Basics in Arranging.pdf

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Basicsin Arrangitrg ParisRutherford Fall 1999

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BASICSIN ARRANGING O 1998ParisRutherford CHAPTER I . SIMPLE ARRANGEMENTS STEP ONE: GETTING STARTED Tu n eSelection . Sh e e tMusicand FakeB ooks T o Work Sta r ti ng

. . . . . . .. . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .z. . . . . .......4

STEPTwO: MELODY - I SimpleAnalysis .............. M elo d icDevelopment The Melody Ad a p ti ng Tun eWriting .............

5 . . . .10 . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 .. . ................18

STEPTHREE: HARMONY. 1 The Changes An a lyzing B ass Fu n d a mental Ch o r dS ubstitutes

.........2 . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2..4. . . ...............2 . ..7. .

STEPFOUR: HORNS- I TypicaCombinations l Transpositions STEP FIVE:


FunctionOf Rhythm CompositeRhythmPart STEP SIX:

. . . . . . . . . . . .3. .3. .



Two-line Sketch Part Extraction

38 41


. . . . . . . . . . . . .43 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4..3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 4 4 . . . . . . . . . . .. 4 6

STEP TWO: MELODIC DEVELOPMENT ..... . . . . . Ad d in gNotes(NonHarmonics) Melody Em be llishing A Compositional

. . . . . . .4. 9 . . . . . . . . . . .5..0 ...........51

STEP THREE: HARMONIZATION Ha r m o nic Color Reharmonization TargetChords Ad d in gT o The Changes

. . . . . . .5 5 ....55 .........58 . . . . . . . . . . .6. .0




63 64

HornCombinations HarmonicDensitY STEP FIVE: RHYTHM SECTION

...........7 . .1. ...............73 .....74

Fun cti ons ........... R ein for cement RhythmP arts......... ln d ivid ual STEP SIX:

MEDIUM FORMATS . . . . . ' . .7 5 ' . ' . ' . . '8 0 . . . . . . ' . . ' . . . . . . .8..' .t .

Fu llSketches The Full S core APPEN D IX (beginson page App. 1

Tunes,bYsongform. Standard



App. 3.1 JazzNomenclature App. 3.2 JazzChord App. 3.3 Add Chord Ranges App.4.1 Instrument Levels Agp.4.2 DensitY App.4.3 VoiceLeading App. 5

grooves. RhythmSectionlnstruments,

App. 6

Laying Out A Chart (p/us business)

App. 7

Transcriptions: 7.1 'l.Z 7.3 7.4 7.5 '1.6 '1.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.ll 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.11 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7 .23

Ind ex

Dolphin Dance Black Orpheus Down In The Depths Stella By Starlight Night Dreamer Reunion Black Nile ContentsUnder Pressure Au Lait (Metheny) In CaseYou MissedIt King Cobra Devil'sIsland You Don't Know What Love Is Day In Vienna Cathay Postcards Skylark Wildflower Intrigue Indigo Anthem StolenMoments Sho 'Nuff Did

99 100 101 r02 103 104 105 106 107 108 110 lll t12 tt4 l16 tt7 ll8 119 r20 122 r23 t24 t25



1A: TUNE SELECTION (thispage) 1B: SHEET MUSIC (seepage2) lC: STARTING TO WORK (seepage4)

To arranging music is to adapt it to a specificstyle, or to prepare it for performanceby a specificensemble.Adjustments may be needed in the melody or the harmony; the original key may be unsuitable; tempo may need to be determined, to fit the rhythm patterns of a chosenstyle. A chart for small or large band will certainiy involve voicings for the horns. The list goes on: these are some of the decisionsthat must be made by an arranger. Basic arranging should avoid adjustments,though, that actually alter a tune in the process!The successfularrangement enhancesthe original without treading on the composition itself. Obviously, arranging can become quite subjective. 1A: TUNE SELECTION The first step in arranging is selecting the right tune, or becoming thoroughly acquaintedwith one that might be pre-selectedfor you. If the choice is yours: 1. Selectyour tune from "standard repertoire". (Standardshave been proven effective, through hundreds of arrangementsfor great recordings and live performances.)Pick one that you know well. Appendix L containslists of a few older standards, any of which might fit your need. They are grouped according to their song forms. 2. Selecta tune in which there is room for expressingsome ideas of your own. A tune written with lyrics may have fewer actual notes; removal of the lyrics may increasethe room you have for expressing yourself. 3. Avoid extremes in tempo, rhythmic/harmonic complexities, etc., when first using any technique or concept.You can stretch out later.

Working materials Good tunes come in many different formats, each with its own inherent problems. The next few pages show some common ways that tunes are printed, copied, or in other ways made available to the writer.


18: SHEETMUSIC Sheet music is the retail printed version of published music. Sheetmusic, whether sold singly or in a collection,appearsin a 3-line format. Melody, chord symbols and lyric appear on the top line, a simple piano arrangement on the bottom two lines. O^ly the original sheet music version of a song is reliable to furnish the entire song as intended by the composer. Three-line versions (sheetmusic) show the harmonization of a tune two ways: chord symbols (above the melody) and the written piano arrangement.In the sheet music of many older tunes, the chord symbols frequently disagreewith the piano arrangement. If the chord symbol doe.snot show a change of bass,then when the lead line is separatedfrom the rest of the print, the changeswill be wrong. (A problem with older fakebooks)

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Chord symbols correctly reflect the changesfound in the original piano chart. Compare the two. versions; note the changed-bassnomenclature.

Fake Books - volumes containing a wide selectionof tunes, usually in the form of lead sheetsor lead lines, extractedfrom the sheet music. Older fakebooksare illegal (no royalties paid the copyright owners), and the changesneed scrutiny. \ewe1 "legal" fakebooki are somewhat less of a problem, and are good for the publisher. But, due to the overall choice of tunes, most legal fakebooksare less appealing to the iazz crowd. The Real Book - fakebooksdesigned to appeal more to the jazz community. Most of the leadsheetscontained in these editions have changesthat follow well-known recordings. The logic is great: if you like the changes,fine - if you don't, talk to the artist who recorded them! Real Books have long been the staple f.or jazz musicians. Transcriptions - the best answer of all! By quickly transcribing a tune that you want to arrange,from a performance you enjoy hearing, you improve your ears,you hory where the rhythms and changescame from, and you give your ear/hand/eye combo some good workouts.



lC: STARTING TO WORK e The lead sheet Provide yourself with a clean lead sheet of the tune you are about to arrange. (Seepp. 20 and 53.) The best lead sheetis one that you copy yourself onto full size, 1O-linepaper. This will give you room to write some of your earlier ideas as they occur to you. Full size paper (9x12")is available in most music stores that sell printed music, particularly the bookstoresthat service college and university music programs. It is available in single sheets(pads of 40 or 50) and in double folds (sold most economicallyby the quarter or half ream. .

Learning at the piano Even if you are not a pianist, keyboard is the very best instrument on which to develop your tune. Pianos and synthesizersgive you accessto the entire range of octaves.Writers who are not primarily keyboardists can soon develop reasonable"piano chops" for use in writing. This is called "arranger'spiano" - the ability to play the changeswith interesting alterations, to find horn voicings easily, and to keep reasonabletime while using simple voicings.) While learning the tune, experiment with melody and changesseparately. This is called "working the tune". (Step Chapter II, Step 1.)


Sketching and materials Sketchingmeans that you write down some of the interesting ideas from early stagesof experimentation. Write down the ideas that appeal to you, as they occur. Use 2-line systems(even if you are working only the melody), to make room for harmonic ideas that occur to you later. Keep your first sketchesin a folder, together with the lead sheet. Sketching should generatemore material than you need. Save only the best: as you become more fluent you will automatically pick up speed in the creative process.This is also true for musicians who write computers or at a keyboard with an inboard sequencer. The aalue in sketchingfirst, then writing or computing,is one of efficiency. You cannot use eaery good idea you haue. It is good to work out some of the early stagesof deuelopingan idea beforedeciding whether to continue with it. The sketchingprocesswill help you saae time and energy. Awareness of fonn Every standard will have a good musical form. If you are composing your own tune, it should be written to a recognizablesongform as well. Working with simple song forms will enable you to make best use of your time.You may also gain further insight by playing (or listening to) songs with the same song form as the tune you are writing.






STEPTWO: MELODY 2A SMPLE ANALYSIS (thispage) 16) 28 ADAPTINGA MELODY (page 2C BASICTUNE WRITING (paget8) Melody is the ingredient which establishesthe identity of music. Melody is most responsiblefor the memorability and successof a tune. This is not to discount the importance of harmony and orchestration. Successin writing music, though, can be' no greater than the writer's ability to handle melody. The art of writing and arranging melody begins with the analysisof great tunes.

2A SIMPLE ANALYSIS Analysis of music is the study of its various elements.Musicians analyze music for the purpose of learning from the successes(and failures) of those that preceded them. Analysis in this area is kept simple, and limited to melody. Simple melodic analysismay be divided into three broad areas: ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE(2A-1, page 5) Most music is constructedwith phlsss that end with cadences.Melody is made coherent and memorable through the use of devices developers. and all hanes toeetherin a musical form.

ANALYSIS OF IMPLIED HARMONY (2A-2, page 12) A melody, while in motion, will expressa senseof harmony. This implied harmony may or may not be the same as the harmonization written by the composer as an accompaniment.

ANALYSIS OF CHARACTER (2A-3, page'J,4) All melody is either active (vertical) or passive (horizontal). Good tunes profit from a deliberatecombination of both characteristics,carefully placed to give the desired emotional effect.


2A-"1..STRUCTURE describesthe way a piece of music is held together.The most basic strucfural devices are phrases,cadences,developers.musical form.

PHRASES: A phrase is the shortest section of melody that feels complete. The most common phrase length is four bars. Four bar phrasescombine into eight bar sections which are called double phrasesor periods. A phrase normally ends with a longer note, or a more pronounced rest, before the melody proceeds.This break in motion (cadence)allows the music to "breathe".

Periods(or double phrases)are the primary eight-bar building blocks for a standard length 32-bartune. Formally, these periods are identified by letter names according to the simple song forms: AABA, ABAB, etc.


The pause (or breath) at the end .... than the pause (or breath) at of an 8-bar section will be more the end of its first 4-bar phrase. pronounced... .

If breathing is slighted (or inadequate),music will feel forced or busy.


If pausesare too long or pronounced, though, melodic flow is damaged.

(The letters above appear for demonstration of form and are not those found in the individual parts of performance-readycharts, called "rehearsal letters" - for communication and location during rehearsal,and having little to do with the actual form of the tune being played.)



CADENCESare combinations of notes, chords, and rests that slow the movement of music, thus causi.g u senseof pause. Some cadencesare shorter, some longer, dependingon size or complexity of the music being sectioned.Cadencesoccur in harmony, melody, rhythm and texture. In Step2, we deal only with harmonic and melodic cadences.

