Basic Forward Observation Procedures
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MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE
BASIC FORWARD OBSERVATION PROCEDURES MARINE BARRACKS WASHINGTON, DC
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE 912 POOR STREET SE WASHINGTON, DC 20391-5680
08.61 6 Dec 96
MCI 08.61 BASIC FORWARD OBSERVATION PROCEDURES 1. Purpose. MCI course 08.61, Basic Forward Observation Procedures, has been published to provide instruction for all Marines to properly call for and adjust indirect fire support. 2. Scope. MCI 08.61 introduces Marines to the types of indirect fire support available to the operating forces, the different means of targeting, and target designations. Instruction is given in the three methods used to locate targets of opportunity: grid coordinates, polar plot, and shift from a known point. In addition, the course emphasizes conduct of fire missions and communication procedures utilized by fire support units. 3. Applicability. This course is intended for instructional purposes only. It is designed for use by all Marines. 4. Recommendations. Comments and recommendations on the contents of the course text are invited and will aid in subsequent course revisions. Please complete the course evaluation questionnaire located at the end of the text and return it to: Director (CDD# 3) Marine Corps Institute Washington Navy Yard 912 Poor Street SE Washington, DC 20391-5680
R. A. CHRISTIE Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps Deputy Director
BASIC FORWARD OBSERVATION PROCEDURES
CONTENTS Page Contents
Student Information Study Guide
Study Unit 1 Indirect Fire Support Characteristics Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3
Fire Support Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise ....................................... Fire Support Organization and Targeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise ....................................... Artillery Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise .......................................
1-1 1-4 1-5 1-8 1-10 1-14
Study Unit 2 Target Location Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4
Map/Terrain Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise ....................................... Determining Direction (Azimuth) to the Target . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise ....................................... Determining Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise ....................................... Methods of Target Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise .......................................
2-1 2-4 2-5 2-10 2-12 2-17 2-18 2-21
Study Unit 3 Conducting Fire Missions Lesson 1 Lesson 2
Fire Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise ....................................... Artillery Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise .......................................
3-1 3-3 3-5 3-14
Lesson 3 Lesson 4
Spotting and Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise ....................................... Adjustment and Fire for Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise ....................................... ...............................................
3-15 3-22 3-24 3-30 R-1
STUDENT INFORMATION TITLE & NUMBER:
BASIC FORWARD OBSERVATION PROCEDURES MCI 08.61
COMMANDING OFFICER U.S. Army Field Artillery School (Attn: Marine Corps Admin Detachment) Fort Sill, OK 73503
4 Reserve Retirement Credits
To be reviewed by the American Council on Education in 1996
ASSISTANCE: For administrative assistance, have your training officer or NCO use the Unit Activity Report (UAR) or MCI Hotline: DSN 288-4175 or Commercial (202) 433-4175. For assistance concerning course content matters, call the instructor at DSN 288-2290/0208/0210, ext 285 or commercial (202) 433-0208/0210/2290, ext 285.
STUDY GUIDE Congratulations on your enrollment in a distance training course from the Occupational Specialty Department of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI). Since 1920, the Marine Corps Institute has been helping tens of thousands of hard-charging Marines, like you, improve their technical job performance skills through distance training. By enrolling in this course, you have shown a desire to improve the skills you have and master new skills to enhance your job performance. The distance training course you have chosen, MCI course 08.61, Basic Forward Observation Proedures, introduces Marines to the types of indirect fire support available to the Fleet Marine Force (FMF), the different means of targeting, and target designations. Instruction is given in the three methods used to locate targets of opportunity: grid coordinates, polar plot, and shift from a known point. In addition, it emphasizes on the conduct of fire missions and communications with artillery units. Because you have chosen to learn at a distance by enrolling in this MCI course, your professional traits are evident and we know YOU ARE PROPERLY MOTIVATED. You made a positive decision to get training on your own. Self-motivation is perhaps the most important force in learning or achieving anything. Doing whatever is necessary to learn is MOTIVATION. You have it! YOU SEEK TO IMPROVE YOURSELF. You enrolled to improve those skills you already possess and learn new skills. When you improve yourself, you improve the Corps! YOU HAVE THE INITIATIVE TO ACT. By acting on your own, you have shown you are a self-starter, willing to reach out for opportunities to learn and grow. YOU ACCEPT CHALLENGES. You have self-confidence and believe in your ability to acquire knowledge and skills. You have the self-confidence to set goals and the ability to achieve them, enabling you to meet every challenge. YOU ARE ABLE TO SET AND ACCOMPLISH PRACTICAL GOALS. You are willing to commit time, effort, and the resources necessary to set and accomplish your goals. These professional traits will help you successfully complete this distance training course.
STUDY GUIDE, continued BEGINNING YOUR COURSE
Before you actually begin this course of study, read the Student Information page. If you find any course materials missing, notify your training officer or training NCO. If you have all the required materials, you are ready to begin. To begin your course of study, familiarize yourself with the structure of the course text. One way to do this is to read the Table of Contents. Notice the Table of Contents covers specific areas of study and the order in which they are presented. You will find the text divided into several study units and a review lesson. Each study unit is comprised of two or more lessons, lesson or unit exercises, exercise solutions and references.
LEAFING THROUGH THE TEXT
Leaf through the text and look at the figures and tables. Read a few lesson exercise items (questions) to get an idea of the type of items in the course. If the course has additional study aids, such as a handbook or a plotting board, familiarize yourself with them.
THE FIRST STUDY UNIT
Turn to the first page of Study Unit 1. On this page, you will find an introduction to the study unit and generally the first study unit lesson. Study unit lessons contain learning objectives, lesson text, and exercises.
READING THE LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Learning objectives describe in concise terms what the successful learner, you, will be able to do as a result mastering the content of the lesson text. Read the objectives for each lesson and then read the lesson text. As you read the lesson text, make notes on the points you feel are important.
COMPLETING THE EXERCISES
To determine your mastery of the learning objectives and text, complete the exercises developed for you. Exercises may be contained in a lesson, at the end of a lesson, or at the end of a study unit. Without referring to the text, complete the exercise items and then check your responses against those provided.
CONTINUING TO MARCH
Continue on to the next lesson, repeating the above process until you have completed all lessons in the study unit. Follow the same procedure for each study unit in the course.
STUDY GUIDE, continued SEEKING ASSISTANCE
If you have problems with the text or exercise items that you cannot resolve, ask your training officer or training NCO for assistance. If they cannot help you, request assistance from your MCI distance training instructor by completing the Content Assistance Request Form located at the back of the course.
THE REVIEW LESSON EXAM
When you have finished all the study units, complete the review lesson exam located at the end of the course text. Try to complete the review lesson exam without referring to the text. For those items you are unsure of, restudy the text. When you have finished the review lesson exam and are satisfied with your responses, check your responses against the answer key provided with your course materials.
PREPARING FOR THE FINAL EXAM
To prepare for your final exam, you must review what you learned in the course. The following suggestions will help make the review interesting and challenging. CHALLENGE YOURSELF. Try to recall the entire learning sequence without referring to the text. Can you do it? Now look back at the text to see if you have left anything out. This review should be interesting. Undoubtedly, you'll find you were not able to recall everything. But with a little effort you'll be able to recall a great deal of the information. USE UNUSED MINUTES. Use your spare moments to review. Read your notes or a part of a study unit, rework exercise items, review again; you can do many of these things during the unused minutes of every day. APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED. It is always best to use the skill or knowledge you've learned as soon as possible. If it isn't possible to actually use the skill or knowledge, at least try to imagine a situation in which you would apply this learning. For example, make up and solve your own problems. Or, better still, make up and solve problems that use most of the elements of a study unit.
STUDY GUIDE, continued USE THE "SHAKEDOWN CRUISE" TECHNIQUE. Ask another Marine to lend a hand by asking you questions about the course. Choose a particular study unit and let your buddy "fire away." MAKE REVIEWS FUN AND BENEFICIAL. Reviews are good habits that enhance learning. They don't have to be long and tedious. In fact, some learners find short reviews conducted more often prove more beneficial. TACKLING THE FINAL EXAM
When you have completed your study of the course material and are confident with the results attained on your review lesson(s) take the sealed envelope marked "FINAL EXAM" to your unit training NCO or training officer. Your training NCO or officer will administer the final exam and return the exam and answer sheet to MCI for grading. Prior to taking your final exam, read the directions on the NEW (generic DP-37) answer sheet carefully and complete all requested information.
COMPLETING YOUR COURSE
The sooner you complete your course, the sooner you can better yourself by applying what you've learned! HOWEVER--you do have 12 months from the date of enrollment to complete this course. In addition, you may be granted one 6-month extension if approved by your Commanding Officer. If you need an extension, please complete the Student Request/Inquiry form (MCI-R11) located at the back of the course, and deliver it to your training officer or training NCO.
As a graduate of this distance training course and as a dedicated Marine, your job performance skills will improve, benefiting you, your unit, and the Marine Corps.
STUDY UNIT 1 INDIRECT FIRE SUPPORT CHARACTERISTICS
Introduction. To effectively use indirect fire support assets, you should have a basic overview of their characteristics, fire support organization, and artillery ammunition. Before any Marine employs a weapon, he should have a good understanding of its operation so that he may use it safely and more effectively. This rule is true for your use of indirect fire support means as well. Lesson 1. FIRE SUPPORT CHARACTERISTICS LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Select the three types of indirect fire support available to FMF Units.
Identify the three indirect fire support assets with their characteristics.
1101. Types of Indirect Fire Support The three types of indirect fire support available to you are mortars, naval gunfire, and howitzers. Each of these three types of support has its own characteristics and limitations. You may not always have the choice of all three assets, but you should know which of them you can select when they are available. The major differences among the three are their sizes, trajectories, and firing capabilities. 1102. Characteristics of Indirect Fire Support Weapons a.
Size. Mortars, which are organic to the Marine Corps Infantry Battalion, are categorized as light artillery. There are two types: the 60mm mortar (fig 1-1), which is organic to the weapons platoon of each company, and the 81mm mortar (fig 1-2), which is organic to the weapons company of each battalion. Because of their size, these mortars are best suited to attack personnel. They have very limited usefulness against material targets and require large amounts of ammunition to attack large personnel targets.
Figure 1-1. 60mm mortar.
Figure 1-2. 81mm mortar.
Trajectory. A mortar trajectory is characterized by low muzzle velocity and a high trajectory similar to a good punt in football. This means that mortars can be effective against targets which are entrenched or situated on a reverse slope and inaccessible to direct fire. It also means that mortar adjustments are not overly distorted by uneven terrain.
Firing capabilities. Mortars have a high rate of fire. They can fire a sustained rate of up to 20 rounds per minute, depending upon the type of round and mortar being used. They also have a short-range and must keep close to the forward line of troops (FLOT) to maintain fire support. Mortar platoons act as independent firing units and do not mass fires (bring several units to bear on one target simultaneously). Because of resupply problems, the Marines in mortar sections must very often carry their weapons and their ammunition on their backs. Therefore, mortar ammunition is limited and should be used sparingly.
Naval surface fire support. (1)
Size. Naval gunfire currently uses the 5-inch/54 caliber gun mount (caliber on naval guns is determined by dividing the length of the weapon by the diameter of its bore). Five-inch naval gunfire shells are comparable to 155mm rounds and are classified as medium artillery.
Trajectory. Naval gunfire has a high muzzle velocity and flat trajectory similar to the M16A2 service rifle. This combination makes naval gunfire suitable for both direct or assault fire against material targets that must be penetrated or destroyed. This also includes material targets that present a vertical face. The relatively flat trajectory results in a large probable error in range. Therefore, the dispersion pattern is roughly elliptical. Thus, care must be taken when firing close to troop.
Firing capabilities. Naval gunfire ships carry 600 rounds of ammunition per gun, which can be quickly used with naval gunfires' high rate of fire, 20 rounds per minute (RPM), in a high intensity environment.
Howitzers (Figures 1-3 and 1-4) (1)
Size. The current Marine Corps inventory has 105mm and 155mm howitzers. The 105mm is classified as light artillery, the 155mm as medium artillery. The vast majority of artillery support is provided by the 155mm.
Trajectory. A howitzer fires a medium trajectory. It fires more like a long pass than a punt or screen pass. A howitzer can also fire high-angle fires like a mortar or direct fires like a gun, so it is a versatile combat asset.
Firing capabilities. Howitzers have a low rate of fire. Although their firing rates vary with each weapon system, they average 2 to 3 rounds per minute. This sounds slow, but you must consider the principle of "massed fires." What this means to you is the artillery will tailor their fire for effect to meet the target. If you describe a small target, the artillery battery will attack it with one or two howitzers. If you describe a large target, the artillery will fire a platoon of three howitzers.
Figure 1-3. M198 howitzer.
Figure 1-4. M101A1 howitzer.
If you have an even larger target, they will fire an entire battery of six howitzers. For extremely large targets, the artillery battalion can bring the fires of 3 batteries firing 18 howitzers to bear on one target. This is called massing fires.
Complete items 1 through 4 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit. Which of the following are three types of indirect fire. a. b. c. d.
Naval gunfire, howitzers, close air support Howitzers, mortars, close air support Mortars, howitzers, tanks Howitzers, naval gunfire, mortars
Matching: For items 2 through 4, match the type of indirect fire support in column 1 with the characteristics which best describes it in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided. Column 1
Indirect Fire Support
___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4.
Naval Gunfire Howitzers Mortars
a. b. c. d.
High trajectory, low rate of fire, light artillery Flat trajectory, medium artillery, high rate of fire Medium trajectory, medium artillery, massed fires Light artillery, high rate of fire, high trajectory
Lesson 2. FIRE SUPPORT ORGANIZATION AND TARGETING LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Identify the three members of the gunnery team with their proper duties.
List the duties of the fire support coordinator (FSC).
Identify the two types of targets and two types of planned targets.
Identify the target numbering system.
Define known point.
1201. The Gunnery Team In using fire support, you will set in motion the actions of a great number of Marines than you may have initially realized. It takes a well-trained team to deliver effective fire support to the Marines on the modern battlefield. The gunnery team is comprised of three basic elements. Whether it be mortars, howitzers, or naval gunfire, these elements are: the observer, the fire direction center, and the firing element. a. Observer. The observer is the Marine on the scene. He is responsible for accurately locating and identifying targets for the firing units. b. Fire direction center. The fire direction center (FDC) consists of a group of Marines or sailors who take your request for fire and turn it into gunnery data and a fire order for the firing battery. The fire direction officer (FDO) decides how to attack the target based on your description. c. Firing element. The firing element consists of Marines or Sailors manning the tubes that will fire the ammunition to attack your target. Depending upon the type of fire support available to you, you decide whether you will use naval gun fire, a howitzer battery, or a mortar section/platoon. 1202. The Fire Support Coordinator Whenever a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) operates, one officer is designated as the fire support coordinator (FSC). It is his duty to coordinate many assets of fire support (including fixed and rotary wing close air support) and to use them to their best advantage in supporting the operation. He does this by organizing a fire support coordination center (FSCC) staffed by Marines from the different fire support units assigned to the MAGTF.
