Bio Investigatory Project on Animal Husbandry

July 14, 2017 | Author: Mudashir Anam | Category: Animals And Humans, Agriculture, Food & Wine, Food And Drink, Livestock Farming
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Bio investigatory project on Animal Husbandry / Class 12 CBSE project/Class XII CBSE Board Investigatory project Guwahat...


Certificate of Authenticity

This is to certify that “Md. Mudashir Anam” a student of class XII has successfully completed the research product on the topic “Animal Husbandry” under the guidance of ‘Ms. Gita Sahu’. This project is absolutely genuine and does not include in plagiarism of any kind. This reference taken in making this project has been declared at the end of this project.

Signature of principal (with seal)

Signature (subject teacher)



I feel proud to present my biology investigatory project on “Animal Husbandry”. This project would not have been feasible without the proper rigorous guidance of biology teacher ‘Ms. Gita Sahu’ who guided me throughout this project in every possible way. Thereby I would like to thank ‘Mrs Geeta Sahu’ for guiding me on systematic basis. Rigorous effort has been put in this project to ensure that it proves to be the best. I hope that this project will prove to be a breeding ground for the next generation of students.



INVESTIGATORY AREA: Khanapara college of Veterinary Science.

ANIMALS BEING INVESTIGATED: (i) Hogs (Hampshire breed) (ii) Buffaloes (Murrah breed) (iii) Cows (Lal Kandhari)

Page No 1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………


2. Breed (Hampshire)………………………………………………………………………


2.1. Features 2.2. Characteristics 2.3. Proper weights of Hampshire breed 2.4. Types of feed given 2.5. Total Strength of the Breed 2.6. Common diseases of Hampshire breed

3. Breed (Murrah)………………………………………………………………………..


3.1. Features 3.2. Characteristics 3.3. Proper weights of Murrah breed 3.4. Daily Lactation of Murrah 3.5. Types of feed given 3.6. Common diseases of Murrah breed

3. Breed (Lal Kandhari)………………………………………………………………..


3.1. Features 3.2. Characteristics 3.3. Proper weights of Lal Kandhari breed 3.4. Daily Lactation of Lal Kandhari 3.5. Images showing maintenance of Lal Kandhari 3.5. Types of feed given 3.6. Common diseases of Murrah breed

4. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………..





nimal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans, in which genetic qualities and behaviour, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed. The term can refer to the practice of selectively breeding and raising livestock to promote desirable traits in animals for utility, sport, pleasure, or research.

Animal husbandry has been practiced for thousands of years since the first domestication of animals. Selective breeding for desired traits was first established as a scientific practice by Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century. One of his most important breeding programs was with sheep. Using native stock, he was able to quickly select for large, yet fine-boned sheep, with long, lustrous wool. The Lincoln Long wool was improved by Bakewell and in turn the Lincoln was used to develop the subsequent breed, named the New (or Dishley) Leicester. It was hornless and had a square, meaty body with straight top lines. These sheep were exported widely and have contributed to numerous modern breeds.

Under his influence, English farmers began to breed cattle for use primarily as beef for consumption - (previously, cattle were first and foremost bred for pulling ploughs as oxen. Over the following decades, farm animals increased dramatically in size and quality. In 1700, the average weight of a bull sold for slaughter was 370 pounds (168 kg). By 1786, that weight had more than doubled to 840 pounds (381 kg). Animal herding professions specialized in the 19th century to include the cowboys of the United States and Canada, Charros and vaqueros of Mexico, gauchos and huasos of South America, and the farmers and stockmen of Australia.

Techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer are frequently used today, not only as methods to guarantee that females breed regularly but also to help improve herd genetics. This may be done by transplanting embryos from high-quality females into lower-quality surrogate mothers - freeing up the higher-quality mother to be impregnated. This practice vastly increases the number of offspring which may be produced by a small selection of the best quality parent animals. On the one hand, this improves the ability of the animals to convert feed to meat, milk, or fibre more efficiently, and improve the quality of the final product. On the other, it decreases genetic diversity, increasing the severity of certain disease outbreaks among other risks. 1

2. BREED: Hampshire 2.1 FEATURES: 1. They are known for their meat yield 2. They require small investment on buildings and equipment. 3. They can utilize wide variety of feed stuff viz. grains, forages, damaged feeds and garbage. 4. Their manure is used as fertilizer for agriculture farms and fish ponds. 5. They are prolific with shorter generation interval.


These hogs are black with a white belt that extends from one front leg, over the shoulder, and down the other front leg. They have erect ears and are popular for their lean, meaty carcasses.

2.3 PROPER WEIGHTS OF HAMPSHIRE BREED: A pig should weigh between 200 and 240 pounds. Healthy pigs will gain from 1.5 to 1.8 pounds per day if fed properly. Feeder pigs that weight about 50 pounds at the start of the project usually make the best 4-H market hogs. 2

2.4 TYPES OF FEED GIVEN Pigs are non-ruminant animals. They have a single stomach in contrast to such animals as cattle and goats. To grow rapidly and efficiently, swine need a high energy, concentrated grain diet that is low in fibre (cellulose) and is supplemented with adequate protein. Pigs should be self-fed (given all the feed they will eat) throughout the feeding period. Self-feeding allows a pig to grow as fast as possible. Water is the most important part of a pig's diet. One-half to two-thirds of a pig's body is made up of water. Pigs should be supplied with as much clean, fresh water as they will drink. Pigs can live longer without feed than without water.



Semi scavenging(Landless) Small Medium

Broken rice + leaves + other wastes Bran + broken rice + vegetables Maize + rice polish+ leafy vegetables





Colibacillosis (E. coli)

Exudative epidermitis



Diarrhoea (scours) ; sudden Fluid therapy; death antibiotics (I,O,W); warmth Skin lesions; death

Antibiotics; skin protectant; vitamins


Improve hygiene; vaccinate sow/gilts; provide a warm clean creep area Improve hygiene; provide a dry, warm, clean creep area; prevent skin abrasions Vaccinate

Arthritis; skin lesions; reduced growth rate; condemnations at slaughter African Swine Fever Fever, blotching of skin, (ASF) haemorrhage of the lymph nodes, internal organs and haemorrhage of the gastrointestinal tract

Antibiotics (I)

No treatment

Through cleaning, disinfection, disinsectisation, movement control and surveillance

Farrowing sickness Reduced milk production; (mastitis, metritis, loss of appetite; higher body agalactia - MMA) temperature

Antibiotics (I,W,F); oxytocin; antiinflammatory drugs

Reduce feeding prior to farrowing; ensure good hygiene in farrowing crate; reduce stress on sows


3. BREED: Murrah

3.1 FEATURES: 1. Milk yield capacity of 2000 to 4000 litres. 2. Capable of surviving in any types of climate. 3. Easy to look after. 4. Lean meat with even fat cover. 3.2 CHARACTERISTICS: These buffaloes are kept under hygienic environment and fed with excellent quality grains and grass. They are demanded for high yielding milk and also for production of meat.

3.3 PROPER WEIGHTS OF MURRAH BREED: The average body weight of male murrah buffalo is about 550 Kg and for female the average weight is about 450Kg. 5

3.4 DAILY LACTATION OF MURRAH IN PEAK PERIOD: The Murrah buffalo produces above 18-litter milk per day. A peak milk yield of 31.5 kg in a day has been recorded from a champion Murrah buffalo in the All India Milk Yield Competition conducted by the Government of India.