HARMONIC CADENCES are chord progressionsthat slow or stop the feeling of forward movement in harmony. Cadencesoccur at the ends of phrasesand periods. We use four harmonic cadences:half. full. modal and deceotive. The half cadenceuses a ii-V or tV-V progression.With the half cadence,the music pauses(and breathes)but moves on. Music following a half cadencewill feel like a continuation of what went before. . Half cadence lf


The full cadenceuses a V-I or vii-I progression.Movement stops when a full cadenceis used. Material that follows a full cadencewill feel like the beginning of a new section. . Full cadence

The modal cadenceis a IV-I progression.The music pauses,but with a sound that is modal and somewhat "bluesy" . Modal cadence



The deceptive cadencemoves not from V to I, but from V to vi. (In jazz application, a deceptivecadencemay also move from [V to iii, and on.) Harmonic motion feels as if it should "tun:r around"- deceptiaedescribesthe effect well, Thesecadencescan be used to briefly postpone the use of a full cadence. o Deceptive cadence



On page 9, cadencesin "StellaBy Starlight" are identified and labelled. Plav this example at the piano! Listen to how the cadenceswork.


o fu bars 1.-2,and 17-1.8,the ii-V progressionsare not cadential.but provide good forward motion. The full cadencein bar 6 and 7 proceedsto a minor IV chord (bar 8) which Progressesacrossthe double bar to a I chord. The effect is reminiscent of the modal cadence,contributing to the special qualities of "Stella." The first L6 bars ends with a half cadence.The bridge begins with another ii-V progression;since it is the beginning of a section and not a phrase end, the effect is that of generating additional motion. The ii-V half cadencein bar 28 is borrowed from a different key. The feeling of half cadenceis strong, and the harmonic interest is enhancedby this increasein harmonic color.

WHY ARE THESE THINGS IMPORTANT? Thesecadencesprovide the great sense of motion felt in this old standard. CadencesL" and 3o act normally, and do not "give away" the unusual progressionsto unpredictable key centers.In this way, thesenormal ii-V cadenceshelp keep the energy level high. The cadenceat mid tune is predictable,thus lowering the energy appropriately.

Enerw levels in the typical AABA tune.


This is a good energy graph for a 32-bar tune. \A/henarranging, be careful not to damagethe energy flow.



Primary cadencesin "Stella By Starlight" 6r..l B+


toward the The melodic cadence is a break in the forward movement of the melod-y ns&barphrases.(Longernotevalue,orrests.).Notel|atyh:r'Ithe moniccadencesoicur separately,the music breathesbut keeps bothcadencesoccur at the same time, the music stoPs' cadenceskeep music from moving ahead. Too few cadences $ s- Choice and placem ent of cadencesis influences the


Developersare the,qriryry devicesusedto de.velop a fragmentof melody first into a coherentphrase,later thesephrasesinto a fuil tune. The most common developersare repeat, sequence,answer, and mirror. isjust that: the reuse of a figure, using most of the same notes. ' *."p":t ("The Girl From Ipanema" develops inis way.f

Note: when a fragment of melody repeats (bars '1,-z,g-4),the chords change.

The sequenceis a repeatof the previousphraseor fragment,transposedup or down, usuallyby only a step. check olt the ru.or,jp"riod of "fio* Insensitive"as it sequences the first period,a steplower.

when a-fragment or phrase sequencesup, the energy level escalatesa bit. the largei than a siep (eithertirection), the energy Ih:l level jumps significantly! (Seebar 9, below)'

ps 10


The answer is a section of melody completing the thought from a previous phraseor period. The answer may be as short as a fragment, or as l,ongas a full eight-bar period, all depending on the material being answered. The senseof movement, and the resulting rise in contour, are both stronger from an answer than from a repeat. In the following example from "Stella" make note of the different ways tension/releaseoccurs,and its causes.

answer (consequent)

The mirror is a reuse of melodic material in which intervals are either inverted (mirrored) or reversed (retrograde). The mirror produces more tension than a simple repeat. amzds)


Melodic motion from bar 1 into bar 2 is inverted for bar 3 into bar 4. The use of different rhythms adds interest, and doesn't damage the mirror.

Augmentationand dirninution are opposites.A melody is augmented when resuedwith doublednote values. Diminution occursin reuse when note valuesare reduced(usually by 50Vo). Augmentationand diminution are valuabletools, but are not part of simple arranging.

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LA-L.IMPLIED HARMONY (and Musical Tension) Every melodv suggestsa senseof harmony as it moves.....

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I ... and all music has a level of tension. (excitement and/or expectation) Higher tension results from unexpectedor opposing ideas. The composer/arranger builds and releasestension to createan interesting product. Harmony implied by a melody may or may not be the same harmony found in the chord progressionsthat come with the song. Implied harmony is expressedfour ways, as demonstratedon page 12. o When the implied harmony agreeswith the chord changes,tension is low. The effect is calm and consonant.(Goodfor beginnings and cadenceareasin jazz and pop music, and for music needing a simple, childlike quality.) .

When the implied harmony differs from the changes,tension increases. The energy level and interest go up. (Good for contemporary jazz, even for developing the phrase structures in music requiring lower tension levels.)

Implied hannony agrees with the changes. Lowest tension.

Implied harmony difreEgfrom the


In the above example, the implied harmony of the melody agreeswith the changes in bars 1 and 2; the resulting tension level is low. They begin to differ in bars 3 and 4, resulting in a rise in tension.

pg 12



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Implied harmony is expressedthrough . . . Stepwise movement beginning on or approaching a strong beat. (Identify the scale- it becomesthe implied harmony for that area of melody.)


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A broken chord or arpeggio. (Analysis is made accordingto any position of the chord: root or inversion.) tl




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Appoggiaturas and escapenotes (The outer two of three notes will suggesta chord)

Any of the above,when out of sequenceor obscurredby too many notes. (Too many stepwisenotes obscuresthe analysis. Find repetitions or a single leap; analyze accordingly. G "r,aaior


Application: In iazz, agreementbetween implied harmony and the actual changesis usually not a good idea. Tension levels are too low. Use subs to move the bassline around a bit.

pg 13


2A-3 CHARACTER. A melody line is said to be either active or static. Active describes *,"d.: up. of skips and./or sudden changesof register. ";i.]"1t o An active melody moves betteiin uniions (or 8ves) than whe"nchorded. Example: "In Caseyou Missed It" - SeeAppendix Z.

NOTE: Rhythmic complexityalone doesnot classifua melody as,'actiue,,. Leaps,abript changes'o7reiister, etc., must alsooccur. static i"sthe opposite of active. A static tune (or a portion of the tune) is one in which the movement is mostry stepwise, and/or J.,rtuir,"d. ' voicings feel "more at home" on static than on one with more activity. Example: "You Don't Know rA/hatLove Tg.lodl Is', - see Appendix 7.13

However, a static tune can also sound good with unisons, when played by a color unison, preferably in the lower ranges. Example: "Black Orpheus" - SeeAlpendix 2.02 Uxtrsot) lleiNs

pg 14

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28: ADAPTING A MELODY Adapting a melody is the simplest form of arranging, and involves only four steps: 1) Determine the style in which the tune should be played. 2) Selectthe best key for the circumstances. 3) Makg simple adjustments to the melodic rhythm (if needed) to put it into the desired sfyle. 4) CoPy (or print) the material accuratelyfor the performers. (Transposed,if transposing instruments are to be involved. See Step 6, this chapter.) When adapting is all that the arranger needs to do, it may be accomplishedin a matter of minutes. The tune need not be altered at all, and will only be played once. When the project calls for a chart that is more involved, the arranger should still begin with these same three steps. SELECTINGTHE BESTKEY (28-2) Placethe range of the tune (distancefrom top to bottom notes) within the average playing range of your top or lead horn. For averageplaying ranges,seeAppenaix a.

/ oFt'mrss lorucs( -)lL

If there is room within the span. locate the tune closer to the bottom of the averageplaying range if the lead is a higher horn (trumpet, alto sax, etc.).Locatethe span closerto the top of the averageplaying range if the lead is a lower horn (tenor sax, trombone, etc.). Then choosethe key that makes this possible.

Fine tuning the selection of "best key" Brassand Sax players are most experiencedplaying in keys ranging from one sharp to five flats (concert).Therefore,when choice of concert key is between, say, Bb Major and B Major, the ensembleis most likely to play its best in Bb Major.

pg 16


ADIUSTING THE MELODIC RHYTHM (2B-3) If your style will be jazz (swing), analyze the melody for rhythmic placement.If too many strong notes fall "on the beat", move some of them off the beat, thus providing a looser relationship between melody and accompaniment (bassline). The processof moving notes to unaccentedbeats is called "syncopation". Syncopation is a key element in the melodic style of jazz artd jazz-related music. The decision of how much to syncopate a melody is influenced by the amount of motion in the accompaniment. r When music is felt in "2" fewer syncopationsare needed than when felt in "4". o When music is felt in "4", syncopation should keep the melody from hitting the strong beats in the accompanimenttoo often. When properly adjusted to swing, a melody will not line-up perfectly against the background, and stay there. There must be a few soulful surprises. Useful routine for adiusting melodic rhythm, to swing:

1) Locate a phrase containing too many quarter notes or downbeats.Move its last note ahead '1./2beat.(The process of moving notes from strong beats to weak beatsis called syncopation.)

2) Treat additional bars the same way until you have done eight bars.

3) Adjust the melodic rhythms in 4-bar segmentsso there is a good flow. Listen to recordings of uncomplicated small jazz ensemblemusic: when the arranger syncopatesat the wrong time, the style changes. This is not good. 4) Watch for symmetry (equal motion to the left and right) that damagesthe good unpredictability of your melody. Adjust the syncopation to relieve some of the unwanted symmetry.

pg r7

't Melody-1

2C. BASIC TUNE WRITING Most top jazz performers write at least some of their own material. Yet, the ability to write a good tune is elusive to many capablemusicians. Their primary difficulty is in waiting too long for inspiration, rather than being willing to start with an idea that can be developed. Where to start: Most writers begin either with a fragment of melody or an appealing chord progression.There is no set rule, and it may change for you from one day to the next. Try the following routine: When beginning to write an original tune either: begin with an interesting chord progression(3-4 bars at most), Develop it according to guidelines found on the next few pages, but don't go far before you put melody to what you have. --- or: write a fragment of melodE that appealsto your ear (two bars at most). Begin to develop it using one or more of the of the simple devices found on page 16. (Developers) Don't go too far before you begin to harmonize! then: write music! Let the techniquescovered so far help you make decisions. (The best selectionof a song form is made after you have developed your first material for 8 or 16 bars, not before. At that time, you can refine and rewrite. This processis normal to song writing.)


