BBRC4103 - Research Methodology

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This describes on the various methodology methods...


BBRC 4103


MAY 2015












[email protected]


Shah Alam Learning Centre

BBRC 4103


BBRC 4103

Table of Contents Statement of the Problems and Ideas............................................................2 Problem Identification and formulated research questions...........................5 Literature Review.............................................................................................10 Research Approach and Research Design......................................................13 Data Collection and Sampling Method...........................................................16 Conclusion.........................................................................................................18 References..........................................................................................................19


BBRC 4103

Statement of the Problems and Ideas Tesco Malaysia has many different brands of chili sauce on their racks and the chili sauces have a very popular condiments and the demand of it has made Tesco Malaysia decide that they might need to introduce their very own brand of chili sauce. Tesco also needs to know if they will be able to compete with the other famous brands and is it feasible to have their own local brand? Below are the steps taken in doing the research.

Before any new product is to be launch, we need to first start with a research process. This is the process of getting information needed to see if its feasible to carry on and it also helps to answer questions raised along the way. Information’s gathered has to be useful, accurate and relevant.


BBRC 4103

These are the steps: I.

Problem Identification We fist need to identify a problem/issue/challenge and then justify the need for research. Only with the identification of an issue, can we even start the research process.


Formulate Research Questions Research questions are formulated based on the needs of the questions that need to be answered. They serve as the guidelines for data collection, analysis and conclusion. It’s usually more of a quantitative research than a qualitative research when it comes to research questions.


Research Philosophy and Approach We need to understand the research philosophy and approach before even starting a research. It can be a deductive approach rather than an inductive approach or the other way round. How do we decide on the research approach is crucial.


Research Design There are many research designs available to conduct a research. We have quantitative and qualitative methods. Sometimes, both are combined to get results.


Data Collection For data collection, we need to decide on sampling methods. Qualitative research will usually adopt a theoretical sampling method while quantitative research will adopt probability or non-probability sampling. So we need to decide what is to be collected as primary and what is secondary.


Data Processing and Analysis We need to decide how to prepare data for either quantitative or qualitative analysis. For quantitative data, usually software packages like SPSS is used. For qualitative, data is usually analyzed manually. 4

BBRC 4103


Conclusion and Report The final report is usually a presentation of the entire research project. There are many report formats and one needs to decide on the structure, content and style of the report.


BBRC 4103

Problem Identification and formulated research questions The development of a research question A focus is needed to conduct research. It is in the form on research questions. The most important element in the entire research process is developing, or articulating, a research question. A research question, is the focus of the piece of work, encapsulating in a statement what it is trying to be achieved. A high quality piece of research should not have any form of uncertainty. It is crucial for a research question to be articulated clearly as the wrong approach will not shape a desired outcome. Articulating a research question It is very important to ensure that questions are articulated correctly. Below would be what consists of a good research.   

There is a clear articulated research question The research question is done in such a way that it is testable The research question is well formulated The research question is realistic and achievable

The question samples are desired to be in ways that is:  How does this….?  Why will this…?  What is the relationship between A and B and how will this affect….?  Given that……, what will be the effect of this happening?

After having the questions, we now have to test the research question operationally. We have a number of concepts that we need to look into like cost, feasibility, knowledge, technology, manpower. Having defined concepts, the next phase of the research involves the development of operational measures. Exploring the literature to see how they have been defined in earlier research will be the easiest way to achieve conceptual clarity and develop operational definitions of concepts and constructs. This is an important step, as clear and concise definitions of terms need to be developed if they are to be reliably and validly measured.


BBRC 4103

Using market research to launch a new brand Brands are important in the food industry. A brand is the name or symbol that differentiates a product from another. A good brand effectively guarantees that it will deliver all of the qualities that the consumer associates with it. The purpose of market research A collection of data with analysis that satisfies market needs is known as market research Its main purpose is to reduce risk and help in decision making. This is very useful for a launch of new product to ensure goods produced are marketable. Market research provides information on consumer needs and wants, competitors, the marketing mix and potential sales. 

