Astro Book History

September 13, 2017 | Author: Siva Pillai | Category: Astrology, Science, Mind, Guru, Scientific Method
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Indian Astrology (A collection of astrological articles) By Sreenath OG (email: [email protected])

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Table of Contents

These are some of the aritcles I wrote in yahoo groups such as ‘ancient_indian_astrolgy” and “vedic astrolgy” during the past 2 years. Since much effort went into creating them, at that time. I thought it would be beneficial for others as well if presented as a book. So I took them, polished them a bit here and there, making them proper to be presented in a book, and here is the outcome. The subject matter of these articles ranges from general discussion about astrolgy to more technical issues that were always under contraversy. I have arranged these articles into four sections. * General articles

Part - 1 1. Base of Astrolgy ..................................................................03 2. Outline of Holistic subjects .................................................07 3. Arsha School of Astrology ..................................................09 4. Jain School of Astrology .....................................................14 5. Yavana School of Astrology ................................................17 6. Astrology in Kularnava Tantra ............................................20 7. Tantric Astrology and Dattatreya Mahatantra ......................25

* Articles about pure astrology

8. Swastika and Astrology ......................................................30

* Technical articles that involves Mathematics as well * Non-astrological articles

9. About the system of Black Magic .......................................32 10. Tajik Astrology .................................................................34

Hope this division will help the readers in co-relating these disconnected articles in a helpful way. These articles cover some unique matrial that you may not find anywhere else, and so would be useful to every astrologer who want to master this subject. Most of these articles contains technical terms and astrological content and therefore would be of interest to astrologer only, but still there are many articles primarly in first section which would be of interest to everybody who would like to know more about astrology. Sreenadh OG [email protected] http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ancient_indian_astrology

Part - 2 11. Sign and House are the same ............................................37 12. Divisions such as Trimsamsa ............................................39 13. Year Length ......................................................................42 14. Origin of the word Jyotisha ..............................................44 15. Astrology in Epic period ...................................................45 16. Nakshatra Chakra .............................................................46 17. A Secret Exposed .............................................................48 18. Bhava nasa karo Jeeva? ...................................................53 19. How to predict with Navamsa .........................................56 20. Vasya Signs .....................................................................59 21. Marriage Compatibility .....................................................62

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23. Stars and Planets ...............................................................64 24. Sakunas and Nimittas .......................................................67 25. Chaya Jyotish ...................................................................70 26. What is Drishti? ................................................................73 27. Kunda Birth Rectification Method ...................................78 Part -3 28. True Ayanamsa .................................................................80 29. Zero Ayanamsa Year ........................................................ 86 Part -4 30. About the Gospel of Eve ..................................................92 31. Rama call Buddha a ‘Thief’!.............................................94 32. Siva Sankalpa Sukta .........................................................97 - 000 -

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Part -I Base of Astrology Vedic astrology is a subject originated in Vedas. It is a branch of knowledge, ancient as Vedas. Astrology is composed of 3 Skandhas (main branches), such as Sidhantha (Astronomy and Maths), Samhitha (Omens) and Hora (Horoscope-Horary and Muhoortha). Astrology was also called Kalavidhana Sastha (Ancient advice about Time and its divisions). To determine the nature of time (past-present and future), to find out how the flow of time impacts humans and other animals and plants, and their life containing pleasures and pains, is the aim of this branch of knowledge. It is the root purpose of Astrology. Time is the cause for everything that is good and bad (pleasure or pain) in life. Time is the cause of all movements. Even thought is a time bound (It is also a movement). Even thought cannot break away form the boundaries caused by time, your past present and experience. To predict the happenings (incidents) of life, we should study time. But we cannot see, touch, or hear time, but can know and comprehend it with our mind and analyze it. This is possible only because we can observe movements. It is by watching movements that the concept of time originates in our mind. The movements on Earth (The flying of birds, fall of withered leaves, the flowering of plants etc), the sunrise and sunset, the waxing and waning of moon, if you watch in detail (even the subtleties in cosmic movements) the movements of planets - every thing shows us the existence of time. Time is the cause of movements. It is the cause for the movement of Earth, Moon and Planets. It is the cause for life and death of plants, animals, and humans, it is the cause of all our worldly conditions - birth, marriage, accident, disease, death,

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wealth, poverty or what ever you name it. To know about the life incidents of humans (to predict one’s future) we should study Time. We cannot study it directly. But there is a way out - Time is the cause for movements. So if we study the movements of cosmic bodies (Earth, Moon, Planets etc), we can know or understand or comprehend the rhythm of Time its ebb and flow. If we are able to know the rhythm of Time (the flow of time felt by the human minds), we could predict the life incidents of humans (what he is, and what he would become - but don’t forget of course the prediction is probabilistic). Astrology originates from this basic rationale. So never think that it is irrational or irrelevant, don’t through mud on the truthfulness and sincerity of Rishis (saints) who created this branch of study. Try to understand the sincerity they had. By watching the clock we can determine time. But it is not the clock that controls time. When the birds cry we know that it is sunrise. Still it is not the birds that cause sunrise. Similarly the study of planetary movements helps us to predict the past-presentfuture events of life. But still it is not the planets that controls human destiny. Neither the sunlight that is reflected by the planets, nor the attractive force of planets that has little impact on earth, has much importance. It is a truth both the wise astrologer and the scientist know. Planets are just instruments that helps us in understanding the rhythm of time, the instrument that helps us in predicting the human destiny. It is the way planets are utilized in astrology. Every believer of Vedic astrology should understand this truth. Only when you understand this basic rationale of astrology, the unnecessary arguments and debates will stop. Try to see astrology in its true theoretical foundation. Why should we argue whether astrology is an art or science? Astrology is nothing but astrology. If somebody asks whether bat is bird or not, what would

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be the answer? It will only create an unending array of positive and negative arguments. If somebody asks whether history is science or not, without my intervention, you know that the result would be the same. Bat is bat, history is history and astrology is nothing but astrology, neither science nor an art. The fault is with our view. Why should we try to cast something into a particular mould, or to limit subjects into some colored boxes? Man wants to classify everything. But the truth would be always beyond all the classifications. It stays outside all the classification attempts. The fault lies fundamentally with the fragmented human brain that tries to classify every thing, which ultimately leads to erroneous knowledge. This fundamental error remains unsolved, and we are trying to limit subjects in to predefined boxes. It is the second mistake. Will these repeated errors lead us to correct knowledge and view? When I have written this much, I felt that the fundamental classification error of fragmented human brain should be clarified further. Let me explain. We divide time in many ways, such as hourminute-second, or as Nadi-Vinadi in Indian system, or as cristianvikrama-kali-yuga era or using many other systems that could be used to divide time. Year-month-day divisions, let it be solar-sidereal-lunar, it is all the same. There are thousands of methods! All these classifications originated in human mind. But truly time is beyond all these classifications. Is it the hour-minute division or the nadi-vinadi division that is correct? You know that this question itself is stupid and irrelevant. Time is continuous.... All these classifications are created by the fragmented human brain to comprehend time. Our view is fragmented. It is like a fragmented mirror that shows the picture of the complete and continuous world in a fragmented way. Even though these classifications are necessary for humans to study and comprehend time, the continuous entity “Time” does not need or necessitates all these classification.

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All these classifications are there or not - the time will prevail. Existing always there - beyond... Yes, all the classifications are wrong. But human brain cannot live without them. That is why it is said that every branch of study is nothing but “attempts to comprehend the incomprehensible and complete world with fragmented classifications”. In a fragmented mirror the reflected world would also be fragmented. It is the fundamental limitation of human brain or mind. That is why it is said, “the eternal truth is realized only in a mindless state”. The Vedic verse that says, “where the mind turns back with the unreachable words (etho vacha nivarthanthe aprapya manasa saha) - that is truth” also points in this direction. Due to all this we cannot but accept the fundamental error of trying to comprehend the non-fragmented existence (world), with the fragmented mind. Can’t we at least avoid the second error, i.e. trying to limit astrology into some predefined boxes such as science or art? Can’t we avoid such arguments as whether astrology is art or science? Try to comprehend astrology in its true theoretical foundation. View science as science and art as art, don’t mix-up all. Like humanity is a quality of man neither limited by class-creed-color-religioncast etc, astrology cannot be limited within the classifications such as science or art. When I see the efforts of people to classify astrology into predefined moulds such as science or art, I am just feeling compassionate, because even these classifications are unscientific and nonsystematic. A relevant doubt is, how to classify all the subjects under human study. The thought process of human mind can be broadly classified into two - 1) Analytical 2) Wholistic. The astrologer refers to this duality using the words ooha-apoha, mathematician’s uses the words Differentiation -Integration, and others uses the technical term Analytical approach-Wholistic approach. What ever be the terms used they point to the fundamental

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difference in the thinking approach. These are two different thinking methods. Most of the braches of knowledge we have today is the product of one of these approaches. Science is the product of analytical approach. We used to say that science tries to study everything by dividing it into smaller and smaller parts. Science has its own method (based on analytical approach) called Scientific method. Data collection, concept formation, analysis, verification are part of it. A theory is the final output. These theories may later herald as the true mirrors or knowledge (laws), or based on new data input refined or discarded. Thus science is a continuous search for truth. Starting from small laws that controls our daily life, unstopping it searches for a single law that comprehends everything and describes the whole world. Some theories that are refined further and further become stronger rationally and experimentally, and heralded as laws, that becomes the foundation of science and promotes further study. Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology etc are all branches of science. Maths even though does not follow the scientific method, has a systematic foundation and is a product of analytical approach. “Fact to generalization” is the prime motto of analytical approach. But wholistic study method is an entirely different one. The wholistic approach also had given raise to many branches of knowledge. Let us start from the most common example - i.e. Psychology. Psychology says that all the mental diseases (which may have even physical symptoms) are caused by unhealthiness of mind. In other words Psychology finds its foundation in the concept called Mind. If we knew all about the processes in brain, nervous system, and the chemical reactions in brain and body this concept of mind will not be necessary. We feel the Mind because of the combined and coordinated function of all these. Even though we cannot find Mind by subdividing the body in to its minutest parts (i.e. by physical analysis) nobody will say that psychology is

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a useless subject. By using the classifications such as conscious subconscious -unconscious, id-ego-superego (or the Indian classical division chitt-budhi-ahankara), we believe that psychology leads us towards truth. All the branches of knowledge that originates from wholistic method use one or more non-provable concepts as its foundation, which are accepted based on their usefulness. Psychology is no exception to that. The ancient Indians used the word Sasthra (ancient advice) to indicate such branches of study. Psychology that speaks about Mind, Ayurveda that speaks about Tridosha (Vatha, Pitha and Kapha), Homeopathy and Naturopath that speaks about Vital force, Astrology that speaks about Planets and Signs (Rasis) all are the product of wholistic approach. In this sense subjects such as Psychology, Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Astrology etc does not come under the broad classification called Science. Still we know that nobody will dare to say that Psychology, Ayurveda etc are useless. In the view of ancient people sasthras leads us to truth, they helps us to comprehend truth more clearly, they helps us to know truth that are useful for our existence. Astrology that depends on wholistic approach is no exception to this. In this study method called wholistic approach, firstly to cover all our ignorance about the details of something and to help the further study, some basic concepts are formulated. This hypothetical foundation becomes a springboard for further study. Here also psychology can be taken as a suitable example. When we know 100% about the processes and behavior of brain and body, when we understands which chemical reactions leads to each thought and emotion, when we could clearly state how and where memory is encoded (with its minutest details), when we attain the ability to control all these using chemical and physical mechanisms (machine driven or otherwise) we could discard the concept of mind and psychology. Till then psychology will exist, no matter how ever the scientists express their reaction to it. Similarly when we understands how

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the rhythm of time impacts the living organisms and their life incidents (100% i.e. to its minutest details) astrology will also be discarded. Till then whatever opposing arguments originate, this branch of knowledge will prevail. Even those who accept that Psychology Ayurveda Homeopathy etc are wholistic methods, tend to reject astrology. Why? They ask - How can you say that astrology is based on a fundamental concept like Mind, Tridosha or Vital force used by other branches of wholistic approach? Can you consider Sun Moon and Planets as concepts? Signs (Rasis) such as Aries, Taurus are the divisions of sky - how can they be concepts? All who sincerely study the ancient Vedic astrology knows the answers to such questions. I will explain. Think that we collect the common characteristics or life incidents of children born, when the sun is in some particular sign. Instead of considering these characteristics as that of time, they are projected to sun. Sun is considered the significator of all such characteristics. Later when the sun in the same sign, if a child is born, we predict that, that child will have those predefined (precollected) characteristics. It is a sort of give and take policy. The technique of projecting the characteristics those are not of sun to sun, and later taking them back from sun. Here the sun becomes not the sun that we see with our naked eyes. Sun becomes a concept. This sun is the god Siva, father, gold, soul, courage, success, light, king, govt. service, light, forest, peak, hill... and so many other things. Sun is man, middle-aged, bald, and the significator of diseases due to heat. All these ideas are formed thus. Not only the Sun, Moon and the Planets becomes concepts in this way. What ever is called significators in astrology, they are all concepts (Hypothetical constructs to mould the truth). Yes, in astrology Planets, Houses and Signs are called significators. Therefore Signs, Houses and Planets are the basic concepts used in wholistic study

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method called astrology. Apart from this some other basic concepts that are used by Vedic culture such as Panchabootha (EarthWater-Fire-Air-Sky), Triguna (Sathwa-Rajas-Thamas) etc are also well utilized in astrology. Of the two approaches such as Analytical approach and Wholistic approach, Astrology and Ayurveda is closer to wholistic approach. As these two methods (Analytical and Wholistic) are fundamental to the thought process itself, why should they compete each other? Why should the branches of study that are part of wholistic approach try fruitlessly to become part of science (a product of analytical approach)? Even physics should resort to the use of concepts such as stress, strain, force, time etc. Ayurveda cannot stand away from the fact that the use of its methods should cure the patient. The world we see is composed of both facts and concepts (matter and mind). Because of all this, the analytical approach that takes facts as the starting point and the wholistic approach that takes concepts at the starting point should ultimately meet and help each other to the ultimate fulfillment of human knowledge. They are like yin and yang, the opposing counter parts of one and the same thing. As both of them are the foundation of thought process itself - one defeating the other is impossible. Don’t think that even this classification such as Analytical and Wholistic is complete. Don’t ever think that you can bring all the subjects under the sun into this classification. As I told earlier, all the classifications are nothing but the creations of human mind. The truth would remain outside all classifications. In this case also it is true. (Just think of bringing subjects such as art and history into this classification. You will see what I mean!!) A Vedic astrologer should be ready to approach astrology with such realizations, because astrology is part of a wholistic approach to study the rhythm of time and make probabilistic predications. Hope I have succeeded in conveying the idea that I had.

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Outline of holistic subjects We can structurally classify the subject matter dealt within any holistic subject (Such as astrology, Vastu sastra, Ayurveda etc) into the following 4 categories: 1) Philosophy 2) Concepts 3) Rules 4) Rituals. Let us understand this in a better way by taking astrology as an example. 1) Philosophy

The philosophy such as "Sarva vidyam Brahma vidya Pratishtam" (All knowledge is based on Brahma vidya – the knowledge of the soul and the eternal) is at the root of astrology. Everything is a small print of the eternal. The microcosm and the macrocosm is in rhythmic correlation. We cannot define the eternal Brahman or the duality it has with in, popularly known as Prakriti (Matter) and Purusha (Energy + Time). Brahman represents the spacetime continuum and anything beyond it. It also includes everything the mind can understand and everything beyond it. Brahman (of which space and time is just components) is the reality and what we understand though the classifications and theorems is just the reflection. Mind can only reflect truth and can never comprehend it. The Sun and its reflectionon in water should be entirely different in essence, though seems to be similar. Understanding this truth is the first step in utilizing the study methods (scientific or holistic) provided by the mind itself. So in reality we can not define Brahman (Since every definition has existence only within mind, and Brahman represents mind and things beyond it. Every theorem exists only in mind). Same is the case with Prakriti and Purusha. Even though we cannot define the eternal (Let it be Brahman, Purusha or Prakriti), it can have many practical definitions. For example in Astrology – Purusha = Kala Purusha (Energy + Time) Prakriti = Zodiac (3 Dimensional Space including sky and All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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planets) In Vastu Sastra– Purusha = Vastu Purusha (Built space + Energy) Prakriti = Vastu (3 dimensional space including as land and environment)

(vii) Nakshatras (viii) Pancha Bhoota etc I invite others to go into the depths or give an introduction to such concepts in astrology for the benefit of all, for the benefit of beginners for understanding them as concepts. Here, in this discussion, the point I want to emphasis is that, many such concepts forms the foundation for any holistic subject.