I l I I I I I I I


. The beginning of a good chord progression may be as short as this: . And, a beginning fragment of melodv can look like this:

Combined, they form a very brief beginning to a tune. (The fragment is short enough that it should be reused immediately.)


t The first four bar phrase has two positives working for it: 1) the short fragment has a leap, and is reused immediately, and 2) the intervals between primary melody notes and bass notes are interesting and aggressive. Note, though, that the tune itself is not aggressive. pg l8



Starting with a melodic fragment is usually easier.The fragment should be short and simple, but should have a quality that calls for immediate reuse of some kind. As you harmonize the first fragment, start with a chord whose bass will provide an interesting interval relationship to the melody. (7th, 9th, 4th, etc.) But, don't be too dissonant! Reuse the material. The key to a well written melody is reuse. When melodic material is imitated, then contrasted,it is time to repeat or in some way reuse. The number of options is large: analysis of great tunes will help you locate a model tune, to imitate. this is good business,at first, and unnecessaryonce you get rolling. The demo fragment may be developed through the devices shown on PP. 16 EE17. The fragment has a good interval relationship to its harmony (3rd, 7th, 9th, etc.)

A repeat can call for a changeof harmony. Stay close to the key at first, but borrow from other keys as you develop the melody.

The secondfour bars will answer the first four. Since the fragments have leaps, the contrasting answer is more step-wise. The contrast between leaps and the stepwise movement sets up the need for a cadenceand a reuse.

In the 2nd eight bars, a repeat in the melody should be more aggressive,calling for more color in the harmony.

The contrasting answer may now proceed to a different key center. (The first material has been used and reused adequatelyby now.)

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RESULT: Two similar "A" periods, the secondof which has a higher energy level. pg 19



Two repeating sectionsof music call for a contrastingarea:the bridge. The AABA form, with its bridge, is right for this tune. (The decision to repeat "A" with a similar 8-bar period calls for the contrast of a bridge, thus the AABA form.) To find the right sounds for an effective "8" bridge, use these measurements: .

If the A sectionshave an active character,the bridge should be less active. If they were not, then the bridge should be more active.

o If they were both in the same key center (and this is normal), then the bridge should go elsewhere. o If they stayed in.a mid-range area,the bridge should go higher. .



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If the A sectionswere rhythmic, the bridge may be less so.


This demo bridge will provide needed contrastthrough the use of leaps and a higher range. The style is tuneful, though, and stays away from heavy sounds: a good policy for first and secondexperiencesat tune writing.

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The return to " A" should begin the same as either of the previous "A" sections. (Usually the second "A", since the higher contour is needed after a bridge.) The same beginning fragment can be developed many ways. Here are iust two: Sbz


1 ) Answer flrst, tnen reuse. (sulr aPProPrrare ror a rlrst

period in a simple song)


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suggestyou're in A1.)


pg 20






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Final version of the demo tune, in AABA form


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Opening fragment, developed into a longer idea, for different song form. When generating material for an ABAB song form, the initial idea should be longer. Two similar 4-bar phrasescall for a contrasting answer, thus forming the 16bar " AB" section of an ABAB. 'When things become difficult, imitate the structure of a model tune you'like.




Original fragment, developed into a 15 bar section, following the logic from "I Remember April"





Jazz and popular tunes are written with chord progressionscalled "the changes." It is the arranger's choice whether to use what is given, or to make adjustments as needed.Rarely will an arranger leave the originai progressionsentirely unchanged. Before reharmonization comes analysis - for familiarization, and for measuring the amount of harmonic color already present between the tune and its changes. In the next example,changesrepresentedby the chord symbols suggesta wrong bassline. "Someone To Watch Over Me" E I?

Thcre's I some- bod - y

I'm long-in3

to rcc.

I hope thet he


to b€

Chord slmbols in older songs may not show the correct bass morr"m"ti. . * The changes in bars 2-3 should read: Eb/G - F#'? | Bb?/F - Eo7

The fundamental bass of the changesrepresented by the generic piano arrangement contains a descending bass. The chords above are rather plain. If that is okay, there is no need to adjust. When the level of harmonic color does not fulfill the need, though, reharmonization takes place, involving chords that are more colorful (see page24),and/or chord substitutes,which effectively alter the bassline. (Seepage 27.) Nomenclature is the system of symbols that identify the chord sounds that are used. Letter names and numbers are used to expressroot, mode, and other important characteristics. SeeAppendix 3 "Nomenclature".



FUNDAMENTAL BASS Fundamental bass is a seriesof notes written to show the bottom notes from a set of changes. One note is sustainedfor each chord, no matter how long it may last. (Fundamentalbassis not intended for performanceby the bassplayer, bui is an analytical tool for the arranger.)

"HaveYouMet Miss Jones"

fundam.entalbass Fundamental basssimplifies the analysis of two-part structure. Two Part Structure Music with melody and harmony will always have at least two parts moving. Melody is thought of as Part 1 and harmony (in this casethe fundamental bals) as Part 2. Thesetwo lines have a contrapuntal relationship to each other. That is, they moJe together but are not allowed to become "tied" to each other. (Exceptat cadencepoints, where forward movement is supposed to slow down.) The intervals between fundamental bass and melody are strategically important. 2nds, 9ths, 7ths, are more aggressivethan 3rds and Sths,6ths, and createi highet interest level. Sths and 8ves are less energetic,and are most useful at beginnings and cadenceareas. In more aggressivetunes, they are avoided. ' In the examplebelow, the chords in bar two createdSths between the parts. Chord subs change the Sths to 3ids, for a different sound.

(Miss Jones) A


Substitute to change 5th (top-bottom) to 3rd page24

* Passing tone chord for interest


The level of harmonic color in jazz is higher than in other popular styles. For most PurPoses,major and minor triads, major 6th chords, and straight dominant seventh chords are too plain. Shown below are common devices used to colorize harmony, including extensions,suspensions,alterations and changesof bass note. COMMON COLORING DEVICES PI,AIN


1. Extensions are the notes one adds to chords or hamonies from the scale most representative of the chord. A triad is built by stacking 3rds. The triad or 7th is extended by then adding additional Srds.

DOMINANT C7sus4 BbmaiTlC

2. Suspensiorls, or "sus-chords", are the result of putting the 4th into a dominant chord and removing the 3rd. Suspensions are described by chord symbols that read *sus-4'.


4. Change-bass describes the chord whose bass note is not its own root. Change-bass runs the garnut from the common inversion to the hybrid chord (whose bass note is outside the chord's own key center)

AI..|TERED c7(il11)c7(be)

are chromatic 3. Alterations changesmade to chords. The most common alterations involve the 5th 9th scale degrees. While even a triad may be altered this way,alterations usually take over after the chord has already been extended.




Ebg BbmajT Dm

obrcbeb lo

SeeAppendix 3 for a detailed coverageof jazz chords. page25



Determining when to use more colorful chords When a tune is relatively diatonic (even an aggressivejazz tune), especially if its tempo is high, then the quality of chords used in the changescan remain simple. 9ths, 13th, sus chords, etc. are adequate.This is true in most of "Black Nile" -----




Wh..rnegtuttr alg'.'.



a b r:


a llsl

When a iazz tune needs to tell a more modal story, has a slower tempo, or contains a greater number of accidentals,then the quality of chords should be more colorful. Alterations and change-bassare added to the extensionsand sus chords in Wayne's "Stella By Starlight" - see also this tune in the Appendix. DomT altered

Minor sus-4 and DomT (b5)- -

DomT altered

Change bass and sus-4's








38: REHARMONIZATION AND CHORD SUBSTITUTION Reharmonization is the processof conforming u set of changesto the requirements of an arrangement. The processoccurs every time an arrangement is written for a jazz group. Normally, two items receive the closestscrutiny: level of harmonic color, and the 2-part relationships (bassagainst melody). Adjustment of color level mvolves the extensions,alterations, etc.; adjustments in the 2-part structure involves chord substitution. The substitute is a chord which provides the same kind of harmony as (or function as) the chord which it replaces. Chord substitutes are used for one of two reasons: L) The fundamental bass malr cause an unwanted interval against the melody. The use of a "primary chord substitute" will change the fundamental bass, thereby altering the two-part structure of the tune. Basic harmony remains. SKYIIRK LtEl',EntbE rr*t)bttCrttrrl


h.L H.



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rbr r c,

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2) The arranger may just want a different sound. The original may be too too bland, or it may even be too aggressiveand need taming somewhat. The arranger may want for a particular modal sound to prevail.

(nPm>cr*g^e/ Med.Swing 0^,7

Dearlv Beloved J



Music bv JeromeKern Lvric bv fohnny Mercer



Common Substitutes (primary and secondary)are built over bassnotes a third or fifth above or below or below the original note. 1) A primary substitute is based a third away from the original chord; they have two notes in common.

2 The secondary substitute has only one note in common with the original, and is based a fifth awdf , up or down. The energy level of a secondaryis higher than that of a primary.

Locating the "subs" Major chords: Locate the new bassnote and selectthe right chord over it. The number of common tones between sub and original will influence the energy level in the music. Minor chords: Locate the new bassnote and selectthe right chord over it. The number of common tones between sub and original will influence the energy level in the music. There are more minor scales (than major), so there are more choicesof subs for minor chords.


keep the sanre riad, changethebassnote

Cm? Cm1lF

keep the same triad, change the bassnote

Dominant chords: Locatethe tritone (#4,b5). Build another dominant (or a diminished 7th chord) containing the same tritone. The "tritone sub" is based an aug.4th or dim.Sth away and contains the same tritone as the original.

keep the same tritsne (3rd + ?th) move bassup or dqwn #4 or b5



Other substitutes include the inversions and the change-basschords. Thesesubstitutestend to be those chosen for choice#2 of "Whv Use Subs?"

Suspensions: A "suspension" is the sus-4, the dominant whose 3rd is replaced by the 4th. This chord updates the sound of the harmonic progiession, while leaving bass movement unchanges.


Inversions: For major and minor chords, build the voicing over the 3rd or 5th of the chord. (The only differencebetween a Lst-sub and a first inversion is one note in mid-voicing.)

Changgbasschords: Change-basschords, in general, are available for substitution, so far as their bass notes OR their chord functions meet the needs of the ananger.




C gga





L. fuplacethe 3rd wit}r the 4th. Thechordstill sorrrdsdominant

Keepthe chord and ....tochange a melody$ass relationship move to ib inver:ion...... without changing the harmony


tDorninant neeriso ctrange....

Eal orcgtE


E+7le E+le



....bassup a 3rd a riifferent dsmnant mairesmversron chord builtbetvreen the or the halfdim. sarte outer notes(C + E)

SeeAppendix3: JazzChordsandAdd-Chords




(Original changes)

The original changes are good. The few adjustmentsare numbered and explained below.



