basic nutrition

January 12, 2018 | Author: Rahul Humpal | Category: Vitamin D, Vitamin A, Fat, Cooking Oil, Nutrition
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all about nutrition - HRM...


Basic Nutrition Lecture Compilation Compiled by: Ana Marie M. Somoray RND


INTRODUCTION TO NUTRITION Nutrition is a vital component to overall wellness and health. Diet affects energy, well being and many disease states. There is a connection between lifetime nutritional habits and the risks of many chronic diseases such as cardio vascular diseases, diabetes, cancer. A well balanced diet can prevent such conditions and improve energy levels and over all health and wellness. The basis of nutrition is FOOD Definition of terms: 1) Nutrition – is the study of food in relation to health. 2) Food – is any substance when ingested or eaten nourishes the body. 3) Nutrient – is a chemical component needed by the body to provide energy, to build and repair tissues and to regulate life process. 4) Digestion – it is a mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components. 5) Absorption – it is a process where the nutrients from foods are absorb by the body into the bloodstreams. 6) Metabolism – is a chemical process of transforming foods into other substance to sustain life. 7) Enzymes – an organic catalyst that are protein in nature and are produced by living cells. A catalyst speeds up or slows down chemical reactions without itself undergoing change. 8) Nutritional Status – is the condition of the body resulting from the utilization of essential nutrients. 9) Calorie – fuel potential in a food. One calorie represents the amount of heat required to raise one liter of water one degree Celsius. 10) Malnutrition – It is the condition of the body resulting from a lack of one or more essential nutrients or due to excessive nutrient supply.


CHAPTER 1 The Digestive System

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Mouth: The digestive process begins in the mouth. Food is partly broken down by the process of chewing and by the chemical action of salivary amylase (these enzymes are produced by the salivary glands and break down starches into smaller molecules). On the way to the stomach: Esophagus – After being chewed and swallowed, the food enters the esophagus. The esophagus is a long tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach. It uses rhythmic, wave-like muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach. This muscle movement gives us the ability to eat or drink even when we’re upside-down. Stomach – The stomach is a large, sack-like organ that churns the food and bathes it in a very strong acid (gastric acid). Food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids is called chyme. Small intestine – absorption happens in the small intestine. Bile (produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder), pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner wall of the small intestine help in the breakdown of food. Large intestine – Undigested food passes in the large intestine. In the large intestine, some of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are removed from the food. The end of the process – Solid waste is then stored in the rectum until it is excreted via the anus.


PHYSIOLOGIC VALUE OF FOOD Food is good to eat when it fulfills the ff. qualities: 1) It is nourishing or nutritious 2) It has satiety value 3) It is prepared under sanitary conditions 4) Its palatability factors (color, aroma, flavor, texture) 5) Within the budget and suitable to the occasion. Nutrition Classification 1) According to function 2) According to chemical nature 3) According to essentiality 4) According concentration Classification of Nutrients 1) According to function: - Function as energy giving, body building, body regulating. 2) According to chemical properties: a) Organic – protein, lipids, carbohydrates and vitamins b) Inorganic – water & minerals

CHAPTER 2 BASIC TOOLS IN NUTRITION Food Groups – Food guides translate quantitative nutritional requirements into simple, practical and non- technical language using available and common foods of the country. The 3 Main Food Groups: 1.Body-building foods - foods that supply good quality proteins, some vitamins and minerals. 2. Energy foods - mostly of rice and other cereals, starches, sugars and fats contribute the bulk of Calories. 3. Regulating foods - composed of fruits and vegetables that provide vitamins and minerals, particularly ascorbic acid and pro vitamin A. Dietary Guidelines strategies to promote appropriate diets and related health practices to achieve the goal of improving the nutritional condition.


10 Nutritional Guidelines For Filipinos 1. Eat a variety of foods everyday. 2. Breast-feed infants exclusively from birth to 4-6 months and then, give appropriate foods while continuing breast-feeding. 3. Maintain children’s normal growth through proper diet and monitor their growth regularly. 4. Consume fish, lean meat, poultry or dried beans. 5. Eat more vegetables, fruits and root crops. 6. Eat foods cooked in edible/cooking oil daily. 7. Consume milk, milk products and other calcium-rich foods such as small Fish and dark green leafy vegetables everyday. 8. Use iodized salt, but avoid excessive intake of salty foods. 9. Eat clean and safe food. 10. For a healthy lifestyle and good nutrition, exercise regularly, do not smoke and avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.

FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID FNRI (Foods & Nutrition Research Institute)


FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID (USDA) United States Dept. of Agriculture

MyPyramid contains eight divisions. From left to right on the pyramid are six food groups: • Grains, recommending that at least half of grains consumed be as whole grains • Vegetables, emphasizing dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, and dry beans and peas • Fruits, emphasizing variety and deemphasizing fruit juices • Oils, recommending fish, nut, and vegetables sources • Milk,, a category that includes fluid milk and many other milk-based products • Meat and beans, emphasizing low-fat and lean meats such as fish as well as more beans, peas, nuts, and seeds

RDA & RENI Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) - is the information of nutrient allowance for the maintenance of good health. A tool for assessing a dietary intake of the population group. This emphasize the amount of foods or diet.

RENI – Recommended Energy Nutrient Intake -

A new standard replacing RDA, emphasizing on recommending on the nutrients rather than food or diet. This tool serve as a guide for designing nutrition and health intervention towards an improvement of the health of the Filipinos.

Food Exchange List A classification or grouping of common foods in terms of equivalent amounts of Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat and Calories - The word exchange refers to the fact that each item on a particular list in the portion listed may be interchanged with any other food item on the same list. An exchange can be explained as a substitution, choice, or serving. 6

Nutritional Labeling -

Primary means of communication between the producer or manufacturer and the consumer.

2 Components of Nutritional Labeling: 1. Nutrient Declaration – a standardized statement or listing of the nutrient content of food. 2. Nutrition Claim – representation which states or implies that a food has some particular nutritional proponents.

Nutrient density is a measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to the calories it provides. Foods low in calories and high in nutrients are nutrient dense, while foods high in calories and low in nutrients are nutrient poor.

CHAPTER 3 Ideal Weight, Total Energy Requirement,Body Mass Index Basal Metabolism –the amount of energy required by an individual in the resting state, for such functions as breathing and circulation of the blood. Basal Metabolic Rate – the minimum caloric requirement needed to sustain life in a resting individual. It can be looked at as being the amount of energy (measured in calories) expended by the body to remain in bed asleep all day. Factors that affect BMR 1.Genetics. Some people are born with faster metabolisms; some with slower metabolisms. 2. Gender. Men have a greater muscle mass and a lower body fat percentage. This means they have a higher basal metabolic rate. 3. Age. BMR reduces with age. After 20 years, it drops about 2 per cent, per decade. 4. Weight. The heavier your weight, the higher your BMR. Example: the metabolic rate of obese women is 25 percent higher than the metabolic rate of thin women. 5. Body Surface Area. This is a reflection of your height and weight. The greater your Body Surface Area factor, the higher your BMR. Tall, thin people have higher BMRs. If you compare a tall person with a short person of equal weight, then if they both follow a diet calorie-controlled to maintain the weight of the taller person, the shorter person may gain up to 15 pounds in a year. 7

6. Body Fat Percentage. The lower your body fat percentage, the higher your BMR. The lower body fat percentage in the male body is one reason why men generally have a 10-15% faster BMR than women. 7. Diet. Starvation or serious abrupt calorie-reduction can dramatically reduce BMR by up to 30 percent. Restrictive low-calorie weight loss diets may cause your BMR to drop as much as 20%. 8. Sleep – BMR falls 10-15% below waking levels. 9. Endocrine Glands – male sex hormones increase the BMR 10-15% 10. Fever – increase 7% for each degree rise the body temperature above 98.6 F

COMPUTATION: 1. BMR = Wt. in lbs. X 10.9 (male) 9.8 (female) Example : 125 lbs. x 9.8 = 1,225 Cal. 2. BMI = Is a measure of body fat based on height and weight BMI = weight (kg) = 47 kg_____ = 47 kg. = 20.25 = 20kg/m₂ (Normal) ( ht. meters)₂ (1.524)(1.524) 2.32 3. DBW = ( Ht. cm – 100 ) – 10% Ex. 5‘3“ = (63 inches x 2.54) = (160.02 – 100) = (60.02- 6.002 [10%]) = 54 kg. 4. TER = DBW x activity level Ex. 5’3” student = 54 x 35 = 1,890 Cal. CONVERSION: HT. 1 ft. = 12 inches 1 inch = 2.54 cm 100 cm = 1 meter

