2.1 Alternative Process The process of making bioplastics from cellulose acetate takes three processes which are, pre-treatment, acetylation process and manufacturing bioplastics. 2.1.1 Pre-Treatment In the pre-treatment section we choose two alternative processes, the first by using the method of alternative 1 ("Development of nanofiber Cellulose Acetate from TKKS for manufacturing bioplastics" by Nur Alim Bahmid) and alternative 2 ("Evaluation of Techno Economic Plant Design Acid Levulinat Integrated Based Empty Fruit Bunch palm Oil (EFB) "by Denia Apriliani Rahman). (1 )
(2 ) Figure xx. Comparation of BFD Pre-Treatment Source 1 (1) and Source 2 (2) (Source : ....... )
In alternative 1 the pre-treatment process is carried out five stages (Harahap et al.2012), which are the preparation of empty fruit bunches of oil palm empty fruit bunches in the process of oil cleaned from their shells and oil. Then dried and cutting with 5-10 cm. Fiber cuts dried again to obtain a water content of 4-5%. The next piece of palm empty fruit bunches hydrolyzed by adding a solution of 1 L HNO3 3.5% with the condition of a temperature of 90 ° C for 2 hours. After hydrolyzed process has been done, and then, the next step is delignification with 2% NaOH and Na 2SO3 2% at 50 ° C in 1 hour. The results of delignification added 17.5% NaOH at 80 ° C for 0.5 hours. Then filtered and the residue washed until pH neutral filter. bleached pulp further by adding H2 O2 10% is heated at 60 ° C for 15 minutes. Then dried in an oven at 110 ° C for 6 hours. While the two processes in the alternative to do is size reduction, washing, delignification, neutralization, and then from the filtration pre-treatment process
are compounds such as lignin and extractive compounds contained in the EFB will be lost.
2.1.2 Acetylation Process The process of making cellulose acetate there is only one kind of process, namely the esterification reaction (Faith, 1961). Cellulose acetate is an organic ester compound cellulose derivative. Cellulose used should have a high purity level to obtain a polymer solubility which is great for fiber manufacture because impurities hemicellulose from into unwanted gel. Cellulose acetate is the result of an esterification reaction of cellulose and acetic anhydride. There are three main processes used to convert cellulose into cellulose acetate, which are : 1.
This process is the most common and commonly used. In the process of acetylation of acetic anhydride is used as a solvent and takes place with glacial acetic acid as diluent and sulfuric acid as a catalyst. 2.
Methylene chloride is used instead of acetic acid anhydride and serves as a solvent for cellulose acetate are formed. Solution processes or processes using methylene chloride as a solvent and a catalyst perchloric acid which is easily encountered in nature and very low prices and cellulose acetate can be dissolved in a solvent methylene chloride-alcohol, if the solvent is evaporated to be obtained fine fiber called acetate rayon. Acetate rayon are used as textile materials (Sastrohamidjojo, 2009). Besides having a commercial value is high enough, cellulose acetate also has several advantages including the physical characteristics and good optical so widely used as fiber for textiles, cigarette filters, plastic and photographic film, paper coatings and membranes, as well as ease of processing more ( Savitri, 2004). In addition, the cellulose acetate also has considerable appeal because of its high so that environmentally friendly biodegradable. 3.
Inert organic liquids, such as benzene or ligroin used as non-solvent for an acetylated cellulose that has formed in the solution.