The FSCC controls or coordinates your fire support needs in one of two ways, passive monitoring or active direction. a. You may have one unit of fire support dedicated to your unit's support. This section/battery/ship establishes direct contact to you and responds immediately to your calls-forfire. If you are calling for fire from a unit that is dedicated to your support, the FSCC monitors the radio. If your target is suitably attacked by the dedicated unit, the FSCC normally remains silent and allows the mission to proceed. If the FSC decides that your target requires more or different support, he will take charge of the mission based on your call-for-fire. b. You may not have any fire support assets dedicated to your unit. In this case, you will call directly to the FSCC with your call-for-fire. The FSC receives your call-for-fire, assesses your needs against available assets, and either controls the mission or assigns an element to you. 1203. Types of Targets Each of the three supporting arms plan for and identify targets in their own way and for different purposes. Targets may include locations of enemy personnel or material or they may be identifiable map/terrain features such as hilltops, road junctions, choke points, etc. There are two types of targets: planned targets and targets of opportunity. There are some different subtypes within these types. a. Planned targets. Planned targets are identified prior to an engagement or movement. They are recorded on target lists maintained by the FSCC, units' headquarters, and the supporting arms' Fire Direction Center. There are three different types of planned targets: (1)
Scheduled targets are planned targets on which fire is prearranged by a time schedule (such as a preparation fire for an attack plan). The supporting arms will work up firing data ahead of time and fire at these targets in accordance with the time schedule of the particular operation.
On-call targets are planned targets which are fired by the supporting arms upon request from the forward elements. The supporting arms will not normally work up data to these targets until they receive a request, but they will keep the targets on file for a faster response time.
Priority targets are combination scheduled/on-call targets. They are targets identified to the supporting arms as being vital to the mission (such as a final protective fire). The supporting arms will work up data to these targets and, when not engaged in other missions, will remain aimed at and ready for them but will not fire until they receive the command.
b. Targets of opportunity. Targets of opportunity are targets that have not been previously identified. They arise during the conduct of battle and are usually temporary in nature. For example, if you sighted an enemy reconnaissance vehicle operating near your position, that would 1-6
be a target of opportunity. Once you fired upon it, it would either be destroyed or it would move out and the target would disappear. Once fired upon, you may record targets of opportunity for future reference. We will discuss this in the upcoming study units. It is one way in which you will determine direction and location without a map or compass. 1204. Target Numbering The Marine Corps designates targets using a system of assigned target number blocks. All targets are identified by a standard numbering system of two letters and four numbers. The letters and numbers are assigned to specific units by letter and number blocks. For example: A Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) may be assigned target block AA0001 through AA9999. The MEU will then assign target blocks within this set to subordinate units and organizations. The FSCC is assigned AA1000 through AA1999. Alpha Company is assigned AA2000 through AA2999. As an observer for Alpha Company, you are assigned AA2200 through AA2299. a. Your unit will be assigned a target number block. You should know your unit's target block. If you are a designated observer, you should be assigned a portion of that block for targeting and planning purposes. b. If you are not assigned a target block, and you are only calling for fire on targets of opportunity, the supporting arms will assign a number from their block to any targets they fire. 1205. Known Points You may often use known points to identify locations to the supporting arms. Known points are any points on the ground or map whose locations are known to both the forward observer and the firing unit. They may be such things as prominent terrain features, significant manmade objects (large buildings, bridges, monuments, etc.), or unit locations. Planned targets and targets of opportunity that have been recorded are also known points.
Complete items 1 through 8 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit.
Matching: For items 1 through 3, match the member of the gunnery team in column 1 with the duties which best describe it in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided. Column 1
___ 1. ___ 2. ___ 3.
Observer Fire direction center Firing element
a. b. c. d.
The duties of the fire support coordinator (FSC) include a. b. c. d.
maintaining radio discipline during fire missions. monitoring command and fire nets to coordinate the fire support assets and to use them to their best advantage. instructing observers when to fire targets of opportunity. determining firing data for supporting arms.
Marine Corps units designate targets using a. b. c. d.
Locates and identifies targets to the firing unit Coordinates the fires of different supporting arms Fires the rounds as directed Receives call for fire and translates it into firing data
individual unit designators. observer target numbers. an assigned block of two letters and four numbers. two numbers and four letters.
What are the two types of targets? a. b. c. d.
Planned targets and on-call targets On-call targets and scheduled targets Priority targets and targets of opportunity Planned targets and targets of opportunity
What are the three types of planned targets? a. b. c. d.
Priority targets, on-call targets, and targets of opportunity Priority targets, scheduled targets, and on-call targets Priority targets, planned targets, and scheduled targets Priority targets, targets of opportunity, and on-call targets
A known point is a. b. c. d.
any target with its map location known to the forward observer and the firing unit. any point on the ground which is known to the forward observer and the firing unit. any point on the ground or map with its location known to the forward observer and the firing unit. a previously fired target or hilltop.
Lesson 3. ARTILLERY AMMUNITION LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Identify the three effects of indirect fires with their descriptions.
Identify artillery shells by types.
1301. Effects of Artillery Fires When you attack a target with artillery fires, you have many options available to you. There are three effects of a supporting arms fire mission: destruction, neutralization, or suppression. You must decide which effect you desire to cause. You will make your decision based on your knowledge of the situation, the enemy, and the effectiveness of artillery ammunition regarding which effect of indirect fire you need to employ. a. Destruction. Target destruction means either a physical material target (such as a building, position, or vehicle) is destroyed or 30 percent or more casualties are inflicted against a personnel target. Target destruction usually requires the use of precision adjustment and/or high expenditures of ammunition. Because of ammunition expenditure, destruction missions are rarely fired and must be well justified. b. Neutralization. Neutralization fires disrupt the combat effectiveness of an enemy unit. Neutralization of a unit will normally be effected by causing 10 percent or more casualties. Neutralization fires use low ammunition expenditure when the target is attacked with the proper shell/fuze combination. Neutralization fires are the most common type of fire mission. c. Suppression. Suppression of a target causes the enemy to temporarily stop functioning. Suppression of a target can be effective by causing the enemy to take cover or by blocking his vision temporarily. Suppression requires a low expenditure of ammunition; however, its inability to place lasting effects on a target makes it unsuitable for most targets. 1302. Types of Ammunition There are many types of artillery ammunition available to you, as the forward observer. In the past, artillery was fairly limited to high explosive, smoke, and illumination. Recently there have been many technological advances in artillery ammunition giving a greater variety to the uses of artillery fires and a greater lethality to the traditional mission. For the sake of simplicity, we will discuss only five types of artillery shells in this course. These five types, which you will most likely use on the battlefield, are high explosive, improved conventional munitions, white phosphorous, smoke, and illumination.
a. Shell, High Explosive (HE). Although HE is a single shell, its versatility with different fuze combinations causes fire support planners to consider each of its fuze combinations as a different shell. There are four types of fuzes available for use on the HE shell that cause different effects with the round. The four types of fuzes are quick, delay, time, and proximity. (1)
Fuze, Quick (Q). Quick is a form of point detonating (PD) fuze, and it causes the round to explode upon impact. It is more effective against
It is less effective against
v Personnel standing v Unarmored vehicles v Light material
v v v v
Personnel dug in Armored vehicles Hardened material Swamp or soft sand surfaces
Fuze, Delay (D). Delay is also a form of PD fuze. It is designed to delay the explosion of the round for 0.05 seconds after impact. This minor delay causes the round to penetrate soft surfaces slightly or to ricochet off hard surfaces. It is more effective against
It is less effective against
v Light earthworks v Buildings v Dense wooded areas
v Soft sand or marshy ground v Personnel dug in
Fuze, Time (Ti). Time fuzes can be set to explode at a given time anywhere along the trajectory of the round. They are most commonly used to create an air burst 20 meters above the target. An air burst will have greater shrapnel dispersion and effectiveness than a graze (ground) burst. A time fuze cannot be used in high angle fires (mortar type trajectory) because the speed of the falling round makes timing the burst difficult. It is more effective against
It is less effective against
v Personnel in the open v Personnel dug in v Personnel in unarmored vehicles
v Personnel with overhead cover v Personnel in dense woods v Armored vehicles
(4) Fuze, Proximity (VT). The proximity fuze is a radio-activated fuze that causes the round to explode at a specified height off of the ground (20 meters for the older models, and 7 meters for the newer models). VT will deliver a correct air burst every time, even in high angle fires. Its effectiveness is the same as that of the time fuze. Note:
The 7-meter height of burst on the newer model VT fuze can cause inexperienced observers to spot the rounds as a graze burst instead of an air burst. You should be aware of this so that you do not inaccurately report a fuze malfunction. Careful comparison of the appearance of quick fuze graze bursts will help the observer realize when the VT is not a graze burst.
b. Shell, Improved Conventional Munitions (ICM). ICM is a base-ejection projectile filled with grenades. A base-ejection projectile is a hollow shell with its base attached by a thin weld and shear pins. Fuze function forces the contents of the shell onto the base, pushing it off, and dumping the contents of the shell out of the bottom. All base-ejection projectiles use a mechanical time fuze to cause an air burst for proper functioning. The base-ejection causes a large dispersal effect for the grenades. There are two types of ICM, anti-personnel (APICM or just ICM) and dual-purpose (DPICM). They are both extremely effective against personnel, but the DPICM shell is also effective against light armored vehicles. (1)
APICM. The original ICM grenade is a "bouncing Betty." The grenade is contained in a canister that has spring action stabilizer wings to cause it to land right side up. The canister strikes the earth and the grenades pop up and explode. These grenades are extremely effective against personnel in the open, but are ineffective on material or against personnel in snow, water, or heavily wooded areas. At present, APICM is being phased out of service, so if an observer calls for ICM, he will more than likely receive DPICM.
DPICM. DPICM grenades are cylinder shaped grenades that explode and cause the dual action of a shaped explosion downward and fragmentation upward and sideways. The shaped explosion will penetrate light armor (2" of homogeneous steel), and the fragmentation is effective against personnel. The DPICM grenade is guided base down by a rubber band attached to the top that acts as a stabilizer.
ICM should not be used against target areas which Marines will have to enter, especially in heavily wooded areas. The grenade stabilizers can become entangled in twigs and branches where the grenades will not function until someone knocks them out of the tree and they strike the deck.
c. Shell, White Phosphorus (WP). White phosphorus is an extremely useful, versatile shell. It causes incendiary effects against volatile targets such as vehicles and fuel or ammunition dumps. It is useful for screening because of its thick cloud of white smoke. It is used to mark target locations for observers, direct fire, and close air support because its burst location remains obvious for a minute or more. There are two types of WP shells available to the artillery
inventory, shell, WP (the conventional model) and shell, WP smoke (a newer version). Both shells have similar effectiveness. (1)
Conventional WP. The original WP shell is simply a hollow artillery round with an explosive burster tube in the center filled with white phosphorus. Fuze function (PD, Time, or VT) causes the burster tube to expand, splits the shell, and exposes the WP to the air. Because this happens so rapidly, the burst appears to be explosive and chunks of WP are sprayed out of the shell. The majority of the WP remains in or near the shell and this is what causes the conventional WP round to form its distinctive pillar of white smoke.
Improved Smoke. The improved smoke round (also called WP smoke) is a time-fuzed, base-ejection projectile filled with felt wedges which are soaked in WP. Fuze function in the air causes the round to trail the WP felt wedges behind it spreading them out over a greater area than the old WP round's chunks. This causes the WP smoke round to have a better screening effect with less tendency of the smoke to form a pillar.
d. Shell, Smoke (HC). The HC (hexachloroethane) round is a base-ejection projectile filled with a smoke canister. HC smoke is a more effective screening agent than WP because it has a longer burn time and less tendency to pillar. Smoke is effective for screening all targets, whether the user wishes to obscure the target or himself from the target. e. Shell, Illumination (Illum). Illumination shells are used for illuminating areas of suspected enemy activity, providing illumination for night adjustment, harrassing enemy positions, marking targets for attack by close air support, and "washing out" enemy passive night-sight systems. The illumination lights up the battlefield using approximately 1,000,000 candlepower.
Exercise: Complete items 1 through 10 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit. Matching: For items 1 through 3, match the desired effect of artillery fires in column 1 with the definition which best describes it in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided. Column 1
___ 1. ___ 2. ___ 3.
Destruction Neutralization Suppression
a. b. c. d.
What are the five types of artillery shells? a. b. c. d.
Target temporarily ceases activity, requires high ammunition expense At least 10 percent personnel casualties, requires low ammunition expense At least 30 percent personnel casualties, requires minimum ammunition expense At least 30 percent personnel casualties, requires high ammunition expense
HC, Bee Hives, ICM, HE, and Illum HE, HC, WP, Smoke, and Illum WP, HE, Smoke, Illum, and ICM ICM, Smoke, Illum, HE, and Bee Hive
What are the four types of HE fuzes? a. b. c. d.
PD, Quick, Ti, and VT PD, Quick, Ti, and Delay Ti, Delay, VT, and PD Delay, VT, Ti, and Quick
Matching: For items 6 through 10, match the type of artillery shell in column 1 with the description which best identifies its proper usage in column 2 (put X on the spaces for the shells that you cannot match). Column 1
___ ___ ___ ___
WP Smoke ICM ILLUM
b. c. d. e.
7. 8. 9. 10.
Is more effective against personnel than other types Can be used to start fires or for screening Is versatile when used with different fuzes Is used to observe the battlefield Used for screening and obscuration
UNIT SUMMARY In this study unit, you learned some fundamentals of indirect fire support. Your understanding of how the gunnery team and the fire support coordinator will bring you effective support is essential for maximizing your combat power and effectiveness. When you call for artillery support, you must understand what you are trying to accomplish and what tools are available for you to use. Now you know the effects artillery can produce and the ammunition used to cause these effects. In Study Unit 2, you will learn how to locate targets on the ground in terms of calling for fire. Lesson 1 Exercise Solutions Reference 1. 2. 3. 4.
d. b. c. d.
1101 1102b 1102c 1102a
Lesson 2 Exercise Solutions Reference 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
a. d. c. b. c. d. b. c.
1201a 1201b 1201c 1202 1204 1203 1203a(1) 1205
Lesson 3 Exercise Solutions Reference 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
d. b. a. c. d. c. b. e. a. d.