WT. 1 kg. = 2.2 lbs

ACTIVITY LEVEL : Bed rest = 27.5 (hospital patients) Sedentary = 30 (secretary, clerk, typist administrator, cashier, bank teller) Light = 35 ( teacher, nurse, student, Lab.Tech, house wife with maid) Moderate = 40 ( housewife w/o a maid, vendor, mechanic, jeepney & car driver) Heavy = 45 ( farmer, laborer, cargador, laborer, coal miner, fisherman, heavy eqpt.optr ) BMI LEVEL: Obese = above 30 Overweight = 25-29.9 Normal = 18.- 24.9 Under weight = below 18



CHAPTER 4 MACRO NUTRIENTS Macro nutrients - constitute the bulk of the food we eat, they provide energy and chemical building-blocks for tissues. 3 Macro Nutrients: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Protein 3. Fats

CARBOHYDRATES Major source of energy for the body. - Consist of 60-100% of calories. - 1 gram of carbohydrates contains 4 calories. - carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with the general formula of Cm(H2O)n. -

Classification of Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates 1) Monosaccharide – “simple sugar”, is the simplest form of sugar. a) Glucose – “blood sugar” (usually found in grapes, corn and blood) b) Fructose – sweetest of simple sugar. Found in honey, fruits and vegetables. c) Galactose – not found in free foods. Galactose is a result when the lactose breakdown.

** Simple sugar are water soluble, and quickly absorb in the bloodstream *** 2) Disaccharide – “double sugar”. Made up of 2 monosaccharide. a) Sucrose – ordinary table sugar (glucose & fructose) b) Lactose – “milk sugar” (glucose & galactose) c) Maltose –(malt sugar) is produced during the malting of cereals such as barley.


3) Polysaccharide – “ complex sugar” Composed of many molecules of simple sugar a) Starch – most important in human. They supply energy for longer period of time. Examples: rice, wheat, corn, carrots and potatoes. Starches are not water-soluble and require digestive enzymes called amylases to break them apart. b) Dextrins – formed by the breakdown of starch. obtained from starch by the application of heat or acids and used mainly as adhesives and thickening agents. c) Cellulose – Non-digestible by humans. They lower the blood glucose level of people with diabetes. that is composed of glucose units, forms the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants, and is important in the manufacture of numerous products, such as paper, textiles, pharmaceuticals d) Pectin – Sources from fruits and are often used as a base for jellies. e) Glycogen – “animal starch” f) Hemicellulose – also indigestible, found in agar, pectin, woody fibers, leaves, stems. g) Inulin – Important medicine and nursing as it provides test of renal function. Functions of Carbohydrates: 1) Main source of energy for the body. 2) Protein sparing action 3) Necessary for normal fat metabolism 4) Cellulose stimulate peristaltic movement of the gastrointestinal tract. Absorb water to give bulk to the intestines. 5) Lactose encourage the growth of beneficial bacteria, resulting in a laxative action. 6) Glucose is the sole source of energy in the brain. Proper functioning of the tissues Sources of Carbohydrates 1) Whole grains 2) Sweet potatoes & white potatoes. Bananas, dried fruits. 3) Milk (lactose) 4) Sugar , sweets, honey, maple sugar “Empty Calories” - foods which do not contain any other nutrients except carbohydrates Common Diseases: 1. Overweight 2. Diabetes 3. Tooth Decay 4. Depressed appetite 5. Fermentation causing gas formation 6. Cancer Deficiency 1)Ketosis – disease caused by lack of carbohydrates, in which the acid level of the body is raised 2)Protein _ Energy Malnutrition a) Kwashiorkor – Protein Def. 10

b) Marasmus – Calorie Def. 3) Low Blood Sugar Level

FATS or Lipids -


Fats, oils, and waxes belong to the group of naturally occurring organic materials called lipids. Lipids are those constituents of plants or animals which are insoluble in water but soluble in other organic solvents.

Most concentrated form of energy Contains 9 calories per gram fat It is recommended 15-25% fat in the diet The basic unit of fat is called “triglyceride”, which consist of molecule of glycerol attached to the 3 fatty acids

3 Forms Fatty Acids 1) Saturated Fats – Shown to raise blood cholesterol. • Considered the most “dangerous” type of fat that lead to raise blood cholesterol may lead to coronary heart disease • Difficult to metabolize causing weight gain Sources: butter, lard, meat, cheese, eggs, coconut oil, chocolate, cakes, cookies 2) Monounsaturated fats – lower level of “bad” cholesterol. Sources: Vegetable oil, peanut, soybean, corn, olive oil, canola oil 3) Polyunsaturated Fats – Lower levels of total cholesterol. Classes: 1) Omega 3 - have a positive effect on reducing mortality from cardiovascular disease.  Reduced blood clotting tendency and reduced blood pressure. 2) Omega 6 – “Linoleic acid” polyunsaturated fatty acid.  lowers cholesterol levels in the blood and helps in the prevention of heart disease.  Sources of Polyunsaturated fats : unrefined safflower, corn, sesame, soybean, sunflower oil, seeds, nuts, dark green vegetables.


Fatty Acid Composition of Common Food Fats OIL Safflower Oil Sunflower Oil Corn Oil Soybean Oil Cotton seed Oil Canola Oil Olive Oil Peanut Oil Margarine Oil Palm Oil Coconut Oil Shortening ANIMAL FAT Tuna fat Chicken fat Beef fat Butter fat Lard

POLYUNSAT. F.A 75% 66% 59% 58% 52% 33% 8% 32% 18% 9% 2% 14%

MONOUNSAT. F. 12% 20% 24% 23% 18% 55% 74% 46% 59% 37% 6% 51%

TOTAL UNSAT. F.A 86% 86% 83% 81% 17% 88% 82% 78% 77% 46% 8% 65%

SATURATED F.A 9% 10% 13% 14% 26% 7% 13% 17% 19% 49% 86% 31%

37% 21% 4% 4% 11%

26% 45% 42% 29% 45%

63% 66% 46% 33% 56%

27% 30% 50% 62% 40%

Functions: 1) Important source of calories to provide a continuous supply if energy. 2) Protein sparing 3) Maintain the constant blood temperature 4) Cushions vital organs such as kidney against injury 5) Facilitates the absorption of fat soluble vitamins (ADEK) 6) Provides satiety and delays onset on hunger. 7) Contributes flavor and palatability to the diet. Cholesterol Cholesterol is a major component of all cell membranes. It is required for synthesis of sex hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. It is also a precursor of the steroid hormones.  Cholesterol is also made in the body and is taken also thru foods  But Cholesterol is a major factor in the development of heart diseases  Daily intake should not exceed 300 mg./day Source of Dietary Cholesterol • Richest: egg yolk, fish roes, mayonnaise and shell fish. 12

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Moderate : Fat on meat, duck, goose, cold cuts, whole milks, cream, ice cream, cheese, butter and most commercially made cakes, biscuits and pastries. Poor : All fish and fish canned in vegetable oil, very lean meats, poultry without skin, skimmed milk , low fat yoghurt and cottage cheese. Cholesterol free : All vegetables, and vegetable oils, fruit (including avocados and olives), nuts, rice, egg white and sugar.

