 or 8[1-12] Gynoecium: syncarpous, Gynoecium: syncarpous, superior ovary Fruit: multiple of berries Seeds:oily, Seeds:oily, endospermous, fleshy seed coat The Araceae are distinguished from related families in having bifacial leaves with parallel parallel or netted venation, usu- ally a s padix of numerous, small flowers with a subtending s pathe, endospermous seeds, and
raphide cry s tals tals P 2+2,3+3,(2+2),(3+3) or 0 [4+4,(4+4)] A 4,6,8 or (4,6,8) [1 – 12] G (3) [1 –(∞)] superior. LILIALES LILIACEAE Lily family Perennial herbs Roots: Contractile Stems: Bulbous, rhizomatous Leaves: basal Leaves: basal or cauline Inflorescence: terminal raceme, of a solitary flower Flowers: bisexual, Flowers: bisexual, actinomorphic Perianth: biseriate Perianth: biseriate and 3+3, homochlamydeous Stamens: 3+3, Stamens: 3+3, whorled Anthers: peltately attached to the filament Gynoecium: Gynoecium: syncarpous, superior ovary Style: Style: solitary Stigmas: are Stigmas: are 3-lobed or 3-crest Placentation: axile Placentation: axile Fruit: loculicidal Fruit: loculicidal Seeds: flat Seeds: flat discoid or ellipsoid
The Acoraceae are distinctive in being marsh plants with a s padix and s pathe (resembling Araceae) but having distichous , ensiform, unifacial leaves,
peris peri s permous and endospermous seeds, and ethereal oil cells , and in lacki lacki ng raphide cry s tals tals .
P 3+3 A 3+3 G (2 –3) superior. ALISMATALES
ARACEAE Arum family Terrestrial or aquatic shrubs Roots: mycorrhizal, without root hairs Stems: rhizomatous, Stems: rhizomatous, cormose, tuberous Leaves: simple, Leaves: simple, bifacial Inflorescence: terminal, Inflorescence: terminal, many flowered spadix
The Liliaceae are characterized in perenn ial, us ually ually bulbous bulbous being perennial herbs , lack lack ing an onion-like onion-like odor , with basal or cau- line leaves, the inflorescence a raceme, umbel or of s olitary olitary flowers flowers with a superior ovary.
P 3+3 A 3 G (3), s uperi or
Agave family Perennial shrubs or subshrubs Stems: are a acaulescent caudex Leaves: parallelveined, Leaves: parallelveined, xeromorphic Inflorescence: panicle, Inflorescence: panicle, raceme Flowers: bisexual Flowers: bisexual Perianth: biseriate Perianth: biseriate of 3+3 tepals Stamens: 6, Stamens: 6, distinct, filaments long and thin to short and thick Anthers: dorsifixed, Anthers: dorsifixed, versatile Gynoecium: syncarpous Gynoecium: syncarpous with superior or inferior ovary Style: solitary Style: solitary Stigmas: solitary Stigmas: solitary or 3 lobed Placentation: axile Placentation: axile Ovules: anatropous, Ovules: anatropous, bitegmic Nectaries: present Nectaries: present The Agavaceae are distinctive in perenn ial sub- shrubs to being perennial branched trees with spiral, xeromor x eromorphi phi c , g enerally fibr ous leaves, trimerous hypogynous to epigynous flowers, and possibly apomorphic dimorphic chromosomes (base number with 5 long and 25 short chromosomes).
Stamens: 3+3 Stamens: 3+3 [rarely 3 or 2 with staminodes] Anthers: versatile, Anthers: versatile, longitudinal and introrose Gynoecium: syncarpous, Gynoecium: syncarpous, superior ovary Style: solitary, Style: solitary, terminal Stigma: solitary, trilobed Placentation: axile Placentation: axile Ovules: campylotropous Ovules: campylotropous to anatropous Septal nectaries: present nectaries: present Fruit: loculicidal Fruit: loculicidal capsule Seeds: black, Seeds: black, ovoid, ellipsoid The Alliaceae are distinctive in bulbous herbs , being generally bulbous with basal, usually narrow leaves, an umbellate inflouper ior rescence, and a usually s uperior ovary .