In Ayurveda–

3) Rules

Purusha = Body (Soul + Mind + Body)

The Rules can be divided into two – Laws and Principles. Well tested, well founded, unchangeable rules with a mathematical precession are termed Laws. And the flexible and simple rules that are used to describe, modify, expand and apply the Laws can be termed principles. Laws are nothing but, well accepted principles. Let us understand them in the light of astrology.

Prakriti = Nature (Nature of body + Environment) Any one can expand/explore this or similar philosophic content in astrology or in any other holistic subject. The holistic philosophic content is a thread that is common to all holistic subjects. 2) Concepts (i) Concept of Universe (Zodiac)

The universe around us ( for the people living in earth) is spherical in shape. We can use the ecliptic to represent the circular horizontal plane in it and the celestial poles represents the other two directions up and below that sphere. But this spherical representation causes problems, since it is difficult to project the 8 directions correctly in it, and it is difficult to draw. Therefore in astrology the spherical circular shape of the zodiac is represented as a square. Yes, as you know it is the Rasi chakra (The Zodiac), as popularly known to us, starting from the first point of Aries and Aswini stellar division. (Reasons for fixing this point as the first point and dividing the ecliptic into 30 deg and 13 deg 20 min divisions etc is the stuff for another discussion, involving lot of mathematics. Chandrahari has done it in an excellent way in his book Hindu Zodiac) Other similar/fundamental concepts in astrology are : (ii) Kala Purusha (iii) Prakriti-Purusha (iv) Signs (v)Planets (vi) Houses

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(i) Laws

Even though we have the concepts in its place, we need to know the laws to utilize those concepts. In astrology it starts with(a) Rules to divide the zodiac into Signs and Nakshatras.(b) The 7-fold rule for calculating Yogas (which ultimately lead to prediction) (c) The rules for calculating Dasa and Gochara. (ii) Principles

Let us understand them with some examples- (a) Rules that explain how the Signs, Houses, Nakshatras and Planets can be made use in prediction. (b) Rules that tells us about the 7-fold prediction system and the exceptions related to it. (c) Rules to be followed while predicting with Dasa and Gochara. Almost the whole of the astrology is nothing but this rules (which base themselves on the fundamental concepts) and there application. 5)Rituals

Rituals that is associated with implementation etc. For example(i) Rituals (Actions) associated with Prasna such as determination All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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of Arudha.(ii) Rituals associated with worshiping of the signs, planets etc.(iii) Remedial rituals associated with etc In this short essay I have tried to categorize the content dealt with in any holistic subject taking astrology as an example. Yes, the categorization of subject matter into- Philosophy, Concepts, Rules, Rituals is important in any holistic subject. This fundamental classification should be considered, and any subject should be weighed against this, so as to ascertain whether it is holistic or not. If it is a holistic subject, then it will fit into this categorization and also will not obey the path of scientific method Any comments on this regard are welcome. I also request others to weigh other subjects such as Yoga, Vastu, Naturopathy, Psychology, Ayurveda etc as per these structural norms.

Arsha School of Astrology India is a country with a great tradition. In every branch of knowledge it has its uniqueness. Agama (Tantric) and Nigama (Vedic) knowledge molded the foundation of everything. Before looking into these foundations, let us have a look at the astrological system that grew up from these very roots, and became the great river from which almost all the other streams drew energy. This vast knowledge base is the Arsha or Sanatana school of astrology of which great saints like Vasishta and Viswamitra (Kousika) and the others of Saptarshis were the gurus. It is the purest flow of original astological knowledge, which I cherish in my mind, and want to learn more about. It is the school of astrology from which most of current knowledge of astrology draws its power from. It is the school of astrology which all the other schools fully accepted but later modified. Was it from an effort to unite the Agama and Nigama systems of astrology that this school stemmed? Otherwise why Skanda (kartikeya /Muruka) of the Tantric system was considered the origiAll rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

nator of this system when the text itself tries to emphasis the importance of Vedic (Nigama) knowledge as well? In the whole of Vedic literature or in the epics we can not see the Rasi chakra but only the Nakshatra chakra. In the whole of Vedic literature we can see only the Tropical solar and lunar months, but not the Sidereal Solar months like Mesha (Aries), Vrishabha (Taurus) etc. The Vedic (Nigama) system of astrology was fully based on Tropical Months and (fixed) Sidereal Nakshatra system. But the Tantric (Agama) system of astrology was fully based on (fixed) Sidereal Solar Months and (fixed) Sidereal Nakshatra system. The Tantrics used the fixed framework of Rasi + Nakshatra to study the sky. For them the point 120 deg away from fiducial star Moola (Mahakala, the path of pritr Yana) was very important since it represented the point where the 7 planet conjunction occurred (Meshadi). Ra-Si chakra was their symbolic Yogic body of Kalapurusha. The Kalatantra the Tantrics cherished was a result of a mix of Yogic experience and the Mahakala who himself is the universe - the rhythm of universe becoming one with that of human body. The Suras (Vedic followers) and Asuras (Tantrics) fought for long! Over theoretical issues, importance of Yaga and Yoga, Tropical and Sidereal Calendar systems, importance of Nakshatra and Rasi, No temples or Temples, Architecture methods that should be followed and many more. A merge of the two was the only possible outcome of this struggle, which eventually happened, even after the strong opposition from puritans. As far as astrology is concerned there emerged a uniting stream of thought, that merged the concepts of both (Agama and Nigama) and that was Arsha (Sanatana) School of astrology. It was an adaptation of Tantric knowledge by Vedic followers rather than the Tantric adopting the Vedic stream. In this struggle many great Tantric gurus and there concepts were left out – to mention some, Bhrigu, Agastya, Ravana, Nandi, Kaka Bhusunda and the like. But their knowledge too survived to an extend as we would see later when we try to have and under-

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standing of Tantric stream of astrology. The true knowledge of astrology held by Vedic (Nigama) and Tantric (Agama) cultures is still there in mystery and demands a lot of study to eradicate the darkness surrounding them and the related literary history. But in this article my effort of not to de-mystify the astrological knowledge possessed by neither Vedic nor Tantric culture, but to reveal the efforts and knowledge base of the new stream emerged – that is Arsha (Sanatana) school of astrology. Let us try to have an idea about the texts and gurus of this school of astrological thought. Skanda Hora

This text is also known as ‘Jyotishmati Upanishad’. In the end of every chapter of this text the words ‘Atharva kile jyothishmatyamupanishadi ithi’ is present. This indicates that this text was considered as an extension of Atharva Veda. Many slokas of this ancient text is quoted by many. The language of this text itself indicates that it is the oldest of Rishi Horas. It is said that Skanda advised the knowledge of astrology to Brahma. So it could be considered that it is a text written by Brahma as per the advice of Skanda Deva. This text is not available today except many slokas from it. We could find elaborate description of the Rasis in this text. Apart from this the subject dealt with are Prediction related to - Significance of Signs-Houses-planets, Exaltation-Debilitation etc for planets, placement of planet in Rasis, placement of planets in Bhavas, conjunction of planets, Drishti and Drishti phala, Different Sign-House-Planet combination related Yogas, Raja Yogas, Introduction to Nabhasa Yogas, Special Yogas like Pravrijya Yogas, Adhana Lagna, Hora-Drekkana-Navamsa etc, Life span determination, Pinda Dasa calculation, Drekkana Swaroopa, Horoscope of women etc. That means almost the whole of popular astrology that we find in use today can be found in this age old text! The whole of astrolAll rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

ogy used today is nothing but an extension and interpretation of the concepts and ideas presented by Skanda Hora only! In Sounaka Hora it is said that after leaning this knowledge of astrology from Skanda, Brahma taught it to Daksha Prajapati alone but none else. That means the prime continuation of this tradition (school of astrology) is through Daksha here after. Brihat prajapatya

This text is an elaborate explanation and interpretation of the subjects dealt within Skanda Hora. As said by Sounaka Hora, Daksha is the direct disciple of Brahma who learned this knowledge from Skanda. Brihat prajapatya is a Vyakhya of Skanda Hora rather than an independent presentation of ideas. This text might had been very large and that is why the prefix ‘Brihat’ (Big). Leghu Prajapatya:- This is abbreviated version of Brihat Prajapatya. Both these texts are not available today except many slokas from them. Vasishta Hora

This is a very reputed and authentic text of astrology based on Skanda Hora and Brihat prajapatya. In Sounaka hora it is said that, Vasishta hora contained 16000 slokas. Many slokas from this text is quoted by various authors. Vasishta had authored texts for all the 3 branches of astrology. They are Vasishta Sidhanta, Vasishta Hora and Vasishta Samhita. Mihria, Kaikulangara (Author of Hridya padha vyakhya of Brihat jataka - a well known kerala scholer), Balabhadra etc quotes Vasishta extensively. Vridha Vasishta: Another Rishi with the name Vridha Vasishta is also popular. He has authored 2 texts known as Vridha Vasishta Sidhanta and Vridha Vasishta Samhita. Of them Vridha Vasishta Sidhanta is available even today. Kousika Hora

In Sounaka hora it is said that, Kousika (Viswamitra) created

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this text to compete the Vasishta Hora, based on Vasishta Hora erroneously thinking that it was a copy of Skanda Hora. This text contains 36000 slokas says Sounaka. This is the text where the logical and astronomical inconsistencies evolve first. Vasishta simply applied his logic to extend the concepts presented in Vasishta Hora, and didn’t know much about astronomy which caused the trouble. He is even speaking about the predictions that should be given to Mercury placed in the 4th house from Sun etc, which is an astronomical impossibility. It is said by Sounaka that, Vasishta later learned astronomy from Maya (the sishya of Surya, the originator of Surya Sidhanta) and regretted the errors he committed. Even though this discrepancy is there in this text, this is also a well reputed ancient astrological classic. Surya

He is an acharya with astronomical par excellence, who taught Maya. He is regarded as one of the 18 great gurus of astrology. Maya collected the advice given by Surya and presented it in the form of ‘Surya Sidhanta’. It is the modified version of this text is what we find in ‘Pancha Sidhantika’ by Mihira. It is though Maya and some other rare references that we know about this guru. A text known as ‘Surya Hora’ or ‘Surya Jatakam’ or ‘Surya-Aruna samvada’ is also available in the name of this Rishi. It is in the form of a guru-sishya conversation between Surya and Aruna. Acharya Balabhadra quotes extensively from this text. Maya

This is a great scholar well versed in many fields of knowledge such as – Astronomy, Mathematics, Architecture etc. It is he who wrote or modified ‘Surya Sidhanta’ and presented it to the world. Many texts like Mayamata (Architecture), Maya Hora etc are authored by this acharya. Both ‘Surya Sidhanta’ and ‘Mayamata’

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are available today but not ‘Maya Hora’. Chandra Hari is deriving the concept of ‘True Ayanamsa’ and the mathematical foundation of Rasi-Nakshatra division based on this text (Surya Sidhanta) only. If this text was not available, it would have been an impossibility to judge the true mathematical foundations of Rasi chakra and the astronomical concepts and methods cherished by the ancient scholars and Rishis. It is erroneously considered by many that Maya is an astronomer of ‘Yavana Kula’ and the student of ‘Yavaneswara’. But as evident from classics, ‘Maya’ is a student of ‘Surya Kula’ and the student of the great guru ‘Surya Deva’. But still there is a possibility that he may have some connection outside India, judged from the fact that he was called ‘Yavana’ by some. He was a follower of Asura (Tantric) tradition and not Vedic. Remember that he was well known as ‘Asura Silpi’ (Architect of Asuras) It may be this non-Vedic foundation of the knowledge cherished by Maya that might have caused the trouble, of misjudging him as ‘Yavana’ by later day scholers. Atri

He is one of the 7 great gurus (Saptarshis) of astrology, from whom astrology descendent to the 18 gurus. The text written by Atri is known as Atri Hora. Texts in the names of other gurus like Mareechi, Chyavana etc are also mentioned here and there. Atri Hora is not available today. Atri is supposed to have written some Ayurvedic texts as well. Brihat Sounaka Hora

This is a very good and large text, many slokas of which are available even today. The available slokas from this text helps us very much in rebuilding the literary history of ancient Indian astrology – especially of the Arsha (Sanatana) school of astrology. This is a text written as advised to Sounaka Rishi by Soma (Mo). Here one thing we should remember is that in that era no

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body called Arsha school or Sanatana school, like Hindu religion was never called by that name by Hindus. It is we who name this original school of astrology as Arsha or Sanatana school of astrology. Sounaka Hora: It is a summarized version of Brihat Sounaka Hora. Mandavya Hora

Rishi Mandavaya who was a true devotee of Siva wrote this text. Many slokas of this text is quoted by Mihira and many others. This is a well reputed text of the original stream. Chyavana Hora

Chyavana is a well reputed name both in Astrology and Ayurveda. Chyavana Rishi is the author of Chyavana Hora. Very few slokas from this text only is available today. Sukracharya (Brigu)

Brigu is the well reputed acharya of astology. He is the author of ‘Brigu sutra’ and ‘Brigu Samhita’. ‘Brigu Sutra’ is a very good text with deals with ‘Planet-House’ combination and the related results to be predicted. ‘Brigu Samhita’ is not a samhita text at all! It is a book that deals with natal chart prediction based on the ‘Nadi System’ of Astrology’. It is also possible that the authors of both these works are different gurus of ‘Brigu Kula’. (judging from the difference in approch and techniques adopted by both texts) The language style of ‘Brigu Sutra’ indicates that it is a very old text. (Also not that it follows the ‘Sutra system’ rather than the normal poetic sloka system, which also indicates that this book is very ancient). Brigu (Sukracharya) is well known as Asura guru (Agama system).

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Brihaspati

The authorship of the text ‘Brihaspati Hora’ is ascribed to Deva guru Brihaspati. It mentions subjects related to Muhoorta and Marriage compatibility elaborately. Even though mentioned by some the slokas that are said to be of this text available today seems to of later origin. Mention of ‘Brihaspati Sidhanta’ and ‘Brihaspati Samhita’ is also available in some texts. Brihaspati is well known as Deva guru (Nigama system). Badarayana Hora (Vyasa)

This Badarayana does not seems to be the author of Mahabharata, but some later time scholar guru of Vyasa Kula. Many slokas form a text with the name Badarayana Hora is available. Hridyapadha and Many other texts quotes Badarayana extensively, which indicates that he too was a reputed scholar though not to the stature of Rishis. Even the literary quality of his slokas does not have much in comparison with that of Rishi Horas. It would be good not to confuse this later time scholar of astrology with the Badarayana Vyasa who wrote Mahabharata. Soma Jatakam

This might be a text of later origin, since we find no mention of it in ancient classics, but only by the time of Acharya Balabhadra of (10th century). This might be a text created following the style of Surya Jataka which is an ancient text. Suka Hora

A text written by Suka Rishi. Many other texts like Suka Jatakam is also popular by his name. It could be possible that these texts are also of later origin. Satyacharya Hora

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Satyacharya is a well reputed acharya lived before the period of Mihira. He is considered almost equal to the Rishis in authenticity. Satyacharya Hora is extensively quoted and mentioned by Mihira. Mihira had a special repute for this acharya. Many slokas form Satyacharya Hora is available today, but not the original text. Geevasarma Hora

Geevasarma is another acharya who was the contemporary of Satyacharya or one lived after him. Mihira quotes and mentions Geevasarma also in his works. He has developed many modifications and alterations to the original system which makes him stand apart from the general stream. Vishnu Gupta (Chanakya?)