Vocabularies: Lipid – Any of a group of organic compounds, including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, are oily to the touch. Fat - Any of various soft, solid, or semisolid organic compounds constituting the esters of glycerol and fatty acids and their associated organic groups. Oil – is liquid at room temperature soluble in various organic solvents such as ether but not in water Cholesterol – is a form of fat in animal origin that is a factor in the development of heart disease. Transfats - fatty acids that are produced when polyunsaturated oil are hydrogenated to make them more solid. Thus raise the level of blood cholesterol. Hydrogenated fats – unsaturated oil undergone hydrogenation to make them more solid and less resistant to heat. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) - A complex of lipids and proteins, with greater amounts of lipid than protein, that transports cholesterol in the blood. High levels are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) - A complex of lipids and proteins in approximately equal amounts that functions as a transporter of cholesterol in the blood. High levels are associated with a decreased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. 10 Foods High Transfats 1. Spreads – mayonnaise, margarine, butter 2. Package foods – cake mixes, biscuits 3. Soups – noodle soups 4. Fast foods – Mcdonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken 5. Frozen foods – frozen pies, pizza, breaded fish sticks, breaded chicken 6. Baked goods – cupcakes 7. Cookies & cakes 8. Donuts 9. Cream Filled cookies 10. Chips & Crackers


Sources of Fat 1) Animal Fats – fat from meat, fish, poultry, milk, milk products and eggs. 2) Vegetable Fats – margarine, seed and vegetable oil, nuts 3) Visible Fats – butter, cream, margarine, lard, fish liver oils, pork fat 4) Invisible Fats – cheeses, olives, cakes, nuts, pastries Diseases: 1) Heart Disease 2) Cancer 3) Obesity


Known as the building blocks of the body It contains the elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Protein is made up of amino acids which is the basic component of protein

AMINO ACIDS Amino acids are known as the building blocks of protein. They perform many important functions such as: building cells, protecting the body from viruses or bacteria, repairing damaged tissue and carrying oxygen throughout the body There are 20 different amino acids. Amino acids are linked together to form peptides, which are small chains of amino acids. The peptides are then linked together to form larger proteins. There are thousands of different proteins that carry out a large number of jobs in the human body. Even though so many different proteins are at work in your body, you don't have to worry about consuming each individual protein from the foods you eat. Your body will make those proteins. All you need to do is to make sure your body has a healthy supply of all 20 of the different amino acid "building blocks." Having enough of those amino acids is easy because your body can make 11 of them from other compounds already in your body. That leaves eight amino acids that you must get from your diet.


Types of Amino Acids 1) Essential Amino Acids –are those that are necessary for good health but cannot be produced by the body and so must be supplied in the diet. Ex. Leucine, Isoleucine Lysine, Valine Typtophan, Phenylalanine, Methionine Serine 2) Non-Essential Amino Acids –are those that are produced by the body so not as necessary in the diet Ex. Aspartic Acid Tyrosine Glycine Cysteine Arginine Glutamic Acid Histidine Glutamine Alanine Asparagine Proline Complete and Incomplete Protein • Complete – contain all essential amino acid in sufficient quantities to supply the body’s need Sources: proteins from animals • Incomplete – those deficient in one or more essential amino acids. Sources : Plant ( grains, legumes, seeds and nuts Functions of Proteins 1) Used in repairing worn out body tissue 2) Source of heat and energy 3) Contribute to numerous essential body secretions (mucus, milk, sperm cells) 4) Keeping fluids and pH balanced in the body 5) Play a large role in the resistance of the body to diseases 6) Contributing to enzyme activity that promotes chemical reactions in the body 7) Signaling cells what to do and when to do it 8) Transporting substances around the body 9) Serving as building blocks for hormone production 10) Helping blood clot 11) Serving as structural components that give our body parts their shapes Sources: Complete Protein 1. Meat – beef, pork, lamb 2. Poultry – chicken, turkey, duck 3. Fish 15

4. Dairy Products – milk, yogurt, cheese

Incomplete Protein Grains – beans, corn, oats, pasta, whole grain breads Legumes, seeds & nuts – sesame seed, sunflower seed, peas, rice, peanuts, cashew Vegetables – Brocolli

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Common Diseases Heart Disease Cancer (prostate, pancreas, kidney, breast and colon) Osteoporosis Weight control Kidney Diseases Ketosis Protein – Energy Malnutrition



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Complex organic compound to regulate body processes and maintain body tissue “Vitamin” comes from the Latin word “vita” meaning life, “amine” means nitrogen compound. Vitamins do not give the body energy. Therefore, we cannot increase our physical capacity by taking extra vitamins Vitamins do not have calorie value.

Vitamins Terminologies Precursor or Provitamins – these are compounds that can be changed to the active vitamins Ex. Carotene are precursors to Vit. A Preformed Vitamins – naturally occurring vitamins that are inactive form and ready for its biological use. Ex. Animal sources Avitaminosis – severe lack of vitamins 16

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Ex. Avitaminosis A leads to night blindness Hypervitaminosis – “vitamin toxicity” excessive accumulation of vitamins in the body Vitamin Malnutrition – “too much or too little”

NOMENCLATURE OF VITAMINS VITAMIN NOMENCLATURE Vitamin A Retinol D Calciferol E Tocopherol K Phylloquinone Vitamin B1 Thiamine B2 Riboflavin B3 Niacin B4 Adenine B5 Panthotenic Acid B6 Pyridoxine B7 Biotin B8 Inositol ( factor) B10 Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (pseudo vit) B12 Cyanocobalamin (Cobalamin) Folic Acid

FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS (Vit. A D E K ) • • • • •

FAT Soluble Vitamins – can be absorbed in the presence of fat & stored in the body. Fat Soluble vitamins generally have pre cursors or pro vitamins They can be stored in the body, deficiencies are slow to develop. Not absolutely needed daily from food sources Stable especially in daily cooking

Vit. A (Retinol) -

Vitamin A is a group of compounds that play an important role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell division, and cell differentiation (in which a cell becomes part of the brain, muscle, lungs, blood, or other specialized tissue.) Vitamin A helps regulate the immune system, which helps prevent or fight off infections by making white blood cells that destroy harmful bacteria and viruses . Vitamin A also may help lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) fight infections more effectively. Vitamin A promotes healthy surface linings of the eyes and the respiratory, urinary, and intestinal tracts . When those linings break down, it becomes easier for bacteria to enter the body and cause infection. Vitamin A also helps the skin and mucous membranes function as a barrier to bacteria and viruses . Vitamin A found in foods that come from animals is called preformed vitamin A. It is absorbed in the


form of retinol, one of the most usable (active) forms of vitamin A. Sources include liver, whole milk, and some fortified food products. Retinol can be made into retinal and retinoic acid (other active forms of vitamin A) in the body.

Vitamin A that is found in colorful fruits and vegetables is called provitamin A carotenoid. They can be made into retinol in the body. In the United States, approximately 26% of vitamin A consumed by men and 34% of vitamin A consumed by women is in the form of provitamin A carotenoids. Common provitamin A carotenoids found in foods that come from plants are beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin .Among these, beta-carotene is most efficiently made into retinol


Table 1: Selected animal sources of vitamin A [18]


Vitamin A (IU)* %DV**

Liver, beef, cooked, 3 ounces



Liver, chicken, cooked, 3 ounces



Milk, fortified skim, 1 cup



Cheese, cheddar, 1 ounce



Milk, whole (3.25% fat), 1 cup



Egg substitute, ¼ cup



Table 2: Selected plant sources of vitamin A (from beta-carotene) [18]


Vitamin A (IU)* %DV**

Carrot juice, canned, ½ cup



Carrots, boiled, ½ cup slices



Spinach, frozen, boiled, ½ cup



Kale, frozen, boiled, ½ cup



Carrots, 1 raw (7½ inches)



Vegetable soup, canned, chunky, ready-to-serve, 1 cup



Cantaloupe, 1 cup cubes



Spinach, raw, 1 cup



Apricots with skin, juice pack, ½ cup



Apricot nectar, canned, ½ cup



Papaya, 1 cup cubes



Mango, 1 cup sliced



Oatmeal, instant, fortified, plain, prepared with water, 1 cup



Peas, frozen, boiled, ½ cup



Tomato juice, canned, 6 ounces



Peaches, canned, juice pack, ½ cup halves or slices




Peach, 1 medium


Pepper, sweet, red, raw, 1 ring (3 inches diameter by ¼ inch thick)


6 6

* IU = International Units ** DV = Daily Value. DVs are reference numbers based on the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). They were developed to help consumers determine if a food contains a lot or a little of a nutrient. The DV for vitamin A is 5,000 IU. Most food labels do not list vitamin A content. The percent DV (%DV) column in the table above indicates the percentage of the DV provided in one serving. A food providing 5% or less of the DV is a low source while a food that provides 10% to 19% of the DV is a good source. A food that provides 20% or more of the DV is high in that nutrient. It is important to remember that foods that provide lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet..

FUNCTIONS 1) Vision Cycle – necessary component of visual purple (rhodopsia), a pigment to make adjustments to light and dark. 2) Necessary material for maintenance of epithelial tissues. 3) Growth & Bone Development – 4) Reproduction – necessary for normal reproduction and lactation. 5) Antioxidant

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Deficiency & Toxicity Vitamin A (Retinol) Deficiency Night blindness Eye lesions Retarded growth Lower resistance to infections Faulty skeletal & dental development Skin Lesions Toxicity Liver damage Mild dermatitis Thickening of the skin and peeling off Course sparse hair Hyper carotenimia (harmless orange appearance


VIT. D (Calciferol)

Vitamin D actually refers to a group of steroid molecules. Vitamin D is called the sunlight vitamin because the body produces it when the sun's ultraviolet B (UVB) rays strike the skin. It is the only vitamin the body manufactures naturally and is technically considered a hormone. Vitamin D is important for the proper absorption of calcium from food. It is vital for the control of the levels of calcium in the blood and also controls the rate at which the body excretes calcium in the urine.

