Automatic Tyre Inflation System

October 11, 2017 | Author: Sanjana Singh | Category: Tire, Valve, Gas Compressor, Truck, Fuel Economy In Automobiles
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PROJECT REPORT ON

AUTOMATIC INFLATION OF TIRES

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report“Automatic inflation of tires”is the bonafide work of

“Gursharansingh,

Jagmohan

Manes,

AnujKhattri,

ShukhjinderSingh”they carried out the project work under my supervision and guidance.

Project Guide:Er. Jasjevan Singh Lec.Mechanical Engg.Deptt

SIGNATURE

CONTENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

INTRODUCTION TIRE INFLATION BASICS SELF INFLATING SYSTEMS CENTRAL TIRE INFLATING SYSTEM DESIGN OF MODEL AIR COMPRESSOR PRESSURE SWITCH

8. NON RETURN VALVE 9. AIR SEAL 10.WORKING OF MODEL 11.COST REPORT 12.ADVANTAGES 13.CONCLUSION 14.REFRENCES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all we thank to avail this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude towards Mr. R.S Mahal , Head of Mechanical Engineering Department, for permitting us to make this project. We also want to express our profound gratitude towards our project guide Mr. Jasjevan Singh, for his inspiring assistance, encouragement and useful guidance.

We are also indebted to all the teaching and non- teaching staff of the department of mechanical engineering for their cooperation and suggestions, which is the spirit behind this project. Last but not the least, we wish to express our sincere thanks to all my friends for their goodwill and constructive ideas.

Introduction This project work titled automatic tire inflation system deals with the difficulty in driving the vehicles with low and high tyre pressure. The irregular and uneven tyre pressures causes difficulty in driving and even leads to the accidents. This can be implemented on the vehicles which have air braking system .The project automatic tyre inflation system is concentrated in maintaining the tyre pressures and thereby reducing the driving difficulties. This is done by mechanical means and not by using any sensors and other electronics. The air can be inflated into the tyres without stopping the vehicle. The air from the air tank is used for inflating the tyres. The air from the tank is sent to the tyres through a one way valve. The twist made in the air hose is prevented by a joint. The design of the system is very simple and also very economical. Therefore it can be implemented easily in the vehicles. The space requirement for the installation is also very less. Automatic tire inflation systems can save tire maintenance costs and improve fuel economy by nearly 1 percent, saving 100 gallons of fuel and eliminating 1

metric ton of greenhouse gas emissions per year. Properly inflated tires also have fewer punctures and a longer life expectancy.

What is the challenge? When not properly inflated, tires flex more under load. This produces heat and increases rollingresistance, which wastes fuel. Truck tires inflated 10 pounds per square inch (psi) belowrecommended air pressure levels can reduce truck fuel economy between 0.5 percent and 1percent. Since the bulk of the load is carried in the trailer, a 10-psi underinflation in a trailer tiremay have nearly twice the impact on truck fuel economy as the same amount of underinflationin a drive tire. Heat and stress from improper inflation softens and deflects tire components, causing fasterand more uneven wear, which shortens the life of the tire. Underinflated tires have more frequentpunctures, increasing the risk of tire failures that could lead to costly road service andloss of revenue.Despite the importance, a recent survey of combination trucks found that less than half the tires surveyed were within 5 percent of the recommended inflation pressure. Another industrysurvey indicates only 8 percent of truck drivers check tire pressure with a tire gage before eachtrip. One reason fleets may find it difficult to keep tires properly inflated is because truck tirescan lose up to 2 psi each month, even if the rim seal and valve stems are tight. A fleet may notbe able to inspect or monitor its’ trailer tires regularly due to the fact that extended periods oftime are spent away from service yards and because trailers are interchangeable. This places greater responsibility for checking tire pressure onto drivers.

What is the solution? Automatic tire inflation (ATI) systems monitor and continually adjust the level of pressurizedair in tires, maintaining proper tire inflation automatically even while the truck is in motion.One ATI system uses the vehicle’s own air-brake compressor to supply air to all the tires. Oncean ATI system is installed, it should not require any special attention from the drivers. Thiseliminates the need to check tire pressure manually, which saves time and labor while ensuringconsistent and proper tire inflation.

Automatic Air Inflation System

Tire-Inflation Basics According to AAA, about 80 percent of the cars on the road are driving with one or more tires underinflated. Tires lose air through normal driving (especially after hitting pot holes or curbs), permeation and seasonal changes in temperature. They can lose one or two psi (pounds per square inch) each month in the winter and even more in the summer. And, you can't tell if they're properly inflated just by looking at them. You have to use a tire-pressure gauge. Not only is underinflation bad for

your tires, but it's also bad for your gas mileage, affects the way your car handles and is generally unsafe.

When tires are underinflated, the tread wears more quickly. According to Goodyear, this equates to 15 percent fewer miles you can drive on them for every 20 percent that they're underinflated. Underinflated tires also overheat more quickly than properly inflated tires, which causes more tire damage. The faded areas below indicate areas of excessive tread wear.