1301a 1301b 1301c 1302 1302a 1302a 1302c 1302d 1302d 1302e
STUDY UNIT 2 TARGET LOCATION
Introduction. Before you can call-for-fire successfully, you must first locate the targets in relation to the firing unit. Indirect fire support means that the firing unit cannot directly see the target. They are dependent upon you to get them on target. The key to successful fire support is the accurate target location. The accurate target location is the result of a thorough map analysis, a good terrain association, and an accurate direction and distance. Determining direction and distance is an essential part of map/terrain association, target location, and adjustment of fire. In the first lesson of this study unit, you will learn methods for performing a thorough map/terrain association of the target area. The second and third lessons of this study unit will teach you to determine directions and distances. The fourth lesson will connect these tools to the three methods used to identify target location to the firing unit: polar plot, grid coordinates, and shift from a known point. Lesson 1. MAP/TERRAIN ASSOCIATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Identify the three operations the observer must perform to be oriented.
Identify the purpose of a terrain sketch.
2101. Orientation To locate targets for the supporting arm, you must first orient yourself to the target area. You will accomplish three things. First, you must establish your location. Second, you must locate your target or point you can use for a reference. Third, you must determine the direction from you to the target or reference point. a. Establish location. You must locate yourself in relation to the map as accurately as you can. With enough practice at land navigation and map reading, your self-location by map inspection/terrain association will be accurate enough for you to conduct fire missions. If possible, you should attempt to locate your position more accurately by performing a map resection or other accurate means such as Global Positioning System (GPS), or Position Location and Reporting System (PLRS).
b. Locate target. You must be able to locate the target relative to your position both on the ground and on your map. If you don't have a target, you use a terrain or manmade feature that you can also locate on your map. The methods used to locate targets will be discussed in the following lessons. c. Determine direction. You must establish the direction to your target whether or not you have a map. This can be accomplished by several different means: compass, cardinal directions, or by terrain association. If you are using a map you can also scale direction on your map with a protractor. Locate your position on the map and from your location scale the direction to prominent terrain features with a protractor. (1)
Compass. Using a compass, you can orient yourself by orienting your map. Do this in the following manner: with the map in front of you, place the straightedge of the compass along one of the north/south grid lines. Turn the map and compass together until the needle is on north. Move the map and compass together to cause the needle to match the declination diagram (located in the legend of the map at the bottom) in number of mils left or right of grid north. Now your map is oriented to grid north.
Cardinal direction. If you have neither map nor compass, associate the limits of your target area to the cardinal directions (north, south, east, west). The cardinal directions are North: East: South: West:
0 or 6400 1600 3200 4800
Northeast: Southeast: Southwest: Northwest:
0800 2400 4000 5600
Direction would be measured in mils, and a grid direction should be given in four-digits when calling-for-fire. Grid azimuths are measured in a clockwise direction and there are 6400 mils in a circle. Terrain association. If you don't have a compass to orient your map with, use prominent terrain features. Put your map in front of you and associate what you see with the contour lines and symbols on your map. You can make a thorough study of the terrain by constructing a terrain sketch.
2102. Constructing a Terrain Sketch A terrain sketch (fig 2-1) is a rough panoramic drawing of the area of observation prepared by the observer. Once constructed, it serves as a rapid means of identifying directions to reference points. A terrain sketch also provides a rapid means of orienting relief personnel. Items that should be included in a terrain sketch are v The skyline (horizon) v Prominent features both natural and manmade (hill masses, ridgelines, bodies of water, trees, roads, buildings, antennas, towers, battlefield debris, etc.) v Labels (reference points, known points, targets)
Figure 2-1. Terrain sketch. Reference points should be chosen across the area at intervals not over 200 mils apart to aid in rapidly identifying directions. Each labeled item should include as much information as possible without cluttering the sketch. Identify the information by numbers, reference point names, and known point designations and place at the top of the "T" (fig 2-1). Labels for direction, distance, altitude, and grid should be placed on the right side of the "T." Reference points usually only require direction, but known points and targets should have direction, distance, and grid. Terrain sketches are never complete, you must continually refine and update them.
Complete items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit. To orient yourself to the target area, you must first ____________, then ___________, and finally ____________. a. b. c. d.
A terrain sketch is which of the following? a. b. c. d.
establish direction, establish your location, locate your targets establish direction, locate your targets, establish your position establish your position, establish direction, locate your targets establish your location, locate your target, determine direction
Precise record of targets you have located Technically correct representation of the target area from your viewpoint Reference tool for determining directions within the target area Sketch of targets and known points you can see
To establish direction you can use which of the following? a. b. c. d.
Compass, cardinal directions, terrain sketch, terrain analysis, binoculars Compass, terrain sketch, map and protractor, terrain association, observed fire fan Terrain analysis, scale, terrain sketch, cardinal directions Compass, cardinal directions, terrain association, map and protractor
Lesson 2. DETERMINING DIRECTION (AZIMUTH) TO THE TARGET LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Identify the types of direction used to locate targets.
Identify five methods of determining direction to objects in the target area.
Identify the methods for determining angular deviation.
Determine angular deviation using a binocular reticle pattern.
Determine angular deviation using a hand measurement.
2201. Types of Direction There are several types of direction that can be used to locate targets; namely, observer target line, gun target line, cardinal/intercardinal direction, and arbitrary reference feature. a. Observer target line (OT line). The observer target line is an imaginary line from the observer to and through the target. The OT line is the direction most commonly used in target location and adjustment. b. Gun target line. The gun target line is an imaginary line from the guns to and through the target. It is most commonly used by aerial observers to adjust fire, but can be used by an observer on the ground. c. Cardinal/intercardinal direction. This is the use of the eight cardinal/intercardinal directions (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW). It is the least accurate, but at times you may need to use it. d. Arbitrary reference feature. You may use a natural or manmade feature (such as a north-south road or river) from which to reference target location and/or adjustment of fire. This may be used in situations where transmission of the OT direction may compromise your location. 2202. Methods of Determining Direction Determining direction is an essential skill for calling for and adjusting fire. Direction is a term used to indicate the bearing of the spotting line. It is an integral part of terrain-map association, adjustment of fire, and target location. There are five methods by which you can determine direction; namely, measuring from a reference point, using a compass, scaling from a map, estimating, or using other measuring devices. a. Measuring from a reference point. Using a reference point with a known direction, you can measure angular deviation in mils to a target, or other point, and compute a direction to that point by applying the deviation to the known distances. 2-5
b. Using a compass. Using a compass you can measure a direction to an accuracy of 10 mils. If you are using a lensatic compass, you read the direction in mils using the outer scale. You must then convert the magnetic reading to a grid azimuth. Follow the instructions in the declination diagram of your map. Remember, for converting azimuths only, the rule is left add/ right subtract. If magnetic north is to the left of grid north, you will add the value of the G-M angle to your reading to convert magnetic azimuths to grid azimuths. If magnetic north is to the right of grid north you subtract the value of the G-M angle from your reading. If you are using an M-2 compass, you do not have to convert. You will declinate your compass before using it and the readings will be grid azimuths. c. Scaling from a map. Using a protractor, you can scale direction from a map to an accuracy of 10 mils. d. Estimating. This is the least accurate method but can be used if you have no other means. You should be able to visualize a cardinal direction by remembering the sun and moon rise in the east and set in the west. If you know you are facing east, then north is to your left, south is to the right, and west is to the rear. e. Using other measuring devices. New equipment is constantly being developed to help provide fast and accurate means to determine direction. Laser equipment, such as the AN/PAQ-3 Modular Universal Laser Equipment (MULE), is extremely fast and is accurate within a 2 mil accuracy. The MULE is issued to artillery forward observers and naval gunfire spotters. 2203. Angular Deviation You must be able to determine angular deviation (measurement) to determine direction and also for determining horizontal distance for target location and corrections in adjustment. You can determine deviation by using binoculars, a battery commanders (BC) scope, an aiming circle or by hand measurement. To determine direction to a point or target, you measure the deviation (horizontal distance) from a point of known direction to the point you are measuring. Regardless of the means used to measure, you must remember azimuths increase to the right and decrease to the left. You can remember this by using the right add/left subtract (RALS) rule. If the target is to the right of the reference point, you add the deviation to the known direction. If the target is to the left, you subtract the difference from the known direction.
2204. Determine Angular Deviation Using Binoculars a. The best way to quickly measure an angle is to use the scale on a binocular recticle pattern. Figure 2-2 shows the reticle patterns that you will see in Marine Corps issue binoculars. The left illustration is the binocular reticle pattern for the M19 binoculars. The right illustration is the reticle pattern for the M17 binoculars. The difference between the two is in the vertical scale.
Figure 2-2. Binocular reticle patterns. The horizontal scale is graduated in 10-mil increments, numbered one through five, to the left and right from the center (vertex) of the scale. When using these increments, you will identify them to yourself as being either left or right of your known point. (1)
To measure the deviation between the point of known direction and your target, your first step is to align the vertex (center) of the scale with the known point (fig 2-3). The second step is to determine which number graduation is in line with the center of the target.
You would read this measurement as 30 left.
Figure 2-3. Measuring deviation. (2)
When the known point and the target are farther than 50 mils apart, you can't align the vertex with the known point. You must measure by aligning one end of the scale with your known point and reading the total number of mils to the target (fig 2-4).
You would read this measurement as 80 right.
Figure 2-4. Target and known point more than 50 mils apart. (3)
When the known point and the target are more than 100 mils apart, you won't be able to fit both in the reticle pattern. When this happens you must "leapfrog" to measure the deviation. To do this vMove the horizontal scale left or right until the known point is located at one end of the scale. vFind an object or feature near the target end of the scale. This will then become a reference point.
vMeasure the deviation from the known point to this reference point then move your binoculars until the reference point is at the end of the scale where the known point was. Measure the remaining number of mils to the target. v Now apply the total deviation to the known point direction to get the target direction (figs 2-5 and 2-6).
Read this as 85 right
Read this as 45 right
Figure 2-5. Leapfrogging.
Add the total of the two then you subtract that from the known distance
Figure 2-6. Leapfrogging.
The reading of the measurement in figure 2-5 was 85 right and the reading in figure 2-6 was 45 right giving you a total measurement of 130 right. Using the RALS rule (right add/left subtract) add 130 to the known point direction, and you get the direction to the target. (4)
If the target and your known point are farther apart than one reference point will cover, you must continue to use the leapfrog method until you can reach the target.
b. When operating in a static situation, you can determine angular deviation or measurement by using a BC scope or an aiming circle. These instruments are extremely useful when accurate measurements are paramount, such as for precision adjustments, for measuring vertical angles, or for night observation. Both the BC scope and aiming circle are usually only available from artillery units. 2205. Determine Angular Deviation Using a Hand Measurement In situations where speed is essential, or when you have no other means, you can use your hand or fingers to measure deviation. To use this method accurately, you must remember to fully extend your arm (elbow locked) each time. With your arm fully extended, palm pointed away from you, place your hand or fingers between your point of known direction and the target reference point. By using the values shown in figure 2-7, you can determine angular deviation.
Figure 2-7. Angular deviation measurements. To increase accuracy, you should calibrate your hand. The values may vary slightly depending on size of the hand. To calibrate your hand, you simply measure the deviation between objects with your hand and check the measurement against known deviation or measure the deviation with an instrument.
Complete items 1 through 5 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of the study unit. What are two methods of determining directions in the target area? a. b. c. d.
Leapfrogging and hand measurement Hand measurement and binocular reticle pattern Measuring from a reference point and using a compass Directional instrument and binocular reticle pattern
You measured an azimuth of 1430 to a target using your lensatic compass. The declination diagram shows a G-M angle of (magnetic right) 140 mils. What is the target direction? a. b.
What are the two methods for measuring angles between objects? a. b. c. d.
In the figure below, what is the angle between the vertex and the target?
a. b. 5.
Leapfrogging and hand measurement Hand measurement and binocular reticle pattern Directional instrument and hand measurement Leapfrogging and binocular reticle pattern
4.5 mils 40 mils
45 mils 50 mils
You have calibrated your hand as follows: v v v
Fingers 40 mils each Closed fist 200 mils Spread hand 400 mils
Determine the measured angle between the points in the figure below.
40 mils 80 mils
c. d. 2-11
120 mils 200 mils
Lesson 3. DETERMINING DISTANCE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Determine the distance to a target by using the "flash-to-bang" method given a situation.
Identify the procedures used to determine distance to a target using an observed fire (OF) fan and terrain association.
Determine lateral distance to a second point given a point of known distance and an observation.
2301. Distance Once you have determined the direction, you must determine the distance to the target. Distance is the horizontal space between a reference point and a target or between you and the target. Determining a distance is normally the most difficult variable in target location. It is also used in the adjustment of fire. The standard unit of measure for a distance is the meter. Distance can be determined by one, or a combination, of these methods: lasers, flash-to-bang, or estimation. a. Lasers. Lasers are the preferred method for determining observer to target (OT) distance. When a laser is used, distance can be determined to an accuracy of 10 meters. The MULE and the AN/GVS-5 laser rangefinder provide an observer with the fastest and most accurate means of determining distance. b. Flash-to-Bang. Because we know that sound travels at a speed of 350 meters per second, we can use sound to estimate distance. To use this method, you must count the number of seconds between the detonation of the round (FLASH) and the sound (BANG) of the impact. Multiply the number of seconds by 350. The answer is the distance in meters from the observer to the target or round. Use the equation FLASH-TO-BANG (in seconds) X 350 = DISTANCE This method has several uses to the observer. It not only determines a distance, it can be used to confirm a distance. It can also be used to determine the distance to the muzzle flash of enemy weapons. c. Estimation. You must estimate the distance if there isn't a more accurate means available. The degree of accuracy is dependent on several factors, such as terrain, time available, and your experience. Remaining stationary is a key element, if this method is to be effective.
A mental estimate is made by use of a known unit of measure. Distance is estimated to the nearest 100 meters by determining the number of known units of measure, such as a football field (100 yards), between you and the target.
You must consider the following effects when estimating a distance: vObjects appear nearer v In bright light v When you are looking down v When you are down a road v When you are looking across water, snow, or a uniform surface such as a desert v When the background is in contrast to the color of the object vObjects appear more distant v In poor light or fog v When only a small part of the object is seen v When looking over a depression, most of which is visible v When the background is similar in color to the object
When visibility is good, distance can be estimated by using the appearance of tree trunks, their branches, and foliage (using the naked eye) in comparison to map data.
You must always do a terrain/map analysis to assist in estimating distances. When you are looking in a specific direction, the estimation of distance can be enhanced by studying the terrain to associate what you are seeing on the ground with what you see on your map. The use of an observed fire (OF) fan helps you associate map and compass direction.
Altitude is the vertical distance measured from sea level. The standard unit of measure for altitude is the meter. Altitude is determined from a map study using the contour lines and contour interval.
2302. Observed Fire (OF) Fan The OF fan is a transparent protractor that can be used to show the direction and distance on the map. It helps the observer identify on the map what he sees on the ground. The OF fan has 17 radial lines that are 100 mils apart and cover a total area of 1600 mils. The radial lines represent OT direction. The OT distance is represented by arcs marked on the fan every 500 meters and labeled every 1000 meters beginning at 1000 and extending to 6500. The OF fan is available through the supply system as GTA 6-7-3. You can make your own OF fan by scaling direction with a coordinate scale and scaling distances from your map.
a. Orienting the OF fan. To use your OF fan effectively you must first orient your map, locate your position, and mark your location on the map. Then locate a reference point in the direction of your area of operation. Now you are ready to orient your OF fan by performing the following steps: (1)
Place the vertex of the OF fan over your location.