Consumer needs and wants - people have different needs and wants and these characteristics need to be identified. A product/company can then choose a target market as this will help with the marketing efforts

Competitors – there is no brand/company/product that is without any competition. Identifying competitors is very crucial as well as monitoring their marketing activities. Only then we can come up with our own unique selling point with a competitive advantage.

Marketing mix – marketing is about having the right product at the right price in the right place using the right promotion. These are known as the 4Ps of the marketing mix. It is important to have this right

Potential sales – only by knowing the likely level of sales will it be able to help the right amount for production. This will help with the allocation of stocks by location.


BBRC 4103

Methods and types of market research There are two main methods of market research – desk research and field research. Desk research is also known as secondary research, which is using existing information from they own records (sales trends, customers, costings). Field research or primary research is done by contacting potential consumers directly. This can be done in many forms like surveys, questionnaires and general observation.



Idea Generation The Research & Development Team of Tesco will launch the idea of testing and launch of their own chili sauce. This has to go through various stages before it can be launched. Product Screening All ideas are assessed and run through with the team. The most promising with good marketable value is selected. Concept Development Now the idea is taken and has to be turned in to a sellable/marketable product. Tesco’s R & D team has to come up with a product that is: Similar chili sauce as the ones found on the shelves so that consumers would identify with it Attractive enough to draw consumers to buy without hesitation Tesco Chili sauce prototype A sample is produced. A decision had to be made on the composition of the new chili sauce. Different types of recipes tried out with different composition of ingredients. Feasibility Study This is to find out if the new sauce is viable. This includes finding out if the production is within budget to ensure profitability. Production of the sauce is not the only thing here. They need to look at profitable packaging methods whether it should be bottled, packed or put in plastic containers.

Test Marketing of the Tesco chili sauce This is the process of testing the reaction of consumers before full production to the market. I final decision is made only after this to ensure the risk of lost is low. Agencies can be appointed to carry this out. In the testing process, these are done: Judge consumer reaction to the product estimate potential sales Determine the effect the new product would have on existing sales Analyses which chili sauce option would be the optimum.

Launching the Tesco chili sauce

Product - the product has to satisfy customer needs in terms of its taste and be of good quality Price – should not be underpriced. It has to be profitable and at par with other brands or slightly cheaper. Promotion – expensive marketing plan is in place to promote. Place – this has to be strategically placed so that it’s in the view of a consumer. If it’s hidden, it will definitely loose lots of consumers.

Literature Review Journal Name : Daryl Coleman, Connie Gao & Heejae Kim Article : McDonald‘s: Breaching the Luxury Coffee Market McDonald’s is trying to enter a new market in the US which is the luxury coffee. McDonald’s started this off by introducing its own espresso (latte, mocha, cappuccino) with both hot/iced version. A lot of stores nationwide sell this new beverage and they plan to add espresso machines to most of the stores in the future. This is also because there is demand for low cost food items. According to Danya Proud, McDonalds spokeswomen, “We know our customers are looking for those affordable luxuries." "We know our customers are visiting us, now more than ever, for many of our well known breakfast items, and we know our coffees continue to be a growing category." This new line is integrated directly with the front counter menu and makes it easier for consumers. McDonald‘s projects $1 billion annual revenue from its new espresso line. Journal Name : Anchor, J.R and Kouřilová, Terezie, University of Huddersfield Repository Articles

: Consumer Perceptions of Tesco Own Brands: the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom

Purpose Very little is known about how consumers perceive own brands in the newly emerging markets of central and eastern Europe. This journal studies to fill in the gap by investigating various aspects of consumer perceptions of Tesco own brands in the Czech Republic. Methodology/Approach Data is collected with structured questionnaires to supermarket customers in the Czech Republic and the UK. They used non probability quota sampling and the sample was stratified according to gender, age and income. Findings The findings show that the general view of Tesco own brands is slightly less positive among Czech than British customers. But there is a big difference when they are examined in terms of income. Increases in income lead to a decrease in the favorability with which own brands are viewed in the Czech Republic – the opposite to the position in the UK.

