Automotive Navigation Systems Ppt

August 2, 2018 | Author: Varun Ganapathy | Category: Global Positioning System, Navigation, Electronics, Information Science, Technology
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Presentation On Automotive Navigation system





Contents      

 What is Automotive Navigation System? How it works? GPS device How the GPS device works? How to choose the GPS device Road database Content Map Formats CARiN S-Dal Physical Storage Format Controversies

What is Automotive Navigation System? 

An automotive navigation system is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. First introduced as soon as microprocessor technology came in to existence in 1970’s by ETAK. It typically uses a GPS navigation device to acquire position data to locate the user on a road in the unit's map database. This is used to locate a point of interest , and make us to reach our destination correctly and in time. In traffic jams also it can suggest other routes to reach our destination. This total work is done by the GPS device installed in our automobile .

How it works? 

The navigation system in automobiles synchronizes with the satellite navigation system to locate the vehicle. The Global Positioning System locates the user by contacting the global navigation satellite system by utilizing a GPS receiver. Dead Reckoning: This is the procedure of estimating the current position from the position that was previously determined, along with time elapsed speed and course to get an approximate position.

GPS device 

GPS or Global Positioning System is a satellite-based navigation system that consists of network of 18 to 24 satellites that are placed in the earth’s orbit.

It is developed by the US Department of Defense.

Different GPS devices are:

Hand held



Car in-built

Portable navigation

Marine GPS

The GPS features three major components 

Satellite system

The ground control station

The hand-held device called receivers.

The satellite system includes 24 satellites, divided into six groups of four satellites each. This system of satellites, orbiting at approximately 20,000 km above the earth's surface in twelve orbits, encompasses the six orbital planes.

Working 

Global Positioning System satellites circle the earth in the same orbit, twice a day and transmit signals down to the stations located on mother earth. The information retrieved from these signals is taken and then triangulation is used to accurately calculate the user’s precise location. The GPS receiver will then compare the time when the signal was transmitted by the satellite to the time the signal was received. This time difference will then tell the receiver how far away the satellite actually is. With these distance measurements from a couple of the satellites, the receiver will then be able to determine the user’s exact position and will then display it on an electronic map in the unit.

How to choose a GPS device?  

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The device must serve in our budget. It should satisfy the need of the user i.e for pure traffic navigation, hand free phone or DVD’s, 2 way communicators, tracking devices, compass, altimeter. Easy to use and interpret. Size and weight, size of screen and its reliability in both daylight and night, audio feature should be clear. Check battery life details, kind of battery used and rechargeable capacity. More storage capacity. Accuracy of location and travel routes are the most important features of GPS navigation system.

Road Database  Contents:The road database is a vector map of some area of 

interest. Street names or numbers and house numbers are encoded as geographic coordinates so that the user can find some desired destination by street address .  Points of interest (waypoints) will also be stored with their geographic coordinates.  Point of interest specialties include speed cameras, fuel stations, public parking, and "parked here"  Contents can be produced by the user base as their cars drive along existing streets (Wi-Fi) and communicating via the internet, yielding a free and up-to-date map.

 Initial maps are created at the manufacturer by programming a

ROM, hard disk, CD, DVD or flash memory.  The navigation system can be connected to internet, CD, DVD, or computer to download map updates. Navigation systems also give information about traffic conditions by receiving information from a travel message channel or TMC and displays alternate routes to avoid traffic. TMC is a digitally coded system and delivers extremely accurate information through radio RDS.  Other miscellaneous services provided by the navigation systems are personal information management, meeting and anniversary reminders, capturing images of the location, speakers which can be connected through Bluetooth, video broadcasting on the LCD screen and much more.

Map formats 

There are several formats in which the road database represented. Some are: 

CARiN S-Dal Physical Storage Format


CARiN = Car Information and Navigation

CARiN Database Format (CDF) is a proprietary navigation map format created by Philips Car Systems and is used in a number of navigationequipped vehicles.

The first navigation computers using this map format used the Microware OS9000 operating system.

The original system uses CD-ROM-based maps, with ISO Level 1 encoding for their file system.

Mapmedia can be recognized by the presence of the following files on the CD: 






S - Dal This is a proprietary map format published by NAVTEQ, who released it royalty free in the hope that it would become an industry standard for digital navigation maps. •

Physical Storage Format The Physical Storage Format (PSF) initiative is an industry grouping of car manufacturers, navigation system suppliers and map data suppliers whose objective is the standardization of the data format used in car navigation systems, as well as allow a map update capability. Standardization would improve interoperability, specifically by allowing the same navigation maps to be used in navigation systems from different manufacturers. •

Controversies 

Safety measures:

The manufacturers claim this is a safety feature to avoid the driver being distracted. Many users have complained that passengers are not able to enter destinations while in motion, even though it is safe to do so. Additionally, drivers have complained that it is often more dangerous to pull off a highway and stop than it would be to enter a destination into the system. 


A number of road accidents have been attributed to misdirection by satnav systems. 

GPS vs speed camera accuracy

An Australian man successfully overturned a speeding conviction after evidence from a GPS navigational track proved that he did not exceed the speed limit.

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