Place the center radial line in the direction of your reference point.
Move the fan slightly until one of the radial lines is parallel to a grid line (regardless of what direction to the reference point may be), one of the radial lines will always point to a cardinal direction.
Attach the OF fan in position on the map by using a piece of tape along one edge of the fan. The fan can then be lifted, if required, to inspect the map without disturbing its orientation.
With a marker pen or grease pencil, number the even directions (every second radial line) dropping the last two zeros.
b. Determine target location. To determine the target location, you must first determine direction using one of the methods previously discussed. Sight along that direction on your OF fan and map until you associate the terrain around the target with the proper contours on the map. Observe the ticks on your OF fan, or measure with a protractor, and read the distance +/- 100 meters. In figure 2-8, you would determine the distance to the target located at grid 531269 as 3200 meters.
Figure 2-8. Target location using the OF fan. 2303. Determining Lateral Distance Lateral distance is the distance left or right, from one object to another, perpendicular to your line of sight. Determining lateral distance is important for you in order to adjust fire and for locating targets using the shift from a known point method of target location, which will be discussed in the next lesson. The accuracy of your lateral distance estimation will depend upon how well you determine the distance from you to the target. Once you have established the distance from you to the target, you will use the mil relation formula (W=R x m) to convert the measured angle in mils to a lateral shift in meters. This formula is based on the rule that 1 mil of arc, at a distance of 1000 meters, will equal 1 meter of lateral distance. It's similar to how windage and elevation changes on your rifle create different points of impact at different ranges. The mil relation formula: W = R x m W = Width or lateral shift (distance) in meters R = Range or distance measured in meters (divided by 1000) m = Angle measured in mils
Follow the sample problem to use the mil relation formula to determine a lateral distance. Looking at figure 2-9, follow the step-by-step instructions:
Figure 2-9. Lateral distance determination. Known:
Distance to known point-2500 meters angle in mils-60 mils
Find the value of R. Divide the distance to the known point by 1000, 2500/1000 = 2.5. The value of R = 2.5.
The measured angle is 60 mils. The value of m = 60.
To find W, multiply the value of R by the value of m, 2.5 x 60 = 150. The value of W = 150 meters.
Complete items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your reponses against those listed at the end of this study unit. Which of the methods for determining distance is the most accurate? a. b.
Flash-to-bang OF fan
140 meters 1240 meters
1400 meters 12400 meters
When determining distance to a target using terrain association and the OF fan you read distance to the target to +/- ________ meters. a. b.
You have observed an enemy crew served weapon firing. You saw the muzzle flash and counted 4 seconds until you heard the report of the weapon. What is the distance to the enemy? a. b.
You have observed a target to the right of a known point. The distance to the known point is 1500 meters. You measured the angle between the known point and the target to be 50 mils. What is the lateral distance from the known point to the target? a. b.
50 meters 75 meters
500 meters 750 meters
Lesson 4. METHODS OF TARGET LOCATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Locate a target by polar plot given a terrain sketch and a reference point.
Locate a target within 100 meters expressed as a six-digit grid, given a map and a coordinate scale.
Determine the range and lateral shift to a target given a known point and orienting data.
2401. Polar Plot The polar plot method of target location consists of three elements: direction, distance, and vertical shift. You determine these elements and report them to the FDC. The primary advantage of the polar plot method is that it is fast and can be done without a map. If a laser rangefinder is used, the polar plot method is very accurate. A disadvantage is that your position must be known to the firing unit. This may require you to send a coded message to your location (including altitude) before sending the call-for-fire. To perform a polar plot, follow these steps: Step 1:
Determine direction to the target to the nearest 10 mils.
Determine/estimate the distance to the target to the nearest 100 meters.
Determine the difference in altitude between your position and the target to the nearest 5 meters. You need not report a vertical shift of less than 30 meters.
2402. Grid Coordinate Target location by grid coordinate is a natural extension of the polar plot method. The FDC doesn't need to know the observer's location to use the grid method. Normally you locate targets to the nearest 100 meters (six-digit grid). You do the plot on your map and refine with terrain association, then read the grid where the target plots on your map. When additional accuracy is required (for registrations or locating known points) you should locate targets to the nearest 10 meters (eight-digit grid). a. Map inspection. With sufficient terrain features and/or reference points to associate, you can determine six-digit grids by map inspection. To determine grids by map inspection, you simply observe the target in relation to the terrain, find that spot on the map, and scale a grid.
b. Supplementary data. With the use of your OF fan, you can determine six-digit grids easily and, with good observations, you can determine eight-digit grids accurately. Follow these steps to determine a grid using your OF fan. (1)
Determine the direction to the target using one of the methods covered in Lesson 2.
Determine distance to it with one of the methods taught in Lesson 3.
Find the direction on or between the rays of the fan.
Follow along the direction until you are at the determined distance by using the tick marks on the rays.
Plot the point and then scale the grid from the map.
2403. Shift from a Known Point The shift from a known point method of target location is when you locate a target in relation to a known point (fig 2-10). This method offers several advantages. It is accurate, you don't have to use a map, and your location need not be known to the FDC. However the FDC must know the location of the known point. The known point may be a terrain reference point previously recorded or a target that was previously fired and recorded. To perform a shift from a known point, follow these steps: a.
Identify the known point to be used to the FDC by target or known point number.
Determine the OT direction to the nearest 10 mils and report as "direction _______."
c. Determine the lateral distance between the known point and the target to the nearest 10 meters, using the mil relation formula you learned in Lesson 3, report this to the FDC as "right ____(or left ____)." If the deviation is greater than 600 mils, the mil relation formula becomes inaccurate, you should use the grid method of target location. d. Determine the range shift from the known point to the target to the nearest 100 meters. If the target is further from you than the known point, you report "add ____." If the target is closer to you than the known point, you report "drop ____." e. Determine the vertical difference between the known point and the target to the nearest 5 meters, if the difference is greater than 30 meters, you report this as "up ____ " (or "down____").
Figure 2-10. Shift from a known point. Figure 2-10 gives an example of a shift from a known point method of target location. The following computations are for figure 2-10. Mil relation formula: W = R x m R = (known distance/1000) m = (angular deviation 80m) W = 2.1 x 80 = 168.0 168.0 rounded to nearest 10 M = 170 M W = Right 170 Distance = Estimated distance - Known distance 2900 - 2100 = Add 800 Altitude = 450 - 400 (greater than 30 meters) UP 50
Complete items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit.
Situation: Select the correct answers using the information given and illustrations 1 and 2. The first illustration is your observation of your target and a stalled tank. The peak on which your reticle pattern is centered is known point 1. The distance from you to the tank is 3800 meters. The second illustration is your oriented map and OF fan with known point 1 (KP0001) plotted at grid 714461. You have the following data for known point 1: direction 4790, distance 5900, altitude 2450. The contour interval of the map is 20 meters.
Illustration 2. 1.
What is the grid to the target? a. b.
What is the correct polar plot of the target? a. b. c. d.
DIRECTION 4745, DISTANCE 3550, DOWN 80 DIRECTION 4835, DISTANCE 3850, UP 80 DIRECTION 4840, DISTANCE 3800, DOWN 60 DIRECTION 5090, DISTANCE 3000, UP 60
What is the correct shift from known point 1 to the target? a. b. c. d.
DIRECTION 4835, RIGHT 270, ADD 940, DOWN 160 DIRECTION 4835, LEFT 260, DROP 2000, UP 60 DIRECTION 4840, RIGHT 260, DROP 2100, DOWN 60 DIRECTION 5090, LEFT 270, ADD 1000, UP 160
UNIT SUMMARY In this study unit, you learned the methods and techniques for locating targets within the target area. You learned the basics of map/terrain association and the determination of direction and distance from yourself to objects or from objects to objects. As an observer, you will be required to perform these actions repeatedly. In Study Unit 3, you will learn to call for, adjust rounds onto, and engage targets in fire for effect. In adjusting rounds and reporting their effects, you will again be required to associate your observations to the map and to determine direction and distances. Lesson 1 Exercise Solutions 1. 2. 3.
d. c. d.
2101 2102 2101c
Lesson 2 Exercise Solutions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
c. b. b. c. d.
2202 2202b 2203 2204a 2205
Lesson 3 Exercise Solutions 1. 2. 3. 4.
b. c. d. b.
2301a 2301b 2302 2303
Lesson 4 Exercise Solutions 1. 2. 3.
b. c. c.
2402 2401 2403
STUDY UNIT 3 CONDUCTING FIRE MISSIONS Introduction. In the previous study unit, you learned to locate targets by determining distances and measuring angles. In this study unit, you will learn how to conduct your fire missions, artillery communications, spotting and corrections, and adjustments on fire for effect. Lesson 1. FIRE MISSIONS LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Identify one of the three desired effects of a fire mission given a scenario.
Select one of the four types of fire missions given a scenario.
Select a type of adjust fire mission used to locate the target.
Determine if a fire for effect mission is used given a scenario.
Determine if a suppression mission is conducted properly given a situation.
Determine if an immediate suppression mission is conducted properly given a situation.
3101. Three Types of Effects of Fire Missions When you engage a target with artillery, you will be firing to achieve one of three effects upon the enemy. You will be firing to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy. a. Destruction. To destroy a target you are either going to actually destroy a material target by fire or cause 30 percent or more casualties against a personnel target (which will render a unit ineffective for combat). To destroy a material target you will conduct a precision fire mission, which is an extended adjust fire mission requiring target "hits." Destruction of a material target requires that an artillery piece or battery expose itself to detection and counterfires. Destruction of a personnel target requires large ammunition expenditures and must be well justified. b. Neutralization. The majority of missions fired will be neutralization missions. Ten percent casualties will neutralize a combat unit, severely degrading its combat efficiency. Neutralization fires do not require large ammunition expenditures when the target is attacked with the proper type and amount of ammunition.
c. Suppression. Suppression missions will temporarily stop an enemy unit from being effective. Suppressive fires will either cause an enemy to seek cover or, by using smoke, temporarily obscure his vision of the battle area. Both the suppression and immediate suppression missions yield suppressive results only during the time the fire is being delivered. 3102. Types of Fire Missions There are four types of fire missions: adjust fire, fire for effect, suppression, and immediate suppression. You will achieve destruction, neutralization, or suppression of the enemy by performing one of the four types of fire missions. Each type of fire mission is designed to bring fires to targets for different effects, except the adjust fire mission, which is a method of target location prior to conducting either fire for effect or suppression. 3103. Adjust Fire (AF) Mission Adjust fire missions are requested when you decide an adjustment will be needed. An adjustment may be needed because of questionable target location or lack of registration corrections. There are two types of adjustment missions: area fire and precision fires. For precision fires, adjustment will be necessary no matter how accurate your target location is. a. Area fire. Artillery, mortars, and naval guns are all area fire weapons; therefore, most of your targets will be area targets. Area fire is used on area targets. Since many area targets can move, the adjustment should be made as rapidly and accurately as possible to keep the target from escaping. A well-defined point should be selected at or near the center of the area to be attacked and used as an adjusting point. To achieve surprise, fire could be adjusted on an auxiliary adjusting point and when completed, the fire for effect could be shifted to the target. Normally, adjustment is conducted with one adjusting weapon. b. Precision fire. Precision fire adjustments are conducted with one weapon on a target. It is used either to obtain registration corrections or to destroy a target. When the mission is a registration, it is initiated by the FDC with a message to observer. If the target is to be destroyed, you must announce, "Destruction," in the call-for-fire. 3104. Fire for Effect (FFE) Firing for effect, without previously adjusting to the target, is the most effective way of engaging the enemy with indirect fire. Adjusting rounds will alert the enemy and cause him to change his posture, thereby nullifying more than half of your effectiveness. The fire for effect mission is used when you have accurate target location and are certain the first volley will impact on target with little or no adjustment. With first round FFE you will achieve the maximum potential damage to the target. The accuracy required to fire for effect depends on the target and the type of ammunition being used. You should always strive for first round fire for effect.
3105. Suppression (S) Mission Suppression missions are conducted to temporarily stop the enemy from functioning. You may suppress an enemy observation post (OP) to stop it from directing fire on friendly units. You may suppress an enemy gun position to stop its support of the enemy defense. Suppressions are normally conducted against planned targets to support a scheme of maneuver, such as suppressing the objective until the assault elements reach the fire coordination line. Suppression may be conducted with HE or smoke. For a suppression mission that is planned in the operation order, no coordination is necessary. You will only need to request the suppression, and the firing unit will conduct the mission according to the plan. When you call for an unplanned suppression mission, you must tell the FDC the length of time that you require for the suppression. You should tell the FDC the size of the target to suppress and the nature of the requirement. If the FDC receives no more information than the time length of the suppression, they are supposed to fire the battery/platoon at the maximum sustained rate for the length of the suppression. This may require them to use too much ammunition, and they may deny you the fire mission. If they understand your requirement better, they can time a slower rate of fire or use fewer tubes to accomplish the mission with less drain on their ammunition supply. 3106. Immediate Suppression (IS) Mission Immediate suppression is a means to get the enemy off your back so you can maneuver, assault the ambush, or have time to formulate a neutralization or destruction mission. Immediate suppression is called for only when you or your unit is suddenly halted or endangered by enemy activity such as an OP directing fire, a gun position firing upon you, or a similar situation. The shell/fuze combination and number of pieces/rounds to fire in suppression will be dictated by unit SOP or the operation order for the mission. Immediate suppression is an expedient measure to give you time to react to a situation. It should end as soon as possible or convert into a FFE neutralization mission.
Complete items 1 through 7 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit. You are attacking an enemy unit with artillery. You wish to severely degrade their combat effectiveness without a large expenditure of ammunition. Which effect do you desire from the fire mission? a. b.
c. d. 3-3
Destruction Immediate suppression
You are attacking an enemy stronghold with artillery. You wish to make the enemy permanently combat ineffective. Which effect do you desire from the fire mission? a. b.
Neutralization Immediate suppression
Suppression Adjust fire
Fire for effect Immediate suppression
Adjust fire Precision fire
Area fire Creeping fire
In which of the four listed situations would you call for a suppression mission? a. b. c. d.
Which adjust fire mission is conducted to locate the target? a. b.
Destruction Immediate suppression
You are directing fires against an enemy unit in order to neutralize it. You have located the target accurately by polar plot using your AN/GVS-5. Which type of fire mission will you conduct? a. b.
You observe an enemy gun position to the flank of your unit's advance. You wish to temporarily render it incapable of supporting the enemy defense. Which effect do you desire from the fire mission? a. b.