Health Benefits Vitamin D and osteoporosis - Adequate amounts of vitamin D is necessary for preventing bone loss. Low levels of vitamin D and insufficient sunlight exposure are associated with osteoporosis. The body cannot absorb calcium from food or supplements without an adequate intake of vitamin D. After menopause, women are particularly at risk for developing this condition. Vitamin D taken along with calcium plays a critical role in maintaining bone density. Vitamin D functions by increasing the uptake of calcium from the intestine through interaction with the parathyroid glands in controlling bone resabsorption and serum calcium levels. Vitamin D also increases reabsorption of phosphate by the kidney tubule, and may directly affect the osteoblast, the cell which forms bone. Vitamin D and cancer - Vitamin D's immunomodulatory abilities may also play a role in its anti-cancer activity. Vitamin D demonstrats a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in a number of cancer cell lines. It also has a pro-differentiation effect on these cells, resulting in potent anti-cancer activity in some preliminary work. vitamin D increases the potency of cytokines and enhances the phagocyte activity and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity of macrophages and that it boosts natural killer cell activity and helps regulate T cells, among other things. Vitamin D's analogues show significant experimental activity against colorectal, renal cell, breast and prostate cancers, among others. Vitamin D and autoimmune diseases - Maintaining sufficient vitamin D levels may help decrease the risk of several autoimmune diseases such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. A daily multi-vitamin supplement containing vitamin D may reduce the risk of developing multiple sclerosis. Low intakes of vitamin D may be linked to an increased risk of arthritis of the hip in older women. One recent study showed that taking 400 IU or more of vitamin D daily was effective in delaying or stopping the progression of osteoarthritis of the knees. Autoimmune responses are mediated by immune cells called T cells. The biologically active form of vitamin D can modulate T cell responses, such that the autoimmune responses are diminished. Vitamin D and psoriasis - Vitamin D is sometimesused in the treatment for psoriasis. Because vitamin D and its analogues are potent antiproliferative agents for keratinocytes and stimulators of epidermal cell differentiation. Calcipotriol has been demonstrated to significantly improve psoriatic lesions in a number 20

of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Because it plays a role in skin cell metabolism and growth, vitamin D may be helpful in treating the itching and flaking associated with this skin ailment. Vitamin D and other bone disorders - Vitamin D protects against the preventable bone diseases rickets and osteomalacia (softening of the bones in adults caused by inability to properly deposit calcium). An adequate level of Vitamin D in the body is necessary to maintain strong bones and to help prevent fractures in older people. Vitamin D supplements are also used for people with genetic diseases that interfere with the metabolism of Vitamin D.

Functions 1) Absorption of Calcium & Phosphorus 2) Essential for normal growth development. Food Sources 1) Synthesis with sunlight (10 mins/day) 2) cod liver fish, halibut [type of flatfish], salmon, sardine, egg yolk 3) Fortified Vit. A products

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Deficiency Tetany ( abnormal muscle twitching and cramps Rickets (defective bones, retarded growth) Osteomalasia ( softening of the bones)

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Toxicity Stone formation on kidney Demineralisation of the bone Polyuria Weight Loss Hypercalcemia

Vit. E (Tocopherol)

The health benefits of vitamin E range include skin enhancement, wound healing, immune function, and protection against various diseases. Also called alpha-tocopherol, vitamin E is believed to reduce cholesterol and plaque buildup, reducing the risk of stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD). Vitamin E is an essential nutrient, which means the body needs it but cannot produce it on its own. However, vitamin E deficiency is rare because it is fat-soluble - it is stored in the fat tissues for up to six months before getting depleted. Common food sources include nuts, poultry, wheat products, and various vegetable oils, particularly wheat germ oil. It is also available as a health supplement. Other health benefits of vitamin E include the following: Antioxidant


One of the best health benefits of vitamin E is its antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants help remove free radicals - unstable compounds that damage cell structure, increasing the risk of cancer and weakening the immune system. This also protects against eye diseases, diabetes and pancreatic disorders, and Alzheimer's Disease. Cholesterol reduction Vitamin E prevents cholesterol from being converted to plaque, which thickens the blood vessels and leads to stroke and heart disease. It also thins the blood and improves blood flow even with plaque buildup on the artery walls. Studies show that vitamin E from foods can reduce the risk of stroke in postmenopausal women, although further studies are needed to support this claim. Skin care Skin and lip protection are also well-known health benefits of vitamin E. Vitamin E helps retain moisture in the skin and prevents dryness, itchiness, and chapping. It also protects against UV radiation and speeds up wound healing. It can be applied topically and is a main ingredient in most creams, lotions, and sunscreens. Anti-inflammatory and pain relief Studies suggest that vitamin E can both relieve and prevent osteoarthritis. Its effects are similar to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are traditionally used to relieve arthritic pain. It also improves joint mobility, preventing gout and buildup of waste material in the joints.

Food Sources Whole grain nuts, seeds, green and leafy vegetables, polyunsaturated fats No toxicity , this nutrient cannot be stored to a large extend in the body

Vit. K ( Phylloquinone)

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Functions Aids in blood clotting and bone mineralization Food Sources Green leafy vegetables, soy beans Deficiency Hemmorhagic diseases Toxicity Vomitting Albuminuria Hemolysis FYI Anti oxidant - Any substance that reduces oxidative damage (damage due to oxygen) such as that caused by free radicals.


• •

Free Radicals - are highly reactive chemicals that attack molecules by capturing electrons and thus modifying chemical structures PHYTOCHEMICAL - natural bioactive compound found in plant foods that works with nutrients and dietary fiber to protect against disease


Water soluble vitamins are B-complex group and Vit. C Dissolve in water and are not stored, they are eliminated in urine, so we need continuous supply of this vitamins in the diet everyday. Water-soluble vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage or preparation. To reduce vitamin loss, refrigerate fresh produce, keep milk and grains away from strong light, and use the cooking water from vegetables to prepare soups.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning that your body doesn't store it. We get what we need, instead, from food. You need vitamin C for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It helps the body make collagen, an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Vitamin C is essential for healing wounds, and for repairing and maintaining bones and teeth. Vitamin C is an antioxidant, along with vitamin E, beta-carotene, and many other plant-based nutrients. Antioxidants block some of the damage caused by free radicals, which occur naturally when our bodies transform food into energy. The build-up of free radicals over time may be largely responsible for the aging process and can contribute to the development of health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and arthritis. Evidence suggests that many people may be mildly deficient in vitamin C, although serious deficiencies are rare in industrialized countries. Smoking cigarettes lowers the amount of vitamin C in the body, so smokers are at a higher risk of deficiency. Signs of vitamin deficiency include dry and splitting hair; gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and bleeding gums; rough, dry, scaly skin; decreased woundhealing rate, easy bruising; nosebleeds; and a decreased ability to ward off infection. A severe form of vitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy. Functions: Maintenance of bones, teeth, connective tissue,cartilages Absorption of Calcium, Iron and Folacin Production of brain hormones, immune factors Antioxidant Deficiency: 1. Bleeding gums, scurvy, anemia 2. joint pain, increase resistance to infections, 1. 2. 3. 4.