He is the famous minister of emperor Chandra Gupta Mourya of Pataleeputra. Vishnu Gupata Hora is a well authentic text and well reputed by the ancient scholars. But except some slokas, this text is also not available today. (Note that a detailed study of Arthasastra reveals that Chanakya, Koudilya and Vishnu Gupta are 3 different Teachers; it is Vishnu Gupta who was the minister of Chandra Gupta Vikramaditya and wrote Arthasastra) Varaha Mihira

He is the great acharya who caused the destruction of ancient Rishi Horas. The reasons are – • He created a very good and very small text named Brihat Jataka, containing 573 slokas, which briefed the contents of Rishi horas. Therefore the people with less memory and scholarship started learning this text instead of learning the original Rishi Horas, which were very big. • He mixed the teachings of Arsha school with that of Yavana school. He authored many texts such as – Pancha Sidhatika, Brihat Jataka, Brihat Samhita, Leghu Jataka, Brihat Yogayatra and many

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more. Bhattolpala

Bhattolpala (Utpala Bhatta) wrote a very good commentaries for Brihat Jataka and Brihat Samhita quoting many Rishi horas, which enabled/ensured the survival of at least some of the Rishi Hora slokas.The vyakhyas Bhattolpala for Brihat Jataka and Brihat Samhita are available today. Acharya Balabhadra

A great scholar of 10th century who wrote a text called ‘Hora Ratna’ which presented the contents of many Rishi Horas and the astrological classics before his period in a systematic manner. This text also enabled/ensured the survival of at least some of the Rishi Hora slokas. Kerala Astrology

The astrological system followed in Kerala is an extension of Arsha or Sanatana school of astrology especially due to the efforts of the following acharyas. Krishnacharya:- He wrote a very good text named Krishneeyam. This acharya might have lived in the 15th century AD, and was the contemporary of Madhavacharya who wrote Madhaveeya. Vishnu:- He is the son of Madhavacharya, who wrote an elaborate and very good commentary for Krishneeyam with the name ‘Chatura Sundari’ in Sanskrit. This commentary became very popular, and is appreciated very much by the Kerala astrologers, and is in line with the interpretation system of Rishi horas. Talakkulattu Govinda Bhattatiri:- He wrote a very good commentary for the first 10 chapters of Varaha Hora (Brihat Jatakam) with the name ‘Dasasdhyayi’ in Sanskrit. This commentary became very popular, and is appreciated very much by the Kerala All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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astrologers, and is in line with the interpretation system of Rishi horas. Kaikulangara Ramavaryar :- He wrote a very good commentary for Varaha Hora (Brihat Jatakam) with the name ‘Hridyapadha’ in Malayalam, quoting hundreds of Rishi hora slokas. In Kerala ‘Hridyapadha’ has become another name for ‘Varaha Hora’. It is well appreciated by Kerala astrologers. This text also enabled/ensured the survival of at least some of the Rishi Hora slokas. I have listed the names of some Rishis and acharyas of Arsha school of astrology and tried to emphasis why Kerala astrology could be considered as an extension of this school of astrology. This list is not at all complete. The lot many scholars who collected and presented the slokas to us from the texts available to them (but not available today – the lost treasures) from all schools of astrological thought also helped in the survival of this school of astrology at least to this extend. Collecting and classifying the knowledge imparted by these different schools of astrology separately and uniting them to one single stream, identifying the opinion differences clearly are the need of the moment. I hope such studies and classifying efforts could be of great help in this regard. If I am able to depict, even a glimpse of the size of this vast treasure house of ancient astrological knowledge, I am satisfied. I hope this effort was not futile.

Jain School of Astrology Rishabha Deva of Vedic period is thought to be first teerthankara (enlightened guru) and originator of Jain stream of spiritual thought. It was traditionally believed that there were 24 teerthankaras (enlightened gurus), and the 23rd Parswanadha and the 24th Vadhamana Mahaveera. In the ancient past the teachings of en-

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lightened masters like Rishabha Deva were also considered to be part of Veda-Vedanga teachings itself, but later gradually it became a separate stream. The Jain stream of spiritual thought form the clear shape of a religion by the period of Mahaveera, and therefore he is thought to be the originator of Jain religion. We have nothing to do with these enlightened masters of spirituality, but are more interested in the astrology they cherished. Garga

The first guru in the Jain school of astrology is thought to be Brahma. In Garga hora it is said that, Garga Rishi got this knowledge from Brahma. I will quote the sloka for youSwayam swayambhuva srishtam chakshurbhootam dwijanmanam Vedangam jyotisham brahmaparam yejncha hitavaham Maya swayambhuvaH praptam triyakala prasadhanam Devanamuttam sastram trilokya hitakarakam Mattaschanyanrisheen praptam paramparyena pushkalam Tistada srishtibir booyo grandhaiH swaiH swirudahritam (Garga hora) [(Garga Rishi tells) This system of knowledge is created by lord Brahma, and became visible to the people who took second birth with true knowledge. This system of astrology is part of Vedic knowledge, and helps to become enlightened, and is useful in Yaga (for determination of Yaga timings etc). I got this system of knowledge from lord Brahma. (In other Rishi horas it is told that, Skanda taught astrology to Brahma, and that the text written by lord Brahma is known as Skanda Hora) The knowledge of astrology is appreciated even by devas (heavenly beings) and is useful in all 3 worlds (past- present-future). The other Rishis learned this knowledge from me, and thus the tradition flourished. They have also created astrological texts of their own]

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This essentially means that by the time of Garga many astrological texts existed, probably closely related to Rishi names. The Rishi kulas were like universities, were every enlightened new master would be known by the name of the originator of the kula. It is similar to the Sankaracharya tradition of today where every new person coming in charge would be termed Sankaracharya. Similar was the case with all Rishi kulas like, Garga, Vasishta, Kousika, Atri, Chyevana, Agastya, Parasara etc. The head guru was like the chancellor of the university, and his designation was the name of the originator of the Kula. We should remember this fact while learning the knowledge taught by Rishi Paramparas. Otherwise we may confuse many individuals who held the same designation as one and the same person. (For e.g. Parasara Kula was another such tradition) Garga wrote books on all the 3 branches of astrology, namely, Sidhanta, Samhita and Hora. That means the 3 popular texts written by Rishi Garga are – Garga Sidhanta, Garga Hora and Garga Samhita. Many slokas from Garga hora and Garga Samhita is available but not anything from Garga Sidhanta. In Hridyapadha, Brihat Samhita etc we could see many quotes form Garga Hora and Garga Samhita. There are many more ancient texts that quote from these age old texts by Garga Rishi. All the texts written by Garga Rishi are in Sanskrit language. Garga Samhita is said to be available even today in some manuscript libraries. The language of this text (Garga Samhita) is a mix of Prakrit and Sanskrit. Astrology texts not only by Garga, but Gargi and Gargya are also available. These names either indicate other acharyas of Garga Kula, or the son of Garaga, and the son’s son of Garga. Many texts which ascribe their authorship to Garga, Gargi and Gargya are available (e.g. Garga Jataka) – but it seems that we can not be sure about the authenticity of these texts. Garga Rishi was also known as ‘Jainarshi’ (Jain Rishi), indi-

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cating that he followed Jain religion. A sloka quoted in the text ‘Bharateeya Jyotish’ (by Nemichandra Sastri) supports it. Vridha Garga

This is another famous scholar of Garga Kula. Two texts are known by his name – Vridha Garga Sidhanta and Vridha Garga Samhita. Of these Vridha Garga Sidhanta is available even today, but only some slokas of Vridha Garga Samhita is available. Like all the Rishis of Garga Kula he was also a reputed Jain Rishi. Rishiputra

Rishiputra is the son of Garga Rishi. He too wrote texts on all three branches of astrology, such as Sidhanta, Hora and Samhita. He was well versed in Sanskrit and Prakrit. From Prakrit only Sanskrit originated. Prakrit was the common mans use of Sanskrit, but later it became a separate language, and due to continuous use it deviated very much from the organized, systematic, and clearly grammatical use of Sanskrit. This deviation from Sanskrit was evident even from the period of Rishiputra. Almost all the teachings of Jain gurus are in the common mans language, i.e. Prakrit. Rishiputra is also no exception to this, even though he wrote some book in Sanskrit as well. Rishi putra was never known as Garga which might mean that he deviated from the original stream of astrological knowledge taught by Garga Rishi or it could also be that he never held the position of head guru of Garga kula. Mihira in Brihat Samhita quotes extensively form the Samhita by Rishiputra. A text called ‘Madana Ratna’ mentions ‘Rishiputra Samhita’, which proves the existence of Rishiputra Samhita. Rishiputra Samhita is a text written in Sanskrit. Rishiputra is thought to be the originator of the study of Omens (Nimitta). A text on Nimitta Sastra (Ancient advice on Omens) in his name is also available. Brihat Samhita quotes Rishiputra extensively. The ancient and famous Jain sidhantic texts on astrology Surya Prajchapti and

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Chandra Prajchapti are also thought to be the works of this great astrologer. These texts are in Prakrit. (Prakrit language is considered divine by the followers of Jain religion, since most of the teachings of Mahaveera and other gurus of this religion is in Prakrit). There is another trend that should be kept in mind while studying Jain school of astrology. Prakrit was the revered language of Jain religion and the common man’s language at that time. So the astrologers of Jain school of astrology almost invariably resorted to Prakrit while writing texts. But the side effect of this is that, almost all the texts written in Prakrit was later considered to be part of Jain school of astrology, which is a wrong interpretation. (I too can not escape from this pit fall, while trying to locate the teachers and texts of Jain school of astrology. Please keep it in mind) Jyotish Karnadak

This is an ancient text of Jain school of astrology. We don’t know who wrote this book. It is in Prakrit. In this text, we encounter slokas which considers ‘Nakshatras like Swati and Aswini as lagna of equinox’. Does it give any indication about the period of this text? Learned one’s can think about it. This ancient Jain astrological texts mentions Rishiputra as guru, and thus it is part of the Jain school of astrology. Anga vidya

It is ancient text about predictions related to the touching of various body parts by the qurent. This is a text on omens (Nimitta). It speaks elaborately about the body language of the qurent. It is a very large text containing 60 chapters and is in Prakrit. Kalakacharya

He is well known among the gurus of Jain school of astrology. He was the son of King ‘Vayara singh’ who was the king of ‘Dharavas’ city. His mothers name was Surasundari and sister’s

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name ‘Saraswti’. He was the student of Jain Muni ‘Gunakar’ who wrote ‘Brihat Katha’. Kalakacharya was also known as ‘Kalaka Suri’, meaning the knowledgeable person with the name ‘Kalaka’. Kalkacharya is first guru of Jain school of astrology who mixed this ancient knowledge with the systems of Yavana, and thus originated the system of astrology known as ‘Ramala vidya’ or ‘Ramala Jyotish’. The Ramala system of astrology originated from the mix of Pharsi (Parsi) and Indian system of astrology. (So the word Yavana means Pharsi or Persian in this context). This also gives some indications about the period of Kalakacharya. Kalakacharya has written a Samhita text as well. [The text known as ‘Ramala vidya’ written by ‘Bhojsagar Gani’ mentions the name of Kalakacharya as the originator of this system] His period was before, Varaha Mihira. Mihira mentions ‘Kalakacharya Samhita’ in Brihat Samhita. Mahaveeracharya

This acharya lived after the period of Brahmagupta, the famous astronomer. He wrote 2 texts with the names – Jyotish Patala and Ganita Sarasamgrah. He was also the follower of Jain system. But the texts are in Sanskrit. Both these texts deal with astronomy. Karnataka, the southern state of India, seems to have developed some strong relation with the Jain school of astrology in later years. Sridharacharya who wrote the texts like Ganitasar, Jyothirjchana Kalanidhi, Jatak Tilak etc and many more reputed later astrologers of this stream were the natives of Karnataka. Bhattavesari (also known as Damanandi acharya) who wrote the text Aya jchana tilak in Prakrit was a follower of Digambara Jain religion, and is thought to be a native of Karnataka. In this text he mentions an ancient acharya of astrology called ‘Sugreeva Rishi’ as the originator of Prasna system giving importance to 8 directions (Dwajadi Yoni). He calls it ‘Aya’ and that is why the name ‘Aya Jchana Tilak’ (the texts which tells about the use of Aya in prediction)..

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Other Jain astrologers

Durga dev who wrote astrological texts like Ardha Kand and Rishta Samuchaya, Mallishena who wrote ‘Aya sadbhava’, Ballala sena who wrote the Samhita text called ‘Adbhuta sagar’ etc are the followers of Jain school of astrology. Actually this list is very long and you can have a list of it from the text ‘Bharateeya Joytish’ by ‘Nemichandra Sastri’. The text ‘Adbhuta Sagar’ demands special mention, because this text is a collection of slokas by great ancient acharyas such as, Garga, Vridha Garga, Mihira, Parasara, Devala, Vasanta raja, Kasyapa, Yevaneswara, Mayoora chitra, Rishiputra, Brahma gupta, Maha balabhadra, Poulisa, Surya (Surya sidhanta), Vishnu Chandra and the like. It contains more than 4000 slokas. Existence of texts like this also means that the whole astrological knowledge taught by the Rishis is not yet totally lost, and if someone is willing to selectively collect Rishi slokas from such texts, and present it before all in a systematic manner, the original stream of ancient Indian astrology can be restored. One thing I should mention here is that, there were many astrologers who followed the Jain religion. But it may not be necessary that all of them were the followers of Jain school of astrology. This truth also should be kept in mind while trying to study the astrological system of thought taught by the Jain school of astrology. The ancient language Prakrit is a vast store house of ancient astrological knowledge and ancient Rishi hora slokas. It is another treasure house where too we should concentrate our search upon. Ref: 1) Bharateeya Jyotish – by Nemichandra Sastri 2) Bharateeya Jyotisha Sastretihas – by Acharya Lokamani Dahal This article is very long by now itself and therefore I conclude. Hope this might have stirred your interest in Jain school of astrology, and would provide clues and guidance for further study.