An enemy OP directing fires against your defensive positions A machinegun position providing supporting fires An enemy OP which might direct fires against attacking Marines A reconnaissance patrol scouting your flanks
In which of the four listed situations would you call for an immediate suppression mission? a. b. c. d.
An enemy OP directing fires against your defensive positions A machinegun position providing supporting fires against your position during a counterattack An enemy OP which might direct fires against attacking Marines A reconnaissance patrol scouting your flanks
Lesson 2. ARTILLERY COMMUNICATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Identify the four methods of communication available to the observer.
Identify the six elements of the call-for-fire in their correct order.
Identify the four elements of the message to the observer.
Report upon firing.
3201. Means of Communication You must maintain constant effective communication with the firing unit to receive and control supporting fires. There are four methods of communications that you may use: radio, wire, digital communications terminal (DCT), and messenger. a. Radio. Your primary methods of communication will be by radio. You will normally request and adjust artillery fires and pass target information over the artillery conduct of fire net. There are certain procedures that must be remembered when you are using the radio. (1)
Call signs. You will use your call sign and the FDC's call sign in your initial fire request. Once you are into your mission, you will no longer need to use call signs each time you send information. You just key the handset and give the necessary information. If the firing unit is conducting missions for more than one observer, you will need to identify yourself for each transmission. If you are conducting more than one mission at the same time, you will need to identify the mission number to which the transmission pertains.
Announcing digits. Whenever you send a number or numbers to the firing unit, you must pronounce each digit of the number. For instance, if you wish to send a direction of 1490, you must say, DIRECTION, ONE-FOUR-NINER-ZERO. The only time you will not announce each digit is if the number ends in an even hundred or thousand. For instance, for 1000 you will say, DIRECTION, ONE THOUSAND not DIRECTION, ONE-ZERO-ZERO-ZERO. For 1300, you must say, DIRECTION, ONE-THREE-HUNDRED not DIRECTION, THIRTEEN-HUNDRED. You will send many digits over the radio to call for and adjust fires. Pronounce each digit and hundred and thousand instead of successive zeros for the same reason, clarity.
Repeat and say again. Whenever you say REPEAT to the supporting arms, you will receive another round, or rounds, fired at the exact same data and command as the previous one (ones) fired. If you have just fired a battery, two rounds, DPICM at a target and you key the handset on the radio and say REPEAT, you will receive twelve more DPICM rounds at the same spot as the last ones. 3-5
Do not say REPEAT on the radio to ask someone to say TRANSMISSION AGAIN! Say, SAY AGAIN, OVER. When you ask a station to SAY AGAIN, they will say their last radio transmission over again. When you ask the station to repeat, their next transmission will be SHOT, OVER. (4)
Read back. Every time that you make a fire mission essential transmission to the firing unit, they must read it back to you, word for word. Every time they make a fire mission essential transmission to you, you must read it back, word for word. The reason for this is to ensure there is no misunderstanding in targeting information. A mistake in target location could cost the friendly people their lives.
Correction of errors. Any mistake made during a transmission must be clearly corrected so that it is understood it is a correction of an error. Suppose you sent this target location for a shift mission; the message would be DIRECTION 1600, LEFT 500, DROP 1000, OVER. The FDC should read back DIRECTION 1600, LEFT 500, DROP 1000, OUT. As they read back your transmission you realize that you meant to say right and not left. You then say CORRECTION, RIGHT 500, OVER. The FDC should then read back DIRECTION 1600, RIGHT 500, DROP 1000, OUT. This same procedure is true whether you make the error in announcing or if the FDC copies it wrong and makes the error in the read back.
b. Wire. You can use wire communications to the extent permitted by the tactical situation, time, and personnel available. In a static defensive posture, a landline may be used between the company commander and a remote observation post. c. Digital Communications Terminal (DCT). The DCT is a handheld device that enables users to rapidly prepare, transmit, and receive both text and graphic messages (clear and encrypted) over standard military radio or field wire. The DCT uses a burst transmission capability that, when used instead of voice communications, minimizes the vulnerability to enemy radio direction finding and jamming. You will use the DCT to transmit calls-for-fire, fire plans, and battlefield information. When using the DCT, you must ensure the required destination links and addresses are programmed to allow for fire support coordination. 3-6
d. Messenger. The FO may use this method of communication, tactical situation permitting. This method is a secure method of sending fire plans. It reduces radio traffic thus hampering enemy direction finding. 3202. Call-for-Fire The call-for-fire is a request for fire containing all data necessary for obtaining the required fire on a target. It is a concise message prepared by the observer and transmitted as a request, not as an order. It is sent quickly, but clearly enough to be understood, recorded, and read back without error by the FDC. The call-for-fire consists of six elements and is transmitted in three parts, with a break and read back after each part. The six elements of the call-for-fire are: observer identification, warning order, target location, target description, method of engagement, and method of fire and control. These must be transmitted in the following order: v
The observer identification and the warning order are the first transmission.
The target location is the second transmission.
The target description, method of engagement, and the method of fire and control are the third transmission.
a. Observer identification. The observer identification lets the FDC know who is calling. Use your call sign to identify yourself. Once given, call signs are omitted from subsequent transmissions during that mission unless there is a chance of confusion; for instance, another observer is conducting a mission at the same time you request your mission. b. Warning order. The warning order clears the net for the fire mission and tells the FDC what type of mission you want and the method of target location. The warning order consists of the type of mission, the size of the element to fire for effect, and the method of target location. (1)
The type of mission will be one of the four types you learned about in the last lesson: adjust fire, fire for effect, suppression, or immediate suppression.
The size of the element to fire for effect is normally a battery but you may request more or less. For instance, if you have a very large target, you may want a battalion to fire in effect. If the target area is small, you may feel you only need two guns to accomplish the job. For an inexperienced observer, it is usually best to let the FDC decide the size of the element to fire for effect.
The method of target location must be given. Polar or shift from a known point must be announced. If you are using a laser, you must let the FDC know. Do not announce the method of target location if you are using the grid method, this is standard. If you don't say which method you are using, the FDC will know you are using the grid method. 3-7
Example: You want to call in an adjust fire mission using a battery in effect, and you have located the target by shifting from known point 2. Your first transmission would be C30 THIS IS C56, ADJUST FIRE, SHIFT KNOWN POINT 2, OVER. c. Target location. You must tell the FDC where the target is to receive fire on it. If you used the grid method for target location, announce the grid coordinates. For the polar method, give the direction and distance from you to the target. If you are using the shift method, give your OT direction, then how far right or left of the known point the target is (lateral shift), then how much closer or farther the target is from the known point to you (range shift). This is given as ADD or DROP from the known point in 100 meter increments. Next, you would give a vertical shift if the target is 30 meters higher or lower than the known point. Vertical shifts are given as UP or DOWN. Example: Your target is on a direction of 3860, it is 50 mils right of known point 2 (your shift factor is 3), and you estimate the target to be 600 meters farther than known point 2. Your map shows the area where the target is to be 40 meters lower than known point 2. Your second transmission to FDC would be DIRECTION 3860, RIGHT 150, ADD 600, DOWN 40, OVER. d. Target description. Your description of the target should be brief and accurate. It should tell the following: vWhat the target is (troops, trucks, supply dump, etc.) vWhat the target is doing (digging in, in assembly area, refueling) vThe number of elements in the target (squad, platoon, three trucks) vThe degree of protection (in open, in fighting holes, with overhead cover) vTarget size and shape (linear, rectangular, circular, or irregular shaped) (1)
A linear target (a target greater than 200 meters in length but less than 200 meters in width) is described by sending the FDC an attitude and length of the target. Attitude describes the direction of the line in relation to the north/south line and is given as an azimuth from 0 to 3100 in 100 mil increments. For example: ATTITUDE 1300, LENGTH 300. Attitude is always given as less than 3200.
A rectangular target is greater than 200 meters in length and width and is described to the FDC by length, width, and attitude. For example: 400 by 200, ATTITUDE 2800.
Circular targets are targets having a radius greater than 100 meters and are described to the FDC by the radius. For example: RADIUS 300.
Irregular shaped targets are described using the center of the target, the length, depth, and the attitude (if required).
e. Method of engagement. You may indicate how you want to attack the target. This element consists of the type of adjustment, trajectory, ammunition, and distribution. These sub- elements will all be standard unless you specify otherwise. Nonstandard subelements are DANGER CLOSE and MARK. (1)
The standard adjustment is area fire. If you want precision fire you must request DESTRUCTION.
You announce DANGER CLOSE in the method of engagement if the rounds will impact close to friendly troops. DANGER CLOSE for mortars is 400 meters, for artillery it is 600 meters, and 750 meters for naval gun fire (5 inch).
MARK is included in the method of engagement if you are going to call rounds either to orient yourself or mark targets for ground troops, aircraft, or other fire support.
The standard trajectory is low angle for artillery. If you need high angle fire you must request it. Mortars only fire high angle.
There are several types of ammunition available to the observer. The standard type of ammunition is HE/Q. If HE ammunition is specified in the call-for-fire, HE with fuze Q will be fired in the adjustment and fire for effect phases. The term "in effect" indicates that the projectile/fuze specified is desired during fire for effect. Nonstandard types of ammunition are specified in the call-for-fire. The observer must state either a projectile or a fuze. For example, "Shell ICM" (projectile) and "VT in Effect" (fuze). Shells illumination, ICM, and smoke can only be fuzed with fuze time. Therefore, when firing these projectiles, fuze time is understood and need not be specified.
You can control the distribution (pattern of bursts). The pattern of bursts is called a sheaf. The standard for artillery is the circular sheaf. You may request a converged sheaf, an open sheaf, a parallel sheaf, or a circular sheaf depending which would be the best for your particular target. See figure 3-1. The standard for mortars is the parallel sheaf. 3-9
Figure 3-1. Types of sheafs. f. Method of fire and control. This element indicates the desired manner of attacking the target, whether you want to control the time of delivery of fire, and whether you can observe the target. (1)
Method of fire. In area fire, adjustment is normally conducted with one gun. If you feel you need more than one gun, you may request it. Mortars normally adjust with the center tube of the platoon or section.
Method of control. Without controlling measures, the FDC will fire the howitzers when they are ready. This may cause the rounds to burst in the target area at a ragged interval. If you need rounds quickly, you will receive them fastest by not controlling them. Controlling the time to fire and causing the rounds to impact at the target simultaneously will cause the greatest shock effect on the target. You can control the timing of the firing by putting the mission at your command or by coordinating the timing. (a)
AT MY COMMAND. If you want to control the time of delivery of the fire, announce, AT MY COMMAND. When the howitzers are ready to fire, the FDC will announce, BATTERY/BATTALION IS READY (they will use the last letter of the call sign, not the word), OVER. When you are ready, say, FIRE. AT MY COMMAND will remain in effect until you announce CANCEL AT MY COMMAND.
CANNOT OBSERVE. There may be times when you can't see the target because of vegetation, the terrain, the weather, smoke, or maybe incoming fire. You can still fire the mission by announcing, CANNOT OBSERVE.
TIME ON TARGET (TOT). There are times when you will want to control the time of impact of the rounds. You may do this by using a synchronized clock, elapsed time, or an event (e.g., H-Hour). A synchronized clock is established by the senior headquarters and disseminated to all maneuver and fire support units. It requires periodic time checks to ensure accuracy (e.g., TIME ON TARGET, 0815, OVER). Elapsed time is expressed in relation to the transmission of a mark (e.g., TIME ON TARGET TEN MINUTES FROM MY MARK). The term MARK is used for artillery, mortars, and naval gunfire. The term HACK is used when working with air. To give your mark say, STANDBY FOR MARK . . . 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 MARK OVER. The timing of fires may be in relation to an event, such as H-Hour. However, you must ensure all concerned agencies know the correct time of H-Hour (e.g., TIME ON TARGET H+5, OVER).
CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION. This is a type of fire in which the illuminating projectiles are fired at specified time intervals to provide uninterrupted lighting on the target or specified area. If no interval is given, the FDC will determine the interval by the burning time of the ammunition used. If any other interval is required, it is indicated in seconds.
COORDINATED ILLUMINATION. This is a type of fire in which the firing of illuminating and high explosive projectiles is coordinated to provide illumination of the target and surrounding area for spotting and adjusting fires. You may order the interval between illuminating and HE shells in seconds or use normal at my command procedures.
CEASE LOADING. When firing two or more rounds, the command CEASE LOADING is used to stop the loading of rounds into the guns. The gun sections may fire any rounds that are already loaded.
CHECK FIRING. This command is used to cause an immediate halt in firing. Once check firing has been announced, you must give the command CANCEL CHECK FIRING in order to resume firing.
CONTINUOUS FIRE. Continuous fire means loading and firing as rapidly and accurately as possible within the prescribed rate of fire for the equipment. Firing will continue until suspended by the command CEASE LOADING or CHECK FIRING.
REPEAT. Repeat is not sent in the initial call-for-fire, it is used only in the adjustment or fire for effect phase of the mission. In adjustment it means to fire the same data as the last round. In the FFE phase, it means to fire the same number of rounds using the same method of fire for effect. Changes may be requested to number of guns, previous corrections, interval, or ammunition.
FOLLOWED BY. This is a part of the term used to indicate a change in the rate of fire, in the type of ammunition, or in another order for fire for effect (e.g., WP FOLLOWED BY HE).
Example: Your target is two BRDM's with what appears to be a platoon of infantry sitting around in small groups apparently eating. You determine the standard adjustment is best, there are no friendlies near, and there is no reason for high angle fire. You want to use ICM in effect, and one round per tube is all you should need. The standard sheaf will cover the target area. You want the rounds as quickly as you can get them, so you will let the FDC control the firing. Your third transmission to the FDC will be TWO BRDM'S WITH DISMOUNTED INFANTRY PLATOON IN OPEN, ICM IN EFFECT, OVER. FDC will send back TWO BRDM'S WITH DISMOUNTED INFANTRY PLATOON IN OPEN, ICM IN EFFECT, BREAK, AUTHENTICATE LIMAFOX-TROT, OVER. You authenticate, and your call-for-fire is complete. 3203. Message to Observer After receiving the call-for-fire, the fire direction officer determines how the target will be attacked. That decision is announced to you in the form of a message to observer. The message to observer consists of the unit(s) to fire, any changes to the call-for-fire, number of rounds, and the target number. The FDC will provide other information, as needed, in the message to the observer. a. Units to fire. Units to fire refers to the battery or batteries that will fire the mission. If the battalion is firing in effect with one battery adjusting, the FDC designates the fire for effect unit (battalion) and the adjusting unit (battery) by the last letter of their call sign, not by name. If the unit that fires the adjustment will be the unit to fire in effect, only that letter will be in the message to the observer.
b. Changes to the call-for-fire. Any changes to your requests in your call-for-fire will be announced. c. Number of rounds. This is the number of rounds, per weapon, that will be fired in the fire for effect phase of the mission. d. Target number. A target number is assigned by FDC to each mission to facilitate processing subsequent corrections. e. Other information. There are times you may need additional information that is pertinent to the mission, such as (1)
Probable error in range. If the probable error in range (PE/R) is 38 meters or greater during a normal mission, or 25 meters or greater in a precision mission, the FDC will inform you in the message to observer.