3.5 TYPES OF FEED GIVEN: Buffaloes are ruminant animals. This means that they utilize micro-organisms in the rumen to digest the feed. The feed eaten by ruminants are mainly of vegetable origin. The ruminant is an expert in converting cellulose and other fibrous materials into high quality milk and meat. Their digestive capacity is greater than the non-ruminant. Ruminants” chew the cud" e.g. regurgitate the food to the mouth and chew it several times, thus helping the breakdown. They should be self -fed. This allows them to grow faster. Sources of energy are predominantly carbohydrates like fibre and starch and fat to a lesser extent. For buffaloes, fibre in the form of roughage is the most important and cheapest energy source. Water is essential for most body functions, such as body temperature control, milk production and maintaining blood plasma volume. Thermal regulation of the animal is the most water consuming process. The animal receives water in three different ways   

Drinking water Water in feed Metabolic water = water made from feed degradation

FEED SOURCE Crushed barley Groundnut cake Wheat bran Mineral mixture To increase acceptability, add, per 100 kg of starter Molasses Salt

AMOUNT 50 % 30 % 8% 2%

5-10 kg 500 g




Buffalo pox

Black Quarter

Johne`s disease




Appearance of pin-point red spots and papules; papules may convert coalesce into vesicles

1:1,000 solution of potassium permanganate followed by the application of 1:110 boric acids

Improve hygiene; lesions should be cleaned

Fever, lameness, inflammation of muscles, severe toxaemia and death in most cases

Penicillin and tetracycline dose

Susceptible to sunlight, drying and high PH of soil; continuous contact of urine with faeces reduces the life of bacteria.

Chemotherapeutic agent invitro Proper vaccination than Mycotuberculosis


Hygiene and prophylaxis destruction of carcases by burning, and cleaning and treatment of all wounds

4. BREED: Lal Kandhari

4.1 FEATURES: 1. They are dual purpose cows. 2. They are tick and parasite resistance. 3. They are heat tolerant. 4. Their drought resistant. 5. They lean meat with even fat cover. 6. They have high milk yielding capacity.


The body is compact, squarely built, but not massive with well proportionate limbs. The colour is uniform deep dark red, but variations from dull red to almost dark brown are found. Fore head is broad between eyes and is slightly bulging.

4.3 PROPER WEIGHTS OF LAL KANDHARI BREED: The average weight of an adult lal Kandhari is about 317 to 454 kg. 8

4.4 DAILY LACTATION OF LAL KANDHARI MURRAH IN PEAK PERIOD: Milk production in the institutional herds ranges from 1250 to 1800 kg per lactaption. Age at first calving is 39 to 50 months and the calving interval 425 to 540 days.


4.6 TYPES OF FEED GIVEN: Cows are ruminant animals.. Their digestive capacity is greater than the non-ruminant. They should be self -fed. This allows them to grow faster.

FEED SOURCE Crushed barley Groundnut cake Wheat bran Mineral mixture To increase acceptability, add, per 100 kg of starter Molasses Salt

AMOUNT 60 % 20 % 10 % 1-2%%

5-8% kg 500 g




Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia


MAJOR SIGNS High fever, harsh cough, nasal discharge, grunting and grinding of teeth, lung sounds are raspy (like paper rubbing) and death may occur in severe cases

Swollen udder, udder is painful to touch and hot, walking gait is not normal


None Vaccination twice a year

Proper hygiene Antibiotics



Abortion at around the final 4 -6 weeks of pregnancy, high fever, diarrhoea







attle's are an important economic livestock species contributing greatly to the Indian economy. Cattles are very important domestic animals in study regions. So, while rearing cattle, priority is mainly given to its maintenance. Well maintained cattle’s remains free from disease which in turn increases its milk productivity and its meat yield. Thus, cattle in the dairy farm must be housed and feed properly, cleanliness should be maintained in the milking area, the health of the cattle should be of utmost importance and regular visit of a veterinary doctor is must. Regular inspection of farm, maintaining records, identification and rectify action of problems should be done along with maintaining precautionary measures, sanitary conditions should be maintained. High yielding and disease resistant breeds can be selected to maximise benefits.




This project has been completed with the help of the following sources:     Biology Text class Xii(NCERT)

A presentation by: Md. Mudashir Anam

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