P 3+3 A 3+3 [3,2] G (3), superior [rarely half-inferior]. ASPHODELACEAE Aloe family Herbs Roots: succulent, Roots: succulent, with velamen Stems: anomalous Stems: anomalous secondary growth Leaves: succulent, Leaves: succulent, simple, spiral Inflorescence: raceme Inflorescence: raceme or panicle Flowers: bisexual, Flowers: bisexual, actinomorphic, pedicellate Perianth: biseriate Perianth: biseriate Stamens: 3+3, Stamens: 3+3, distinct Anthers: dorsifixed Anthers: dorsifixed to basifixed Gynoecium: syncarpous, Gynoecium: syncarpous, superior ovary, 3 carpels and 3 locules Placentation: axile Placentation: axile Ovules: 2 Ovules: 2 to numerous per carpel Septal nectaries: present nectaries: present Fruit: loculicidal Fruit: loculicidal capsule Seeds: aril Seeds: aril present
P 3+3 A 6 G (3), superior or inferior, hypanthium in some. ALLIACEAE Onion family Biennial or perennial herbs Stems: acaulescent Stems: acaulescent and usually a bulb Leaves: simple, Leaves: simple, basal, spiral\ Inflorescence: terminal, Inflorescence: terminal, scapose umbel Flowers: bisexual, Flowers: bisexual, actinomorphic, pedicellate Perianth: biseriate, Perianth: biseriate, distinct to connate tepals, a corona sometimes present
The Asphodelaceae are distinguished from related taxa in pachy caulous being herbs or pachycaulous trees with leaves usually s ucc ulent , flowers trimerous with a superior ovary, and the seeds arillate.
g ynos yn os temium), the pollen P 3+3 or (3+3) A 3+3 G (3), superior. ORHCIDACEAE Orchid family Terrestrial or epiphytic perennial herbs Roots: tuberous Roots: tuberous or aerial, multilayered velamen Stems: rhizomatous Stems: rhizomatous in terrestrial species, the epiphytic species with pseudobulbs Inflorescence: raceme, panicle,spike or solitary Flowers: bisexual, Flowers: bisexual, rarely unisexual Perianth: biseriate, Perianth: biseriate, 3+3, apotepalous or basally syntepalous, with enlarge saclike tepal. Labellum- inner Labellum- inner median, anterior tepal Stamen: solitary Stamen: solitary Gynostemium- androecium Gynostemium- androecium is fused with the style and stigma Anthers: longitudinally Anthers: longitudinally or modified in dehiscence Pollen: tetrad Pollen: tetrad units but may be monads Gynoecium: syncarpous, Gynoecium: syncarpous, inferior ovary Rostellum- single Rostellum- single enlarged lobed, component of the gynostemium Placentation: parietal or axile Ovules: anatropous, Ovules: anatropous, bitegmic, numerous per carpel Nectaries: present Nectaries: present Fruit: loculicidal Fruit: loculicidal capsule rarely a berry Seeds: membranous-winged Seeds: membranous-winged Pollination: insect Pollination: insect and birds, also wind pollination
grains often fused into 1 – several masses ( pollini a), bearing a sticky-tipped stalk, pollinia and stalk termed a pollinariu pollinar ium m, which is the unit of pollen dispersal during pollination.
P (3+3) A 1 –3, when 1 a pollinarium G (3), inferior, with gynostemium.