Angle-T. Angle-T is the angle formed at the target by the intersection of the OT line and the gun target line. When Angle-T is equal to or greater than 500 mils, the FDC should inform you in the message to observer.
Time of flight. Time of flight is the time it takes the round to reach the target. The time of flight is sent on a moving target mission, when adjusting high angle fire, when firing shell HE in a coordinated illumination mission, when using BY SHELL AT MY COMMAND, or when you request the time of flight.
3204. Report Upon Firing The firing unit will transmit SHOT after each round in adjustment and after the initial round in the fire for effect phase. You must acknowledge each. The firing unit may also report SPLASH. This informs you that your round will detonate in 5 seconds. You may request SPLASH if the FDC doesn't send it. To request a splash, use the transmission, REQUEST SPLASH, OVER. This would allow you to remain under cover and concealment while awaiting fires. It also helps you to identify your rounds if other missions are being conducted in the same area. There is no requirement to acknowledge SPLASH.
Complete items 1 through 4 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit. Which of the following provides the six elements of the call-for-fire in the correct transmission order? a. b. c. d.
Which transmission will give you a 5 second warning to the impact of the round? a. b. c. d.
"SHOT, OVER" "SPLASH, OUT" "REQUEST SPLASH, OVER" "TIME ON TARGET, OVER"
The four elements of the message to observer are the unit to fire, the ______________, the ________________, and the target number. a. b. c. d.
Observer identification, warning order, target location, target description, method of engagement, and method of fire and control Warning order, observer identification, target location, target description, method of engagement, and method of fire and control Observer identification, warning order, target description, target location, method of fire and control, and method of engagement Warning order, observer identification, target description, target location, method of engagement, and method of fire and control
number of adjusting rounds, number of FFE rounds changes to the call-for-fire, number of rounds in effect number of adjusting rounds, number of guns to fire type of adjusting rounds, type of FFE rounds
You are firing two missions at the same time and are into both missions. You are the only observer on the net. Which is the correct method to use to make corrections? a. b. c. d.
Key the handset and announce your corrections. Identify yourself and announce your corrections. Identify yourself and the mission number and announce your corrections. Identify the mission number and announce your corrections.
Lesson 3. SPOTTING AND CORRECTIONS LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Define spotting and corrections.
Identify the types of height of burst (HOB) spottings.
Determine the types of range spottings.
Determine the types of deviation spottings.
Determine corrections for unobserved and lost spottings.
Determine the deviation and range correction for a given spotting.
Determine height of burst corrections.
Determine requirements and corrections for fire for effect.
3301. Observation Procedures for Spotting and Corrections Your primary concern is the placement of timely and accurate fire on targets. The firing unit cannot see the target or where the rounds are landing. You must do this for them by spotting the bursts and making corrections to get rounds on target. a. Spotting. A spotting is the observer's mental determination of the location of the burst, or mean point of impact of multiple bursts, in relation to the adjusting point as observed along the observer target line. Spottings are not announced to the FDC except for unobserved or lost spottings. Spottings are made the instant the burst occurs. You should position your binoculars just below eye level, looking over the top of them with the naked eye until you see the burst, then raise them and make your spotting. Spottings are made in sequence for height of burst (HOB), range, and deviation. b. Corrections. Corrections are your estimation of the adjustment necessary to cause subsequent impacts to occur on the target or at the proper height above the target. Your corrections will cause subsequent rounds to impact centered on the OT line, at the correct range, and sufficiently above the target to cause maximum effect. Corrections are given in meters and in reverse sequence of spottings: deviation, range, and HOB.
3302. Height of Burst Spottings (HOB) HOB spottings are used to determine an increase or decrease in the height of the burst of a round or rounds. HOB spottings are also used for adjusting air bursts when firing time fuzes. HOB spottings are made to the nearest 1 mil. HOB spottings include: air, graze, mixed, mixed air, and mixed graze. a.
Air. A round or group of rounds that burst in the air.
Graze. A round or group of rounds that detonate on impact with the ground.
Mixed. A group of rounds that result in an equal number of airbursts and graze bursts.
d. Mixed air. A group of rounds that result in both airbursts and graze bursts with most being airbursts. e. Mixed graze. A group of rounds that result in both airbursts and graze bursts with most of being graze bursts. 3303. Range Spottings Definite range spottings are required to make a proper range adjustment. Normally, a burst on or near the OT line provides a definite spotting. You can make a definite range spotting when the burst is not on or near the OT line by using your knowledge of the terrain. The observer must use caution and good judgement when making such spottings (fig 3-2). Possible range spottings are over, short, range correct, target, and doubtful.
Figure 3-2. Range spottings.
Over. A round that detonates beyond the target or adjusting point is spotted as over.
b. Short. A round that detonates between you and the target (or adjusting point) is called short. c.
Range correct. This is when the round impacts at the correct range.
d. Target. This is when the round detonates on the target. (This does not happen very often in area fire, you will use this most in precision fire.) e. Doubtful. Doubtful is a round that detonates so far left or right of the target that a definite range spotting cannot be made. 3304. Deviation Spottings A deviation spotting is the measurement left or right of the OT line. You measure the deviation (as you learned in Lesson 2) with your binoculars (or other angle-measuring means) to the nearest 5 mils for area fire or 1 mil for precision fire. Deviation spottings are measured from the center of the burst to the center of the target (fig 3-3). Possible deviation spottings are line, (so many mils) left, or (so many mils) right.
Figure 3-3. Deviation spottings. a.
Line. A spotting of line means the burst was on the OT line.
b. Left or right. If the burst is to the left or right of the OT line you spot the distance, then the direction. For instance, if you measure the burst 20 mils to the left of the OT line, your spotting would be 20 LEFT.
3305. Unobserved and Lost Spottings a. Unobserved spottings. At times you may be able to make a spotting even though you are unable to see the round impact. For instance, you may hear the round impact but not be able to see it. By knowing the terrain, you determine that the only place the round could have impacted without being seen is in a draw beyond the target. If you have to take cover from incoming fire or if smoke or dirt obstruct the target area, your visibility may be temporarily impaired causing you to be unable to make a definite spotting. You may also be unable to make an accurate spotting because you can't determine which round, among several, is yours. Unobserved spottings are reported to the FDC followed by the appropriate command to take corrective action. For instance, you might say UNOBSERVED, REPEAT, OVER. b. Lost spottings. If you are unable to locate the round (either visually or by sound), your spotting is LOST. Rounds may be lost for several reasons, including fuze malfunction (dud), the terrain or weather prevents you from seeing or hearing the round impact, or errors by the firing unit. When a round is lost, positive action must be taken. The first action you must take is to let the FDC know that the round was lost. Then you check the target location data and call-for-fire. If there are no errors, then request the firing unit to check their data. If there are no computation errors or errors on the gun line, you must then request REPEAT or SHELL WP, REPEAT. You may want to request a 200 meter airburst with HE or Smoke or you may want to make a bold shift. The location of friendly positions could dictate the action you take. If these corrective actions fail, send END OF MISSION and a new call-for-fire. 3306. Deviation and Range Corrections a. Deviation corrections. You have learned that deviation spottings are measured in mils. You have also learned that you send corrections to the FDC in meters. We do this by remembering that 1 mil at a range of 1000 meters equals 1 meter. For corrections, we convert mils to meters by using the observer to target (OT) factor. The OT factor is the distance from you to the target expressed in thousands. For example, if the range is 2500 meters, the OT factor would be 2. To determine the OT factor, you must divide the range by 1000 then round off the result by using what we call artillery expression. Artillery expression is a rule of rounding that requires you, when the number to be rounded is 5, to round to the nearest even number. In other words, to determine the OT factor with a range of 3500, you divide it by 1000 to get a dividend of 3.5. To make this a whole number, you use artillery expression and round to the nearest even number which, in this case, would give you an OT factor of 4. Additionally, when the number to be rounded is 4 or less, you round down. If the number is 6 or more, you round up. If the range to your target is less than 1000 meters, you do not round up to a whole number, you use the fraction. For example, if your range to your target is 800 meters, then, 800 divided by 1000 equals .8, so your OT factor stays at .8. If the range is 740, you will round the dividend of .74 to .7, but not to 1 (fig 3-4).
Figure 3-4. OT factor. Note:
OT distances of 1500 and 2500 meters are expressed to the nearest even OT factor.
Deviation corrections are determined by multiplying the number of mils of deviation by the OT factor. Remember, corrections are sent in the reverse sequence of spottings. If your deviation spotting is 30 RIGHT and the range to your target is 2900 meters, the correction you will send to the FDC is LEFT 90 (30 mils X 3 (OT Factor) = 90). The spotting is to the right of the target so you correct to the left. b. Range corrections. Range corrections are your estimation of the distance the round must move, in meters, to make it range correct. Range corrections are given as ADD or DROP so many meters. If a round is spotted as "short," you add. If it is spotted as "over," you would drop. Again, your corrections are reverse of your spottings. If you are using laser rangefinders, you determine the range correction by comparing the range to the target and the range to the burst (determined by using the LR), and add or drop the difference. This is the one round adjustment method of corrections. If you are not using lasers, you need to use a bracketing method of range correction, which you will learn in the next lesson. When announcing range corrections to the FDC you say, ADD (or DROP) 400, OVER. The distance is understood to be in meters by the FDC. 3307. Height of Burst Corrections Correcting HOB is basically the same as correcting deviation. You take the number of mils the burst is measured above the target and multiply it by the OT factor to determine the height of burst in meters. The optimal height of burst for a round with a time fuze is 20 meters. HOB spottings are measured to the nearest mil and corrections are given as UP or DOWN to the nearest 5 meters. It is not unusual to get a "graze" burst on the first round with a time fuze. When this happens, there is an automatic correction you send of UP 40. You give an UP 40 correction no matter how many graze bursts are spotted until you achieve an airburst. If your first round is an airburst, and after a subsequent DOWN correction the next round is a graze, then you would send a correction of UP 20 instead of UP 40. The rule to remember is for a graze burst without a previous airburst send UP 40. For a graze burst with a previous airburst send UP 20. 3-19
3308. Sequence of Subsequent Corrections So far, you have learned how to draft a call-for-fire, receive and interpret the message to observer, spot a burst, and turn that spotting into a correction. Now that you have a correction to send to the FDC, you need to know what sequence to send it in. You know that the sequence for correction of spottings is deviation, range, and height of burst, but there are other corrections you could or may have to send during your fire mission. The sequence to send subsequent corrections has its own format which cannot be deviated from. From the possible corrections, you use only those that are required. Direction is the key element for adjusting rounds onto the target. Direction must precede all other subsequent corrections. In artillery and mortars, when using the grid method of target location, direction is sent after you receive the message to observer but before, or with, your first correction. In naval gunfire, direction is part of your initial call-for-fire. There are 15 elements that could be corrected, or changed, and they must be corrected in the following sequence: a. Direction. If the direction to your target changes 100 mils, or more, from the initial direction you sent to FDC, you must send a new direction. For example, "DIRECTION 4650." b. Danger close. If your initial call-for-fire didn't warrant a danger close call, but a subsequent correction will put you in a danger close situation, it is announced before any other corrections are given. If your subsequent corrections take you out of a danger close situation, announce CANCEL DANGER CLOSE. c. Trajectory. If you need to switch to high-angle fire, or if the initial call-for-fire stated high-angle but low-angle would be effective, it is announced now. d. Method of fire. This element is rarely changed during a mission, but if you want to change from one gun in adjustment to a platoon (left or right), now is when you would do it. e. Distribution. If your target posture changes during the mission, change the distribution so the sheaf will have the best effect on target. For example, "LINEAR." f. Projectile. If you want to change the type of projectile, you would announce the change here. g.
Fuze. If you want to change the type fuze, you would announce the change here.
Volume. When you need to change the number of rounds, you would announce that here.
i. Deviation. Although this is the first spotting you correct, it is not the first subsequent correction you send if any of the elements need changing. If no deviation correction is needed, 3-20
omit it. Deviation corrections of less than 30 meters are not sent to the FDC except during a precision fire mission. j.
Range. If no range correction is needed, this element is omitted.
k. Height of burst. This element is used only when using time fuzes, and is omitted when not needed. l. Target description. A new target description is sent when you want to attack another target without sending a new call-for-fire or when your current target description changes substantially. m. Change in type mission/control. Besides being types of fire missions, fire for effect and adjust fire are also considered as methods of control. You would request ADJUST FIRE here if you were going from an immediate suppression or suppression mission to a neutralization mission. This is also where you could announce, AT MY COMMAND, or CANCEL, AT MY COMMAND. n. Splash. When you are having trouble identifying your rounds in the target area because of other rounds, or if you can't observe your target constantly, announce REQUEST SPLASH. The FDC will transmit SPASH, OVER 5 seconds before the round impacts. This notifies you to look at your target area in order to see the burst. Splash is cancelled by announcing CANCEL, SPLASH. o. Repeat. If you want another round fired at the same data as the last one, or if you want the fire for effect repeated because it was insufficient, announce REPEAT. You can give corrections to other elements for the fire for effect and request REPEAT if you want the same number and type of rounds fired with the new data.
Complete items 1 through 12 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit. Spotting is defined as a. b. c. d.
Which is the definition for corrections? a. b. c. d.
Estimation of the adjustment necessary to cause subsequent impacts to occur on the target or at the proper height above the target Estimation of the adjustment necessary to cause subsequent impacts to occur on the target Measurement of the impact of the round in relation to the target and the OT line for deviation, range, and HOB Measurement of the impact of the round in relation to the target for range and height of burst
You spot an impacting rounds RANGE CORRECT, 50 LEFT. Your distance to the target is 3500 meters. What is your correction? a. b.
an estimation of the adjustment necessary to cause subsequent impacts to occur on the target or at the proper height above the target. an estimation of the adjustment necessary to cause subsequent impacts to occur on the target. a measurement of the impact of the round in relation to the target and the OT line for deviation, range, and HOB. a measurement of the impact of the round in relation to the target and the OT line for HOB, range, and deviation.
LEFT 200, OVER RIGHT 150, OVER
RIGHT 200, OVER LEFT 150, OVER
You spot a round as AIR 10. Your distance to the target is 1450 meters. What is your correction? a. b.
REPEAT, OVER DOWN 10, OVER
ADD 10, OVER UP 10, OVER
Matching: For items 5 through 12, match the observation in column 1 with the correct spotting in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided. Column 1
___ 5. ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ 8.
___ 9. ___ 10.
___ 11. ___ 12.
The impact occurs beyond the target The impacts occur half on the ground, half in the air The impact occurs to the front of the target The impact occurs with two on the ground and four in the air The impact occurs left of the OT line The impacts occur with four on the ground and two in the air The impact occurs beyond the target, on the vertical line The impacts occur to the right of the target
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m.
left right line over short range correct doubtful lost air graze mixed mixed air mixed graze
Lesson 4. ADJUSTMENT AND FIRE FOR EFFECT LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
Define the four types of adjustment techniques.