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Yavana School of Astrology There is a controversy about the meaning of the word Yavana. Modern historians almost always erroneously take ‘Yavana’ to mean ‘Greek’. Of course Greeks where called Yavana by Indians for a long time, and so it is not completely wrong to take ‘Yavana’ to mean ‘Greek’ if one is talking about the a limited historic period, i.e. Period after the invasion of Alexander. But when we look at the literature, we see that the word Yavana is used to indicate Pharsi or Persian in several instances. The popular definition of this word, supported by classics is that, any person who is not a native of India and does follow our custom and tradition is called Yavana. So the point to be kept in mind is that• The ‘Yavana’ has some link outside India • Their tradition and system is slightly different than ours. • The heir (sons and daughters) and successors of a ‘Yavana’ (Guru-sishya paramapara) would be termed ‘Yavana’. The 3rd point is often ignored by even the learned. It essentially means that at times even people who were and born and lived in India, and even followed the Indian custom and tradition where termed ‘Yavana’ only because, they were the descendents of Yavana. Before the arrival of Greeks it was Persian peoples who were known by the word ‘Yavana’, and even before that? Yes, at that time it could mean even people from ‘Afghanistan’, ‘China’, or ‘Egypt’, i.e. any where outside India or their descendants or followers (students). Yavaneswara

Someone in ancient past brought some new knowledge of astrology to India. It was even before the period of Parasara (1400 BC), and this great scholar gets mentioned by Parasara, Narada, Kasyapa and many more. He must have been an astonishing store

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house of knowledge, and well versed in Sanskrit, even the Rishis considered him as an Rishi. His great knowledge, made Rishi Garga speak outMlescha hi yavanasteshu samyak sastramidam stitam Rishivattepi pujyante kim puna daiva vad dwija Meaning, even though a person outside from, by native place or tradition followed, the knowledge of astrology is well settled and find comfort in ‘Yavana’ (Yavana Kula). Because of this they are worshiped like Rishis. Then why not if a person who took second birth by devoting himself to knowledge and is learning astrology? We should remember that Garga was the head guru (like chancellor of a university) of the Garga kula. Many great learning centers like Vasishta Kula, Kousika kula, Atri Kula, Mareechi Kula, Angira Kula, Bhrigu Kula, Chyvana Kula, Vyasa Kula etc existed at that period – and the knowledge preserved was so vast. Garga know about this all, and was part of this great tradition. Even then he felt astonished by the astrological knowledge preserved and propagated by another such learning center – Yavana Kula. This is wonderful! We could see that later acharyas started mentioning the name of Yavanewara, including him in the list of 18 great gurus of astrology. Narada, Kasyapa, Parasara – no body failed to mention his name! How great an influence he and his school of thought would have been to Indian astrology?!! Yes, this ‘Yavaneswara’ is a great Rishi, vast treasure house of knowledge, worshiped Surya, had some connections outside India, was well-versed in Sanskrit, was the head guru of Yavana Kula, and lived before BC 1400. He very much appreciated the astrological tradition and knowledge of India, adopted many concepts from India streams and tried to modify them. This too made the Indian scholars give special attention towards him. This is the knowledge we have about his mountainous individuality – he All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

stands tall and unique even among the peaks! Yavanewara Hora is the text known by his name. His successors (sishya parampara) like Sphujidwaja, Meena raja amply quotes from this text. Later day scholars like Mihira too quotes him and mentions the opinions by him. Yavanswara says that he got this knowledge of astrology from Brahma (Prajapati), which indicates that he was a follower of Indian tradition itself, but with somewhat slight difference. Some problems surfacing

If even Garga felt astonished by this knowledge stream how Mihira can not? But due to these mutual appreciation (between Arsha and Yavana schools of astrology) and scholarly interaction many problems surfaced. They are – • Ancient Indian Rishi Kulas appreciated the knowledge of Yavana school, but never mixed it with there own system. • Even Garga was not an exception to this even though he himself was somewhat outside the Arsha or Sanatana stream due to the fact that he was a follower of Jain philosophy (originated by Rishabha Deva). But we should also remember that at that time Jain hadn’t become a separate religion, but was part of the Vedic stream. • Just contrary to this, Yavaneswara tried to lean all the Indian knowledge as well, modified it applying logic, and taught them as well in his guru kula. This is evident from the example of Nabhasa yogas. Nabhasa Yogas are just mentioned in Arha (Sanatana) Rishi horas like Skanda hora, Brihal prajaptyam etc, but Yavaneswara took this concept and made the number of named Nabhasa Yogas 1800 by applying permutation combination!!!!! The concept of Nabhasa yogas were not totally in line with the foundations of ancient Indian astrology, that is why the Indian Rishis didn’t gave much importance to them. Yavanewara never bothered about it, All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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took this concept, and applied maths to it! The result was 1800 Nabhasa yogas, out of which hundreds of them were astronomical impossibilities!! Here we see the type of interaction and the reason for respect or disrespect. • In the Arsha system of Parasara started mixing the concepts of Yavana, and many of his new concepts as well. Due to this he was also not considered as a true follower of Arsha stream, and was even called Yavana at times, even though he was not Yavana. What ever that be, Parasara is also honored among the 18 great gurus of Astrology. We should remember that, Yavana, Romaka, Poulisa, Lomasa & Parasara schools may not be part of the true (Arsha/Sanatana) stream of astrology. But there was a lot of give and take, and they where also honored among the 18 like the Rishis of Arsha stream – Brahma, Vasishta, Kousika, Atri, Manu, Mareechi, Angira, Vyasa, Sounaka, Kasyapa, Chyevava, Garga, Brihaspati etc. We should remember the other reputed scholars like – Bhrigu (Sukra), Agastya, Suka, Soma, Skanda, Daksha, Surya etc as well. May be this classification itself is not that correct, since every Rishi Kula may have their uniqueness in the system of astrology taught and followed. [We shouldn’t forget the fact that different teachers teach even the same subject differently, and therefore slight differences are always a possibility] • Unlike the ancient Rishis, Mihira also started mixing Arsha School of astrology with thoughts and ideas borrowed from Yavana School, even though he never introduced hundreds of new ideas like Parasara. Even though Mihira was a great teacher this has became a big cause for confusion in later years. Parasara was a Rishi, Mihira a scholar and there is no comparison, but both of them borrowed ideas from Yavana school and thus the original school and system fell back to the back side of memory, and logic and foundations an almost lost memory. This is the brief history of astrology. A problem originated due

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to the presence of Yavana school of astrology, but for sure not caused by it, as much as the later great scholars like Parasara and Mihira. If Parasara and Mihira the great teachers of Indian astrology deserve better blame, then how can we blame Yavana school of astrology and the great Yavaneswara who peaks high among many?! This school of astrology was successful in preserving its teachings and books while the Arsha school failed to do so!! Shouldn’t we appreciate them, and learn from them? They adopted even the Arsha (astrological) ideas as well and still preserves many and now without their minor help we can not go back and retrieve our originals!!! Apart from this what a great system it in itself is!! [This essay is becoming too long and so I would just brief about the other gurus of this stream and conclude] Sphujidhwaja He was an Indian king who was well versed in Sanskrit, Vedic philosophy and astrology. But he was a follower of Yavana school of astrology and considers Yavaneswara as guru. A great text with the name Sphujidhwaja Hora is available – and it is very good in understanding the contributions of Yavana school. Meenaraja

He too was an Indian king, well versed in Sanskrit, and a follower of Yavana school of astrology. A great text with the name Meenaraja Hora (Vridha Yavana Hora) is available. It too is a very good text. Maya

Many are confused about whether to call Maya ‘Yavana’ or not. He is not the student of ‘Yavaneswara’ but ‘Surya’. As we know ‘Surya Kula’ was another great teaching center for astrology. Maya modified/wrote ‘Surya Sidhanta’, which later became the backbone of Arsha school of astrology. So even if Maya is

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‘Yavana’, he is Yavana of a different mould and is not part of the Yavana school of astrology which started from ‘Yavaneswara’. He was a great architect as well. Surya Sidhanta, Maya Hora, Maya Matam(Vastu) etc are some of the texts by him. He was true acharya with mathematical par excellence, and may be only Aryabhata I of later years have any comparison to him. Maya is not part of this school of astrology taught by ‘Yavaneswara’. Manindha

Manindha Hora is the text by him. Mihira mentions and quotes form this text and mention the name of Manindha with respect. Manidha Hora is not available today. Srutakeerti

Srutakeerti was a hindu king, but he followed Yavana stream of astrology. Srutakeerti Hora is the text by him. Mihira mentions and quotes form this text and mention the name of Sruitakeerti with respect. Srutakeerti Hora is not available today. Other gurus

There might have been many other gurus in this school of thought but the names of many are not popular may be due to the all covering presence of Sphujidhwaja and Meenaraja. Later people started calling Sphujidhwaja by the name ‘Yavana’and Meenaraja by the name ‘Vridha Yavana’. Only a few scholars were good enough to come out of this shade. One of them is Haraji. Haraji

He is the author of Manasagari Jataka padhati. He is a Gujarat Brahmin born of ‘Sandilya gotra’. But he too followed the Yavana system of astrology. Therefore Manasagari Jataka padhati should be considered as one of the last text in Yavana school of astrology. The Yavana school of astrology is one of the well reputed and respects schools of ancient Indian astrology, like the Arsha school All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

& Jain school of ancient Indian astrology. The now extinct prediction schemes of Vedic school and Tantric school also needs mention, from which everything seems to have originated. (Call them Vedic and Non- Vedic or Nigama and Agama origin of everything if you want). In this article I had tried to give a brief idea about the Yavana school of astrology and its books and masters, as far as I know. History is not always simple – it always hides something far beneath hiding even the sources for retrieving them. I hope this article may help you in getting a glimpse of the almost forgotten history of Yavana school of astrology.

Astrology in Kularanava Tantra Kularnava Tantra is an Agama Grantha - meaning it is a text written if the format of Siva’s advice to Parvati. As Osho points out in his work “Vigyan Bhirava Tantra” “This is a different type of language. You must know something about it before we enter into it. All the tantra treatises are dialogues between Shiva and Devi. Devi questions and Shiva answers. All the tantra treatises start that way. Why? Why this method? It is very significant. It is not a dialogue between a teacher and a disciple, it is a dialogue between two lovers. And tantra signifies through it a very meaningful thing: that the deeper teachings cannot be given unless there is love between the two – the disciple and the master. The disciple and master must become deep lovers. Only then can the higher, the beyond, be expressed” Usually the tantric texts are not going to teach you the details the philosophical and theoretical. It is more concerned with the technique, the use and practice. If you are not in the path such texts can usually mislead you. Before entering in to the study of Agama (Tantric) texts the core should be understood; otherwise it could mislead you. In Osho’s words -

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“It is concerned with method, with technique – not with principles at all. The word ‘tantra’ means technique, the method, the path. So it is not philosophical – note this. It is not concerned with intellectual problems and inquiries. It is not concerned with the ‘why’ of things, it is concerned with ‘how’; not with what is truth, but how the truth can be attained.” The core concept in Kularnava Tantra is -

suktas as well and has an aura of Vedic ritualistic in it. You can find many examples for the same in texts like Kularnava Tantra. Possibly it is caused by the uninvited entering of Vedic priests into the Agama patha. Vamamarga (Vama patha = Vamachara = Left path) is the pure branch of Agama and is purely outside the Vedic realm. The Agama path is purely outside the Nigama (=Vedic) path. The Parasurama Kalpa sutra clearly states that -

ºÉ´ÉÇiÉxjÉÉhÉÉÆ ´Éänù´ÉÉÁi´É ¶ÉRÂóEòÉÊxÉ®úɺÉ&

ªÉè®äú´É {ÉiÉxÉÆ pù´ªÉè& ʺÉÊrùºiÉè®äú´É SÉÉäÊnùiÉÉ ¸ÉÒEòÉè±Énù¶ÉÇxÉä SÉÉÊ{É ¦Éè®ú´ÉäxÉ ¨É½þÉi¨ÉxÉÉ**

- {É®ú¶ÉÖ®úÉ¨É Eò±{ɺÉÚjÉ - EÖò±ÉÉhÉÇ´ÉiÉxjÉ

[Whatever things that cause the downfall of people moving in the path of spirituality, the same things can become true tools in the path of enlightenment as well. (They can teach you how to save yourself from downfall, if you are a true seeker of the ultimate). It is the subject dealt in detail by Bhairava (God Siva) in Kularnava Tantra as well (similar to Bharava Tantra)]

EÖò±ÉÆ ¶ÉÊHòÊ®úÊiÉ |ÉÉäHÆò¨ÉEÖò±ÉÆ Ê¶É´É =SªÉiÉä EÖò±Éä(+)EÖò±ÉºªÉ ºÉƤÉxvÉ& EòÉè±ÉʨÉiªÉʦÉvÉÒªÉiÉä**

[Without any doubt clearly understand that, all Tantras (Agamas) are outside the Vedic path] Thus it is clear that the Agamas does not appreciate the vedic path of Yagas, the caste differences etc. For the Tantric any human being can attain the ultimate (=enlightenment) if he is a sincere seeker. It states that all human beings are equal and that there is no meaning in caste and creed differences. With clarity Gautameeya Tantra states-

ºÉ´ÉÇ´É®úhÉÉÊvÉEòÉ®úɶSÉ xÉÉ®úÒhÉÉÆ ªÉÉäMªÉ¨Éä´É SÉ - EÖò±ÉÉhÉÇ´ÉiÉxjÉ

- MÉÉèiɨÉÒªÉ iÉxjÉÆ

[Kula means Sakti (Parvati = feminine = Mooladhara = Sex) and Akula means Siva (Bhairava = masculine = Sahasrara = Super consciousness). The one who attains the relation or oneness between Kula and Akula is termed ‘Kaula’ (Kularnava Tantra deals with this subject)]

[Everybody can practice Tantra, including women (No doubt remains!)]

The Agama path (Kaula Path = Tantric Path) has got two branches - Vama (Left) and Dakshina (Right). The text Kularnava Tantra appreciates the Kaulachara (The Path of Kaula) and in that itself the Dakshina Patha (Right Path; also known as Samayachara). Actually Vamachara (Left path) is the original and pure Agama path. The Dakshinachara (Right path) mixes the Vedic slokas into it to an extend. Unlike the pure Vamachara it combines the Vedic All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

The true worship of Siva (=God) with a sincere heart is better than 1000 yagas. Thus it is a great path of spirituality to be practiced and valued, one of the oldest and truly ancient indian contribution to the path of spirituality. As we all know astrology too is an Agama Sastra (Tantric discipline). About Tantra Osho states - “TANTRA means technique. So this treatise is a scientific one. Science is not concerned with why, science is concerned with how. That is the basic difference between philosophy and science. Philosophy asks, ‘Why this ex-

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istence?’ Science asks, ‘How this existence?’ The moment you ask the question, how?, method, technique, become important. Theories become meaningless; experience becomes the center”. In the context of astrology also this statement is valid. We trust in astrology not because of its thousand theories - but because of our experience; Our experience that it can reflect truth; Our experience that the time, the rhythm of the universe can greatly influence us; our experience that we are one with the world; our experience that the universe reflect s itself even in the minute. Even though not part of the main body of knowledge, Kularnava Tantra deals with, it mentions and speaks about, astrology here and there in bits and pieces - of course this is normal and expected since Astrology too is nothing but an Agama Sastra; A branch of study that has its foundations in Agama (Tantra). As we know it is from the experience of oneness of human being with the universe around him that the branch of astrology originated, as evident from the fact that the Zodiac as we comprehend it is composed of 21600 minute and the human day is composed of 21600 breaths. They rhythm is one and the same - inside and outside. Kularnava Tantra mentions Astrology, as present and practiced in ancient India, while dealing with the selection of Mantra that are proper for a Sadhaka (one who practices Tantric worship). I am not interested in explaining and elaborating those slokas to clarify the various situations where the co-relating of alphabets with Signs and Nakshatras dealt here in can be used. I am quoting and describing the meaning of those slokas here in brief to show that Nirayana astrology as we practice today is (and was) an integral part of Agama Sastra; and also that the subject is dealt with in many Agama texts.

Selection of Mantra and Astrology Chakras (Circles) such as Siddha Chakra, Rasi Chakra,

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Nakshatra Chakra, Kulakula Chakra etc are used for the selection of Mantra that will give good results for the Sadhaka (the one who practices the path of Tantra). As stated earlier, in this article I am not interested in explaining how to use the same for selection of Mantra that is proper for practice for the individual. Here I am only interested in quoting those slokas and giving their brief meaning just to show that Kularnava Tantra and Tantric texts as a whole considered Nirayana Astrology as an integral part of Agama Sastra. Nakshatra Chakra and Alphabets The following sloka describes how to correlate Nakshatra chakra with the alphabets so that the same can be used for the selection of proper Mantra.

|ÉÉ{É ±ÉÉä¦ÉÉ {É]Öõ |ÉÉÁÆ ¯ûpùºªÉÉÊpù¯û¯û& Eò®ú¨É ±ÉÉäEò ±ÉÉä{É {É]Öõ& |ÉɪÉ& JɱÉÉäPÉÉä¦ÉäÊnùiÉÉ& Ê|ɪÉä ´ÉhÉÉÇ& Gò¨ÉÉiÉ º´É®úÉxiÉÉè iÉÖ ®äú´ÉiªÉƶÉMÉiÉÉè iÉnùÉ** - EÖò±ÉÉhÉÇ´ÉiÉxjÉ [Starting from Aswini in order to write the following number of alphabets in each Nakshatra (starting from the first alphabet in Sanskrit). Pra = 2; Pa = 1; Lo = 3; Bha = 4; Pa = 1; Tu = 1; Pra = 2; Ya = 1; Ru = 2; Dra = 2; Ya = 1; Adri = 2; Ru = 2; Ru = 2; Ka = 1; Ram = 2; Lo = 3; Ka = 1; Lo = 3; Pa = 1; Pa = 1; Tu = 1; Pra = 2; Ya = 1; Kha = 2; Lo = 3; Gho = 4] We get the following table as per this rule.