Em/D Ar6/C

B? ^I-


PROBLEMS (with the original)

SOLUTIONS (applied on next Page)

(1) Long triads on strong beats (2) Too many straight dominants (3) Bar 17: octavesin 2-Part. (4) Bars 19 + 20 are boring. (5) Bar 21: octavesin 2-Part. (5) Last 4 bars: cadencetoo long.

(1) Extend or add to the longer triads. (2) Sub to sus-4'sand tritone subs. (3) Sub down to change-bass:min' sus4 (4) Extend the Em to createnew line. (5) Sub down to C6/9, tritone the next bar. (6) Sub 29, delay the Cbass,extend 87. page30




@ Suspendpart of the domnant

($ create sus4 from ong, 67tiet ,-y7 te

extena to create"rnterest hne" @ -sm/C D9'c5(Abt(is)

@; s"U ciownto keeppedat -Enr7/B Bbo?


w EC

The C9 is a tritone substituteto the Flf07, thus making the appoggiaturaeven more coherentyet!



Final Balance Finally, it is important for the arrangermust see to if that the 2-part scheme(melody and bass/changes)are well balanced. That is, the harmonization can be as crafty as one is able, but the changesmust remain subordinate to the melody. The following should be true. 1) The changesmust flow well. There can be no sudden changesor surprises, regardlessof how clever the chord(s) responsible. Unless, of course,the sudden surprise is also present in the original comPoser-changes. 2) The changesmust sripport the melod|, and not compete. That is, the amount of color or alteration in the changesshould never be greater than the amount of coior or interval energy in the melody itself. 3) The changesmust flow with the same schemeas the song form. That is, the rise in interest levels causedby substitutions etc. should progress with the form, and not contrarv to the form scheme.

I Irl rl I I

Guidelines for using substitute chords:


1) Play and analyze the tune. Identify cadencesor changes thlt should not be altered, e.g.,those that are characteristicof the tune itself. Example: the first four bars of "My Funny Valentine" have a characteriitic descendingline in the harmony (either in the bassor above).Be careful of changing this characteristic!


2) Analyze the original changes against the 2-part structure of the tune. Locate inaccurateor awkward chords from this standpoint.


3) Choose substitutions to correct the problems in #2. 4) Choosesubstitutions also to adjust the level of harmonic color (up or down), as needed 5) Start with lstlevel subs when the tune has a diatonic or gentle quality to if move to 2nd-level or change-basssubs to provide more liarmonic interest, or to keep the changesfrom being predictable. 6) Don't oversubstitute!







if: TffiSSo3ff"'il^'IoNS Instrumentation for a small group is usually 2 to 3 horns with rhythm section. When there are three or more horns, they are usually mixed. That is, there will be a mix of brassand woodwinds.

Mixed horns provide more color, depth, and varief of sound than two or three of the same kind of horn. When only two horns are present, the mix may be in terms of instrument type. (Brass,woodwind, etc.) Or it may be in terms of instrument register. (High and low homs). In any event, the best mix is that which provides you the greatestversatility. . The first simple arrangement should be written for two horns with rhythm. The emphasisis placed entirely on good melodic writing. . Thesefour combinations of two horns are effective with rhvthm section. (1) Trumpet and Alto Sax (2) Trumpet and Tenor Sax

(3) Trumpet and Trombone (4) Trombone and Tenor Sax

Front Line The homs that play in a small group, or five to six horn band are called the "front line". When trumpet is part of a front line, it should be placed on the lead. That is, when the horns are harmonized, trumpet should play the top part. Guitar, while not a wind instrument, is valuable as a doubling member of the front line. Doubling, in that guitar adds excellentcolor to unisons. Guitar can also comp, of course,increasing the versatility of that instrument. Basic Ranges The basic rangesof any instrument are those into which most of their music tends to fall. For the first several charts, the wise arranger will keep closeto thesebasic ranges. The best playing always takes place in the ranges where people have the most experienceplaying. SeeAppendix 4 for ranges and other information. IN GENERAT...... Lower registers

Seldomused in writing small group arrangements.

Average Playing Ranges

Upper Registers

Almostall of what is heard in small group musicfalls within this range. Usefulalso for selectingbest keys.(page 16)

pg 33

Seldomused in writing small group mu s ic .

Extended Ranges

Do not write in this rangefor small group arrangements


48. TRANSPOSITIONS A transposing instrument is one whose "C" is a different pitch than on the piano. All transposing instruments used in jazz music sound a lower pitch than written, so must be "transposedup". o Trumpet and Tenor Sax are Bb transposing instruments. o When writing a transposed part for a Bb horn, write everything a whole step higher than the concertpitches. This will also require adding two sharps to the concert key signature. For example, C Major for piano becomesD major for the Bb part, and F Major concert is written one step higher, in G Major. For trumpet, transposeup one whole step.

For tenor sax,transposeup a whole step plus one octave. Note: The most common transposition errors in jazz occur in the tenor sax. Don't forget the extra octave!

I ! !

Irl I I I I I I

The same written line, played both by trumpet and tenor sax, will sound in octaves.



t t I I I I





Alto and baritone saxesare Eb transposing instruments. When writing a transposed part for a Eb hom, write everything a major 6th above the concert pitches. This will also require adding three sharps to the concert key signature. For example,C Major on piano becomesA Major when transposedfor an Eb instrument and F Major is written in D Major. For alto sax,transposeup a major 5th from the concert (written) music.


For baritone sax,transposeup a major 6th plus one octave.


The same written line, played both by alto and baritone saxes, t t-


will sound in octaves.



STEPFTVE: THE RHYTHM SECTION 54: MAKEUP OF THE RHYTHM SECTIONlthispage) 58: TIIE COMPOSITERHYTHM PART(see pg58) The instruments keeping time and moving the changes in a jazz or pop chart is called the rhythm section. (Rhythm sectionis frequently shortened to Rhythm.) Rhythm function together as a unit, and are responsiblefor keeping a solid feeling of rhythmic time ("g3oove")alive in the playing of an arrangement. Even when horns play background figures, the rhythm section is responsible for the quality of the groove. They must play responsively to each other; thus, their part(s) must be kept as simple as possible.

MAKEUP OF THE RHYTHM SECTION The basic rhythm section found in a small jazz group (or "combo") consistsof: . PIANO (and/or GUITAR)



PIANO (or KEYBOARD) can mean either the acousticpiano or a synthesizer. The piano plays stylistic rhythm patterns on the changes. The changes may also be played in this style by GUITAR, or by both piano and guitar.

BASSmay be upright, electric,or in somegroups even a keyboard. ln a simple.urangements, the demands are very non-specific, so the choice of bassinstrument should be made by the player, or by the leader of the group, but not the writer.

DRUMS indicates a standard drum kit. PERCUSSIONmay be present as well. For a simple arrangement,both the drummer and the percussionist read from composite parts (seenext page) and decide which instrument(s) to play.

In a simple anangement, consisting only of a good plan, good changes,an intro, an ending, and instructions regarding style/tempo The arranger may write one composite part for the entire rhythm section, to be photocopied to each rhythm player. This composite rhythm part is discussed on page 50, and is entirely appropriate whenever rhythm players require only good changes and information on the layout of the chart. If more is required, a compositepart is inappropriate. pg 36


THE COMPOSITE RHYTHM PART In a simple arrangement, all rhythm players may play from a photocopy of a common rhythm part. This composite part gives the changes and any stop times that may occur. Instructions may be written to tell the drummer where to play something other than straight time (in whatever style)


l'frrv€ rxt Z

When a composite rhythm part contains specifically notated rhythms, it is understood that everyone in the rhythm section will play these rhythms.

When requirements of a chart cause a composite rhythm part to look as busy as the next example, the compositeis no longer the correct format. Too many different sounds are called for. Each player should receive an individual part instead. (See ChapterII Step5.) .

Not a good compositerhythm parh it looks too busy.



STEPSIX: SMALL FORMATS 64. TrWO-LINESKETCH(below) 68 INDTVIDUAL PARTS(pg 48) The best format for the final version of any arrangement depends upon two factors. 1) Size of performing group. The larger the group, the larger the format needed for a final version. 2) Application. The best format is the least complicated format that will serve without compromising the chart. Rule of thumb ..... Simplify as much as possible. When music becomesdifficult to follow easily, or looks cluttered, it is time to move to the next larger (or more comprehensivl) format.

6A. TWO.LINE SKETCHES The two-line sketch is the smallestcompleteformat. It is written in treble/bass clefs, always in concert key. A sketch may contain a fair amount of information, including written instructions on style, number of rhythm to play, roadmap, etc. 2-line sketchesare best r

When a simple chart has unison horns and a straight-ahead rhythm groove, via the composite rhythm part, use the two-line sketch. (For a chart more complex than this, move up to the three-line sketch.)

AggressrveLatinf1H=144 $rDt-Alto)

When there is a lyric and only a simple rhythm background will be used. (If horns are used in addition to the vocal, then a 3-line format is better.)

Cdrtinuc latin


pg 38



Cautions: the following are common errors made in jazz charts. Be careful to check your work against this list before having the music played! 1. The sketch is always written in the concert key, without octave transpositions. Where homs will play in octaves,one line may be written with the indication "8ves" above or below the melody. Z. Material for the composite rhythm part apPears on the bottom line, and is written in bassclef' 3. Bar numbers should appear throughout, placed at the bottom left of each bar. Computer notation progtams may place-barnumbers above the line. These are "iefault settingsi an-dcan be chinged on most Programs. If not, the program is inadequatefor serious notating. 4. Clefs and key signatures appear at the beginning of every line in published music. In abbreiiated manuscript, they may aPPearonly once Per Page,at the beginning of line one, or when ihe key g$lq".t. (Note: any clef lacking a key signature automatically signals a key of C Major or A minor.) 5. Time signaturesappear only once. unless there has been a change of meter. 6. When possible, title and authorship appear on line one of a Page of sketch; the music begins on line two. 7. Changes should be written clearly, and with chord symbols choLen that are not hf.ely to be misinterpreted. (The style of nomenclature in Chapter One, Step 3, is highlY recommended.) 8. Lyrics, when preSent,should be "all caPs",and written over a straight edge for the sake of aPPearance'




Two Line Sketch of "Yesterdays" Top line = Tenor solo, untransposed. Bottom line = same music exactlyas to be copied for a composite rhythm part.



a Amin




'-\ *ril rfimz1b sy









A najT/B


' ll'













Format- I

5B. EXTRACTING THE INDIVIDUAL PARTS Individual parts representyou as your music is performed. Material, appearance, and layout will introduce you before one note is played. This becomesmore and more important every year! In manuscriph ' Paper: Use professionallOline paper. (12-linepaper will look crowded.) You will find good papers at Penders; also at the University Store. Be sure that the 1O-lineis at least 80 lb. weight - 100 lb. weight is preferred. Also, though good PaPer is available in off-white or buff, white is preferred, especially for pencil. o Pencils: Use a soft lead pencil for individual parts. (Ex: the Berol Electronic Scorer, sharpened frequently to keep stems and bar lines thin.) o Eraser: Use the non-abrasivevariety, which lifts a pencil's image without damaging the surfaceof the paper. (Example:the StaedtlerMars Plastic Eraser, available from art supply stores,and most University Book Stores) . Rulers: Use a triangular, transparent "straight-edge"for bar lines, and to underline titles, credits, etc. (Available at most book storesand art supply stores. Also, when you purchase a straight-edge, be sure that it has a beveled edge,so that soft leads and ink pens will not smear.) For computer generatedparts: .