3. rough skin, hair loss, loose teeth Toxicity Diarrhea, bloating, cramps, formation of kidney stones

FOOD SOURCES Foods that are the highest sources of vitamin C include:        

Cantaloupe Citrus fruits and juices, such as orange and grapefruit Kiwi fruit Mango Papaya Pineapple Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries Watermelon

Vegetables that are the highest sources of vitamin C include:     

Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower Green and red peppers Spinach, cabbage, turnip greens, and other leafy greens Sweet and white potatoes Tomatoes and tomato juice

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Vitamin B1, also called thiamine or thiamin, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly, and are necessary for optimal brain function. All B vitamins are water-soluble, meaning that the body does not store them. Like other B complex vitamins, thiamine is considered an "anti-stress" vitamin because it may strengthen the immune system and improve the body's ability to withstand stressful conditions. It is named B1 because it was the first B vitamin discovered. Thiamine is found in both plants and animals and plays a crucial role in certain metabolic reactions. For example, it is required for the body to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which every cell of the body uses for energy. 24

Thiamine deficiency is rare, but can occur in people who get most of their calories from sugar or alcohol. People who are deficient in thiamine may experience fatigue, irritability, depression and abdominal discomfort. People with thiamine deficiency also have difficulty digesting carbohydrates. As a result, a substance called pyruvic acid builds up in their bloodstream, causing a loss of mental alertness, difficulty breathing, and heart damage (a disease known as beriberi). Beriberi The most important use of thiamine is to treat beriberi, which is caused by not getting enough thiamine in your diet. Symptoms include swelling, tingling, or burning sensation in the hands and feet, confusion, difficulty breathing (from fluid in the lungs), and uncontrolled eye movements (called nystagmus). Although people in the developed world generally do not have to worry about getting enough thiamine because foods such as cereals and breads are fortified with the vitamin, people can develop a deficiency fairly quickly, because the body does not store thiamine. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a brain disorder caused by thiamine deficiency; as with beriberi, it is treated by giving supplemental thiamine. Wernicke-Korsakoff is actually two disorders: Wernicke's disease involves damage to nerves in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is generally caused by malnutrition stemming from habitual alcohol abuse. Korsakoff syndrome is characterized by memory impairment and nerve damage. High doses of thiamine can improve muscle coordination and confusion, but rarely improves memory loss. Cataracts Preliminary evidence suggests that thiamine -- along with other nutrients -- may lower risk of developing cataracts. People with plenty of protein and vitamins A, B1, B2, and B3 (niacin) in their diet are less likely to develop cataracts. Getting enough vitamins C, E, and B complex (particularly B1, B2, B9 [folic acid], and B12 [cobalamin) may further protect the lens of your eyes from developing cataracts. More research is needed. Alzheimer's disease Because lack of thiamine can cause dementia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, it has been proposed that thiamine might help reduce severity of Alzheimer's disease. Scientific studies have not always shown any benefit from thiamine, however. More research is needed before thiamine can be proposed as an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Heart failure


Thiamine may be related to heart failure in two ways. First, low levels of thiamine can lead to "wet beriberi," a condition where fluid builds up around the heart. However, it isn't clear that taking thiamin will help people with heart failure not related to beriberi. Many people with heart failure take diuretics (water pills), which help rid the body of excess fluid. But diuretics may also cause the body to get rid of too much thiamine. A few small studies suggest that taking thiamine supplements may help. A multivitamin, taken regularly, should provide enough thiamine. Deficiency 1. Mental confusion; muscle weakness 2. wasting; edema; impaired growth; beriberi. Toxicity (none) None Food Sources

Very good sources of vitamin B1 include asparagus romaine lettuce, mushrooms,spinach, sunflower seeds, tuna, green peas, tomatoes, eggplant and Brussels sprouts, pork, liver, whole grains, lean meats Vit. B2 (Riboflavin) Vitamin B2, also called riboflavin, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body to convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly. In addition to producing energy for the body, riboflavin also works as an antioxidant by scavenging damaging particles in the body known as free radicals. Free radicals occur naturally in the body but can damage cells and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process, as well as the development of a number of health conditions, such as heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants such as riboflavin can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or help prevent some of the damage they cause. Riboflavin is also needed to help the body convert vitamin B6 and folate into active forms. It is also important for body growth and red blood cell production. Defieciency Most healthy people who eat a well-balanced diet get enough riboflavin. However, elderly people and alcoholics may be at risk for riboflavin deficiency because of poor diet. Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency include fatigue; slowed growth; digestive problems; cracks and sores around 26

the corners of the mouth; swollen magenta tongue; eye fatigue; swelling and soreness of the throat; and sensitivity to light. Riboflavin is an important nutrient in the prevention of headache and some visual disturbances, particularly cataracts. Anemia Children with sickle-cell anemia (a blood disorder characterized by abnormally shaped red blood cells) tend to have lower levels of certain antioxidants, including riboflavin. The same is also true of people with iron deficiency anemia, and studies suggest that taking riboflavin supplements may improve the response to iron therapy. Cataracts Vitamin B2, along with other nutrients, is important for normal vision, and preliminary evidence shows that riboflavin might help prevent cataracts (damage to the lens of the eye, which can lead to cloudy vision). In one double-blind, placebo-controlled study, people who took a niacin-riboflavin supplement had significantly less cataracts. However, researchers don't know whether that was due to riboflavin, niacin, or the combination of the two. And levels above 10 mg per day of riboflavin can actually promote damage to the eye from the sun. More research is needed to see if riboflavin has any real benefit in preventing cataracts. Migraine Headache Several studies indicate that people who get migraines may decrease the frequency and duration of the headache by taking riboflavin. One double-blind, placebo-controlled study showed that taking 400 mg of riboflavin a day cut the number of migraine attacks in half. The study did not compare riboflavin to conventional medications used to prevent migraines, however, so more research is needed. Dietary Sources: The best sources of riboflavin include brewer's yeast, almonds, organ meats, whole grains, wheat germ, wild rice, mushrooms, soybeans, milk, yogurt, eggs, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and spinach. Flours and cereals are often fortified with riboflavin. Riboflavin is destroyed by light, so food should be stored away from light to protect its riboflavin content. While riboflavin is not destroyed by heat, it can be lost in water when foods are boiled or soaked. During cooking, roasting and steaming preserves more riboflavin than frying or scalding.

Deficiency 1. Cracks at corners of mouth; 2. Dermatitis around nose and lips; 3. Eyes sensitive to light. Toxicity (none) Food Sources 27

1. Liver, milk, dark green vegetables, whole and 2. enriched grain products, eggs

Vit. B3 (Niacin)

Vitamin B3 is one of 8 B vitamins. It is also known as niacin (nicotinic acid) and has 2 other forms, niacinamide (nicotinamide) and inositol hexanicotinate, which have different effects from niacin. All B vitamins help the body to convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly. Niacin also helps the body make various sex and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands and other parts of the body. Niacin is effective in improving circulation and reducing cholesterol levels in the blood. Symptoms of mild deficiency include indigestion, fatigue, canker sores, vomiting, and depression. Severe deficiency can cause a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra is characterized by cracked, scaly skin, dementia, and diarrhea. It is generally treated with a nutritionally balanced diet and niacin supplements. Niacin deficiency also results in burning in the mouth and a swollen, bright red tongue. Very high doses of B3 (available by prescription) have been shown to prevent or improve symptoms of the following conditions. However, taken at high doses niacin can be toxic, so you should take doses higher than the Recommended Daily Allowance only under your doctor's supervision. Researchers are trying to determine if inositol hexanicotinate has similar benefits without serious side effects, but so far results are preliminary. High Cholesterol Niacin (but not niacinamide) has been used since the 1950s to lower elevated LDL ("bad") cholesterol and triglyceride (fat) levels in the blood and is more effective in increasing HDL ("good") cholesterol levels than other cholesterol-lowering medications. However, side effects can be unpleasant and even dangerous. High doses of niacin cause flushing of the skin (which can be reduced by taking aspirin 30 minutes before the niacin), stomach upset (which usually subsides within a few weeks), headache, dizziness, and blurred vision. There is an increased risk of liver damage. A time-release form of niacin reduces flushing, but its long-term use is associated with liver damage. In addition, niacin can interact


with other cholesterol-lowering drugs (see "Possible Interactions"). You should not take niacin at high doses without your doctor's supervision.

Atherosclerosis Because niacin lowers LDL and triglycerides in the blood, it may help prevent atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and is sometimes prescribed along with other medications. However, niacin also increases levels of homocysteine levels in the blood, which is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. This is another reason you should not take high doses of niacin without your doctor's supervision. Diabetes Some evidence suggests that niacinamide (but not niacin) might help delay the onset of insulin dependence (in other words, delay the time that you would need to take insulin) in type 1 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin, eventually destroying them. Niacinamide may help protect those cells for a time, but more research is needed to tell for sure. The effect of niacin on type 2 diabetes is more complicated. People with type 2 diabetes often have high levels of fats and cholesterol in the blood, and niacin, often in conjunction with other drugs, can lower those levels. However, niacin can also raise blood sugar levels, resulting in hyperglycemia, which is particularly dangerous for someone with diabetes. For that reason, anyone with diabetes should take niacin only when directed to do so by their doctor, and should be carefully monitored for hyperglycemia. Dietary Sources: The best dietary sources of vitamin B3 are found in beets, brewer's yeast, beef liver, beef kidney, fish, salmon, swordfish, tuna, sunflower seeds, and peanuts. Bread and cereals are usually fortified with niacin. In addition, foods that contain tryptophan, an amino acid the body coverts into niacin, include poultry, red meat, eggs, and dairy products

Vit. B5 (Panthotenic Acid)

Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly.