+ÉÊ·ÉÊxÉ ¦É®úÊhÉ EÞòÊkÉEòÉ ®úÉäʽþÊhÉ ¨ÉÞMÉʶɮúÉ +ÉpùÉÇ {ÉÖxÉ´ÉǺÉÖ

-

+ +É < ð @ñ @ñ ±ÉÞ ±ÉÞ B Bä +Éä +Éè

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{ÉÖ¹ªÉ +ɶ±Éä¹ÉÉ ¨ÉvÉÉ {ÉÚ´ÉÇ ¡òɱMÉÖÊxÉ =kÉ®ú ¡òɱMÉÖÊxÉ ½þºiÉ ÊSÉjÉÉ º´ÉÉÊiÉ Ê´É¶ÉÉJÉÉ +xÉÖ®úÉvÉÉ VªÉä¹`öÉ ¨ÉÚ±É {ÉÚ´ÉÉǹÉÉføÉ =kÉ®úɹÉÉføÉ ¸É´ÉhÉ vÉÊxɹ`öÉ ¶ÉiÉʦɹÉÉ {ÉÚ´ÉÇ ¦ÉÉpù{ÉnùÉ =kÉ®ú ¦ÉÉp{ÉnùÉ ®äú´ÉÊiÉ -

Eò JÉ MÉ PÉ Ró SÉ Uô VÉ ZÉ \É ]õ `ö b÷ fø hÉ iÉ lÉ nù vÉ xÉ {É ¡ò ¤É ¦É ¨É ªÉ ®ú ±É ´É ¶É ¹É ºÉ ½þ (IÉ) ³ý IÉ +Æ +&

This completes the table with 51 alphabets. [Do Sanskrit alphabets have a Tantric origin? The number 51 is considered sacred in Tantra due to several reasons. This question won’t be dealt within this article, but provides clear scope for further study] As per another available Tantric reference describing the same, Ksha should be ascribed to Uttara Proashtapada and there for the same is shown with in brackets in the above list. The relevant sloka is given below-

iÉiÉ& IÉEòÉ®ú& ºÉÆVÉÉiÉ&....ºÉ& {ÉÖxÉ& ¹ÉºÉ½èþºÉÉvÉÈ {É®ú|ÉÉä¹`ö{ÉnÆù MÉiÉ& [The letter Kha should be ascribed to Uttara Proshtapada] This

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completes the list of all Sanskrit alphabets. Kularnava Tantra further states that the following is the prime mode of association of Nakshatras with the native’s life. As you could see it is nothing but a description of Janmadi division starting from birth star.

VÉx¨É ºÉ¨{ÉnÂù Ê´É{ÉiÉ IÉä¨É |ÉiªÉÊ®ú& ºÉÉvÉEòÉä ´ÉvÉ& ʨÉjÉÆ {É®ú¨ÉʨÉjÉ\SÉ VÉx¨ÉÉnùÒÊxÉ {ÉÖxÉ& {ÉÖxÉ&** - EÖò±ÉÉhÉÇ´ÉiÉxjÉ [Starting from Birth star the names of 9 Nakshatras are - 1. Janma (Body), 2. Sampat (Wealth), 3.Vipat (Danger), 4. Kshema (Prosperity), 5. Pratyari (Enemy), 6. Sadhaka (Gain), 7. Vadha (Death), 8. Mitra (Friend), 9. Parma Mitra (Dearest Friend). These names will repeat for other Nakshtras twice in order to complete the count of 27 Nakshatras] Thus it becomes clear that this is the prime mode of association of Nakshatras with the native’s life while using Nakshatra Chakra for prediction! Rasi Chakra and Alphabets The following sloka states how to correlate Rasi chakra with the alphabets so that the same can be used for the selection of proper Mantra.

¤ÉɱÉÆ MÉÉè®Æú JÉÖ®Æú ¶ÉÉähÉÆ ¶É¨ÉÒ¶ÉÉä¦ÉäÊiÉ ®úÉʶɹÉÖ Gò¨ÉähÉ ¦ÉäÊnùiÉÉ ´ÉhÉÉÇ& EòxªÉɪÉÉÆ ¶ÉÉnùªÉ& º¨ÉÞiÉÉ** - EÖò±ÉÉhÉÇ´ÉiÉxjÉ [Starting from Aries in order to write the following number of alphabets in each sign (starting from the first alphabet in Sanskrit). Ba = 4; Lam = 3; Gau = 3; Ram = 2; Khu = 2; So = 4; Nam = 5; Sa = 4; Me = 4; So = 5; Bha = 4. The remaining alphabets starting from ‘Sa’ should be written in Virgo]. We get the following table as per this rule.

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¨Éä¹É ´ÉÞ¹É¦É Ê¨ÉlÉÖxÉ EòEÇò ˺ɽþ EòxªÉÉ iÉÖ±ÉÉ ´ÉÞζSÉEò vÉxÉÖ ¨ÉEò®ú EÖÆò¦É ¨ÉÒxÉ

-

(Co-born), 4. Bandhu (Relatives), 5.Putra (Children), 6.Satru (Enemies), 7.Kalatra (Wife), 8.Maranam (Death), 9.Dharma (Righteous path), 10.Karma (Job), 11.Aya (Income) and 12. Vyaya (Expense)]

+ +É < ð @ñ @ñ ±ÉÞ ±ÉÞ B Bä +Éä +Éè +Æ +& ¶É ¹É ºÉ ½þ (³ý) Eò JÉ MÉ vÉ Ró SÉ Uô VÉ ZÉ \É ]õ `ö b÷ fø hÉ iÉ lÉ nù vÉ xÉ {É ¡ò ¤É ¦É ¨É ªÉ ®ú ±É ´É (IÉ)

Note that the above quote is clear proof also for the fact that Signs itself should be considered as Houses. As per ancient Indian astrology, the various house calculation techniques (such as Sripati method, Placida’s division etc) does not have any meaning. The signs itself should be considered as houses; with the only difference that the signs are always counted from Aries, where as houses are counted from Lagna.

[Qn: The above sloka uses KTPY notation for numbers. When did KTPY system originated? This question won’t be dealt within this article, but provides clear scope for further study] As per another available Tantric reference describing the same, Ksha should be ascribed to Meena (Pisces) and there for the same is shown with in brackets in the above list. The relevant sloka is given below-

SÉiÉÖ̦ɪÉÉÇÊnùʦɺªÉÉvÉÈ ºªÉɱÉ IÉEòÉ®úºiÉÖ ¨ÉÒxÉMÉ& [The letter Kha should be ascribed to Meena (Pisces)] This too completes the list with 51 alphabets. Kularnava Tantra further states that the following is the prime mode of association of Signs with the native’s life. As you could see it is nothing but a description of houses starting from Lagna.

±ÉMxÉÉä vÉxÉÆ §ÉÉiÉÞ¤ÉxvÉÖ{ÉÖjɶÉjÉÖEò±ÉjÉEòÉ& ¨É®úhÉÆ vɨÉÇEò¨ÉÉÇªÉ ´ªÉªÉÉ pùÉnù¶É ®úɶɪÉ&**

- EÖò±ÉÉhÉÇ´ÉiÉxjÉ

[The 12 signs are 1. Lagna (Body), 2.Dhana (Wealth), 3.Bhratru

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[Note that the study of astrology mentioned in the Tantric texts gives us unique insights which we may miss even when dealing with the standard texts of astrology, which deals with such things in detail. This itself point to the Agama (Tantric) foundation of nirayana astrology]

º´É®úɶÉä¨ÉÇxjÉ®úɶªÉxiÉÆ MÉhÉxÉÒªÉÆ Ê´ÉSÉIÉhÉè& +YÉÉiÉä ®úÉʶÉxÉIÉjÉä xÉɨÉÉtIÉ®ú®úÉʶÉiÉ&** - EÖò±ÉÉhÉÇ´ÉiÉxjÉ [Intelligent individual who practices the Tantric system should start counting the Signs from his own Lagna, and the counting should go up to the Mantra sign. If one does not know his Lagna the counting should start from Sign indicated by his name (Namakshra Rasi = Lagna indicated by the Name of the individual)] Since this sloka comes after discussing alphabets associated with both Nakshatras and Signs, the rule could be taken as commonly applicable to both Nakshatra Chakra and Rasi Chakra. This rule may indicate two further possibilities * One should start the study of astrology by studying his own horoscope! This is a unique advice not found anywhere else!

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* Nakshatra Chakra and Rasi Chakra are both independent systems complete in themselves - Nakshatra Chakra uses Nakshatra Lagna as starting point, and Rasi Chakra uses Lagna as starting point! The system of using Nakshatra Chakra in this way is almost completely lost to us; But this is the system visible in Vedas, Epics and Puranas. A dedicated individual might be able to reconstruct this system from the available rudiments after a detailed study of the same. This too provides a clear scope for further study. In ancient texts the use of Nakshatra Lagna is clearly visible, as clearly stated in texts like Sukra Neeti and Surya Pranjapti. The uses of Nirayana Rasi Chakra (starting with Nirayana Mesha Sign) as an independent system, is well popular as we all know and practice today. This article is just the continuation of my effort to shed some light on the Astrology present in Tantric texts, which I have started with an article about the astrological statements contained in Dattatreya Maha Tantra. Such glimpses clearly indicate that Astrology is an Agama Sastra and also that the Agama (Tantric) tradition was well versed in astrology, and also that they always followed the Nirayana system. Unlike Nigama tradition of Vedas, which used Tropical Zodiac, combined with Fixed Nakshatra system, Agama (Tantric) tradition used the Nirayana Zodiac with the common starting point of Meshadi (starting point of Aries) and Aswinyadi (starting point of Aswini Nakshatra) as the point of reference; as the starting point of Zodiac as we know it today. Note_1: Kaul ji (Avatar Krishnan Kaul) at times blindly argues that “the Tantras contains no astrology” without ever even studying them with an inquisitive perspective. As the name indicates Kaul ji is a person born in Tantric tradition of Kashmir. But currently he is after Vedic Tropical zodiac and the restoration of Vedic calendar based on his beliefs about the same. I think that as he discards the fixed Nakshatra Chakra proposed by Vedas his be-

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liefs do not tally with even the Vedic tradition. I hope that this article may inspire him to look back into the Agama tradition to which he himself belongs, and come up with positive or negative responses (after a detailed study) which may further strengthen our knowledge about the same. Note_2: As I always used to say, it is rather than the subject and slokas, the consciousness that looks into it and the new inner light in which things can be viewed is more important in generating clarity of vision. Let the words “Know what is before you, then the things hidden from you will become revealed to you” be our motto in our search and reconstruction of near lost elegance of ancient indian astrology.

Dettatreya Mahatantra and Tantric Astrology “The available text on Dattatreya Maha Tantra is a small text“containing 15 chapters and 160 slokas. This text is also known“as "Siromani", meaning "gem in the head'. The text is structured as a“dialogue between lord Parameswara (lord Siva) & Dattatreya Maharshi.“Kala Tantra (Astrology) and Kala Mantra (Medicine) are the 2 subjects“dealt with in. These are 2 knowledge streams the tantrics (tantric“disciples) learned with attention.“Kala Mantra is the branch of Tantra that deals with the use of“medicine related to the tantric worship for the secret purpose of“Killing others, attracting others, making people enemy to each other,“make people leave their native place, Magic, de-poisoning, re-“establishing sexual ability etc. Yes, it is a secret branch of study“and you will encounter thousands of superstitions and stupidities as“well in such texts, along with gem like knowledge bits.“ Kala Tantra (Astrology) is the branch of Tantra that deals“with the study of time for the purpose of knowing about the past-“present-future, time of death etc. Of these two (Kala Tantra

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and Kala“Mantra), Kala Mantra is the subject dealt with in the available part“of Dattatreya Mahatantra - the description of how to use medicine in“worship along with mantras for the purpose of Shadkarma (Marana,“Mohana, Uchadana, Sthambhana, Vidveshana, Akarshana) etc. But we can“also find some small description about Kala Tantra (Astrology) as“well, here and there in this text.“ [Use of medicine in worship seems to be a superstition. But“hundreds of medicinal plants are mentioned in such slokas, which I“think should have served some secret purpose in the hands of true“guru and sishya of Tantric culture. Tantra is a secret discipline,“and so who could say what would have been the real purpose and use of“these medicines mentioned - even though in the text it is stated that“it is used for the worship like Homa etc]“ Since Dattatreya Mahatantra speaks about Kala Mantra and Kala“Tantra, we could guess that only one part of this text that deals“mainly with Kala Mantra is available to us and the other part that“deals with Kala Tantra might have been lost, in the turbulent flow of“time.“ Listen to the request of Maharshi Dattatreya to lord Siva -“"Approaching lord Siva, the lord of all lords, the divine, the well“wisher of all worlds, savior of devotees, whose adobe is Kailasa,“humbly, with folded hands, Dattatreya asked: Oh lord, for the benefit“of the devotees please give advice to us about Kala Mantra"“ In the same style Dattatreya might have learned Kala Tantra“(Astrology) as well from lord Siva (Maheswara). That is why we could“find Kala Tantra (Astrology) as well, here and there in this text.“ Only because Dattatreya mentions astrology here and there in“this text, can be conclude like this? No. It is not the lone reason“for this conclusion. As mentioned earlier, "Siromani" (gem in the“head) is another name for this text. Which branch of study is praised“as "gem in the head" by the saints? Listen to this sloka in Vedanga“Jyotisha-“ "Like the crest of peacock, like the gem stone in the head“of a cobra, Astrology is at the head of all Vedanga sastras (like a“gem)"“ Yes,

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the praise "gem in the head" usually goes to Kala“Tantra - Astrology, Astronomy and the related mathematics. Because of“this even the other name "Siromani" of Dattatreya Mahatantra,“indicates that Kala Tantra (Astrology) is one of the subject matter“of the text. But that part of the text is lost, and is not available“anymore.“ There is one more point that proves this argument. Dattatreya“gives a list of chapters that are present in Dattatreya Mahatantra at“the beginning chapter of the text. Here 18 chapters are mentioned,“but only the subjects mentioned in 9 chapters is available in the“printed text. Chapters 1,9,12,13,14, 15,16,17,18 (Total 9 chapters)“seems to be missing. This also proves that the available text of“Dattatreya Mahatantra is an incomplete one.“ If we agree up to this the question rises, "Is it Vedanga“Astrology that Dattatreya wanted to learn from lord Siva?" No! As he“wanted to learn medicine (Kala Mantra) that could be made use for“worships aimed at purpose such as Shadkarma etc, he might have“requested to teach astrology (Kala Tantra) that could be made use in“Shadkarma etc. Listen to his request to lord Siva-"In this world many types of talismans, manta, tantric worships are present. Many such are described in Agama, Purana, Veda and Damara, and in many other texts as well. Please advice the knowledge of Kala Tantra that would help to utilize all that knowledge (on Yentra, Mantra etc) in the right method for fulfilling the intentions" This is what Dattatreya requests. As said earlier knowledge about medicine (Kala Mantra) and Astrology (Kala Tantra) that would be of help is Shadkarma etc is the subject matter of Dattatreya Mahatantra. This knowledge lies scattered in Agama, Purana, Veda, Damara etc. Dattatreya is requesting lord Siva to collect all these knowledge and give advice/teach him the same 'in the right/correct method'.“ Agamas are Siva Tantric texts - old as Vedas. The word Purana here indicates 18 Puranas and the Sub Puranas. The word Veda here indicates the 4 Vedas and the allied literature called Brahmana, Aaranyaka, Upanishad etc as well. They are also known as