Determine the correct adjustment in successive bracketing, given a situation.
Identify the situation for which you would use hasty bracketing.
Identify when you may use the one round adjustment method, given a situation.
Identify a situation for which you need to use the creeping fire method.
Determine when the "ping-pong effect" may affect adjustments.
Determine the proper time to enter the fire for effect phase of the mission.
Determine the results of the FFE, given a situation.
Determine the proper commands to request additional fires.
Identify the proper procedure for ending the mission.
3401. Adjustment Techniques There are four techniques that can be used to conduct area adjustment fires. These are successive bracketing, hasty bracketing, one-round adjustment, and creeping fire. a. Successive bracketing. Successive bracketing is best for an inexperienced observer or when precise adjustment is required, such as for precision registrations and destruction missions. This method mathematically ensures that FFE rounds will be within 50 meters of the target. b. Hasty bracketing. Hasty bracketing is best for an experienced observer when responsive fires are needed. c. One-round adjustment. One-round adjustment provides the most responsive fires but requires an experienced observer or an observer equipped with a laser rangefinder. d. Creeping fire. Creeping fire is used for danger close missions. Upon completion of each mission, you must send refinement data and surveillance. The FDC can determine effectiveness of fires from this surveillence.
3402. Successive Bracketing After the first definite range spotting (either over or short) you send a correction to establish a bracket (one round over and one round short). Once a bracket is established, you successively split this bracket in half in multiples of 100 meter increments. Normally, you would start with an ADD (or DROP) 400 and split that in half on the next round DROP (or ADD) 200. Next, split that again ADD (or DROP) 100. Once you have a 100 meter bracket the next split will mathematically put the round within 50 meters of the target so you would send ADD (or DROP) 50, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. You may start with an 800 meter bracket if you need to; but if your first correction is large, this could indicate an error in your OT factor. Remember, range corrections should be 800, 400, or 200 so they can be split in even 100 meter increments. Example: The first round after your call-for-fire is spotted as OVER, 80 LEFT. Your OT factor is 2. The first correction you should send would be RIGHT 160, DROP 400, OVER. You spot the next round as SHORT, 15 RIGHT. The correction for this round would be LEFT 30, ADD 200, OVER. You spot the round as OVER, 5 LEFT. The correction would be DROP 100, OVER. You spot the round as OVER, 5 LEFT. The correction would be DROP 50, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. 3403. Hasty Bracketing Experience has shown that effectiveness on the target decreases as the number of rounds used in adjustment increases. This is due to the loss of surprise. An alternative to successive bracketing is hasty bracketing. If the nature of the target dictates that fires are needed in less time than successive bracketing would take, you need to use hasty bracketing. The success of hasty bracketing depends on a thorough terrain analysis to give you an accurate initial target location. You make a bracket with your first correction and use this as a yardstick to determine your next correction. You then send the correction and FIRE FOR EFFECT. Example: Your initial round impacts over the target. You spot it as OVER, 40 RIGHT. Your OT factor is 3. You send a correction of LEFT 120, DROP 200, OVER. The next round is spotted as SHORT, 10 LEFT. You now have a 200 meter bracket. From your spotting you determine the first round was twice as far from the target as the last round, so you send RIGHT 30, ADD 50, FFE, OVER. This puts you within 50 meters of your target. 3404. One-Round Adjustment With this method you do not establish a bracket. You spot the initial round, then you determine and transmit the correction necessary to move the round onto the target and fire for effect. This technique can be used when insufficient time exists for adjustment, when you are equipped with a laser rangefinder, or when continued adjustment of fire may endanger you.
Example: Your initial round impacts short of the target. You spot it as SHORT, 35 LEFT. You had estimated the target to be 1200 meters. By using flash-to-bang, you have determined the burst to be 1100 meters (you don't have a MULE or AN/GVS-5). Your correction would be RIGHT 30, ADD 100, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. 3405. Creeping Fire Creeping fire is used only during Danger Close missions. You make range corrections of 100 meters, or less, to "creep" the rounds onto the target so you don't endanger friendly positions. You must know the location of friendly positions in relation to your target. Their safety is your responsibility! All guns that will fire the FFE phase will also fire during adjustment when you use creeping fires. 3406. Effects on Adjustments You have learned that the FDC will, or should, notify you if the Angle-T is greater than 500 mils or if the probable error in range (PE/R) is 38 meters or greater. They should inform you of this as it could have an effect on your adjustment. a. Angle-T. Angle-T is the angle formed at the target by the intersection of the observer target (OT) line and the gun target (GT) line (fig 3-5).
Figure 3-5. Angle-T. 3-26
When the Angle-T is small, your deviation and range corrections correspond to the firing unit's deviation and range corrections. When the Angle-T is greater than 500 mils, your deviation corrections become the firing unit's range corrections and your range corrections become their deviation corrections. This has a significant effect on your adjustment. When notified that the Angle-T is greater than 500 mils, you should continue making corrections in the usual manner until they are not having the proper effect (for example, a right 200 correction appears to shift right 300). You must adjust your corrections proportionately to compensate (cut your corrections in half or thirds) for this error. Note:
When Angle-T is greater than 500 mils, you will observe PE/R as part of deviation spotting. You may expect to observe a ping-pong effect, anytime that the Angle-T is 500 mils or greater. When PE/R of 38 or greater and Angle-T is 500 mils or greater are combined, you will see a pronounced ping-pong effect. To minimize the effect on your adjustment, you can cut your deviation corrections or you can request two guns adjust to get an average of the spotting.
b. Dispersion and PE/R. Dispersion is the term for the fact that no two rounds will impact exactly in the same spot, even though they are fired from the same tube with identical powder, projectile, data, etc. The FDC measures dispersion in units called probable errors. If you were to fire 100 identical rounds from the same howitzer with the same data, same weather conditions, etc., the rounds would impact in an elliptical pattern similar to the illustration in figure 3-6.
Figure 3-6. Dispersion pattern. To measure dispersion, a box containing 100 percent of the rounds fired at the same data is assumed. Of the 100 percent, 50 percent will land over the target and 50 percent short of the target. The amount that the rounds will land over or short is called one PE/R. For any weapon system, dispersion increases as the weapon nears its maximum range for a powder charge. As you can see in the figure, the greatest errors are in range. If the FDC reports PE/R 38, they mean that rounds fired at the target may land somewhere between 38 meters over or short of the GT 3-27
line. They announce the PE/R to prevent you from attempting to correct the impact caused by natural dispersion. 3407. Fire for Effect The purpose of area fire is to cover the target area with fire so the greatest effects on the target can be achieved. The type and amount of ammunition you have requested depends on the type of target, its posture, and its activity. The fire for effect phase of an adjust fire mission is entered when the deviation, range, and height of burst (if necessary) have been corrected to provide effects on target. This would be when the adjusting round has effects on target, or when splitting a 100 meter bracket, or when splitting a 200 meter bracket if the PE/R is 38 or greater. Remember, you will be adjusting with HE/Quick (unless you requested something else) for deviation and range. You enter the fire for effect stage by giving your corrections and announcing FIRE FOR EFFECT. If you have requested, or the FDC informed you that you will receive time in effect, you must adjust the height of burst before requesting FFE. When you split the 100 meter bracket, you request TIME, ADD (or DROP) 50, OVER. Then you adjust HOB. After you receive time, you do not make any more range or deviation corrections. Once you receive a measureable airburst, you send any correction necessary to achieve a 20 meter HOB and request FFE. For example, your last correction was TIME, ADD 50, OVER. You spot the next round as AIR 20, with an OT factor of 2. You would send DOWN 20, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. You do not have to fire for effect from a graze burst or if the HOB correction is greater than 40 meters. 3408. Obtaining Additional Fire After you fire for effect, you may determine that additional rounds are needed on the same or different location. If your FFE was on target, but additional rounds are needed, announce REPEAT, OVER. If the location of fire needs to be moved to achieve satisfactory results, you announce the appropriate corrections and REPEAT. For example, RIGHT 40, ADD 100, REPEAT, OVER. 3409. End of Mission (EOM) After all rounds have landed, there are two things you must do. First you must decide what class of FFE was achieved, then you must take action on it. The action you take is easily remembered by the acronym RREMS. RREMS stands for refinement, record as target, end of mission, and surveillence. Refinement is the final corrections needed to move the mean point of impact onto the target. Record as target is sent when you want the FDC to retain the target's plot for future use as a point to shift from. End of mission is transmitted to end the fire mission. Surveillance is your assessment of the damage inflicted by the FFE. Your surveillance must be accurate as to numbers of vehicles damaged or destroyed and body counts when available. You also report the surviving enemies actions (e.g., dispersing to the north). Your FFE will fall into one of four categories. These are listed with the actions you must take for each. 3-28
a. Accurate and sufficient. This means that the mean point of impact of the rounds were on target and the volume of fire was sufficient to have the desired effect. If you want the FDC to record the target, announce RECORD AS TARGET, END OF MISSION, 2 BRDM'S DESTROYED, ESTIMATE 6 CASUALTIES, OVER. If you don't want the target to be recorded, omit RECORD AS TARGET. b. Inaccurate but sufficient. This means the volume of fire was sufficient but the mean point of impact was not on target. You must give refinement before ending the mission. For example, if you spot your fire for effect as RANGE CORRECT, 10 RIGHT and your OT factor is 2, you would send LEFT 20, END OF MISSION, TARGET NEUTRALIZED, ESTIMATE 10 CASUALTIES, OVER. If you want to record as a target, announce RECORD AS TARGET after the refinement and before the end of mission. c. Inaccurate and insufficient. This means that not only was the mean point of impact off the target, but also the volume was not sufficient to have the desired effect on target. You must make corrections onto the target (refinement) and request REPEAT. If this gives the desired effect, you then end the mission and give your surveillence. d. Accurate but insufficient. This simply requires a REPEAT until the desired effects are achieved. When ending a fire mission, you must follow the sequence of RREMS to be correct, particularly if you want to record the target. When the FDC hears EOM they clear the computer for the next mission and your mission data is lost. Sending surveillance marks the end of the fire mission and you are ready to engage another target.
Complete items 1 through 10 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit.
Matching: For items 1 through 4, match the adjusting technique in column 1 with its correct definition in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided.
___ ___ ___ ___
1. 2. 3. 4.
Successive bracketing Hasty bracketing One round adjustment Creeping fires
a. b. c. d.
Will not attempt to establish a bracket The best method for an experienced observer The best method for an inexperienced observer Pick an alternate aiming point and adjust with corrections of 100 meters or less
Situation: You spot the initial round as SHORT, 10 RIGHT. You have estimated the range to the target as 3600 meters. Your OT factor is 4. 5.
Based on the above situation, what would your correction be using successive bracketing? a. b.
LEFT 40, UP 400 LEFT 40, ADD 400
You are performing creeping fires. The rounds have impacted at an alternate adjusting point and you spot them as RANGE CORRECT, LINE. You have determined the distance to the target as 600 meters. You have determined the distance to the alternate adjusting point as 800 meters. What is your correction? a. b.
LEFT 10, ADD 100 SHORT, 10 RIGHT
LEFT 100, DROP 250 DROP 200
DROP 100 LEFT 100, DROP 100
Which transmission from the FDC would cause you to consider "ping-pong" in your adjustment? a. b.
Angle-T 150, PE/R 25 Angle-T 350, PE/R 38
Angle-T 500, PE/R 38 Angle-T 400
In an adjust fire mission, using successive bracketing, you have sent a correction of LEFT 30, DROP 100. The round was fired and you spot the burst as SHORT LINE. What would your correction be? a. b.
ADD 50, OVER ADD 50, FFE, OVER
FFE, OVER DROP 50, OVER
Situation: You are conducting an adjust fire mission using hasty bracketing. Your first round was spotted as OVER, 50 RIGHT. You gave a correction of LEFT 100, DROP 200. Your next spotting was SHORT, 10 RIGHT. You determined the last round was an equal distance short of the target as the first round was over so you send ADD 100, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. You spot the mean point of impact of your FFE rounds as SHORT, 10 RIGHT. 9.
What is the result of the fire for effect in the situation above? a. b. c. d.
Accurate and sufficient Inacurate and insufficient Accurate and insufficient Inaccurate and sufficient
To end the mission, which should you send? a. b. c. d.
Refinement, record as target, end of mission, and surveillance Record as target, refinement, end of mission, and surveillance Refine, record, estimate, and repeat Record as target, end of mission, and estimate casualties
UNIT SUMMARY In this study unit, you learned how to conduct fire missions. You now have the basic knowledge necessary to call for adjusting and reporting the results of fires on target using artillery or mortars.
Lesson 1 Exercise Solutions Solution
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
3101b 3101a 3101c 3104 3103a 3105 3106
a. c. b. c. c. c. b.
Lesson 2 Exercise Solutions Solution
1. 2. 3. 4.
3202 3204 3203 3201a (1)
a. c. b. d.
Lesson 3 Exercise Solutions Solution
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
3301a 3301b 3306 3307 3303b 3302c 3303b 3302d 3304b 3302e 3304a 3304b
d. a c. d. d. k. e. l. a. m. c. b.
Lesson 4 Exercise Solutions Solution
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
3402a 3403 3404 3405 3402 3403 3406a 3402 3409 3409
c. b. a. d. d. c. c. b. d. a.
BASIC FORWARD OBSERVATION PROCEDURES REVIEW LESSON INSTRUCTIONS: The purpose of the review lesson is to prepare you for your final examination. We recommend that you try to complete your review lesson without referring to the text, but for those items (questions) you are unsure of, restudy the text. When you have finished your review lesson and are satisfied with your responses, check your responses against the answers provided at the end of this review lesson examination. Select the ONE answer which BEST completes the statement or answers the item. For multiple-choice items, circle your response. For matching items, place the letter of your response in the space provided. 1.
Which are the three types of indirect fire support? a. b. c. d.
Naval gunfire, howitzers, close air support Howitzers, naval gunfire, mortars Mortars, howitzers, tanks Howitzers, mortars, close air support
Matching: For items 2 through 4, match the type of indirect fire support in column 1 with the characteristics that best describe it in column 2. Selections in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1
Indirect Fire Support
___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4.
Naval gunfire Howitzers Mortars
a. b. c. d.
Low trajectory, medium artillery, high rate of fire Light artillery, high rate of fire, high trajectory Medium trajectory, medium artillery, massed fires High trajectory, low rate of fire, light artillery
Matching: For items 5 through 7, match the member of the gunnery team in column 1 with the duties that best describe his job in column 2. Selections in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1
___ 5. ___ 6. ___ 7.
Observer Fire direction center Firing element
a. b. c. d.