Because tires are flexible, they flatten at the bottom when they roll. This contact patch rebounds to its original shape once it is no longer in contact with the ground. This rebound creates a wave of motion along with some friction. When there is less air in the tire, that wave is larger and the friction created is greater -- and friction creates heat. If enough heat is generated, the rubber that holds the tire's cords together begin to melt and the tire fails. See How Tires Work to learn more.

Because of the extra resistance an underinflated tire has when it rolls, your car's engine has to work harder. AAA statistics show that tires that are underinflated by as little as 2 psi reduce fuel efficiency by 10 percent. Over a year of driving, that can amount to several hundred dollars in extra gas purchases.

How Tires Fails:-

 Tires flatten at the bottom when they roll.  Rebounds to its original shape once it is no longer in contact with the ground.  Creates a wave of motion along with some friction.  Under inflated tires, waves are larger and the friction created is greater  Friction creates heat.  If enough heat is generated, the rubber that holds the tire's cords togetherbegin to melt  And the tire fails

Disadvantages of improper inflation: Hence the friction created is greater.  Friction creates heat and if enough heat is generated the rubber that holds the tire cords melts and tire trails.  Because of the extra resistance an under inflated tire

has when it

rolls,thecars engine has to work harder.  As it effects mileage it can cause severe loss in the cost considerations.

Self-inflating Systems: Tire-inflation systems general goals:

 Detect when the air pressure in a particular tire has dropped - This means they have to constantly (or intermittently) monitor the air pressure in each tire.  Notify the driver of the problem Inflate that tire back to the proper level - This means there has to be an air supply as well as a check valve that opens only when needed.



Parts of A Self-inflating System  Valve to isolate individual tires  Central sensors for sensing the tire pressures.these  Air source, which is usually an existing onboard source  Get the air from the air source to the tires, which is usually through the axle Systems either use a sealed-hub axle with a hose from the hub to the tire valve or else they run tubes through the axle with the axle acting as a conduit.  A pressure relief vent to vent air from the tire without risking damage to the hub or rear-axle seals.

Central Tire Inflation System (CTIS):-

 The idea behind the CTIS is to provide control over the air pressure in each tire.  As a way to improve performance on different surfaces.  Driver can give direct control over the air pressure in each tire  To maintain pressure in the tires if there is a slow leak or puncture.  System controls inflation automatically based on the selected pressure the driver has set.

CTIS: Inside:Parts are:  A wheel valve  Electronic control unit  Pneumatic control unit  Operator control panel  Speed sensor  Pressure switch

Wheel valve: A wheel valve is located at each wheel end.  Part of the wheel valve's job is to isolate the tire from the system when it's not in use in order to let the pressure off of the seal and extend its life.  The wheel valve also enables on-demand inflation and deflation of the tires.

Operator control panel: An operator control panel allows the driver to select tire-pressure modes to match current conditions.  This dash-mounted panel displays current tire pressures, selected modes and system status.  When the driver selects a tire-pressure setting, signals from the control panel travel to the electronic control unit to the pneumatic control unit to the wheel valves.

Pressure Switch: This type of system uses air from the same compressor that supplies air to the brakes.  A pressure switch makes sure the brake system gets priority, preventing the CTIS from taking air from the supply tank until the brake system is fully charged.

Future of self inflatingtyres: one of the major systems in the developmental stages is the entire system.  This system uses a valve that pulls in air from the atmosphere.it then pumps the air into the underinflated tire using a peristaltic pump action. The goal is to maintain a specific pressure.

Model:-

This is the general layout of our model of the automatic inflation of tires. It shows all the parts of the model and gives a general idea of it’s working.

Air Compressor An air compressor is a device that converts power (usually from an electric motor, a diesel engine or a gasoline engine) into kinetic energy by compressing and pressurizing air, which, on command, can be released in quick bursts.

In fact, nowadays it is used for such purposes which you would not have imagined in till the recent past. Basically, a modern air compressor amplifies the damaging effect of water vapor and airborne particles by virtue of air compressors lowest prices the compression process. Those days of spending hours pounding nails to complete a project are over! sewing They are more susceptible to debris because they do not have suction valves. Therefore, if space is not a significant issue, then there is no need to focus specifically on the direction that the online shop target air compressor’ s tank lays. Most of these have oil free target pumps which make them very low maintenance. They can literally help you perform hundreds of functions and can be taken just about anywhere. For garage purposes, an electric air compressor will do fine. Plus make sure that any moisture has been removed from the compressed air source before connecting prices the tool. Air Sander. Brands names that would seem more comfortable in the use of a nail gun or jack hammer. Installing and maintenance takes working knowledge of the application and the vehicle where it is being installed. The compression that occurs in the air tanks of your compressors compressor causes moisture to accumulate inside those tanks. Poly Vinyl Chloride ( PVC) is another synthetic sewing laundry material composed of thermoplastic lowest polymers which is used to make hose for air compressors lowest prices special online applications. Everything seemed just fine. These purchases often entail very few, if any, guarantees. Owning this kind of compressor sounds fun and helpful but it shop is first important to consider the things before buying it. This is the volume of the air that the gas compressor delivers. It is

recommended that you purchase an air compressor with a CFM capacity of 25% greater than what you will need. All you have to do while going online is find the latest models in the popular search engines and you would get access to a plethora of information. The laundry second compressor takes this already compressed air from the tank and air then recompresses it a second air compressors lowest prices time and stores this air in a separate tank. Coleman air compressor is remarkable in its use; it does not have a match because of the incredible duty and power it possesses. Used air compressors have become a highly sought out commodity due to this fact.