Research limitations/implications (n=100 in each country). This is the sample size. More in depth interviewing is to be conducted to access consumer attitudes. Practical Implications This research could probably help Tesco with its general expansion in central eastern Europe and its brand building in particular.

Journal Name : Jayalakshmi Gopalkrishnan, D.Ramalingam & Dr. V.K.Gupta Articles : How to win Chinese consumers: Competetive strategy of Wal-Mart in China This journal is about exploring the complexities of Wal- Mart‘s Chinese venture. Walmart faces a huge challenge by Chinaas there exist cross cultural diversities among the Chinese population. Walmart has to study the China market first and then think of a businees model that can work in the country. The case explores : a. competitive strategy of Walmart in China and (2) b. understand the adaptability of its business





They collect data from secondary sources and resort to some focus groups. This is to understand the strategic challenges that Walmart faces when it attempts to enter the international arena.

Journal Name : YOUNG-SANG CHO Articles : RETAILER BRAND DEVELOPMENT AND HANDLING PROCESSES This paper started with : Why is the retailer brand market share of Tesco Korea higher than that of local Korean retailers? Out of the many grocery retailers that expanded into Korea, Tesco has the most outstanding performance, with the highest retailer brand share in the market. Tesco has been positioned as a successful foreign retailer after the withdrawal of Walmart and Carrefour from Korea.

Research Approach and Research Design Definitions of Research Design

Research design is about turning a research question into a testing project. A good design depends on the research questions. There are both negative and positive sides to a design and they are also considered a blueprint. There is usually four problems in a question: what questions to study, what data are relevant, what data to collect, and how to analyze the results. Research design are divided into two: fixed and flexible. Some refer to this as quantitative research designs and qualitative research designs. However, fixed designs need not be quantitative, and flexible design need not be qualitative. In fixed designs the design of the study is fixed before the main stage of data collection takes place. Fixed designs are normally theory-driven; otherwise it‘s impossible to know in advance which variables need to be controlled and measured. Often these variables are quantitative. Differences between qualitative and quantitative Qualitative research The qualitative method is about asking the why and how of decision making and not just the what, where and when. They usually aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and what causes such behavior. Usually, smaller but focused samples are needed more than large samples. In the academic social sciences the most frequently used qualitative research approaches include the following: 1. Ethnographic Research, used for investigating cultures by collecting and describing data that is intended to help in the development of a theory. 2. Critical Social Research, used by a researcher to understand how people communicate and develop symbolic meanings. 3. Ethical Inquiry, an intellectual analysis of ethical problems. It includes the study of ethics as related to obligation, rights, duty, right and wrong, choice etc. 4.

Foundational Research, examines the foundations for a science, analyzes the beliefs, and develops ways to specify how a knowledge base should change in light of new information.

5. Historical Research allows one to discuss past and present events in the context of the present condition, and allows one to reflect and provide possible answers to current issues and problems. Historical research helps us in answering questions such as: Where have we come from, where are we, who are we now and where are we going?

6. Grounded Theory is an inductive type of research, based or ―grounded‖ in the observations or data from which it was developed; it uses a variety of data sources, including quantitative data, review of records, interviews, observation and surveys. 7. Phenomenology describes the ―subjective reality of an event, as perceived by the Study population; it is the study of a phenomenon. 8. Philosophical Research is conducted by field experts within the boundaries of a specific field of study or profession, the best qualified individual in any field of study to use an intellectual analysis, in order to clarify definitions, identify ethics, or make a value judgment concerning an issue in their field of study.