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Nigama. But for Tantric devotees the word Nigama indicates Devi Tantra. So the statement 'Agamokta' should be taken as indicative of both Siva Tantra (Agama) and Devi Tantra (Nigama) texts. Another branch of Tantra is Vishnava Tantra. Damaras are also texts on Devi Tantra. That is, the request of Dattatreya to lord Siva is to collect and systematically present and teach him the vast knowledge on Kala Tantra and Kala Mantra which is beneficial for the purpose of Shadkarma etc, clarifying the right method. This sloka indicates that Tantric astrology was in a corrupted state at the time of Dattatreya, and even for this great Maharshi it was very difficult to separate the right and wrong statements from the pile. The sloka also indicates that even in that remote past Vedas and Puranas borrowed the knowledge of astrology and medicine from Tantrics and incorporated it in those texts! We can feel the pain of the Rishi when he see that this pure ancient secret knowledge is becoming lost knowledge for the Siva devotees. He wants it to be the heritage of Siva Tantrics. Listen to these words - "This great knowledge (on astrology and medicine) - which saves one who devotes himself to this subject, secret, difficult to get even for davas, first told by lord Siva, shines like a gem in the head all secret knowledge branches - should be taught only to a person who is the true devotee of the Guru. This knowledge should not be imparted to persons who does not believe in acharyas, tradition and the purity of knowledge. One should teach this pure knowledge to an individual who is strong willed and is a devotee of lord Siva alone. The statement, "Astrology is originated from lord Siva" (Tavagre kathitahyesha) asks for special attention. Even in the period of Prasnamarga (16th century) this truth was appreciated. Even today traditional astrologers read horoscope, or cast prasna after bowing to that lord of lords Maheswara (Siva). This is the reason for the importance of Dakshinamoorti (lord Siva in the form of Guru, God of knowledge) in Astrology. Lord Siva is the ultimate Guru and originator of astrologic knowledge as per Tantric All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

tradition. Here I would like to mention a curious fact. If we consider the concept about the originator of astrology as per different schools of astrology, we will find that - Vedic School - lord Brahma (Tropical/Sayana); Tantric School - lord Siva (Sidereal/Nirayana); Arsha School - lord Skanda (Sidereal/Nirayana); Jain School lord Brahma (Sidereal/Nirayana). This is curious! This difference in concept about the originator of astrology, probably indicates that, these are all different schools of thought in astrology, which probably originated and existed in the same era. Is it not so? Since the basic concepts (Such as Rasi and Nakshatra) where the same, they might have got intermixed in a later stage. It is also possible that, all these basic concepts such as Rasi and Nakshatra was originally borrowed from some other civilization which existed before all these cultures, such as the Sindhu-Saraswati civilization. Only an in-depth study and new evidences could prove whether any amount of truth is present in this guess or not. In this essay I started by discussing the astrological content in the available slokas of Dattatreya Mahatantra - and so let us go back to that. Most of the slokas after this discuss how medicines could be utilized for Shadkarma (Kala Mantra) etc. Lord Siva tells Dattatreya -“Now I will speak about Kala Mantra which is beneficial for the upliftment of th individual. This secret knowledge (on medicine) which is beneficial even in this kali yuga, I will teach you, putting aside the knowledge of astrology. Because - (For the benefit with medicine) it is not essential to consider Tithi, Nakshatra, Vreta, Day, Pooja, Japa, Homa etc. Even the determination of an auspicious muhoorta is not essential. Merely applying the medicine that suits well for the well being of mind and body serves the purpose. By the use of it the disease gets cured. (Medicines are invaluable, and their effect mysterious. Because of this I will explain to you, how to use these medicines in Shadkarma worships). With this advice lord Siva starts to speak about Kala Mantra (Medicine). Since those slokas are not related to astrology, I am not discussing them here.

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If anyone is interested bye and read the printed text of Dattatreya Mahatantra to know more about that. But the last chapter of the available printed text (chapter 15) deals with Kala Tantra (Astrology). The determination of the time of death is the subject discussed. Siva said: “Oh, Maha yogi, Dattatreya Mahamune, for the benefit of human beings I will tell to you about death time determination. Listen “Dwadesa dala chakrastham Mrityukalam cha veekshitam Chaitradi masa sankhayani likhyante dwadese dale Meshadi rasaya sthapya suryadi likhyate grahaH Janma riksha janma rasim veekshante mrityukarake Surya vedhe manastapam budha soukhyam pravartate Yatrayam teertha jeeve cha chandre stri sukha sambadaH Bhrigu vedhe rajya labhaH mase mase vicharayete“ (Dattatreya Mahatantra) [From the Rasichakra with 12 petals, we can have an idea bout the time of death. For that first write the numbers of months starting from the month of Chaitra in each petal. In each of the petal place signs starting from Aries. Now, as per current planetary position write down the names of Grahas such as Sun, Moon etc in the Rasi chakra. If the Mrityu Karaka Graha (Saturn?) aspects (Drishti) the Lagna (Lagna star?) or Moon sign then it is death time. If Vedha is present, then for sun - sadness, for Mercury happiness, for Jupiter - pilgrimage, for Moon - happiness from sexual acts with women, for Venus - gain of land results. This type of prediction can be done every month. Some interprets that the Sripati's system of Gochara-Vedha is mentioned here (?!). They also argue that if Nakshatra Vedha and Rasi Vedha is present at the same time then for sure it is time for Kala Mrityu (Ultimate/Sure chance of death) (?!). But this sloka was a real problem to me and

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I just got confused. Why? I will explain. (1) Mention of months starting from Chitra Why it is said that after drawing the Rasi chakra we should write down the numbers corresponding to the months starting from Chaitra in each square of the Rasi chakra? Did he mean to say that - Chaitra = Mesha (Aries); Visakha = Vrishabha (Taurus) etc? If so does it mean that the starting point of Aries should be calculated, taking Chitra star as a reference? That is, as if the point 180 deg away from Chitra star is the starting point of Aries or the like? (2) Mrityu Karaka Graha Is Saturn mentioned with the word Mrityu Karaka? If so, the wordings "Janma riksha janma rasim veekshante sanaischare", directly mentioning Saturn would have been enough. Then why the author chose to omit directly mentioning Saturn and instead used the word Mritru Karaka (Significator of death)? If not only Saturn but also other planets should be considered, then what other house lords and planets we should consider? (3) Riksha - Nakshatra or sign The word Riksha has got 2 meanings - Nakshatra and sign. With the word Janma Riksha Dattatreya Maharshi is mentioning Lagna Nakshatra, Lagna sign, Moon Nakshatra or Moon sign? If we think that here the word Riksha represents both Nakshatra and Sign, then is it that we should consider both Nakshatra Vedha and Rasi Vedha for death time determination? How to calculate Nakshatra Vedha and Rasi Vedha in planetary context? (4) Vedha and the related prediction Here if Vedha is present for beneficial planets, then it is said that results also would be beneficial!! This is contradictory to the Vedha concept of Sripati. As per Tantric astrology how many types of Vedha is present? How to calculate Nakshatra Vedha, Rasi

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Vedha and Graha Vedha in the planetary context? What are the rules to be observed while predicting with this type Vedha concept? (5) Transit or Gochara This Gochara-Vedha system of prediction can be used for prediction every month (Mase mase vicharayet) says Dattatreya. Did he meant to say that Transit should be considered for the determination of death time? If so why he avoided mentioning the transit prediction for Mars, Saturn, Rahu and Ketu? (6) Vedha and Tantric Astrology Probably Sripati who lived in 10th century AD, is the person“who introduced the concept of Vedha in astrology. But here we encounter a similar concept in Dattatreya Mahatantra as well! What should we observe from it? Should we think that Dattatreya Tantra originated after Sripati of 10th century AD? Or should we think that Sripati borrowed the concept of Vedha from Tantric astrology especially from Dattatreya Tantra? No. I don't have answers to such doubts. If we want to find answers to the above or similar questions, an in-depth study of the astrology mentioned in Tantric texts (Tantric Astrology) is a must. For simplifying the study of ancient astrology, we can classify them into several categories:(i) Astrology in Sindhu-Sarasvati period (Sindhu-SarasvatiAstrology) (ii) Astrology mentioned Vedas and allied literature (Vedic Astrology) (iii) Astrology mentioned Epics (Epic Astrology) (iv) Astrology mentioned in Puranas (Puranic Astrology) (v) Astrology mentioned in Tantric texts (Tantric Astrology) -

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It is the biggest treasure, thousands of unexplored texts (and a whole secret tradition) waiting for us! [Chandra Hari is specially interested in Tantric Astrology and the Sidhantic astronomy] (vi) Astrology of Arsha school which is scattered in various ancient astrological texts. This is a well accepted stream in Indian astrology starting with Skanda Hora, Brihal Prajapatyam, Vasishta Hora, Kousika Hora etc. The acharyas in this school are great Rishis like Skanda, Daksha, Vasishta, Kousika, Sounaka etc, and the authentic Sidhantic text 'Surya Sidhanta'. [I am specially interested in this stream of thought] (vii) Astrology of Jain school which is scattered in various •“ancient astrological texts. This is a well accepted stream in Indian astrology starting with Garga Hora, Surya Prajchapti etc. The acharyas in this school are Garga, Rishputra etc. (Jain Astrology) [Yes, of course there are other streams of thought as well like Yavana and Parasara. But books on that them is not yet lost completely, and that is why I am not including them here on the above list] There is not even a single authentic text available that tries to explore the depths of any of the categories mentioned above! There is a vast area available for research! They are requesting to us, "please, please, come forward and reveal the knowledge we preserved for you..." All this ancient knowledge on astrology are still behind the dark curtain of half forgotten, unexplored literary history. This vast knowledge is praying to us, "Tamasoma“Jyotirgamaya...". Yes, there is a large amount of work pending, and is seeking our immediate attention. All these knowledge is meditating there inside the dark cave and is ready to shower their secrets before the true seekers of knowledge. Those who are truly inquisitive can start their search from here. Let us begin our search for the hidden treasures of astrological knowledge. Enjoy! It is child's play- and the vast treasure house waiting for us, to be explored! Let us begin search and present the valuables we find,

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before the all, for the benefit of posterity! And Enjoy the fun of learning!

Swastika and Astrology Swastika was famous in Sindhu-Sarasvati Tradition. It is a famous Tantric Symbol used for various kinds of worships. Does it have some relationship with astrology? Can it clarify to us anything about the tradition of Mohanjadaro-Harappan civilization and the kind of astrology they followed? The answer is: Yes. Before proceeding to this study, let us understand what Swastika is - as you know, it is a symbol. Symbol of what? That we will see. Two sets of Swastika representations are given below. The first is considered male and the second female. Male (Closkwise)

Fig. 1

Female (Anti-clockwise)

Fig. 2

Fig. 3

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

Fig. 6

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This is a symbol that was and is famous throughout the world from the ancient past. Tibetans believed that the devils liked the female Swastika. In Japan and China both the male and female swastikas were considered auspicious. North American people too considered both of them as auspicious! In Scandinavia, Arabia and many other places this symbol was well known. Now a days Swastika is not only used by the Agama (Tantric) tradition but also by the Nigama (Vedic) tradition and many other religions and cults; It is popular in India and outside; even though the original home of the symbol is known to everybody as India. Hitler made the male swastika notoriously known - and many say that he selected it by mistake; instead of the currently popular female swastika selecting the transposed one. May be they don’t know about the history of Swastika and its Agama tradition. In truth as per the ancient Agama (Tantric) tradition there are two type of Swastika - symbolically termed male and female. Both the swastikas were used for worship based on the nature of worship. But Hitler selected the one symbolizing Male (representing good deeds?) and made it famous as a bad symbol. Due to this or not I don’t know, today’s Hindus seems to have a preference for the female swastika; may be to escape from the bad name Hitler caused to the male swastika. :) But even now in Agama tradition the Male swastika is used for the worship for good deeds (worship for spiritual uplift or for the benefit of all) and the Female swastika is especially selected for bad deeds (worship for selfish achievements). The original shape of Swastika is shown in Fig.1 and Fig. 2. It is the shape of swastika famous in India from the ancient past and is part of the Agama (Tantric) tradition. For tantric worship when the swastika chakra is drawn different colors (usually with 4 colors - White, Yellow, Red, Black) would be used to color the differ areas within the swastika chakra (circle). It is cute to not that even though drawn as square shape, Swastika drawn for Tantric wor-

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ship is known as Chakra (Wheel = Circle!). Yes, as the word indicates, it is actually a circle or wheel represented in square shape similar to the zodiac circle which even though a square we usually represent as a square for convenience of drawing. Actually it is nothing but the Zodiac itself! How can we say so? What is the proof? The answer is - Do you ever noticed the Agama (Tantric) directions given to draw swastika? If not, here it is. For Male swastika -

+xiɶSÉiÉÖ¹{ÉiÉÊ´É®úÉÊVÉiÉ®úÉʶÉSÉGäò ¨Éä¹ÉÉÊnùEòÊjÉiɪÉEòÉÊxÉ {ÉnùÉÊxÉ ¤ÉÉÁä ´Éè·ÉÉxÉ®ú|ɨÉÖJÉiÉÉälÉ {ÉnùÉÊxÉ ¨ÉvªÉä SÉÉ{ÉÚ®úªÉärù´É³ý{ÉÒiÉ®úVÉ& Gò¨ÉähÉ** [In the infinite zodiac starting from Mesha (Aries) 3 padas (signs) each, cover, each area represented in swastika chakra. Gods such as ‘Vaiswanara’ (=The universal god) etc sits in the middle of Swastika Chakra. After drawing the Chakra fill it with colors such as White, Yellow, Red and Black in order] For female swastika this description would be as ‘Meenadika’ meaning ‘Pisces onwards’ in anti-clockwise direction. The 4 quarters of Swastika indicates the 4 directions; as malefemale combination it is the representative of Siva-Sakti itself; as the zodiac it represents the universe; it indicates the oneness of the universal god with the universe; the oneness of the universe and the human efforts to grasp that oneness with fragmented classifications. In the practical plane of astrology - It represents the Zodiac, it represents the Year. Thus it becomes clear that Swastika is a symbol of Agama (Tantric) tradition, well-known, well understood, well described. Yes, it was the tradition with a glorious past; with a glorious continuity from the Mohangadaro-Harappan civilization! The Harappan people practiced Yoga (remember the Moolabandhasa posture of the Yogic figures), Tantra (remember the Siva symbols of Harappa and the worship of Sakti, the mother goddess). Yes, All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

the ancient Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization followed the Agama tradition; which once spanned throughout the world; It is the same Asura/Agama tradition - which created the Nirayana astrology; feeling the rhythmic oneness of the universe within themselves! The original name of Harappa is Meluhha. Even though the Kalibengan Vedic people who lived on the Indian side of Sarasvati started calling them Mlechhas (‘Meluhas’ = Meluhans = People of Meluha), initially with equal respect and later with contempt for not following the Vedic (=Brahmanic) path; the Agama tradition was spread throughout India; Siva and Sakti and the Tantric symbol of Zodiac never lost its relevance; and it was the path followed by the true seekers of the ultimate; and is in use still today. Be proud to be the followers of such a tradition - and be proud that we are the students of a great branch of Agama Sastra that is Nirayana Astrology. Don’t you wonder - The Vedic tradition gave more value to the Tropical Year and months and the fixed frame of reference provided by Nakshatra divisions; but still the Agama tradition of Niryana astrology which consider the fixed from work of Meshadi (starting from Aries) signs survived and is the most popular system in India even today. Yes, the same is the case with the culture and gods of India - the Nigama (Vedic) tradition is an almost forgotten past; but the Agama tradition is the reality in current practice throughout India! If you don’t believe look at the gods - Siva, Sakti (Devi, Chadika, Kali, Durga), Naga (Snake worship; Kundalini Pooja) etc; and also at the popularity of Nirayana Zodiacal astrology. Do you find the Vedic gods Indra, Mitra, Varuna any where? Even after the epics and puranas how many temples for later day Vishnava cult gods of Brahmins such as Rama and Krishna can you find in India? Alas! Even the Vedic gods had to resort to the temple worship of later day Agama tradition to preserve their existence! You could easily see that the Vedic culture got submerged here in India by the original Agama tradition! Only the trace remains in the form of Vedic literature - but yes it is much valuable; since the Agama tradition never succeeded to that extend in preserving the scriptures. All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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Note 1: I think now you know the answer to the question, “What Swastika symbolize?”. Yes, it is a holistic symbol with utmost relevance. Note 2: The Vedic tradition borrowed much from the earlier Agama tradition; proofs are many for the same in Vedas. The current Archeological evidences too point to the same direction.