Pressure switch A pressure switch is a form of switch that makes electrical contact when a certain set pressure has been reached on its input. This is used to provide on/off switching from a pneumatic or hydraulic source. The switch may be designed to make contact either on pressure rise or on pressure fall.

Uses of pressure switches include:

 Switching off an electrically driven gas compressorwhen a set pressure is achieved in the reservoir.  Switching off a gas compressor, whenever there is no feed in the suction stage.  in-cell charge control in a battery  Switching on/off an alarm light in the cockpit of an aircraft if cabin pressure (based on altitude) is critically low.

Non return valve A non-return valve or one-way valve is a mechanical device, a valve, which normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction.

Non-return valve are two-port valves, meaning they have two openings in the body, one for fluid to enter and the other for fluid to leave. There are various types of check valves used in a wide variety of applications. non-return valve are often part of common household items. Although they are available in a wide range of sizes and costs, non-return valve generally are very small, simple, and/or inexpensive. non-return valve work automatically and most are not controlled by a person or any external control; accordingly, most do not have any valve handle or stem. The bodies (external shells) of most non-return valve are made of plastic or metal.

An important concept in non-return valve is the cracking pressure which is the minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will operate. Typically the nonreturn valve is designed for and can therefore be specified for a specific cracking pressure.

Air seal

Air seal is used to prevent the leakage of air from the pipes specially at joints and bends. It can connect two pipes rigidly so that there is no leakage from them. It can also makes pipes flexible so that they can be bent. These air seals are of many materials but we use Teflon for our model.

Working of Our Model

The model mainly shows the automatic inflation of tires. In this model we use components such as air compressor, non return valve, pressure switch, air seal Pressure gauges, tire and pipes.

When the pressure of the tire decreases that reading is also shown on the gauges of the pressure switch then the pressure switch starts the compressor

automatically start compressor and the tire gets inflated automatically to the point which is preset. That presetting of the pressure value is the function of pressure switch which can be adjusted to any value. When the compressor starts the compressed air generated in it goes to the non return valve thento air seal through the pressure switch which regulates it. This pressure switch is the important part of our model fitted between non return valve and air seal it has two gauges which shows the reading of pressure in tire. Then the air goes to the tire when it gets inflated up to set point then the compressor automatically stops and the air supply also stops.

We also use some safety concerns for proper and safe working of our project such as an aluminium pipe is fitted between compressor and pressure switch. If

there is any blockage in the system so that the air cant go further in that case our compressor can burst which leads to a serious accident. In that case the aluminium pipe will burst and releases the air and there is no harm to our compressor. The two gauges are used in the system because in case if any of the gauge stops working so we get reading from the other gauge.

Cost report

Air Compressor : -

Rs. 9500

Pressure Switch : - Rs. 1500 Non Return Valve : - Rs. 400 Air Seal : - Rs. 400 Tire : - Rs. 1000 Supports , Pipes & Board : - Rs. 800 Fitting &Transportation : -

TOTAL : -

Rs.1500

Rs. 15,100

Automatic Tire Inflation Systems Savings and Benefits

Hence the friction created is greater. Friction creates heat and if enough heat is generated the rubber that holds the tire cords melts and tire trails. Because of the extra resistance an under inflated tire has when it rolls,thecars engine has to work harder. As it effects mileage it can cause severe loss in the cost considerations. ATI systems can not only extend tire life but truck fleets can also see additional savings from reducing the risk ofexpensive tire failure caused by underinflation. Installing an ATI system on a truck’s drive axles and trailer costs up to $800. For a typical long-haul combination truck, annual fuel savings could reach 100 gallons, saving $380 in fuel cost and eliminating 1 metric ton of greenhouse gas emissions. Annual tire maintenance costs can also decrease. The cost of installing an ATI system in a long-haul truck is generally recouped in just over 2 years through fuel and maintenance cost savings.

CONCLUSION Thus self inflatingtyres help us in attaining certain helpful criterions.

1. It helps in the monitoring of tyre pressure constantly 2. Thus it provides inflation or deflation of the tyre 3. It helps in attaining better mileage 4. It also helps in providing comfortable driving. 5.To control tire pressure according to driving conditions

REFERENCES

1. Crouse.Anglin,” Automotive Mechanics”, Tata McGraw Hills. 2. www.howstuffswork.com 3. www.cycloid.com 4. www.goodyeartyres.com 5. Wikipedia

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