Quantitative research This refers to the systematic investigation via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. This is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. This process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Quantitative data is any data that is in numerical form such as statistics, percentages, etc. In another word, this means that the

quantitative researcher asks a specific, narrow question and collects numerical data from participants to answer the question. Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods, which can include: The generation of models, theories and hypotheses The development of instruments and methods for measurement Experimental control and manipulation of variables Collection of empirical data Modeling and analysis of data

Data Collection and Sampling Method The process of collection and preparation of data, if what data collection is. The purpose is to obtain information to be on record, make decisions and pass on information to others. Data are usually collected to provide information regarding a specific topic. This process usually takes place at the early stage of a project and is usually formalized through a data collection plan which often contains the following activity.

1. Pre collection activity - agree on goals, target data, definitions, methods

2. Collection - data collection 3. Present Findings - usually involves some form of sorting analysis and/or presentation.

Quantitative data collection methods This method usually rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. They produce results that are easy to summarize, compare, and generalize. Typical quantitative data gathering strategies include: Experiments/clinical trials Observing and recording well-defined events (e.g., counting the number of visitors in a shopping mall at a specific time every day). Obtaining relevant data from management information systems. Administering surveys with closed-ended questions (e.g., face-to face and telephone interviews, questionnaires etc).

Interview Here, the interviews are more structured compared to qualitative research. The researcher asks a standard set of questions and nothing more in a structured interview. Face to face interviews These form of interview able the researcher to establish rapport and get the corporation of participants. These type of interviews usually have high response rates and they allow for Researcher to clarify ambiguous answers and when appropriate, seek follow-up information.

Telephone interviews

There form of interviews are less time consuming and less expensive and the researcher has ready access to almost everyone with a phone connection. But phone interviews might not get good response rate as compared to face-to-face interviews. Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI): This is a form of personal interviewing. Instead of completing a questionnaire, the interviewer brings along a laptop or hand-held computer to enter the information directly into the database. This way saves a lot of time in processing the data and also saving the interviewer the burden of carrying around questionnaires.

Questionnaires Web based questionnaires: this is done by sending out an email with a weblink address to do an online survey. There are also software’s/platforms that will help with these. Survey Monkey is one example of an online questionnaire where all you need to do is to key in the questions and it will help to tabulate the results. Paper-pencil-questionnaires can be used to be sent to a large number of people and saves the researcher time and money. But the downfall is that not all will return them.

Conclusion Literature Review For Tesco to decide on whether to introduce its own brand of chili sauce it has to identify production process and market testing to see its sustainability and return of investment (ROI). So this has to be well researched. To position the new entry of the product, they need production plant, manpower and marketing budget. This means there is an initial investment and this needs to be started immediately to test the product in the market. Collection of Pertinent Data Our country is known to have land for agriculture purposes and we have the resources to produce their own brand or chili which gives them an advantage against the competition. Chili is known to be a famous ingredient for our local cousins. Population and Market Advantages over the competition One would think that it is easy to brand and gain popularity within the local people but its not as easy as it seems. Competition products will find ways to market their own products through trials, free tasting, free samples and collaboration with other brands. Tesco will need to have a global thinking by not only marketing this within Malaysia but to also neighboring countries like Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia who also uses chili a lot in their cooking. Analysis and Conclusion of the Study We can say that Tesco producing their own chili sauce is one that is feasible. It not only helps Tesco itself, it will also bring in good economic results to the country. Tesco can anticipate a good response and they should start work immediately.

Total words: 3000

References Books : Alden, D.L. Batra, R. & Steenkam, J. (1999). ‘Brand positioning through advertising in Asia, North America, and Europe: The role of global consumer culture‘, Journal of Marketing, vol. 63, no. 1 Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. eMarketer (2001). ‘The eGlobal report 2001’, eMarketer, viewed 14 July, 2009,

Akerlof, G.A. (1970). The Market for 'Lemons': Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism, Quarterly Journal of Economics Kothari, CR (2009). Research Methodology Websites : %20methodology.pdf

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