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A. Background of the Study This study aims to produce an alternative specimen stain for plant and animal tissues. It also conceptualize a natural a specimen stain from Basella Rubra (alugbati) that is inexpensive and whose sources are indigenous and abumdant. The viewing of microscopic pant and animal tissues is possible through biological stain. When applied, the specimens being viewed become more visible. Before performing such experiments and observations of microscopic detail, it usually starts in preparation of the material to facilitate the progress. Most of the biological techniques use synthetic chemical compounds made from substances from coal tar. Natural dyes are rarely use nowadays, that’s why the researchers deal with the study of having the biological effect of the Basella Rubra extract as specimen stain. B. Statement of the Problem This study seeks to find the biological effect of Basella Rubra (alugabati) extract as specimen stain on plant and animal tissues. Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions: 1. How many Basella Rubra extract measure in ML is needed to produce a specimen stain? 2. How accurate is the specimen stain from the mixture of the Basella Rubra and water? 3. To what extent is the expiration of the said product? C. Significance of the Study The researchers focus on conceptualizing a natural specimen stain form Basella Rubra extract. This study is essential to help teachers, students, students, scientists and people whose perceptive in environmental phenomena. In this research, the Basella Rubra extract which are only considered as medicinal plant will be used as alternative specimen stain on plant and animal tissues. Costly materials are not needed. Researchers will learn the use of Basella Rubra extract as specimen stain on plant and animal tissues. Researchers will be able to produce a large percent of specimen stain in just using the extract form Basella Rubra without any longer process that other specimen stain undergo and costly materials that other specimen stain contain. D. Scope and Limitation Researchers will only test the biological effect of Basella Rubra extract as specimen stain on plant and animal tissues not on chemicals. Researchers will
only use water and Basella Rubra extract for each treatment, both measured in ml. The researchers will not add other chemicals or ingredients to the treatments. In this study, researchers will tets to see if Basella Rubra extract can be used as specimen stain on plant and animal tisseus and how effective they will be. Researchers will be using three treatments, each with different amount of Basella Rubra extract (measured in ml.) mixed with 25ml of water. Review of Related Literature A succulent, branched, smooth, twining herbaceous vine, several meters in length. Stems are purplish or green. Leaves are fleshy, ovate or heart-shaped, 5-29 cms long, stalked, tapering to a pointed tip with a cordate base. Spikes are axillary, solitary, 5-29 cm long. Fruit is fleshy, stalkless, ovoid or spherical, 5-6 mm long and purple when mature. Distribution found in settled and cultivated areas, in hedges. Properties and constituents: demulcent, diuretic, emollient, laxative, rubefacient; study isolated Basellasaponins A, B, C and D, oleanane-type triterpenes oligoglycosides, together with betavulgaroside 1, spinacoside C and momordins IIb and IIc, from flesh aerial parts. Uses nutritional common market product, a popular leafy and stew vegetable, a good substitute for spinach. The green and purple cultivated varieties are preferable to the wild ones. Both the young shoots and stems are eaten. Excellent source of calcium and iron; good source of vitamins A, B and C, with a high roughage value. Folkloric roots are employed as rubefacient. Poultice of leaves use to redue local swelling. Sap is applied to acne eruptions to reduce inflammations. Decoction of leaves used for its mild laxative effects. Pulped leaves applied to boils and ulcers to hasten suppuration. Sugared juice of leaves useful for catarrhal afflictions. Leaf-juice, mixed with butter, is soothing and cooling when applied to burns and scalds. In Ayurveda, used for hemorrhages, skin diseases, sexual weakness, ulcers and as laxative in children and pregnant women. In Nigeria, use for fertility enhancement in women. Studies: • Anthocyanins/Natural Food Colorant : Study of pigment extracted from fruits of spinach vine (B. Rubra) showed good stability with a potential as a natural food color. • Antifungal : Study yielded two antifungal peptides with potent activity against Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicolaand Fusarim Oxyporum. • Antimicrobial : A study of aqueous, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of the leaves of Basella Rubra exhibited antimicrobial activity against all test organisms except aeruginosa. The ethanolic responsible for the antimicrobial effect. Specimen Stain Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopicimage. Stains and dyes are frequently used in biology and
medicine to highlight structures inbiological tissues for viewing, often with the aid of different microscopes. Stains may be used to define and examine bulk tissues (highlighting, for example, muscle fibers or connective tissues) cell populations (classifying different blood cells, for instance) or organelles within individual cells. In biochemistry, it involves adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. Staining and fluorescent tagging can serve similar purposes. Bilogical staining is also used to mark cells in flow cytometry, and to flag proteins or nucleic acids in gel eletrophoresis. Staining is not limited to biological materials, it can also be used to study of morphology of other materials for example the lamellar structures of semicrystalline polymers of the domain structures of block copolymers. http://www.stuartexhange.org/Alugbati.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staining Methodology In order for the researchers to do the experiment, we needed alugbati extract and some water as specimen stain. It was then pounded, with the use of mortar and pestle to acquire the extract in three different amounts of Basella Rubra (measured in ml) to create three different treatments. - 25 ml water mixed with 25 ml alugbati extract - 25 ml water mixed with 50 ml alugbati extract - 25 ml water mixed with 100 ml alugbati extract And in order for the researchers to find out whether it is really effective as specimen stain, we the tested each treatment to plant and animal tissue. Data and Results
25 ml water
First Treatment 25 ml Alugbati extract Plant and animal tissue was viewed clearly
Second Treatment 50 ml Alugbati extract Plant and animal tissue was viewed definably
Third Treatment 100 ml Alugbati extract Plant and animal tissue was viewed clearly, detailed and definably
Based on the researcher’s experimentation: •
In the first treatment, the plant and animal tissue was viewed clearly with 25 ml Alugabti extract and 25 ml water.
In the second treatment, the plant and animal tissue was viewed definably with 50 ml Alugbati extract and 25 ml water. In the third treatment, the plant and animal tissue was viewed clearly, detailed and definably with 100 ml Alugbati extract and 25 ml water.
Analysis of Data Based on our data and results, we were able to fin gout that the plant and animal tissue is viewed clearly, detailed and definably if the amount of Basella Rubra extract used in treatment is greater than the amount of water. It is because of the substance present in Alugbati, being in larger amount than the water, takes the biological effect immediately. So, having more extract of Basella Rubra in a treatment will make the view of plant and animal tissue clearly, detailed and definably. Conclusion In our experimentation of conducting the study about the biological effect of Basella Rubra extract as specimen stain on plant and animal tissue, we found out that: • The view of plant and animal tissue is viewed clearly, detailed and definably by using the Basella Rubra extract solution, composed of 25 ml water and 100 ml Basella Rubra extract. • The treatments were all accurate in terms of viewing the tissue clearly. The viewing of plant and animal tissue would be more definably if the amount of Basella Rubra extract is dominant than the water. • Of all the treatments we used, the third treatment took the biological effect most accurate. Being composed of 25 ml water and 100 ml of Basella Rubra extract.