COMMELINIDS Monophyletic assemblage of monocots Characterized by an apparent chemical apomorphy, the presence of organic acids that acids that impregnate the cell walls. These acids are UV-fluorescent
The Orchidaceae are distinctive in consisting of mycorrhizal, mostly perennial, terrestri al or epiphytic herbs having trimerous, often resupinate flowers with a showy labellum, the androecium and g yno ynoeci ecium um adnate adnate (termed a column, g ynos yn os tegiu teg ium m, or
Palm family Perennial trees Plant sex is variable Secondary growth is absent Roots: mycorrhizal, lacks root hairs Stem: Arborescent, single unbranced trunk Leaves: typically Leaves: typically large, generally terminal, spiral, pseudopetiole Inflorescence: axillary, Inflorescence: axillary, bracteates panicle or spike Flowers: unisexual Flowers: unisexual or bisexual, sessile Perianth: biseriate, Perianth: biseriate, homochlamydous, 3+3 [0,2+2, numerous] Stamens: 3+3 Stamens: 3+3 [3 or numerous] Anthers: longitudinal, Anthers: longitudinal, rarely poricidal in dehiscence Gynoecium: syncarpous Gynoecium: syncarpous or apocarpous, with superior ovary Placentation: variable; Placentation: variable; ovules are variable in type, bitegmic and 1 per locule
Zingiberales in having a s pir al leaf arrangement and monoecious plant sex. P (3+3) A 5-6 G (3), inferior.
Fruit: fleshy Fruit: fleshy or fibrous, usually a drupe or berry [rarely dehiscent or pyrene] Seeds: 1 Seeds: 1 [-10]
The Arecaceae are distinctive in having a rhizomatous, lianous, or usually arborescent stem, with large, sheathing, plic ate leaves, a fles hy , us ually ually drupaceous drupaceous fruit, and seeds lacking starch. The plicate leaf posture and drupaceous fruit are likely apomorphies for the family.
P 3+3 [0,2+2,∞] A 3+3 or (3+3) [3,∞; 0 in female flowers] G 3 or (3) [1,2,4 –∞; 0 in male flowers], superior.
Commonly called gingers and banana Monophyletic group of 8 families
The Zingiberaceae are distinguished from related families of the Zingiberales in having distichous , usually ligulate in g le, dithecal leaves with a s ing petaloid labellum labellum stamen and a petaloid derived fr om two two s taminodes taminodes . P (3+3) A 1 fertile + 2 + (2) petaloid staminodes G (3), inferior.
APOMORPHIES OF ZINGIBERALES: 1. 2. 3. 4.
Leaves penni-parallel, with air chambers Superovulate ptyxis Silica cells Inferior ovary
Banana family Monoecious, perennial herbs Stems: subterranean Leaves: large, Leaves: large, basal, spiral, sheathing, petiole (lacks in Ensete) Inflorescence: Terminal thyrse Flowers: ebracteate, Flowers: ebracteate, unisexual Perianth: biseriate Perianth: biseriate and homochlamydeous, 3+3, syntepalous Stamens: apostemonous Stamens: apostemonous Gynoecium: Syncarpous, inferior ovary Fruit: berry Fruit: berry Seeds: endospermous Seeds: endospermous The Musaceae are distinguished from related families of the
Ginger family Perennial herbs Stems: rhizomatous and sympodial Leaves: distichous, Leaves: distichous, simple, sheathing Inflorescence: bracteates Inflorescence: bracteates spike, raceme Flowers: bisexual, Flowers: bisexual, zygomorphic Perianth: biseriate Perianth: biseriate and homochlamydeous Stamens: 1 Stamens: 1 fertile Gynoecium: syncarpous, Gynoecium: syncarpous, inferior ovary, 3 carpels Ovules: anatropous, Ovules: anatropous, bitegmic, numerous per carpel Fruit: dry Fruit: dry or fleshy Seed: arillate, Seed: arillate, starch rich
Canna-Lily family Perennial herbs Stems: rhizomatous and sympodial Leaves: distichous Leaves: distichous Inflorescence: bracteates Inflorescence: bracteates thyrse Flowers: bisexual, Flowers: bisexual, asymmetric, epigynous Perianth: biseriate Perianth: biseriate Stamens: 1 Stamens: 1 fertile Gynoecium: Syncarpous, Gynoecium: Syncarpous, inferior ovary Fruit: capsule Fruit: capsule Seeds: starch Seeds: starch rich endosperm
The Cannaceae are distinguished from related families of the Zingiberales in having usually distichous leaves and flowers with one petaloid , monothecal stamen associated with 1 –4  petaloid petaloid s tamin taminodes odes . P 3+3 A 1, petaloid & monothecal + 1 –4 petaloid stamin- odes G (3), inferior.