About the system of Black Magic “We the children of cosmic divine destroy the incarnation of sin ‘Niriti’ (the god of death) and thus destroy the evilness and diseases that eat us up every day, every moment, by following the consciousness. Thus we destroy the evilness in us and remove the darkness that covers over understanding. Oh! God give us the power to do so!” - Atharva Veda Let it be the malicious path or the good path, to study mantravada (A deviant path of Tatra, which aims at fulfillment of intentions) a guru (teacher) is necessary. Why? Atharvada says that- ‘Death, Water and Moon are my teachers. Rice, wheat and all other food materials I am getting due to the compassion of the teacher. Everything and every event in the world are my teachers’ Ashtanga hridaya (A book on Ayurveda, which speaks about medicine and healing techniques, written by saint Charaka) also speaks in the same line- ‘For an intelligent individual, in his every act, the world itself is the teacher. Because of this in worldly matters after understanding the ways methods and nature of nature and living beings one should follow the same’. These messages may give us the feeling that a separate guru is not necessary to learn even subjects like Mantravada. Ultimately, ‘Siva, the god which is present in and with which the whole universe is made up of, is the first guru and he himself lightens himself in everybody as consciousness – thus says the knowledgeable ones’ (Quote from Suta samhita) The

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ultimate or the only real possible guru is within ourselves – which is nothing but consciousness. The teachers can only show the way, actual teaching and learning happens from within – we ourselves are the real gurus for ourselves. This being the real situation, we may feel that the stress on having another individual as guru to teach Mantravada (or any other similar subject) is something over stated. But it is not so. Kularnava Tantra tells us that- ‘Siva (or the enlightened consciousness), the ultimate guru is divine. It may not be possible for common people to see or decipher it – they always live in confusion, and darkness encompasses their consciousness always. Due to this the students of subjects like Tantric worships should take someone who is truly spiritual (who wish and act for the well being of the universe and himself, by following his own nature) as guru, and follow his teachings (till he himself lightens up, and becomes a guru who could see his own path or true nature – i.e. ‘Dharma’). [By the way ‘Dharma’, ‘Tao’ all mean almost the same and could be translated as ‘the path’; But even this definition does not clarify full depth of the word ‘Dharma’. An example may clarify further. ‘Burning is the true dharma of Fire’. Or in other words ‘Dharma’ could also be translated as ‘true nature’ (of something)] Thus it becomes clear that to study ‘Mantravada’ in the right way, a teacher is a must. This stays true for both DurMantravada (Malicious Mantravada or ‘Black Magic’ and ‘Good Mantravada’ or ‘White Magic’). If not we will end up having an erroneous understanding of this subject – as truly visible from the words ‘Black Magic’, which itself can cause confusion regarding the depth and nature of this subject itself. The Fundamental constituents Having said that, I think now we have the minimum ground necessary to embark on this subject. But before going into this study, we should have at least a minimum understanding of the constants and of this subject – i.e. Dur Mantravada. It should be clearly noted that I am speaking about Dur-Mantravada (Black All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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Magic) which is a deviation happened in the path of Tantra and not about Tantra itself. The fundamental constituents differ a lot in both. [If you want to know more about ‘Tantra’ read the book ‘Bhirava Tantra’ by Osho] Here I am speaking about the constituents of the system of Black Magic and not about Tantra. ‘Tanta’ means ‘Technique’ and it is more about attaining enlightenment by the union of opposites – Man and Women, Siva and Sakti. Dur-Mantravada (Black Magic) is more concerned with various beliefs, and techniques to fulfill intentions, anchoring on those beliefs. Black Magic is more or less based on the following beliefs1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

The belief in the power of secret hymns. The belief in the principles of similarity and transition The belief in Ayurveda system of medicine The belief in astrology The belief in para-normal and para-psychic powers (of ours and non-human) 6) The belief in the words of our ancestors (the belief in traditional beliefs) 7) The belief in ceremonial act or worship techniques used 8) The belief in the theory of Karma (Karma sidhanta): Eg. What you do, the result of that you are sure to get, in this life or the other. 9) The belief in re-birth. 10) The belief in multiple gods 11) The belief in the ability of dreams to foretell future 12) The belief in time a. The knowledge of Time and its nature (Time is the ultimate counter part of the universe, providing the extra dimension) b. Knowledge of the effects of time (Calendar and Muturta systems)

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c. The belief that we can defy time and thus death (through meditation and breath control) d. The worship of the destroyer of time (Kalakala – ‘Siva’ who can cause the death of time itself) 13) The ultimate state (enlightenment) a. Duality (Siva - Sakti) = Dvaita b. Single God (There are several systems which consider Tripura sundari or Akhora as this single god) = Eka Daiva c. Unity (The realization that the creator, creation and the rules are one and the same) = Advaita Except the last one, all the others are beliefs – but the last one is rather a realization than a belief. If somebody gross from the preliminaries of ‘Black Magic’ (ceremonial worships for intension fulfillment) to considering this as a path for enlightenment, then he is in the path of ‘Tantra’ rather than ‘Black Magic’. we should try to elaborate and understand these beliefs in more deapth. The aim of that effort sould be to understand a method to differentiate the pearls and waste material and literature that is present in the system of ‘Black Magic’. Once the above steps is covered, we should look into the classification (Shad Karma = Marana, Mohana, Uchadana etc) and functional constituents (Mantramsaka = Mantra deeksha, Snana, Dyana, Pranayama etc), and technical constituents (Mantra recitation, Homa, Use of flowers, gems and garlands, prasada dana, use of medicines and chemicals etc) Only such an elaboration can give us the ground to have a minimum understanding about the system of ‘Black Magic’. I hope that, I have succeeded in providing the outline of the point under discussion, and the area it covers.

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Tajik Astrology ‘Tajiki’ is the language that present in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan in previous USSR. This language comes under the Indo-Iranian language family, which is a branch of Indo-European language family. Languages like Persian, Kurdish, Baloochi, Dardik, Armenian etc are also part of Indo-Iranian language family in which Tajiki is also present. The primordial form of Persian language is the one used in Persia and Armenia in Arcadian ruling period. The books of Zaratushtra (BC. 1500) are written in such old Persian known as Sent Avaste. The middle age pertain is known by the name Pahlavi. The script of this language is also different. Later when the Arabs conquered Iran, the Arabic language greatly influenced Persia and the modern Persian language (AD 9th century) originated. That means, much knowledge transfer happened via the path: Tajikistan → Armenia → Iran → India. Or in other words via the language path: Old Tajiki → Old Armenian → Sent Avaste (Old Persian) → Pahlavi (Middle age Persian) → Persian (Modern Persian) → Arabic → Indian Languages. One of the knowledge branches, which got transferred through this path, is a particular form of astrology. It is the ancient astrology prevalent in Tajikistan, Armenia and Uzbekistan which reached through Iran (Through Persian and Arabic) that later became popular as ‘Tajik Astrology’. It is astonishing to note that the system still preserved its old roots of origin even after this much transfer and transformations. Thus ‘Tajik Astrology’ means ‘the system of astrology originated in Tajikistan’. It was with Mohammed Ghazni who entered India in 10th century, that this system of astrology reached Kashmir, and then later with the spreading of Arabs in India, spread throughout North India. In India the meaning of the word ‘Tajik’ transferred to refer All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

to Arabs. Remember the quote –

+¶Éä¹É ±ÉÉäEò ºÉxiÉÉ{É Eò±ÉÉ{Énù& iÉÉÊVÉEòÉxɱÉ& [The attack of the Arabs caused much sadness and loss of radiance to the whole world] Note that in this quote the word ‘Tajik’ is used to refer to the Arabs. In Arabic Taj means ‘crown’ – thus ‘Tajik’ system could mean ‘the crown among the knowledge branches’. Remember the Sanskrit verse that praises astrology as the crust (or crown) of peacock. The quote reads as follows –

ªÉlÉÉ Ê¶ÉJÉÉ ¨ÉªÉÚ®úÉhÉÉÆ xÉÉMÉÉxÉÉÆ ¨ÉhɪÉÉä ªÉlÉÉ iÉuùiÉ ´ÉänùÉÆMÉ ¶ÉɺjÉÉhÉÉÆ VªÉÉäÊiɹÉÆ ¨ÉÚvÉÇÊxÉ ÎºlÉiÉÆ** - ´Éän ÉÆMÉVªÉÉäÊiɹÉÆ

[Like the crest of peacock, like the gem stone in the head of cobra, astrology is the crown of the vedic knowledge branches] Thus it is clear that both Ancient Vedic Indians (Suras or Devas) and the Ancient non-vedic Asura empire (which ruled Iran, Armenia, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) which worshiped Ahur Mazda (Asura medha = Asura wisdom) in the period of ancient Zoroastrian religion (BC 1500) considered astrology as the crown among the knowledge branches. It is one of the rudimentary branches of this ancient non-vedic astrology that was popular in Tajikistan, which is available to us now in the name ‘Tajik Astrology’. In AD 1544 an indian scholar with the name Neelakandha translated this system of astrology from Arabic to Sanskrit. This Neelakandha is the son of an astrologer named Ananta (Ananta Daivajna) and is the grand son of the famous astrologer Rama (Rama Daivajna) who wrote the text ‘Muhurta Chinatamani’. The son of Neelakandha named Govinda, later wrote a famous commentary called ‘Peeyoosha dhara’ for Muhurta Chintamani and a commentary known as ‘Rasala’ for Neelakandha’s text on Tajik system of astrology. The text written by Neelakandha on Tajik All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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system of astrology is well known today as – ‘Tajik Neelakandhi’. At the time of Neelakandha Kashmir was known as Vidarbha. Note that this ancient kingdom Vidarbha was very popular from Upanishad and Epic period onwards. There seems to have lived one scholar who wrote some well appreciated text on this branch of astrology in Sanskrit prior to Neelakandha known as Samara Simha. Samara Simhas text on Mundane astrology must be available even now in some manuscript libraries. The book Tajik Neelakandhi is composed of 3 parts – knows as Tantra texts. They are – 1. Samjna Tantra (Naming system or the basic knowledge) 2. Varsha Tantra (Mundane Astrology or Varsha phala or Predictions connected with year beginning) 3. Prasma Tantra (Horary Astrology) Just as this system preserved its old roots of origin in its name as ‘Tajiki’ (pointing to ‘Tajikistan’) the use of the word ‘Tanta’ to denote the branches is also cute to note. In ancient times all the vedic knowledge branches were known as Nigama, and all the non-vedic knowledge branches were known as ‘Agama’ or ‘Tantra’. Thus the naming of the various knowledge branches in Tajik system of astrology also points to its ancient Tantric origin. The old tradition rooted in Asura wisdom. As noted above – during the continuous transfer from Tajikistan

to Iran via Armenia and from their through the Arabs to India, even though some part of the inherent knowledge got preserved, the naming conventions used and words used changed and modified elaborately. Many words, especially those used to denote various yogas, used in current Tajik system of astrology, such as the following seems to denote that the origin or acceptance of words from Arabic than from its original source or origin. 1. Ikkabali (lucky) 2. Indu vara (destruction or loss) 3. Itthasala (mutual aspect) 4. Eesarapha (separation) 5. Naks 6. Yamaya 7. Manavoo 8. Kabbul (acceptance) 9. Jauri Kabbul 10. Khallasar (Empty) 11. Radrim (waste) 12. Duphali kuddhe (normal) 13. Duddhodha divir (self support) 14. Tambir (benefic) 15. Kuddh (Powerful) 16. Duraph (weak) Actually many of the yogas mentioned in this system are popular in ancient Indian astrology from age old period itself. As an example, I will take the first of these 16 yogas, named Ikkabali

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and elaborate. The yoga named Ikkabali is formed when all the planets are –

* If all planets are in Apokilma (3-6-9-12), then too it is Vapi Yoga Kamala yoga is also known as ‘Padma Yoga’. What are the results to be predicted for these yoagas? Brihat Jataka provides the following results -

1. In Kendras 2. In Panaphara 3. In Apoklima [There is an argument regarding whether the words ‘Kendara’, ‘Panaphara’, ‘Apoklima’ etc are of Greek origin or not. This I won’t touch here, because it is another big controversial subject in itself] Tajik Neelakandhi is tells us that “If all the planets are in Kendra, Panaphara or Apoklima the yoga named Ikkabali is formed and the native would be very lucky”. This is a general statement. The ancient Indian astrology, deal with these 3 conditions seperatly and gives them seprate names and provides some unique details. Let us see what are the named given by the sages for these yogas considering these 3 conditions seperatly. As per indian astrology

The word kendra refers to square, i.e. 1-4-7-10 houses. If all planets (both benefics and malefics) are in Kedra it is known as ‘Kamala Yoga’. Brihat Jataka provides the following quote -

Eò¨É±ÉxiÉÖ Ê´ÉʨɸɺÉÆκlÉiÉè´ÉÉÇ{ÉÒ iÉtÊnù Eäòxpù¤ÉÉÁiÉ& - ¤ÉÞ½þiVÉÉiÉEÆ

[If all planets (both benefics and malefics) are in Kendra (1-4-710) then it is known as Kamala Yoga. If they are in signs other than Kendra (i.e. Panaphara and Apoklima) it is known as Vapi Yoga] From this it is clear that * If all planets are in Kendra (1-4-7-10), it is Kamala Yoga. * If all planets are in Panaphara (2-5-8-11) it is Vapi Yoga.

Ê´ÉJªÉÉiÉEòÒiªÉÇʨÉiɺÉÉèJªÉMÉÖhɶSÉ {ÉnÂù¨Éä ´ÉÉ{ªÉÉÆ iÉxÉÖκlÉ®úºÉÖJÉÒ ÊxÉÊvÉEÞòzÉ nùÉiÉÉ** - ¤ÉÞ½þiVÉÉiÉEÆ

[If Kamala yoga (Padma Yoga) is present, the native would be, famous (very popular), he will lead a happiest life with a multitude of virtuous qualities. If Vapi yoga is present, the native would be, healthy (having a body without diseases, enjoying all kinds of bodily pleasures), and wealthy. But he won’t donate anything to others (means he won’t help others much with his wealth or property)] It is clear that the combination is mentioned in Brihat Jataka, but how can we be sure that these combinations are mentioned by the great sages who lived before Varaha Mihira? Even though Mihira tells us that he had created his text only by abbreviating or brewing the essence of ancient Rihi Horas, is there any proof available to argue that the same is or might have been dealt with in those ancient Rishi horas as well? Yes there is! Kausika hora provides the results for Kamala yoga as follows -

+ÊiÉJªÉÉiɪɶÉÉ& {Éi¨Éä ºÉnùÉ SÉÉʨÉiɺÉÉèJªÉ¦ÉÉEÂò +nù§ÉMÉÖhɺÉx{ÉzÉ& {ÉÖ¯û¹ÉÉä ÊxÉÊvÉEÞòi¦É´Éä±É** - E ÉèʶÉE ½þÉä® É (¾þt{ÉlÉÉ)

[If the native is born in Padma yoga (Kamala yoga), he would be very famous, and would always enjoy happiness and wealth. He will have a wealth of virtues and will have tremendous amount of wealth as deposit] This quote amply proves that such yogas were dealt within

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Rishi horas in much detail. It is clear that Mihira collected and discussed these yogas based on Rishi horas only. Actually there is a big collection of dealt with in ancient indian astrology with the name Nabhasa Yogas. Nabhasa yogas are subcategorized in to branches, such as 1. Asraya yogas 2. Mala yogas 3. Sankhya yogas The yogas such as Kamala and Vapi comes under the Asraya yoga sub category, because these combinations results due to the Asraya (deposition) of Planets in houses with the names as Kendra, Panaphara and Apoklima. [The detailed discussion of all possible Naphasa yogas is another big subject and therefore I am not going into it, and the categroization, sub categoration, and the various yogas involved] Hope this article much have helped the readers in * gaining insight about the origin and development of Tajik system of astrology and * understanding the both Tajik system and ancient indian astrology sprung from the same root source of Asura wisdom, which spanned many countries in some ancient past. If this article inspires you to look in this unique branch of astrology in a revised new perspective, and also if such an efforts brings out new insights about the correlation between various cultures and ancient wisdom promoted by them, I would be happy.