In addition to playing a role in the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates for energy, vitamin B5 is critical to the manufacture of red blood cells, as well as sex and stress-related hormones produced in the adrenal glands (small glands that sit atop the kidneys). Vitamin B5 is also important in maintaining a healthy digestive tract, and it helps the body use other vitamins (particularly B2 or riboflavin). It is sometimes referred to as the "anti-stress" vitamin because of its effect on the adrenal glands, but there is no real evidence as to whether it helps the body withstand stressful conditions

Dietary Sources: Pantothenic acid gets its name from the Greek root pantos, meaning "everywhere," because it is available in a wide variety of foods. A lot of vitamin B5 is lost when you food is processed, however. Fresh meats, vegetables, and whole unprocessed grains have more vitamin B5 than refined, canned, and frozen food. The best sources are brewer's yeast, corn, cauliflower, kale, broccoli, tomatoes, avocado, legumes, lentils, egg yolks, beef (especially organ meats such as liver and kidney), turkey, duck, chicken, milk, split peas, peanuts, soybeans, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, whole-grain breads and cereals, lobster, wheat germ, and salmon Deficiency Uncommon due to availability in most foods; fatigue; nausea, abdominal cramps; difficulty sleeping. Toxicity (none) Vit. B6 (Pyridoxine) Vitamin B6, also called pyridoxine, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly. Functions Aids in protein metabolism, absorption; Aids in red blood cell formation; Helps body use fats. Deficiency Skin disorders, dermatitis Cracks at corners of mouth; Irritability; anemia; kidney stones; Nausea; smooth tongue.


B8 (Inositol) Functions Helps release energy from carbohydrates Aids in fat synthesis. Deficiency Fatigue; loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting; Depression; muscle pains; anemia. Toxicity – none Food Sources Liver, kidney, egg yolk, milk, Fresh vegetables

Vit. B12 – Phylloquinone Function: Synthesis of red blood cells Deficiency - Anemia, fatigue, sore tongue Food Sources – all animal products

Minerals What is a mineral? Minerals are elements that are not organic needed by the body in relatively small amounts to help regulate body process and maintain tissue structure •

Minerals do not broken down during digestion nor destroyed by heat or light.

Trace and Major Minerals • Trace Minerals – minerals that are required in our diet at amounts less than 100 mg/day. • Major Minerals - minerals that are required in our diet at amounts greater than 100 mg/day. Primary Roles: • Metabolic health • Anti oxidant • Blood health • Bone health • Electrolyte balance Major Minerals: 1) Calcium 2) Phosphorus 3) Magnesium 4) Potassium 5) Sodium 31

6) Chloride

Trace Minerals: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Iron Iodine Zinc Flouride Selenium Manganese Chromium

Major Minerals Mineral Calcium

Symbol Ca

Function Maintenance of bones and teeth



Bone growth



Muscle contraction, Bone & tooth structure



Body fluid & acid-base balance

Potassium Chloride

K Cl

Body fluid balance Body Fluid Balance

Deficiency Food Sources Osteoporosis, Dairy products, convulsion, muscle green leafy veg, spasm fish with bones Milk,cereal, all foods Green veg,,sea foods, legumes Hypertension, edema

Salt, processed foods All whole foods Salt, processed food

Function Red Blood Cell structure

Deficiency Iron def. anemia


Dental carries

Food Sources Dark green leafy vegetables, liver, legumes Sea foods, iodized sale Whole grain, meat, egg Fortified water, tea, fish bones

Trace Minerals Mineral Iron

Symbol Fe





Thyroid hormone development Energy metabolism Fetal development, wound healing



Teeth maintenance


WATER • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • •

• •

Most important nutritional constituent is water The major component of the body is water 60 – 70% water Water has no nutritional values and no calories Water is necessary to transport nutrients regulate body temperature Remove waste materials Participate in chemical reaction & energy production

Recommended to drink at least 8 glasses a day If trying to loose weight 12-15 glasses a day is recommended A high intake of water aids in fat loss Caffeine & alcohol are both diuretics. Large intake of water is recommended Hangover are generally cause by the dehydration action by alcohol Match a bottle of beer with a glass of water to lessen the intensity of hangover Vital Element, second only to oxygen Vital every day Things that dehydrate – Aging process – Sweat from exercise – Medications – Caffeine Good general rule: for each glass of beverage with caffeine that you consume, drink one extra glass of water. Other Benefits – Helps utilize stored fat for energy – Helps body recover quicker after exercise – Aids healing process when you have been ill



Pregnancy – (Gestation) is a period when the fertilized ovum implants itself in the uterus. Human pregnancy last for the period of 266 – 180 days ( 37-40 weeks) BIOLOGICAL CHANGES: • 1. Implantation Period – 1st 2 weeks • Period of organ formation- next 6 weeks • Period of rapid fetal development – remaining 7 months

• • • • • • • • •

Nutrition in Pregnancy: During the total pregnancy period, the basal metabolic rate increase from 6-14% Calorie intake is increased – 10-20% increase ( if the woman is overweight it is necessary for her o reduce) Protein - Increase in nitrogen content of the fetus and its membranes and added protection of the mother against complications Increase of 9.5 gms./ day Calcium / Phosphorus / Vit. D – Increase , to calcify the fetal bones & teeth (0.5 – 0.9 of the RDA) Iron – Increase, 700-1000 mg. of Fe is absorbed during the pregnancy Iodine – to help the mother and the child prevent goiter in the future and for brain development Folic Acid - women of childbearing age consume 400 micrograms (0.4 mg) of folic acid each day. Folic acid, a nutrient found in some green, leafy vegetables, most berries, nuts, beans, citrus fruits, fortified breakfast cereals, and some vitamin supplements can help reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and spinal cord (called neural tube defects).


Dangerous for pregnant women • • •

Alcohol, Caffeine & Nicotine – Smoking – lowers the birth weight, increase the perinatal mortality, decrease oxygenation of the fetus Alcohol – mental retardation, growth deficiencies, facial deformities.


• • •

Calories – additional 1000 calories – help to produce milk Protein – additional of 20 gms. , to compensate the protein lost in milk Calcium & Phosphorous – Increase of 0.5 mg., to prevent severe depletion of maternal calcium for milk production Iron – additional intake is recommended for blood lost Vit. A – additional 2000 IU, needed in the ilk secretion Riboflavin, Vit. C – increase

Fluids – 8 glasses or more

• •

• • •

Factors Affecting Milk Secretion 1)Diet – intake of meat & veg. soup (tahong, tulya, malunggay) “galactogue” Stimulate milk secretion Water should not be drunk beyond the level of natural thirst. It suppress milk secretion 2. Nutritional State of Mother – Malnutrition and illnesses (cardiac and kidney diseases, anemia, beri-beri, tuberculosis) can lessen the quanity and quality of milk Emotional & Physical State – relax, pleasant surroundings, lots of rest and good sleep Suckling - suckling right after delivery stimulate milk secretion Contraceptives & Drugs – depress milk flow


Advantages of Breast Feeding COLOSTRUM – thin yellowish fluid secreted during the first 2 days 1. Breast milk produces anti bodies, immunity against diseases 2.Lactose is higher in breast milk, to produce beneficial bacteria in the GI tract. 3.Calcium and Phosphorus level are regulated 4. Prevent dental arch 5.Cow’s milk protein causes allergy 6. Less incidence of lung cancer 7. Fast return of the uterus to its original size 8. Biologically complete 9. Easily digested 10. Convenient and dependable 11. Safe 12. Emotional satisfaction between mother & child


Growth – increase in size due to increase in the number of cells Development – increase in functional ability Behavioral Development of a Healthy Baby 0-1 month suckles & smiles 2-3 months vocalize & controls head 4-5 months controls hands & rolls over 6-7 months sits briefly & crawls 8-9 months grasps & pulls up 10-11 months walks with support 12 months stars to walk alone Methods of Feeding the Infant: 1) Breast Feeding 2) Artificial Feeding – bottle feeding using infant formula 3)Mixed Feeding – combination of breast & bottle Milk Formula: A) Whole Cows Milk Formula 1. Powdered whole cow’s milk – milk dried under controlled condition (Nido, Birch Tree, Anchor Mik) 2. Full Cream evaporated Milk – whole milk from which 50-60% of water content has been removed 3. Recombined milk – skim milk powder reconstituted to normal fat content of the whole milk by adding butterfat 4.Reconstituted milk – process milk to which water is added to restore its original water content (Frisian Girl, Alpine)


B) Other type of evaporated milk not recommended for infants 1. Sweetened condensed – High in sugar resulting in very diluted milk formula 2. Evaporated Filled Milk – cow’s milk from which butterfat has been removed and replaced with vegetable oil (94% coconut oil, 6% corn oil) 3. Skim Milk – butter fat has been removed (Enfamil, Olac) 4.Acidified Milk – increase digestibility ( Pelargon, Acidolac) 5.Completely Modified Milk Formula – Protein & mineral content are adjusted to resemble human milk (SMA, S-26, Similac) 6. Non- cows Milk formula – Soybase for infant’s allergy to cow’s milk ( Sobee, Mullsoy, Isomil) Note: goat’s milk has also been found effective as hypo allergenic milk

5. 6. 7. 8.