Print: Laser printing is so commonly available now that other platforms (ink jet, dot matrix) are used now only for personal "trial runs."


Paper: Printers use an extremely light weight paper. Once you are sure that your music plays the way you want, photocopy your printed parts onto 80 lb. white ledger paper. This will give your music the right feel.

. Appearance: All notation programs use good fonts - Petrucci,Sonata,etc. In addition, several "jazz fonts" are readily available, causing your music more and more to resembleprofessional hand-copied manuscript. o Formatting: The best format for individual parts, though, is not necessarilythat which is built into the default file of your software. The best format is one that you construct through the editing process. Turn to page 48. Seealso Appendix 5.



FORMATTING INDIVIDUAL PARTS Whether in manuscript or computer generated,follow these guidelines: .

Place the instrument name at the left (on line one, or where line one would be.)


Placethe title in the middle of the page where line two would be.


Music begins on line three.

o Group four bars to the line except where the music would appear cluttered (lyrics, too many 15th notes, etc.) a

Number each bar, with the number appearing at the bottom left of the bar.


Begin page two on line one; page number should appear at bottom center.



Yesterdays JeromeKern, arr. ParisRutherford

Solo ad lib

l0 o










F i





T F li

F F!


The small group is a self-containedensemble,usually with one to three leads (horns, synthesizers,etc.) and rhythm (tfuee or more). Over the years, the majority of great jazz sorllrldshave emanated from the small group. Most often, the small group features a combination of sounds. Small group sounds play a vital role within the orchestrationof larger jazz ensemblemusic, and small group is also the most frequent scoring choice for good and aggressivevocal backing charts. Writing creatively for the small group is as challenging as any music writing can be. This ensembleis totally transparent: orchestration cannot hide problems that exist. Lastly, writing for the small group makes efficient use of learning time: there is only a fraction of the copywork and other logistics associatedwith learning to write!

STEPONE: FORMSAND LAYOUT 1A:SONGFORMS(thispage) lB: LAYING OUT A CHART (page45) lC: WORKING THE TUNE (page46) Song forms are the structures on which most of music is built. Chapter Two will focus only on two (AABA and ABAB) and how they impact upon the processof arranging. Stay with these two forms at first: they are most easily understood, thus freeing more of your creativity for profitable application. Appendix I containsa list of standards,both older and contemporary, grouped according to song form.



-t l

F ll


THE ABAB SONGFORM contains two eight-bar periods (AB) that repeat to complete the song form. (AB-AB) In the typical 32-barsong, each AB section is 16 bars long. As the music passesfrom A into B, the emotional level (contour) should rise. This usually occurs within the tune. If not, the arranger should make a change to accommodatethe form. (An increasein orchestration or in rhythm section)







li Il

F l1

F l{


Important: before the second period (B) can effectively contrast or answer the first period (A), music in the A section must feel like it has been developed at least once. Listen to the headsof Black Orpheus and Devil's Island (listening tape) and watch their lead sheets(Appendix 7). Answering and contouring occurs within the tune itself; in both cases,the chart wrote itself.

Form and Layout

The contour of an ABAB song looks like this: The dotted line rePresentsthe level of interest (tension, energy) already built into the tune.

differentlyfromtr TheAABA soNGFoRM operates




Thefirst two periodsare

virtually the same, except for their cadences.This sets up the need for a contrasting section,called the bridge. Here, the arranger must decide how to provide a senseof departure for the contrasting bridge. Listen to Skylark and to You Don't Know What Love Is (listening tape) and watch their charts (Appendix 7) In both tunes, the A section will have a feeling of development before reaching the cadence. This is a must; it is the arranger's responsibility. The contour of an AABA song looks like this: AA B

The feeling of departure is usually causedby changesboth in the range and the characterof the melody itself. . The bridge melody may go higher (as in Skylark) or lower (as in Down In The Depths). SeeAppendix 7. . Or the departure may be very subtle, as in Black Nile (Appendix 7). The melody line is chorded to strengthen the contrast, the feeling of departure.


t t I

Form and Layout

OUTER FORM (THE EXTERNAL FORM) Song forms describethe structure of mo-rethan just the tune. An arrangement has form of its own. The outer form shows the larger sections of a complete .hory arrangement relate to each other. In a simple head fhart, the tune itself (first and last playing) are representedas "A", the soios as ,,8,,. The outer form, is ,,ABA,,. A


A q9o{ arrangementwill introduce the tune, develop it (in various ways) and bring it back briefly at the end. (This same outline is quite common in classicalsymphonic music: exposition - development - recipitulation.) I n r no stj azzch a rts,the tu neitselfusua1lyoccur s@. solos, solis, and other developments,ociupy the B section. see the following section,and also Appendix 6.1 Layout. LAYING OUT A CHART. You must first answer this important question: How much clock time should be taken ,rp the performunce of the chart? of the tune, best tempo, etc., i. l-e1sth together determine the elapsed time for each .li'orr,s of play. The ideal clock-length for a chart is influenced by these factors: 1) The length of the original material helps determine the overall length of a chart' Longer tunes can survive long& arrangements. Shorter tunes should not last as long. 2) The application of an arrangement also influences its best length. ' Performancesthat include the lyric are usually shorter than those that are purely instrumental. A lyric tune can susiain only so much musical . In this case,the arranger must specifically determine the L J length of the chart, and write it accorlingly. '

Performancesthat are purely intrumental can be sustained longer, if the solos t"lu.- interesting and vital. In this, the compor", oi arranger writes a qogd he_adchart (with introduction and optional endings), leXving the overall length up to the performers.


Head charts (above)that are sure to take extreme clock time should also include written transitions that can be inserted between solos from time to time to break ug unending rhythm groove. The players themselves will lhe provide some of the relief through changesin rhythm texture during solos. pg 45

Form and Layout

WORKING THE TUNE "Working the fune" refers to a process of experimentation, and usually involves the piano. During this time, ideas are worked out against the framework of the tutre being arranged. lhis process is indispensable in both composing and arranging, and does not need to bgin tempo. (Rubato experimentation w-orks dut ideas thit y"ou are beginning to hear.) 1. Play the cadences. what happens when you substitute cadences? 2. Isolate the ii-V progressions. What happenswhen they sequencewhere they shouldn't? What happens when ii-V progressions are placed over a pedal point? 3. Find the sequences(and other imitations). Can you carry these into new ideas? 4. Improvise with the non-harmonic leaps. Push them farther than they are written. Do the results suggest other developmental ideas? 5. Create an interesting pattern in the rhythm accompaniment. Can you maintain the groove against the tune? 6. Find the keynotes in your tune. (Seepage 42.) Improvise melodic ideas on the changesthat move around the keynotes. The Keynotes of a tune are the notes that form the structure on which the tune is built. All good tunes may be reduced to the outline of their keymotes. In much of the standard repertoire, the strong interval relationships of 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 9th, etc. connect the kelmotes and the fundamental bass. Intervals of 5th and 8ve are weaker, Tore commonly found in cadenceareas,where the energy levels dlop anywfY, and in modal or pentatonic music, where a lower energy le-velis idiomaticallv correct.


Keynotes provide a structure around which the writer can add or change melodic material without compromising the tune.


Form and Layout

KEYNOTES alone are found on this leadsheetof 'Just Friends." The standard changesappear above the tune. Alternatives appear below, on the bass staff. Notice how much easier it is to visualize the reharmonization, when only the keynotesare present. It becomesmuch easier to concentrateon the interval relationshipsbetween the melody (keynote) and the bassof the changes. . KEYNOTES AGAINST FUNDAMENTAL BASS is the critical two-part relationship that influences the "right" and "wrong" choices to be made when reharmoniztng a tune. (SeeStep 3, this chapter.) E m7









4t,h 6th

8ve 31

I pg47

Form and Layout

SKETCHING THE LARGER GROUP Sketchingrefers to the processof outlining an idea, to be filled in and developed later. To sketch music is to write the most important ideas down as they occur, without allowing thoughts of orchestration to impede the flow. Vertical thoughts noted non-musically (abbreviations,shorthand, (chords, voicings, - etc.) may be rhythms, etc.). Melodies and chord symbols,,when accompaniedby this system of personal shorthand, may quickly capture the beginnTry of a chart. Detail, -orchestration, and fine-tuned development may be addressedafter the linear structure of a chart begins to take on shape.


pg 48


STEPTWO: MELODIC DEVELOPMENT 2A ADDING NOTESTO TI{E MELODY 2B CONTRAPUNTALLINES (page 86) In most arrangements,the original melody is developed in some way. No tune has been written that fits every style without adjustment of some variety. Developmentoccurs when a melody is treated one of three ways: .

The rhythm of a melody may be changedfor the sake of style. (page 19)


Notes may be added to the melody. (this page)


The melody itself may be changed. (Compositional:page 52.)

2A ADDING NOTES TO THE MELODY A melody line may need to have additional notes (or rhythms) added when the tempo increasesor when the style is more rhythmic. (latin, funk, etc.) When this occurs/ the keynote structure itself should not be altered. (page 47) Adding notes to a melody is made easy through the use of non-harmonic shapes. (so named after LTth century non-harmonic tones) Added notes do not disrupt a tune when they maintain a stepwise relationship to the original. This is the logic of non-harmonic shapes. Nowadays, we don't think of "non-harmonics"as dissonant. It is the shapes of thesedevicesthat are important. By adding notes according to theseshapes,we leavethe basic messageof a melody intact. THE NON-HARMONTC SHAPESMOST COMMON TO JAZZ. PassingTone (stepwise movement)

Auxiliaries (neighboring tones)

Appoggiatura (jump then step)

EscapeNote (step then jump)

Adding notes to a melody increasesits interest at different levels. 1st level: embellishing the melody. (lowest level of increase) .

Add notes to provide a lift in the energy level of a phrase. When the added notes conform to non-harmonic patterns, they act like embellishments. The choice of embellishment depends on the selection of horns (or leads) Different instruments sound best on different embellishments. ( Listen and imitate.)