The duties of the fire support coordinator (FSC) include a. b. c. d.
observer target numbers. an assigned block of two letters and four numbers. two numbers and four letters. individual unit designators.
What are the two types of targets? a. b. c. d.
monitoring command and fire nets to coordinate the fire support assets and use them to their best advantage. instructing observers when to fire targets of opportunity. maintaining radio discipline during fire missions. determining firing data for supporting arms.
Marine Corps units designate targets using a. b. c. d.
Coordinates the fires of different supporting arms Locates and identifies targets to the firing unit Receives call-for-fire and translates it into firing data Fires the rounds as directed
Priority targets and targets of opportunity On-call targets and scheduled targets Planned targets and targets of opportunity Planned targets and on-call targets
What are three types of planned targets? a. b. c. d.
Priority targets, on-call targets, and targets of opportunity Priority targets, targets of opportunity, and on-call targets Priority targets, planned targets, and scheduled targets Priority targets, scheduled targets, and on-call targets R-2
A known point is a. b. c. d.
any target with its map location known to the supporting arms. any point on the ground which is known to the supporting arms. any point on the ground or map with its location known to the observer and the FDC. a previously fired target or hill top.
Matching: For items 13 through 15, match the desired effect of artillery fires in column 1 with the definition that best describes it in column 2. Selections in column 2 may be used more than once. After the corresponding item number on the answer sheet, blacken the appropriate circle. Column 1
___ 13. ___ 14. ___ 15.
Destruction Neutralization Suppression
a. b. c. d.
What are the five types of artillery shells? a. b. c. d.
Target temporarily ceases activity, requires high ammunition expense At least 30 percent personnel casualties, requires high ammunition expense At least 10 percent personnel casualties, requires low ammunition expense At least 30 percent personnel casualties, requires minimum ammunition expense
HC, FASCAM, ICM, HE, and Illum WP, HE, Smoke, Illum, and ICM ICM, Smoke, Illum, WP, and HE HE, HC, WP, Smoke, and Illum
What are the four types of HE fuzes? a. b. c. d.
Delay, VT, Ti, and Quick PD, Quick, Ti, and Delay Ti, Delay, VT, and PD PD, Quick, Ti, and VT
Matching: For items 18 through 22, match the type of artillery shell in column 1 with the description that best identifies its proper usage in column 2. Selections in column 2 may be used more than once. After the corresponding number on the answer sheet, blacken the appropriate circle.
___ ___ ___ ___ ___
18. 19. 20. 21. 22.
HE WP Smoke ICM Illumination
To orient yourself to the target area, you must first ____________, then ___________, and _____________. a. b. c. d.
establish your position, establish direction, locate your targets establish direction, establish your location, locate your targets establish your location, locate your target, determine direction establish direction, locate your targets, establish your position
A reference tool for determining directions within the target area A technically correct representation of the target area from your viewpoint A precise record of targets you have located A sketch of targets and known points you can see
What is an OF fan used for? a. b. c. d.
Can be used to start fires, or for screening Used for screening and obscuration Is more effective against personnel than other types Is versatile when used with different fuzes Is used to observe the battlefield
Which of the following is a terrain sketch? a. b. c. d.
a. b. c.
Determining directions to known points on a map Determining directions to targets on a map Locating targets on a map Locating known points on a map
What are two methods for measuring angles between objects? a. b. c. d.
Hand measurement or binocular reticle pattern Directional instrument or estimating Leapfrogging or hasty measurement Directional instrument or binocular reticle pattern R-4
You measure an azimuth of 1430 to a target using your lensatic compass. The declination diagram shows a GM angle of (magnetic left) 140 mils. What is the target direction? a. b.
What are the two quickest methods for measuring angles between objects? a. b. c. d.
Leapfrogging or hasty measurement Directional instrument or hand measurement Leapfrogging or binocular reticle pattern Hasty measurement or binocular reticle pattern
In the illustration below, what is the angle between the vertex and the target?
3 mils 3.5 mils
30 mils 35 mils
Using the illustration below, determine the distance to the target. You have determined your target to be located at the narrowest point of the saddle. What is the distance to the target?
a. b. 31.
400 meters 4000 meters
When you observe an enemy crew-served weapon firing, you see the muzzle flash and count 4 seconds until you hear the report of the weapon. What is the distance to the target? a. b.
4 meters 40 meters
12400 meters 1400 meters
1240 meters 140 meters
You have observed a target to the right of a known point. The distance to the known point is 1500 meters. You measured the angle between the two points to be 50 mils. What is the lateral distance from the known point to the point on the right? a. b.
75000 meters 7500 meters
750 meters 75 meters
Situation: Determine your answers to items 33 through 35 based upon the information given and the illustrations on the next page. Illustration 1 on the next page is your oriented map and OF fan with target AF2010 plotted at grid 316808. The direction to AF2010 is 2170, the distance is 4300. The contour interval is 20 meters.
Illustration 1. Illustration 2 is your observation of your target, a stopped tank. The blockhouse on which you have your reticle oriented is Target AF2010. You have measured the flash to bang to the tank as 12 seconds.
Illustration 2. R-7
What is the grid to the target? a. b.
DIRECTION 2250, DISTANCE 4200 DIRECTION 2090, DISTANCE 4200 DIRECTION 2250, DISTANCE 3600 DIRECTION 2090, DISTANCE 3600
DIRECTION 2170, RIGHT 320 DROP 100 DIRECTION 2250, LEFT 320, ADD 100 DIRECTION 2090, LEFT 320, DROP 100 DIRECTION 2250, RIGHT 340, DROP 100
Spotting is most correctly defined as a. b. c. d.
What is the shift from known point 1 to the target? a. b. c. d.
Which is the correct polar plot of the target? a. b. c. d.
an estimation of the adjustment necessary to cause subsequent impacts to occur on the target or at the proper height above the target. a mental determination of the impact of the round in relation to the target and OT line for HOB, range, and deviation. a measurement of the impact of the round in relation to the OT line for deviation and HOB. an estimation of the adjustment necessary to cause subsequent impacts to occur on the target.
Which is the correct definition for corrections? a. b. c. d.
Estimation of the adjustment necessary to cause subsequent impacts to occur on the target or at the proper height above the target Measurement of the impact of the round in relation to the target for range and HOB Measurement of the impact of the round in relation to the target and OT line for deviation, range, and HOB Estimation of the adjustment necessary to cause subsequent impacts to occur on the target
You spot an impacting round as 50 LEFT. Your distance to the target is 3500 meters. What is your correction? a. b.
ADD 10 DOWN 10
OVER RANGE CORRECT
You observe the round beyond the target and left of the vertex. Which is the correct spotting? a. b.
You observe the round in front of the target and to the right of the vertex. Which is the correct spotting? a. b.
REPEAT UP 10
You observe the round left of the vertex and next to the target on the horizontal line. Which is the correct spotting? a. b.
LEFT 200 LEFT 150
You observe the round as being past the target and to the left of the vertex. Which is the correct spotting? a. b.
You spot a round as AIR 10. Your distance to the target is 1450 meters. What is your correction? a. b.
RIGHT 200 RIGHT 150
The impacts occur half on the ground, half in the air. Which is the correct spotting? a. b.
MIXED AIR MIXED
The impacts occur with two on the ground and four in the air. Which is the correct spotting? a. b.
MIXED AIR MIXED
The impacts occur with four on the ground and two in the air. Which is the correct spotting? a. b.
AIR MIXED GRAZE
AIR MIXED GRAZE
MIXED AIR MIXED
The impacts occur to the right of the target, on the horizontal line. Which is the correct spotting? a. b.
MIXED GRAZE RANGE CORRECT, RIGHT
MIXED AIR OVER, RIGHT
Matching: For items 48 through 51, match the adjusting technique in column 1 with its correct definition in column 2. Selections in column 2 may be used more than once.
48. 49. 50. 51.
Successive bracketing Hasty bracketing One round adjustment Creeping fires
a. b. c. d.
The best method for an inexperienced observer Pick an alternate aiming point and adjust with corrections of 100 meters or less Will not attempt to establish a bracket Spot and correct for deviation and range concurrently
Items 52 through 54 refer to the following situation. Use the illustration below and read the situation carefully, then answer items 52 through 54.
Situation: You have estimated the range to the target as 1050 meters and counted the flash-to-bang for the impact as 4 seconds. 52.
What would be your correction for successive bracketing? a. b.
RIGHT 25 RIGHT 250
RIGHT 250, DROP 400 RIGHT 30, DROP 400
RIGHT 30, DROP 350 RIGHT 250, DROP 350
What would be your correction for one-round adjustment? a. b.
What would be your correction for hasty bracketing? a. b.
RIGHT 250, DROP 400 RIGHT 25, DROP 400
RIGHT 250, DROP 400 RIGHT 25, DROP 400
RIGHT 30, DROP 350 RIGHT 250, DROP 350
What are the maximum range corrections in creeping fires? a. b.
ADD/DROP 50 ADD/DROP 100
You have spotted the first round in offset adjustment as OVER, 35 LEFT. The flash-to-bang time to the impact is 3 seconds. The target is at direction 1650 and distance 1200. The alternate adjusting point is at direction 1800 and distance 1000. What will your next correction be? a. b.
PE/R 38 ANGLE-T 0300
Destruction Immediate suppression
Immediate suppression Suppression
Neutralization Immediate suppression
You are engaging an enemy defensive position in order to neutralize it. You have located the target accurately by grid. Which type of fire mission will you conduct? a. b.
You must temporarily stop an enemy OP from directing fires against your unit's advance. Which effect do you desire from the fire mission? a. b.
ANGLE-T 0150, PE/R 25 ANGLE-T 0500, PE/R 10
You have observed an enemy fortified gun position which has halted the advance of your unit and you want to kill it. Which effect do you desire from the fire mission? a. b.
LEFT 150, ADD 200 LEFT 115, ADD 150
You observe a company of infantry dismounting from vehicles. You wish to severely degrade their combat efficiency without a large ammunition expenditure. Which effect do you desire from the fire mission? a. b.
Which transmission from the FDC would cause you to consider ping-pong in your adjustment? a. b.
RIGHT 150, DROP 200 LEFT 35, DROP 50
Suppression Immediate suppression
Fire for effect Adjust fire
Which adjust fire mission is conducted solely to locate the target? a. b.
Adjust fire Precision fire
Creeping fire Area fire
Matching: For items 63 through 66, match the type of sheaf in column 1 with its correct definition in column 2. Selections in column 2 may be used more than once. After the corresponding number on the answer sheet, blacken the appropriate circle.
63. 64. 65. 66.
Circular Open Parallel Converged
a. b. c. d. e.
In which of the four listed situations would you call for a suppression mission? a. b. c. d.
Forms a pattern of bursts that resemble placement in the gun position Forms a pattern of bursts in a straight line, separated by an effective burst width Forms a pattern of bursts impacting in a circle Forms a pattern of bursts impacting around the same point Forms a pattern of bursts impacting 50 meters apart
An enemy OP that might direct fires against attacking Marines An enemy machinegun position providing supporting fires against your position during a counter attack An enemy OP directing fires against your defensive positions An enemy reconnaissance patrol scouting your flanks
In which of the four listed situations would you call for an immediate suppression mission? a. b. c. d.
An enemy OP directing fires against your defensive positions during an attack An enemy OP directing fires against a reconnaissance patrol An enemy OP that might direct fires against attacking Marines An enemy OP directing fires against your Marines during an attack
What are the six elements of the call-for-fire in correct transmission order? a. b. c. d.
You are calling for a time on target mission. How do you coordinate the timing with the FDC? a. b. c. d.
Send the mark immediately after you say TIME ON TARGET. Send the FDC the time to fire off of you wrist watch Send a time mark in relation to H-Hour. Announce the time to fire by separate transmission.
Which of the below correctly lists the elements of the message to observer. a. b. c. d.
Warning order, observer identification, target description, target location, method of engagement, and method of fire and control. Warning order, observer identification, target location, target description, method of engagement, and method of fire and control. Observer identification, warning order, target description, target location, method of engagement, and method of fire and control. Observer identification, warning order, target location, target description, method of engagement, and method of fire and control.
The elements to fire, changes to the call-for-fire number of rounds, and mission number The elements to fire, the number of adjusting rounds, the number of FFE rounds, and the mission number The elements to fire, the type of adjusting rounds, the number and type of FFE rounds, and mission number The elements to fire, the adjusting round, the number and type of FFE rounds, and mission number
When calling for subsequent adjustments for a mission in which you are one of two observers on the net conducting missions, which is the correct method to use? a. b. c. d.
Key the handset and announce your corrections Identify yourself and announce your corrections Identify yourself, the mission number, and announce your corrections Identify the mission number and announce your corrections
Review Lesson Solutions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.
1101 1102b 1102c 1102a 1201a 1201b 1201c 1204 1204 1203a & b 1202a (1), (2),(3) 1205 1301a 1301b 1301c 1302 1302a 1302a 1302c 1302d 1302b 1302e 2101a, b, c 2102 2302 2202 2202b 2203 2204a 2302b 2301b 2303 2402 2401 2403 3301a 3301b 3304 3307 3301a 3301c 3301b 3301b
b. a. c. b. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. c. b. c. a. b. a. d. a. b. c. e. b. a. c. b. c. d. d. d. b. d. a. a. d. b. a. a. b. a. d. c. b. R-15
Review Lesson Solutions (cont.)
44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72.
3302c 3302d 3302e 3303c 3401a 3401b 3401c 3401d 3402 3403 3403 3405 3407 3406 3101b 3101a 3101c 3103 3103a 3202e(6) 3202e(6) 3202e(6) 3202e(6) 3105 3106 3202 3202f(2) 3203f(2) 3203
d. c. b. b. a. d. c. b. b. b. a. d. b. b. a. c. b. c. d. c. b. a. d. a. b. d. c. a. b.
MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE COURSE CONTENT ASSISTANCE REQUEST 08.61 Basic Forward Observation Procedures Use this form for questions you have about this course. Write out your question(s) and refer to the study unit, lesson, exercise item, or the review lesson exam item you are having a problem with. Before mailing, fold the form and staple it so that MCI’s address is showing. Additional sheets may be attached to this side of the form. Your question(s) will be answered promptly by the Distance Instructor responsible for this course.
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MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE COURSE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE MCI 08.61 Basic Forward Observation Procedures Directions: This questionnaire is extremely important to the Marine Corps Institute. The course you have just completed has undergone extensive development and revision. As an integral part of the continued success of this course, YOUR HELP IS NEEDED. By completing this questionnaire, your responses may result in a need to review the course. Please take five minutes, complete the questionnaire and return it to MCI in the self-addressed envelop provided with your course materials. Additional comment sheets may be attached to this questionnaire. If you want to be contacted by the course instructor, please provide your name, rank, and phone number. Regardless of whether you want to be contacted or not, please enter your primary military occupational speciality (MOS). Information About YOU: Rank
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