Baby’s Food During the 1st Year of Life: Cereal Foods – (3-4 months), milk is still continued Fruits – (3-4 months) , mashed 3. Vegetables – (3-4 months) , mashed (carrots, squash, sayote,) green leafy vegetables may be mashed and sieved and mix with other foods. 4. Eggs –( 4- 5 months) , only eggyolk is given ( 9-10 months) , can give the whole egg Munggo – ( 5 months) cooked well and strained Meat, fish or Poultry – ( 5-6 months) , ground and strained Other Foods – custards, puddings, plain ice cream, plain gulaman or jello

• • • • • • • •

HOW TO GIVE SUPPLEMENTARY FOODS Introduce one food at a time Give small amounts of foods Use thin, soft consistency. Gradually, modify the consistency Never force an infant to eat more of a food he can takes Omit the food if the infant refuse to eat several times slightly seasoned with small amt. of salt Variety of foods is important don’t show any dislikes for the food

1. 2.


This is the most difficult stage in feeding a child since the appetite tapers off corresponding to the lower rate of growth. Foods to Give the Pre-School Child: 1) Mildly flavored foods 2) Plain foods is acceptable than mixed foods. 3) Fruits, puddings, custard, ice cream and gelatin may be given


Sign of Good Nutrition in Pre-School Child – Alert, vigorous and happy – Endurance during activities – sleeps well – Normal height and weight for age – Stands erect, arms and legs straight – Clear, bright eyes, smooth healthy skin, lustrous hair – Firm and well developed muscles – Not irritable and restless – Good attention

NUTRITION FOR SCHOOL CHILD Feeding Problems Limited time for eating Poor Eating practices Unbalance program of activities & rest Recommended Solutions: allow sufficient time for meals Encourage child to eat more fruits & vegetables Provide child with properly selected snacks Regulate the activities Guidance in proper food selection

• • • • • •

NUTRITION FOR ADOLESCENTS The best nutrition advise to keep your adolescent healthy includes encouraging her to: Eat a variety of foods Balance the food you eat with physical activity Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol Choose a diet moderate in sugars and salt Choose a diet that provides enough calcium and iron to meet their growing body's requirements.


Nutritional Requirements: Energy (calories) – decreases in calories because of reduced basal metabolic rate and reduce in physical activities. A decrease of 7.5% intake after 45 yrs. Of age Protein – Protein allowance of 1.12 gms./kg. body weight is maintained Necessary for the prevention and tissue wasting and susceptibility to diseases Minerals (Calcium) – is maintained to prevent occurrence of osteoporosis Iron – Iron allowand for women 50 and above is as low as 7.0 mg/day Vitamins – Vit. C is needed for the absorption of calcium and iron. Intake of Vit. E to retard cellular aging. B complex – to maintain good appetite 38

Water & Fiber – 6-8 glasses a day. To prevent constipation


Long standing dietary habits Loss of teeth Loss of taste and smell Loss of neuromuscular coordination Physical discomfort Economic consideration Social Factors Psychological factors

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Diet Recommendation Eat good breakfast to start the day Eat 4-5 light meals a day Include essential foods (fish, vegetables, fruits) Eat leisurely in pleasant surroundings Eat the heaviest at noon Avoid fatty foods Avoid coffee Drink hot milk before going to bed



PHYTOCHEMICALS A chemical subs. In plants, some of which perfom important functions in the human body. It gives colors and flavors and protect plants against insects & diseases.

Allicin Allicin, one of the sulfur compounds of garlic, possesses antioxidant activity and is shown to cause a variety of actions potentially useful for human health. Allicin exhibits hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, and procirculatory effects. It demonstrates antibacterial, anticancer and chemopreventive activities. In addition, aged garlic extract possesses hepatoprotective and neuroprotective. But a factor that will limit the biological activity of allicin is its instability. Fresh crushed garlic cloves generated antibacterial activity and chemically detectable allicin, but this activity declines on a daily basis in aqueous and ethanol solutions. Allicin is also not bioavailable and will not get absorbed in the blood, even after ingesting large amounts of allicin. Antimicrobial The antimicrobial effect of allicin is due to its chemical reaction with thiol groups of various enzymes. The phytochemical inhibits bacteria and viruses, By its antimicrobial activity, allicin may be an effective therapeutic candidate to promote ulcer healing. In vitro-studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, such as Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus aureaus, Escherichia coli and Lancefield group B streptococci. Anticancer In vitro studies show that allicin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of human colon carcinoma cells. The phytochemical also exhibits antigenotoxic action. But the anticancer effect of allicin in humans remains uncertain, because of its low stability and poor bioavailability. Heart health Garlic has been suggested to improve heart health by lowering blood pressure, but scientific studies have provided conflicting results. One study showed that the protective role of allicin against atherosclerosis, is not only the direct result of its antioxidant activity but also of other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification, inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages.


Flavonoids Flavonoids have antioxidant activity. Flavonoids are becoming very popular because they have many health promoting effects. Some of the activities attributed to flavonoids include: antiallergic, anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral. The flavonoids quercetin is known for its ability to relieve hay fever, eszema, sinusitis and asthma. Epidemiological studies have illustrated that heart diseases are inversely related to flavonoid intake. Studies have shown that flavonoids prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein thereby reducing the risk for the development of atherosclerosis.

Red wine contains high levels of flavonoids, mainly quercetin and rutin. The high intake of red wine (and flavonoids) by the French might explain why they suffer less from coronary heart disease then other Europeans, although their consumption of cholesterol rich foods is higher (French paradox). Many studies have confirmed that one or two glasses of red wine daily can protect against heart disease. Tea flavonoids have many health benefits. Tea flavonoids reduce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, lowers the blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Soy flavonoids (isoflavones) can also reduce blood cholesterol and can help to prevent osteoporis. Soy flavonoids are also used to ease menopausal symptoms

Beta-Carotene Beta-carotene has received a lot of attention as potential anti-cancer and anti-aging phytochemical. Beta-carotene is a powerful antioxidant, protecting the cells of the body from damage caused by free radicals. Studies indicate that diets low in beta-carotene can increase the body's susceptibility to damage from free radicals, resulting in an increased risk of chronic diseases like heart disease and cancers. Beta-carotene supplements may help reduce sun induced skin damage. Smokers should avoid large doses of beta carotene supplements. Beta-carotene is one of the many carotenoids that our body can convert into vitamin A (retinol). Anti-cancer Beta-carotene acts as an anti-cancer agent through its antioxidant property but it also seems to stimulate cell to cell communication. Poor communication between cells may eventually lead to cancer. However, beta-carotene may cause adverse effects on smokers. Two studies indicate that heavy smokers and drinkers may have an increased risk of lung cancer or heart disease, when taking daily more than 20 mg synthetic beta-carotene as supplements. A study by Harvard School of Public Health published in January 2004 issue of Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention indicates that betacarotene consumed as part of natural foods has no such negative effects.


Skin protection Studies have demonstrated that beta-carotene may be used for skin protection: it reduces UV-induced redness of the skin and improves melasma. Beta-carotene is often use in supplements or topical creams to protect our skin. Too much intake of beta-carotene can result in carotenodermia, a condition that shows a yellowish discoloration of the skin. This is reversible and harmless. Heart health Epidemiological studies show that beta-carotene may improve our heart health by decreasing blood pressure. Beta-carotene may also help to prevent arteriosclerosis by inhibiting the oxidation of lipids.