. Add notes to combine two four bar phrasesinto one eight bar phrase. *

original o's'5,o'rJ4!tae developed

Add notes and increasethe activity, to provide a strong boost in energy level at the end of a section. (Add some arpeggiation to the non-harmonic shapes.) (The broken chords facilitates the rise in meiodic activity.)



added notes


2nd level: adding notes to the keynote structure .

of key' When the energy level has already been raised.(faster tempo'-change effective' etc.) melodic d"evelopmentmust be more flamboyant to be upon The successof adding to a melody at a higher energy level depends keynotes' the the tune, but without altering moving farther "*"y"fro^

Keynotesat the start of JustFriends Added notes anchored to the keynotes.

structure At a still higher energy level, broken chords added to the keynote changes' chord the (and/or alterations) found in may outlinJ the *uy be added before or after a kelmote') The resulting (Thesenew notes"*i"i"io"s developed through melody begins to sound like a new tune, so it must also be the use of iepeats, answers,seguencesand other such devices. Keynotes and first changes. New line: NH shapesand broken chords added to keynotes.



Two common iazzernbellishments may be notated with symbols'

Sgt/uilt'J.6 -

wfuttfar) L.


pg 51


3rd level: compositional. The melody itself may be changed for a few bars. In the arrangement of an AABA tune, development of the first two A sectionsmay be so complete that a third use (after the bridge) would be detrimental. In this case, new material should be written to replace the first four bars of the 3rd A section. From that point, at least bar five of the original tune should be used before the tune is allowed to cadence. This new material should contrast the original, but remain true to the keynotes! In the following example,bars 1-4 of the last eight bars are replacedwith a more aggressivemelody written around the keynotes, and even using the tune itself!

"YOU DON'T KNOW WHAT LOVE IS" (Last"A" - seeAppendix 7.)







Important guidelines: '

Development of an existing melody by adding or deleting notes should not alter the keynote structure of the tune.


Different developmental techniques increase the energy levels of the tune in different amounts. More aggressivedevelopment should be saved for later in the arrangement, when the rhythm or harmonic energy is also on the rise.



28 CONTRAPUNTAL LINES Adding a second line against the melody can enhancethe overall arrangement. Counterpoint is simply the act of moving one line against another. For the counterpoint to be effective, and non-competitive, the second line must be subordinate to the first. That is, the first line must remain the primary melody; the second(added) line must move well against it, but remain a secondaryline. Good secondarylines have two characteristicsin common: 1) Their rests or sustainednotes are a little too long; they breathe too well. 2) A note or rhythm is reused a little too much for the line to sound good as a primary melody. In low energy settings,the note is in the middle or at the bottom; in higher energy settings, this note can be the upper threshold.


Primary and Fund. Bass n +lJ9


4 -4 J l





Counterpoint is most effective when the lines don't "touch each other". That is, the important notes in the secondarymelody should not walk acrossor double the important notes in the primary melody. Good counterpoint

Faulty counterpoint E m/O


pg 53


Contrapuntal BassLines Basslines can become part of the contrapuntpl structure as well. When repetitive arpeggiatedbass figures are used, they must relate well to the melody at all times, even when the two part structure briefly suggests a harmony not that of the changes. In the following example, the bass suggestsfour bars of Dm, and four bars of Bb. In bar two, the two part structure (bassagainst melody) does not make Dm. The implied harmony (Am) is compatible, though, and the bass remains consonant against the melody. From "INDIGO" (Seealso Appendix 7.20) Drfil




An active basscan fit well against a powerful melody. For this technique to be effective,more than just the bass guitar must be assignedto the bottom line. A synthesizerand (perhaps)a low reed instrument together can balance the energy level required. Note the blank areas in the following example: they permit the drums to come through. From "JOY RYDER" (Seealso Appendix 7.23)


STEPTHREE:HARMONY-2 (Reharmonization) 3A LEVELS OF COLOR 3B ADDING CHORDS(page60) There is a level of harmonic color "just right" for any chart. When the level is too low, the product will sound boring or naive; with too much color, most any chart will be overbearing and unenjoyable enjoyable to hear, to perform. Jazz harmony is normally more colorful and diverse than harmony used in other areasof popular music. Harmonic color is present (to varying degrees)in all tunes: notes and chords borrowed from other keys raise the level of harmonic color in all styles. Even the common chord extensionshelp to createa richer harmonic fabric. CHANGING THE AMOUNT OF HARMONIC COLOR As a set of changesis treated with extensions,alterations and borrowed chords, harmonic color increases. Conversely,the removal of some of these alterations will certainly bring the color level down, and with it the tension. Seepage 25

By substituting a few change-bassvoicings, the arranger can slow the fundamental bass without changing the color level. This causesan increasein the transparencyof the chart. Seepage 26, and page 57 (bars1 and 2).

Major can be changed to minor. Through the use of pedal point and substitutions, a harmonization can be changed from major to modal. SeeAppendixT - secondversion of Skylark, bars 1.- 6.

Note: the techniqueof shifting the modality of a set of changesis most successfulwith ballads and gentle latins; such shifting of modality is less appropriate for swing tunes that were originally written in major.

pg 55

REHARMONIZATION begins with the decision that a good tune has changesthat need help. In contemporary use, "SKyLARK"is such a tune. Enhancementof "SKYLARK" involves chord substitutes (page 27) and pedal point (page59) SI(YLARK Lttt&rmrbr

h*tltrgyCiSrl,l*rdt E6


stt skt

Lrl l-t


ln ln


t! F-

b r rr.



W-t FJ rltryH

t -t lEr||




t .




hc j[.rt'l-


lrl!.r r.arb ..Et.b.tbrdL











ril-l. -.-t


A..l b








l ul .-





lb -.













a-r A7






















n- O. Gd








tlyr -










E 15

B? 19






1. Beginning: The changesare outdated, due to a combination of the first Maj. 6th chord, and the stepwiseprogressionin bars L and 2. (Great tune, but Playersnowadays do not use such changesas these!) The changesneed help! Solution: The Ab change (bar 4) becamea target chord, and was approached by borrowed ii-V progressionsbuilt over an appoggiatura. (Seeadd-chord on Page60.) New changesfor bars L and 2 were placed over a Bb pedal point, providing a better interval relationship between melody and bass. Note also the interesting sound from bar 2 into bar 3. Seetargets on page 58. 2. The bridge: Original changeswere kept in the first 4 bars of the bridge. Note the several ii-V chord movements in the bridge: a gentle and consonant' melody at slow tempo requires some activity in the fundamental bass. pg 56


"SKYLARK": REHARMONIZED. (Seealso Appendix Z.1Z) T-argetchords are vital to good reharmonization. Two targets are circled below. the stepwise and traditional ii-v movement used to Xpprou.i-tt,"r" Nrl" targets. Both targets are vital to the successful rehar*orrir"tior,.





Fm -lg7(lel

c tab




cmrah4 aln"jz









pg 57


alns ahuab EbmrJz




The TARGET CHORD is a chord to which other chords move. Target chords are more important to the changesthan the chords lead to them. In "SKYLARK- (Jazz Messengerschanges),target #1 is the Ab major, a characteristicharmony for the tune, one which is not replaced. The result is substitute changes.which move to the same target as the original changeshad moved. Successfulreharmonization depends upon this technique!

c /ab




E m?





The successof substifute changes is measured by their ability to progress effectively to a designated target. The Color Shift is another important tool in contemporary harmonization. Unexpected movement across a bar line from a "flats" key center to a "sharps" key center releasesa significant amount of musical energy. This is called color shift. The progressionin bars 2 and 3 (circled above) is a good example. Movement across from the sound of three flats (Eb and Bb7) to the sound of two sharps (Em7 and A7) is exciting, and attracts immediate attention. Clever use of the color shift enhancea set of jazz changesmore quickly than almost any other harmonic technique available to the contemporary arranger. Check the color shift in the following example from "Canto Triste" (Brazil '66) as the Gm7 - C7 (bar 8) moves suddenly to F#m7 (bar 9). This tune set trends in the cross-overworld of the early 70's.

Eo? \


,;7r hlY ,

u?rn., I i

6674 4 7()e)

Color shifts should not be overused. pg 58

4 7(fr)


PEDAL POINT is a held or repeatednote piaced below a seriesof moving chords. Moving chords that make little sensetogether, on their own, can be made to sound logical when placed over (or under) the right pedal point. (Abbreviation: PP) The Bb pedal in bars one and two of "SKYLARK" (JazzMessengerchanges)causes the moving harmonies above it to sound logical to the melody, and at the same time to form change-basschords. Together,the pedal point and the moving chords produce a rich harmonic environment in which the sudden color shift to E min. is not disruptive, but exciting.

c nb





Pedal point is most useful to jazz and popular music three ways: 1) As an approach to a major cadence,to signal the closing of a section. The pedal in this caseis usually the IV or the V, if the cadenceis normal. Such a pedal point justifies progressionsthat under other circumstanceswould not sound appropriate so closeto a cadencearea.

2l At the beginning of a section of music, pedal point can hold unusual changes together, and also help to punctuate progression of the fcrm itself. Example: From "SKYLARK" (UNT Singers changes The A pedal supports the chanees responsible modal reharmonization. -

pg 59


ADDING CHORDS TO THE CHANGES (,Add Chord,,) Even the best changesmay not h1rt" 9n9ugh harmonic motion to satisfy special needs in an arrangement. When this is thJcase, additional chords may'be'added without changing the messageor flow of the changes. The processis called add chord. The selectionof notes and chords is made from non-harmonic shaPesadded to the fundamental bass. Providing theseadded bass note(s) aPPear in non-harmonic shapes, the chords built on"r tliu* will enhance, not alter, the sound of the changes. Exlmple: This bass line cannot support harmonies on each note in the melody withou.t repeating the same chord over and over. Dm7




vl .





/' L


Il It

Fundamental Bass But a note or two added to the fundamental basscan provide the foundation for additional chords. Thesenew note(s) should be aided via non-harmonic llupu-t, g.B.-passingor leading tones,-auxiliaries,appoggiatura or escapenote. Chords built over non-harmonic additions need 66 in the originll changes in order to sound right in the context of "ot the arrangementl I

Dm7Am7Ab9 en7




You can effectively use add chord: 1) When a cadenceneeds more motion. 2) I4/hen the changes go by too slowly to balance a colorful melody

pg 60



1) When a cadenceneeds more motion: Increasethe harmonic motion by adding additional ii-V movement. This addition can occur while the melody is still moving.... original

with the additions

.......OR, when the melody itself cadences. (Example:"BLACK ORPHEUS") DbmajT

ahnorbmajz sbmajz




passingtoneshanes{ 2) When the changesgo by too slowly to balance a colorful melody:

Add chords to a new non-harmonic bass line. The new non-harmonic bass line will enable some great chordal sounds; therefore, it should not depart unnecessarilyfrom the original key center. By using a variety of chord types, the new changesdo not becomepredicable. the original

When there is reasonaltempo fewer add-chords areneeded.

In a slower tempo,the need for add-chord is greater.

Cwq Fql"

Bbq),/r 6,2Eb7,



_30 _20 if fi3N3SH,BlffiiT,: Most jazz perform.rncesfeature brass and woodwind instruments in front line* or backing instrumentation. (Trumpets, saxesand trombones are the most common.) Sincemuch of the tradition in jazz is linked to the idiom of these horns, a writer interestedin jazz should first concentratehis/her listening and writing on combinations of these instruments.) HORN COMBINATIONS Project II involves three horns with rhythm. The horns should be chosenfrom between trumpet, trombone, alto and tenor sax. Accessto these horns is usually good, and these horns blend together well in most combinations. They are also most easily found in good jazz recordings,your best source of model and perspective while learning the idiom of jazz. Common groupings of horns. (Easiestaccessfor researchlistening) 2) Trumpet* 1) Trumpet* Alto Sax Alto Sax Tenor Sax Trombone (3-a Rhythm) (3-a Rhythm)

3) Trumpet* Tenor Sax Trombone (3-a Rhythm)

4) Alto Sax Tenor Sax Trombone (3-4 Rhythm)

* The Fluegelhorn may be substituted for trumpet if the style of your chart is "pretty" (versusaggressive),e.8.,BossaNova or laid back "straight eight" arrangements. Or, if the tempo is slow, and the cutting quality of trumpet would overload the texture you want to achieve. (Rangesand characteristics of the Fluegelhorn are found in Appendix 4.1.)

Front line refers to the lead instruments in a small group (2 or 3 horns and rhythm), or in a "front line band" (4 to 5 horns and full rhythm). The name comes from positioning horns acrossthe front of a performance area,standing in front of the rhythm players. Nowadays, guitars and synths can play the leads in any style equally well as horns, Nonethe-less,"front line" refers to wind instruments.

pg 63


48: HARMONIC DENSITY when more than one instrument plays on the same line, or with the same rhythms, the weight of the sound increases. The effect is measured in terms of harmonic densiw. The level of harmonic density ("density" for short) describesthe number of different notes in the chords. including the melody (or lead). Density does not describethe number of different horns playing on the same notes. DENSITY LEVELS -- 1o Unisons and octaves The level of harmonic density in unisons and octaves is "one" regardlessof how many homs or other instruments may be involved at the same time.

-- 2" Two different notes that move together with the same or similar rhythms have a density level of two. (Ten horns may be written on these notes, and the density level is still two!) . Densitl-2 may involve a variety of intervals, but only two notes at a time;

Both octavesand unisons have a densityT:evel of one.


Doublingat the o-ctave doesnot add "ne'wnotes" (This is still density-2)

-- 3o Three notes moving together have a density level of three. Most Density-3 is in close position, and clustering is common.

Note o

Density describesonly those notes that move together on the same line.


Density writing does not include music where two or more lines move individually. That is Counterpoint. (Listen to the Fluegelhorn improvisation during the head of "DE SAMBA".)


lI Horns-2

WHEN TO WRITE HORNS IN DENSITY, AND AT WHAT LEVEL: Best decisions on the use of density are made on the basis of the characterof the lead lines themselves. Characterof the melody o when the melody line is less active. chords are more appropriate. This means a higher level of density. You Don't Know what Love Is (bars r-4 - seealso Appendix z.)

When lead.sare more active (quickly moving a wide range), chords are less appropriate. This means a lower level of density. (Unisons and 8ves) "Take The'A Train" (Seealso Appendix 7.)

Note: In instrumental music, frequent changesin density tend to damage the coherency of the music. However, where density-L is in use, it is not unirsual for the density level to increasefor cadences,where the velocity of the music is at its lowest. pg 65



DENSITY OF ONE (Unisons and octaves) Unisons and octaveshave a density of one (density-l) regardlessof how many instruments may be playing. .

Density-l lg a good choicefor lines that have a high level of activity. Example: "IN CASE YOU MISSED IT" (SeeAppendix 7.10)

Density-I is also good for less active lines in low ranges, where the higher densities would sound strange or forced. Blample: "BLACK ORPHEUS" (SeeAppendix 7.02) Uxtrsatr,l llzlNs


Density.l is also good for slower and quieter tunes with rich changes, Example: "DOLPHIN DAI.ICE" (SeeAppendix 7.01)


Density-l is extremely powerful used in both the top and bottom of a chart, when both top and bottom are active melodies! Example: "JOY RYDER" (SeeAppendix7.24)

pg 66





DENSITY OF TWO Two-note harmonies written on the same line have a density of two. (Density-2) Density-2 does not refer to octaves,or to counterpoint. .

3RDSAND 4THS are the most conunon intervals used for density-2. Th"y may be mixed, and are easily invertible. In the following example, take note also of the additional movement in bars 13-1,5,which (used sparingly) adds interest without compromising the harmonic density. Example:"DEVIL'S ISLAND" (SeeAppendix 7.12) 3 --r^o A


. Density-2 can also be used effectively with three horns. Briefly doubling the lead one octave lower introduces a change of sound in 3-horn writing, away from the normal concentration on 3-density and unisons. Such changesin texture (brief and used sparingly) enhance the interest level of the music. Example:"IN CASE YOU MISSED IT" (SeeAppendix 7.10)

F7sus4 F I Fil

i I


DENSITY OF THREE Chords with three different notes have a density level of three. (Density-3) A fourth instrument doubling the lead at the octave does not increasethe level of density. Density-3 is typically found in close position, and in low to mid ranges; density-3 written in the higher ranges is more aggressive and harder to handle.

MOSTCOMMON DENSITY-3VOICINGS 1. Close position chords and their inversions are most effective when used in unusual harmonies, and with change-bass chords.

2. Close position chords containing major + minor 2nds for color and power. Whole steps are common at both top and bottom. Half-stepsare better at the bottom than at top.



Triads canbe plain and straightahead,

clo Alo

r r cba br c r r c D/FI

,....but are best used in change$ass voicings where harmonic clarity is mostimportant,

Voicings with 2nds are the mostcommon choice in highenergy jazz,

3. Quartal chords are most effective when the tempo is slow, or when the rhythm section reinforces the voicing. Open voicings encourage inner movement. Densitjesbuilt in 4ths(iuartal ) bestsuggestmodalharmc:y , ' Some are difficuit o describe with svmbol

4. Open position chords Built by stacking fourths, quartals provide a modal 'quality to the chart. Th"y can easily be overused; quartals combine well with tertian voicings (triadic chords)

Open pcition densities are bestused whetr the mwamentis dow.

pg 68

Exceqpts below demonstrate the four typical density-3 voicings listed to the left. Note that in each example, more than one voicing type is used. This is good. (Each is found also in Appendix 7, and may be heard on the listening tape.) Also: close position and faster movement go together. Wider and slower do, too. Example 1a) from "KING COBRA" (Triadic voicings, close position best use: on melody lines whose implied harmonies are vague or obviously apart from the changes.


7/Db .A?

Example 2a) from "DAY IN VIENNA" (Close position voicines that contain 2nds. Tlpical use: with a melody whose implied hannony is very close to the changes)

4 Example3a) from TOU DONT KNOW WHAT LO\m IS" (Quartal voicings) Best use is where the implied harmonyis closeto the changes but you don't want densitywith 2nds. (Don't overuse!)


Example 4a) from "KING COBRA" (Open position voicings: slow movement) Best use is with climaxing and reinforced chords (don't overuse!), or slower lines where you want inner movement.




"DOLPHIN DANCE" Density-1 is used throughout. The changes are diverse and colorful, tempo is slow, and rangesare never high.


"NIGHT DREAMER" Density-L is constant throughout the head. To keep density-l from losing energy, enough activity and ornamentation was built compositionally into the tune itself. (Bars 7,1'J.,1.4,L6, L9 of the lead sheet)


"REUNION"' Various 3-densitiesare used throughout the entire head. For two reasonsthe unrelenting use of density-3 does not "get old": 1) The variation in the types of density-3 (seepage 94); and, .... 2) The melodic idiom (guitar/vibes) is enhancedby consistency.


"AU LAIT" Density-1 throughout is good when the time feel and harmonic outline changes as continuously as on this tune. Higher densities would be unhelpful; therefore, they would clutter the texture.

7.10 "IN CASE YOU MISSEDIT" Density shifts from 1oto 3o at the bridge. This change in density to provide the contrast needed for the sake of form is very good. Since this tune is basically a high energy density-l sound, the bridge returns to density-L (octaves)as soon as the contrast is set by higher densities. Final cadenceis a higher density: this is normal. 7.13 "YOU DON"T KNOW WHAT LOVE IS" Classicuse of varying densities. The quartals at first give way in bar 9 to octaves,as the melody becomes more active. All possiblecloseposition densitiesare used by the bridge; therefore, the solo texfure provides the ideal relief for the AABA form, where the bridge calls for a contrast. Note the return to A: compositional, very active, to avoid overusing the diversity choice of densities in the A's. 7.1.5 "CATHAY" Interesting combination of category 2 and category 4 Density-3 voicings, all change-bassand doubled at the octave. The contemporary and modal effect is due also in part to the combining of sax and synthesis.


e Densities ile voicings do exiqt containing six and seven d.ifferent notes, densities of -4 and -5 are thought of as

j:::::l"la: .t:p""^1:::',1: so densities,larger than -5

consist of

tt" fir" ti;y"* fuLyinsdifferent

.more J1q:,:l'","bi: are"usually a result of combining smaller aeniit6s.