Lutein Lutein is an antioxidant which is believed to be an essential nutrient for normal vision. The protective role of lutein against eye damage is well document. Studies have also indicated that lutein improves heart health, protects our skin against UV damage, reduces diabetes induced oxidative stress, and possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Eye protection The central part of the retina, called the macula, contains macular pigments in which lutein is concentrated. The yellow coloured pigments protect the retina from damage of the photo-oxidative affect of high-energy light. Lutein offers eye protection by lowering the risk of age related vision loss, which causes gradual loss of central vision. Age related vision loss or age related macular degeneration is caused by steady damage of the retina. Heart health Lutein can also reduce the risk for artery diseases. Studies have shown that persons with the highest lutein intake showed the lowest artery wall thickening. Lutein also reduces the oxidation of LDL cholesterol thereby reducing the risk of artery clogging. Skin protection Lutein can also reduce the risk of skin cancer and sunburn. Under influence of sunlight, free radicals are formed inside the skin. These free radicals can damage the DNA of cells. Lutein can protect against the damaging effects of UV-B radiation. Lutein is found in egg yolk and many plants and vegetables, including red peppers, mustard, broccoli, zucchini, corn, garden peas, spinach, leek, collard greens and kale. Lutein is responsible for the colouring of many fruits and vegetables.


Lycopene Lycopene is a very efficient antioxidant, which can neutralize oxygen derived free radicals. The oxidative damage caused by these free radicals has been linked to many degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, premature aging, cancer and cataracts. In many countries it is legally allowed to advertise foods containing tomato lycopene as "containing antioxidants for the maintenance and support of healthy cells". Lycopene is generally known for its protective action against prostate cancer. Anti-cancer In vitro-studies have shown the anti-cancer properties of lycopene against many cancer cells, including cancer cells of prostate, stomach, lung, colon and skin. There are numerous studies about the effect of lycopene on cancer and prostate cancer in particular. Using Pubmed as a retrieval base, more than 80 scientific studies have the names lycopene and prostate in their title. Most of the in-vitro experiments using cultured prostate cancer cells demonstrate a protective effect. However, most literature review studies or clinical studies are less conclusive and often contradictory. Lycopene also shows antimutagenic action against chemically induced DNA damage. Antibacterial and antifungal Lycopene possesses antibacterial and antifungal properties. Lycopene can help to reduce inflammation of the gums and can help to fight infections of Candida albicans. Diabetes Diabetes patients may suffer from complications as vascular disease, diabetic neuropathies or infections. Lycopene helps to protect diabetes patients against cardiovascular disease and may improve the immune response. However, the consumption of lycopene seems not to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2. Arteriosclerosis Lycopene inhibits platelet aggregation and reduces the production of foam cells which play an important role in the development of arteriosclerosis. Lycopene helps to prevent arteriosclerosis by reducing inflammatory agents in rats increased risk of venous thrombosis. Antitoxic In laboratory conditions, lycopene shows antitoxic properties against many toxins such as aflatoxin, cyclosporine and cadmium. Distribution Lycopene is the red pigement of ripe tomatoes. Lycopene is also found in guava, pink grapefruit, red oranges and watermelon


CHAPTER 8 RELIGION & DIETARY PRATICES Since the beginning of time, dietary practices have been incorporated into the religious practices of people around the world. Some religious sects abstain, or are forbidden, from consuming certain foods and drinks; others restrict foods and drinks during their holy days; while still others associate dietary and food preparation practices with rituals of the faith. The early biblical writings, especially those found in Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy of the Old Testament (and in the Torah) outlined the dietary practices for certain groups (e.g., Christians and Jews), and many of these practices may still be found among these same groups today. Practices such as fasting (going without food and/or drink for a specified time) are described as tenets of faith by numerous religions. Buddhism. Many Buddhists are vegetarians, though some include fish in their diet. Most do not eat meat and abstain from all beef products. The birth, enlightenment, and death of Buddha are the three most commonly recognized festivals for feasting, resting from work, or fasting. Buddhist monks fast completely on certain days of the moon, and they routinely avoid eating any solid foods after the noon hour. Eastern Orthodox Christianity. An essential element of practicing an Orthodox life includes fasting, since its intrinsic value is part of the development of a spiritual life. To practicing Orthodox believers, fasting teaches self-restraint, which is the source of all good. Hinduism. Hindus do not consume any foods that might slow down spiritual or physical growth. The eating of meat is not prohibited, but pork, fowl, ducks, snails, crabs, and camels are avoided. The cow is sacred to Hindus, Many Hindus are strict vegetarians. Those who do eat meat are forbidden from eating beef, because cows occupy a sacred place in the Hindu religion. Islam. To the Muslims, eating is a matter of faith for those who follow the dietary laws called Halal, a term for all permitted foods. Those foods that are prohibited, such as pork and birds of prey, are known as Haram, while the foods that are questionable for consumption are known as Mashbooh. Muslims eat to preserve their good health, and overindulgence or the use of stimulants such as tea, coffee, or alcohol are discouraged. Fasting is practiced regularly on Mondays and Thursdays, and more often for six days during Shawwal (the tenth month of the Islamic year) and for the entire month of Ramadan (the ninth month). Fasting on these occasions includes abstention from all food and drink from sunrise to sunset.


Ramadan In the Muslim faith, the holy month of Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic year and is devoted to prayer, fasting, and charity. Muslims believe that it was during this month that God first began to reveal the holy book of Islam, the Quran, to the prophet Muhammad. Most Muslims are required to refrain from food and drink during daylight hours for the entire month. The fast is broken in the evening by a meal called the iftar, which traditionally includes dates and water or sweet drinks, and is resumed again at sunrise. Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five Pillars of Faith, which are the most important religious duties in Islam. The practice is meant to remind Muslims of the poor, to cleanse the body, and to foster serenity and spiritual devotion. Ramadan ends with Eid al-Fitr, the "Festival of Breaking the Fast."

Judaism. The Jewish dietary law is called Kashrut, meaning "proper" or "correct." The term kosher refers to the methods of processing foods according to the Jewish laws. The processing laws and other restrictions regarding to the preparation of food and drink were devised for their effects on health. For example, rules about the use of pans, plates, utensils, and separation of meat from dairy products are intended to reduce contamination. Other rules include: 1. A Jewish person must prepare grape products, otherwise they are forbidden. 2. Jewish laws dictate the slaughter and removal of blood from meat before it can be eaten. 3. Animals such as pigs and rabbits and creatures of the sea, such as lobster, shrimp, and clams, may not be eaten. 4. Meat and dairy products cannot be eaten at the same meal or served on the same plate, and kosher and nonkosher foods cannot come into contact with the same plates. Mormonism. The law of health—the Word of Wisdom—contains the laws for proper eating and the rules of abstinence for tobacco, alcohol, coffee, tea, chocolate, and illegal drugs. Mormons must choose foods that build up the body, improve endurance, and enhance intellect. Products from the land, such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, are to take the place of meats; meats, sugar, cheeses, and spices are to be avoided. Reason and self-control in eating is expected in order to stay healthy.

Protestants Few restrictions of food or fasting observations • Moderation in eating, drinking, and exercise is promoted God made all animal and natural products for humans' enjoyment • Gluttony and drunkenness are sins to be controlled


Roman Catholicism Meat restricted on certain days • Fasting practiced Seventh-day Adventists. The Seventh-day Adventist Church advocates a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet, including moderate amounts of low-fat dairy products and the avoidance of meat, fish, fowl, coffee, tea, alcohol, and toboacco products (though these are not strictly prohibited). The church's beliefs are grounded in the Bible, and in a "belief in the wholistic nature of people" (Seventh-day Adventist General Conference Nutrition Council). While the dietary practices of different religions vary, and the rationale for each practice is based upon different texts, there is also much commonality. The practice of fasting is almost universal across religious groups, and most regard it as a mechanism to discipline the followers in a humbling way for spiritual growth. Many fasting practices are connected with specific holy days. The variation in consumption of meat and vegetables has a much wider variation.

ACTIVITY: Prepare and create a nourishing snacks for the following age groups: Toddler, school age, adolescent, elderly (actual food presentation) Make a menu card of a healthy restaurant ( think of a good name of a restaurant, Create an attractive menu card and sets of healthy menus for the ff: Appetizer, soup, salad, main dish, rice, dessert and beverage

References: 1. Nutrition for Food Service & Culinary Professionals 6th Ed. Karen Eich Drummond, Lisa Brefere Copyright 2007 2. Food & Nutrition in Practice Cole, Hamilton, Livermore, Watson Copyright 2006 3. Basic Nutrients PDF File 4. 5.


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