Four different notes,generallyfrom chords that would default to stackedthirds. -4 ,sition(bottom note is root or bassof the Invers.ionrange (bottom note is 3rd or 7th of chord) Slowmoving,with a pyramid,shapi Usually open voiced, with an hourglassshape. A 13

A m a 1 7 A m 4 7 l c f D 9 s r6 4 C mgT


A m{T/C $ D g:trs4 AmqiT

rity'4.voicingsmay accommodate five instruments,by doublingthe lead one octavelower. position (pvramid) Invened position lhoirglassl Am7 A 13 A ma 1 7 Ama j T /C $D g s s a C m aj T A 13 A mdT AmaiT/CfiD9:trs4

voicingsresemblethe 4o voicings,aremore colorful, the resuitof addingan extensionor alterationsto the 4o voicing. position(pyramid) I nvened position (hourglass) Am7 A 13 A m a j7 A m4 7/Ci Dgs'rs4 C maj7 A 13 A mai T A i7lc$ osi,sr

Blockvoicingsaredensity-4closepositionwith the lead doubledone octavelower. They give a solid and easilyplayedsoundfor saxes. Blockvoicingsarebestusedwherethereis movement,and in a mediumrange. ExtensiJe-usewiiioate the music. Cmal7 Em7 c Amg Cmaig oDO G6 Pm7 Dgsr64 Ags& Bbmaj9 Bot Em 7


Drop+wovoicings 9J9pttt" 2nd voice one octave,pushingrhe soundinto openposition. Drop-two is used l) when the leadis at the topor abovethe staff (concert), anilor 2) for a less-aggres*sive sound. (Ope'nvoiced chords c6nform to fewerchord ,y*L"fil Am9








Dm/E Bbma;s





voicinga movinglinefor saxes.requires theuseof compatible chordswherethe.line Compatible chorlsarerhosebu'r f;;;;;;r movemenr i" ;. ,-*i'.;p;;:H,';:"J1, *. chordis in stepwisc *) change.-(See 't'rrsr,vorcerheopeningchord.rhen fi, in voicei;il;il;" compatibles. ";i;i:l;ii Ebg",,"r

The most convenientplaceto move from


blcck to drop_2is at a leap.


Drop-2 voicings Three li.nesketchfor saxes;middre rine usesoctave cref altos



transposedfor aattb sares

Gm7 and its compatiblechords(drawn Gm 7 ,l-

Compatible Chords


from the reratedscare)


ll Rhythm-2


!sffi=ff8T*,, The rhythm section lays down the primary groove for a chart. For this to occur at its best,rhythm players must play responsively to each other. The arrangementshould give sufficient information, but leave as much freedom as possible. Always! However, specific music should be written for the rhythm section when the chart becomesunpredictable, and when horns and rhythm are integrated. (5C) In any chart where either of these conditions exist, each member of the rhythm section must receive an individual part! Detailed information on each of the rhvthm section instruments is located in Appendix 5. Also in Appendix 5 are style sheets for various Latin and Contemporary grooves. 5A. FUNCTIONS OF THE RHYTHM SECTION The rhythm section performs four basic functions within any ensemble. Two were discussedin Chapter I, Step 5: 1,)Keeping time in the proper style. (As mentioned above) 2) Comping and establishing the changes. In addition to these, the rhythm section also 3) Plays the form of the chart. 4) Integratesthe band. 58 SLASH RHYTHMS VERSUSSPECIFICNOTES Slash rhythms with chord changes and style information tell the rhythm sectionmost of what they need to know. In places where the rhythm section should play specific rhythms together, the below style is effective. In a three-line sketch, rhythm section may be written on the bottom line of each system,with specifit bassnotes appearing onlv where needed.


ilr i




PLAYING THE FORM (5A-3) The rhythm section itself is responsible for varying the motion or rhythmic style to portray the songform of the tune, and also to punctuate the overall form of the arrangement itself. Examples: e In the arrangement of an AABA tune, the bridge should somehow contrast the feeling of the "A" sections. In a chart on "Autumn Leaves),the rhythm section may changethe rhythmic sfyle at the bridge. The resulting contrast satisfies the need, thus reducing the need for the horns to change. Example: "AUTUMN LEAVES" (not present in the Appendix)

The break in rhythm and the change from"2 FEEL" to"WALK IN 4" are the arranger's responsibility.

When moving from the head to the next area of a chart, the rh5rthrn section may lay out for a few beats preceding the next double bar. Ttris short break helps to punctuate the oqfline of the fom of the ehart. In the following slnmple, there is a brief break in the rhythm before the first improvisation. Ohis is also an example of integration, which follows.) Example: TOU DON1I KNOW WI{AII LO\IE IS" (SeeAppendix 7.13 )




During the first three functions (time, changes and form), rhythm and horns occupy different space' At times,-the rhythm sectiJn and horns join together rhythmically, producing an integrated effect of one_ness.

1) Partial integrationinvolvespiano,guitar (if present)and the bass. 2) Full integration involves the entire rhythm section. PARTIaL II\nEGRATIoN occurswhen all but horn rhythms' ll'he dnrmmer may catchsome the drums-play on the horn line or the ofthe but will continueto keepthe feeling of time ana nus Joing throulho; thi. "rrythms, effect. ' Partid integratigo i! goodfor slowerbut.rhythmic ensembleideas that needto be intense but lelvingroom rot r ai-L of the contoui. bartially integratedsgo^ri3g_need not U6tou4:ust i"t"_*

ssarnpte:"posfcARDS"(seerd; 6;;"-iil.

tu alwaysleadsto full integration, evenif the full lartialintegration integration is a beat or tw6. lt is a matte" orinticip"tio'and climax. f,lample: "Al{fHEMo (Seealso 6;;dili;;;"'"'



Full Integration occurs when the entire rhythm section plays on the horn rhythms. Fully integrated scoring is used to bring an entire chart to its climax. In the caseof the following example, the introduction itself begins with partial integration, for power, which then culminate in a fully integrated texture. ' Example: Beginning of "INTRIGUE" Partial integration leads to full integration at the 1/2-note triplet section and following. (SeeAppendix7.24)

RhUthm t_3-


fi l l i no I 3r


E n d set uD t A


The amount of music needing to be fully integrated depends on the intensity of the music leading up to that point: o Music with slower tempo or with lower levels of intensity will require only a few beats of full integration for the effect to feel complete. '

Music with faster tempo or higher intensity (ranges, rhythmic complexity, etc.) will require more full integration. This music will also requirb a longer area of partial integration leading up to the fully integratld sound.

5D. INDIVIDUAL RHYTHM PARTS When the rhythm section players are given individual parts, these parts must conform to individual horn parts, in every respect. (Format, bar numbers, etc.) Whether to write individual parts, or a composite rhythm part (to be photocopied for each individual) is a very important discovery that must be made with every chart that one writes. Material expectationson the part of both player and leader are very important to the successof an arrangement! pg74




33Iffffi.!.i"Xt?, In a full 3-line sketch for small band charts,horn and lead lines are completely notated. But they fit on one or two lines, and not on separatelines for each hom. Music for the rhythm section includes the changes,occasionalbass notes (as needed),style instructions, and some information for drums and percussion relating to style. (The primary aim at this point is still to provide music where interaction between the rhythm players is as important as that which is written.) \

t/hily P+! Afut 7 i'u,? 7 ".?x atLY-


T, a



. Sketches should be written entirely in the concertkev

NOTATION SOFTWARE. Computer generated sketchesshould conform to the same guidelines. Good notation programs provide completecontrol of your layout. If your software is inflexible, you should changeto different software, or handcopy your final sketch.



THE FULL 3-LINE SKETCH (Seealso Appendix 6.L) Three-line sketchesare good for final versions of charts with: . Two to four horns with rhythm in styles that are not intricate, o Vocal solo with rhythm and occasionalhorn fills. (Appendix 6.1) . Vocal group with a rhythm section that will read from composite.

THE 3-LINE SKETCHCOMBINESA SINGLELINE WTTHA TWO-LINE GROUPING. Horns or other leads may appear on a singleline at top. The two lines below show rhythm section. section. @est when the chan has simple horn lines and the rhythm exceedsa composite)


Hornsmay occupytwo lines,in whichcase therhythmsectionappearson the bottomline.. (If duringthis part of thechartyour rhythm too busy,thenyou should notationbecomes be usinga 4-lineformat.)


Vocal solo appear on the top line, with rhythm sectionand occasionalhorn backgrounds on the two line frame below.


Vocal group occupiesthe top two lines,and the rhythm sectionis written to a one-line compositeat the bottom. (The rhythm must be uncomplicatedfor this format to work.) FF7




E b r (f t t t




formats -2

3.LINE SKETCH OF "HERE'S TI{AT RAII{Y DAY .. 3 HORNSAI{D RHNHM. The chart calls for specifichorns,but may be copiedto any sizerhythm section. A COMPLETEFORMATincludesclef,keyand time signature,and bracketsto show the divisionof space within a systemof staves. r)

Unisonand mediumto highmelodyis notatedon the top statf, leavingtwo staves for the rhythm section. \

uhils v+3 ?Vu-o1is -


T1t frr Lower horn lines move to the middle statf; the rhythmthen occupieson the bottomstaff. Arrows show changesin location

shouldappearat the BARNUMBEFIS bottomleft of each bar. They may be placedabovedoublebars, enclosedin a box.

RHYTHMSECTIONis notatedon the bottomstaff (composite) when the horns or leads occupy a two 2-staff group.



A NEW FORMATlS REQUIREDat the beginningof each page. (excepttime signature, of course.) Professional copyistsand notationsoftwarewill begin each line with this information.ln pencilsketchestormatsare optionalafter the page top.


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NOTE:clefsthat are minusa key signatureimply C Major.

ARROWSmay be usedto indicatethe new locationof an instrument.

pg 78


'il lf Formats-2



The 4-Line Sketch


The four-line format is useful for situations in your chart where both horns and rhythm sectionrequire double staff systems. Each set of stavesshould be bracketed wherever formats are establishedor restated. Each 4-line group is called a "scheme". Typical 4-line sketchpageswill have three schemes. SeeAppendix 6.1: if you are notating your music via computer software, you will want for your music to be layed out properly. You should not assumethat the software will read your mind. Somenotation templates are very good, some are not!




When your music is too complex to fit easily into a sketch format, the final version should be a FULL SCORE. Each individual instrument receivesa separateline. (Keyboardsare written on either one or two staves,depending upon the complexity of their music.) PLEASENOTE THESE CONYENTIONS: o Instrument names (or their abbreviations) are placed in the left margin on page one. Bracketsshould continue on subsequentpages;instrument names or abbreviationsmay or may not continue, depending how normal or unusual your scoreformat is to the situation in which the scorewill be read. .


Clef signs and key signaturesare recommended for the start of each page...... they are required when changesof key have occurred within a previous page.

. Eachbar should be numbered. When possible,place the numbers at the bottom left of the bar being numbered. pg79


THE FULL SCORE REPRESENTEDON THIS PAGE CONTAINS THE MUSIC FOUND IN THE 4-LINE SKETCH ON THE PREVIOUS PAGE. BRACKETSare required at the beginning of each page of full scoreto identify and group families or types of instruments. When it is feasible, bar lines should be broken to group the staves identically as the bracketed format. . "CoIl" (or "colla") meansto copy exactly. CoIl is used to createunisons only within instruments using the same transpositions.

o Proper alignment of notes and rests to their respectivebeats is important to the readability and professionalism representedby your full score.






(w i th b o s s )


Pleasenote: . Clef signs and key signaturesare required at the start of each page of sketch,score, and individual part. Th"y are also required at the beginning of a line after there has been a change of key mid-page .

The time signature is never repeatedexcept to show a change in meter.


Eachbar should be numbered on both score and individual parts. pg 80

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