Part -II Sign and House are the same We may think that Sign are House are different, because there are so many methods - such as one put forward by Sreepathi (10th century), Krishnamoorthi, 30 Degree equal division etc. Now what was the opinion of ancient Rishis on this subject? Have they considered Sign and House differently - except from the fact that Signs starts from Aris and Houses starts from the Ascendant? Let us go through some of the available refferences. Parasara

If you use Jagannatha hora program to calculate houses, you already know of many methods for calculating houses the first option is, ‘Each Rasi is a house (Parasari /True Vedic)’. Which itself shows that PVR and Rath has done sufficient study on the subject and came to the conclusion that Parasara considered ‘Each Sign as a House’. I take it as sufficient proof and do not want to discuss the slokas put forward by Parasara in detail. Let us see what are the opinions of others. Varahamihira (6th Century)

Varahamihira says that - ‘Rasi kshethra griharksha bhani bhavanam chaikardha samprethyaye’. Which means - the words Rasi, Kshethra, Griha, Riksha, Bham and Bhavanam are used in the same meaning through out the text Varahahora. (Note the fact that the words Rasi and Griha are used in the same meaning). Ok. For that what? I will explain. In the 15th sloka of the first chapter he states that‘Horadayasthanu kudumba sahotdha bandhuputhrari pathni maranani subhaspadaya ribhakhyamithyupachanyari karma labha-

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duschithka samgjitha “grihani” na nithyameke’ Which means that - the Houses (Grihani) starting from ascendant have the names Thanu (Body -Ascendant), Kudumba (Own house - 2nd house), Sahotdha (Brothers - 3rd house), Bandhu (Relatives - 4th house), Puthra (Son - 5th house), Ari (Enemy - 6th house), Pathni (Wife - 7th house), Marana (Death - 8th house), Subha (Good things - 9th house), Aspada (Job - 10th house), Aya (Earnings - 11th house), Ribha (Expenditure - 12th house). Everybody will accept the fact that houses are mentioned here. I am attracting your attention to the word, which was used to describe these houses - it is ‘Griha’. In earlier statement Varahamihira has already said that the words Griha and Rasi and used in the same name throughout his text. Is it not a convincing evidence for the fact that Varahamihira considered Sign (Rasi) and house as the same? If you are not convinced note the next sloka. ‘Kalya swa vikrama griha prethibha kshethani chithodha randhra guru mana bhava vyeyani legnachathurdha nidhane chathurasra samjche dunam cha sapthama “griham” desamarkshamajcha’ Which means (only the relevant portion) - the houses (Griham) starting from the ascendant have the names Kalya (Fame Ascendant), Swa (Assets - 2nd house), Vikrama (Courage - 3rd house), Griha (House were you are born - 4th house), Prethibha (Intelligence - 5th house), Kshethani (Wounds - 6th house), Chithodha (Ego - 7th house), Randhra (8th house), Guru (Teacher - 9th house), Mana (Proudness - 10th house), Bhava (Next birth 11th house), Vyeya (Expenditure - 12th house). Here also note the fact that the word Griha is used - which explicitly means Sign and House at the same time, because the words Sign and House means the same thing, with the only

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difference that Signs are counted from Aris while the Houses are counted from Ascendant. Therefore it becomes clear that even at the period of 6th century AD, Signs and Houses are considered the same. It was people like Sreepathi (10th century) who made all the confusion by interpreting Sign and House as two different entities, and by providing new techniques of the calculation of Houses. (And just look - in what a mess we are!! There are 5 or more methods for calculating house!! In which we should depend on?! I don’t want to go into the detail) Even after all this happened there were learned scholars who never let away the correct system - and if you are not convinced read Krishneeyam and Saravali. Krishneeyam

Krishneeyam is written by one krishnacharya who probably lived in the 13th Century AD. A well-known and fascinating commentary for this classic text is chathura-sundari, written by Vishnu (the son of madhavacharya who has written madhaveeya). While commenting on the 9th sloka of Krishneeyam, he says, “adha moorthyadishu dvadesa rasishu dwadesha bhavanaha”. Which means, ‘Starting from the ascendant the twelve signs are also known as twelve houses’. This is so clear and explicit a statement, that no true learner of astrology can deny the fact that, Vishnu considered Signs and Houses as the same thing. This also points to the fact that, Krishnacharya and Madhavacharya also considered Signs and Houses as the same thing. Conclusion

If all these ancient acharyas (Rishis, Parasara, Varahamihira, Krishnacharya, Madhavacharya, Kalyanavarama etc) considered Sign and House as the same thing, who are we to say that they are

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different. Therefore any true learner of Vedic astrology, should accept and follow the path shown by these acharyas, and consider Sign and House as the same thing. (Probably Sreepathi had started all this trouble)

Divisions Such as Trimsamsa Before some days somebody has asked the question “Why Trimsamsa lords are for 5-6-7-8 degrees while the name suggest that, one Trimsamsa should be equal to 1/30 th of a sign (i.e. 1 Degree)”. Let me try to answer this question. Initially there were 2 systems in astrology for deriving predictions based on divisions. 1) That gives importance to Rasi vargas, especially to 12 Rasi vargas (Dwadesa Rasi varga) 2) That gives importance to the lords of Rasis (signs) [This system was later came to be known as shadvarga, saptha varga etc] Let us study these 2 systems in detail. 1) Dwadesa Rasi varga

There should be a systematic method for the mixing of the characteristics of signs (Rasis) without which minute analysis is impossible. Thus came about the Dwadesa rasi varga system. “Sphugidhvaja Hora” (An old classic on astrology of AD 250) states that -

®úɶÉÉè iÉÖ ªÉÉä uùÉnù¶É ¦ÉÉ´É ºÉƺlÉÉ º´Éè º´Éè ¡ò±Éè ºÉÆEÖò±ÉªÉÎxiÉ ®úÉ˶É** Which means - signs have 12 vargas. The characteristics of each division (varga) of sign differ due to the inter-mixing of the qualities and characteristics of other signs.

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Now what is the systematic method for deriving Rasi vargas? While describing hora (2 fold division of rasi) “Parasara hora” states that -

{ÉÊ®ú´ÉÞÊkÉ uùªÉÆ iÉä¹ÉÉÆ ¨Éä¹ÉÉnäù Gò¨É¶ÉÉä ¦É´ÉäiÉÂ** Which means - the hora division circles the zodiac 2 times, starting from the sign Aris. Putting it mathematically, we get Hora = Sputa x 2 i.e. if we multiply the longitude (planetary longitude or the nirayana longitude of any degree) by 2 we get the hora sputa. Thus first half of Aris would have the characteristics of Aris itself, while the second half will have the characteristics of both Aris and Taurus. For Taurus, the first half of it will have the characteristics of Taurus and Gemini, and the second will have the characteristics of Taurus and Cancer. It goes on like this. This system is true for all Rasi vargas. For example, while discussing Drekkana, Parasara states that -

{ÉÊ®ú´ÉÞÊkÉ jɪÉÆ iÉä¹ÉÉÆ ¨Éä¹ÉÉnäù Gò¨É¶ÉÉä ¦É´ÉäiÉÂ** Which mathematically means Drekkana sputa = sputa x 3 Thus from Aris: - the first Drekkana will have the characteristics of Aris, while the second is a mixture of Aris and Taurus, and the third Drekkana will have the mixed characteristics of Aris and Gemini. For Taurus: - The first Drekkana will have the mixed characteristics of Taurus and Cancer, the second of Taurus and Leo, and the third of Taurus and Virgo. It goes on like this. Now is it a generalized system, which could be used for all Rasi vargas? Yes, it is!! Because in Saravali (another classic text of astrology), we could see the statement -

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±ÉMxÉÉnùÒxÉÉÆ Ê±É{iÉÉ YÉäªÉÉ º´É MÉÞ½þÉÊnù ´ÉMÉÇ ºÉÆMÉÖÊhÉiÉÉ +¹]õÉnù¶É¶ÉiɦÉHòÉ ±É¤vÉÉ ºªÉÉnùÒÎ{ºÉiÉÉä ´ÉMÉÇ&**

Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupitor, Satern, Satern, Jupitor are the lords of Signs and Vargas, starting from Aries in order.

Which means - If you multiply the sputa of the Ascendant and the other planets with the varga number and then divide it with 1800 you can find out, in which sign the varga sputa will occur. Thus for -

Is it not a clear statement to prove that all the vargas should be counted from Aris and that the lords of vargas are the lords of signs itself?

4th varga (Chathurdhamsa) = sputa x 4 5th varga (Panchamamsa) = sputa x 5 6th varga (Shadamsa) = sputa x 6 7th varga (Sapthamsa) = sputa x 7 8th varga (Ashtamsa) = sputa x 8 9th varga (Navamsa) = sputa x 9 10th varga (Desamsa) = sputa x 10 11th varga (Ekadesamsa) = sputa x 11 12th varga (Dwadesamsa) = sputa x 12 There is only 12 Signs, and as you can intermix only these 12 Signs the important Rasi vargas are Dwadesa rasi vargas. But of course you can also mathematically derive other rasi vargas such as, Trimsamsa = sputa x 30 Shodasamsa = sputa x 60 etc If you are deriving the Dwadesa rasi vargas or the higher multiples, the lords of signs and the lords of these divisions are the same. If you are not sure, see Krishneeyam -

EÖòVÉ ¦ÉÞMÉÖ ¶É榃 ®ú´ÉªÉÉä ¤ÉÖvÉ ¦ÉÞMÉÖ ¦ÉÉè¨ÉÉÎRÂóMÉ®úÉä +EÇò{ÉÖjÉɶSÉ ¨ÉxnùÉä MÉÖ¯ûÊ®úiªÉvÉ Kendra->” Yes, if there is no planet in Lagna, then look for the placement of planets in Kendra. Kendra means 4th 7th and 10th Houses/ Signs from Lagna. Now the question is where to look? In 4th, in 7th or in 10th. The traditional answer to this question is first in 10th. Why? Because if you look in Laghu parasari, you will see the statement “Pradabala Utharotharam”, Meaning for Kendras the strength increases in the order 4th->7th->10th. That means 7th is stronger Kendra than 4th, and 10th is stronger Kendra than 7th. Indications the strength order 10>7>4. So look at the 10th house first. If there is no planet in Lagna, then if there is a planet in 10th house, then the query is related to that placement! If there is no planet in 10th as well, then look in 7th to see whether there is any planet in it, if not look in 4th. Now what to do if there is no planet in Lagna as well as 10th, 7th and 4th? Look what the sloka says? “Hora -> Kendra->Trikonebhya” Yes, if there is no planet in Kendra, we have to look for the placement of planet in Trikona, meaning 5th and 9th. Now, here also where to look? In 5th or 9th. The statement “Prabala Utharotharam” applies here as well. That means 9th is stronger trikona than 5th and so we have to look for the placement of any planet in 9th first! Now you can say that, if there is no planet in Lagna and Kendra (10-7-4) then look for planets in 9th or 5th. If there is a planet in 9th then the prasna is related to that. If 9th is vacant and if there is a planet in 5th then the prasna is related to that. If there is no planets in Lagna, Kendra

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and Trikona, then what to do? :) Then there is no point in that prasna, since the person is in an utterly problematic unsolvable situation, and even the guidance by the astrologer would be of no use to him. :) But still, there also you can look for the bad placement of Lagna lord first. I think at least for some the method is clear by now. Somebody can come forward with examples, to check how much it becomes true in his own experience. Of course, the secret is not complete. There exists 1 more method (as told earlier, from Varaha Hora) that is used for the same purpose (i.e. Locating the underlying problem that caused the qurent to approach the astrologer). The learned astrologers use this method (the method described earlier), and the one given in Varaha hora together, and considering the indications supplied by both of them come to a conclusion. I will explain the other method in another mail. Till then, let us experiment with this method. Method -2

In Prasnamarga it is said that “if a person with true inquisitiveness is approaching an astrologer, then the astrologer should tell him about problem he is facing and should suggest the appropriate solution”. But how? Let us see, how the traditional astrologer are approaching this question, by making use of a Varaha Hora sloka. Which sloka is that? I will quote it for you. “Kandaka Kendra Chatushtaya samjcha Saptama Lagna Chaturdha Khabhanam Teshu yedheshu hithabhi baladya Keeta narambu chara pasavascha” Meaning, Kandaka, Kendra, Chatushtaya are respectively names for 7th,1st and 4th Houses. Of them Reptail signs, Human signs and Water signs, and quadruped sign are strong in order. i.e. In 7th House = Reptail Sign is strong. In 1st House = Human Sign is strong.

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In 4th House = Water Sign is strong. In 10th House = quadruped (four footed animal) sign is strong. This seems to be simple. What secret is there? How can it help us in understanding the thought of the qurent? Wait...Wait..I will explain. Think that the presna Arudha (or Lagna) at the time of query was Aries. Now look is the 7th house a reptile sign (Sc and Cn)? No. Is the 1st hose a Human sign? No. Is the 4th House (Cn) a water sign? Yes! Is the 10th House a quadruped sign? well, yes/ no, it is Cp, partially water sign and partially quadruped sign. OK. Thus is means that the 4th house (the born home/native_place of the qurent where his mother, father, brothers, sisters and relative are present) is (at the time of prasna) a a very strong influence and controlling force in that persons life. But what is the natural tendency of the Lagna? Lagna (In this case, Aries) is a quadruped sign, which should naturally gets its strength if placed in 10th!! That means the natural tendency of the person is to concentrate and immerse himself in work! He is more interested in work, and don’t like any disturbances in that, but the family is holding him back!! Yes, with the fact alone that Aries is the ascent, you are able to reach this much! Now, whether this influence +ve or negative? Whether his actual problem is the family (4th house) or the job (10th house)? To know this look at the chart again to see the placement of 4th lord and 10th lord, and also see how strong is Lagna/ Lagna lord? 1) If 4th lord is badly placed then the bad influence or condition of the family/relatives is causing the trouble. 2) If the 10th lord is badly placed then the loss of expected success / failures / problems in job is causing the trouble. 3) If the Lagna is strong and lagna lord is well placed (they indicate the qurent himself) then the qurent is able and the prob-

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lem is just with the situation. If not the inability (financial or otherwise) of the qurent is also causing the situation to become worse! Does it mean that all prasna indicates bad things only? No! It is not like that. When presna Aruda (or Lagna) is Aries and if there is no problem with 4th and if there is a well placed planet in 10th then the query is related to 10th, about a positive subject, such as a promotion in job or the like! Similarly if there is no problem with 10th and if there is a well placed planet in 4th (e.g Mo) then he is thinking of constructing a new house or the like for sure!! (i.e. something that the 4th house and the planet placed in it signify) Yes, I have explained the example situation by taking Aries as Lagna (at the time of query). Now if Taurus is Lagna/Arudha at the time of query, then what? Yes you know the answer. ;) The sign “that becomes strong” is the 7th house, since it is a retail sign. (Retail signs are strong in 7th) - So the query could be about marriage or a marital problem. The “that should become strong” (or the natural tendency of the Taurus lagna) is 10th house. (Taurus in a quadruped sign) - so he should better concentrate on work. Does he do so? or is it causing the current problem? Locate what the qurent wants to ask about (could be either good or bad situations) basing your thinking on these lines. It is easy to locate combined with the additional clues the planetary placement gives us!! I think atleast to some of us the idea is clear by now. The traditional astrologers try to logically locate the prime problem/thought of the qurent by using both these principles. If both of them leads them to the same conclusion, then usually they won’t allow the qurent to speak, and tell his problem on his face, and thus catching him in absolute surprise!! Once this happens then it becomes a very easy task for the astrologer since, after that what ever he says would be accepted by the qurent by not even without a question! The good astrologers take it as a positive tool to give good guid-

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ance and counseling to the qurent and direct him in the right path. Bad astrologers - humm....You know what that do.... Yes, that is why it is said that astrology is a double edged sward. It can be used to guide the qurent to the right path, or to make him believe and first and then destroy him/cheat him totally, by giving wrong guidance! Yes, I agree, all knowledge is similar - good in the hands of good people, and bad in the hands of bad people. Ok. That were some side thoughts - back to astrology. Experiment with the above principle. Lesson to remember : Some slokas that seems simple hides ample secrets within!! And it demands hard efforts form the part of us to bring them out. I would just like to add some more info. About the sloka taken from Varaha hora. That concept of Human sign becoming strong in Lagna, Water sign in 4th, Retail sign in 7th and Quadruped sign in 10th is not a new idea introduced by Mihira. The Garga Hora sloka stating the same is also available. Garga was a famous sage of the Jaina Parampara, and might have lived in the time of Skanda himself, since may ideas mentioned by Skanda by ‘others’, found its place in Garga Hora. Skanda is the author of first book on astrology, known as Skanda hora (many slokas of which is still available). Skanda hora is also called Jyotishmati Upanishad. Most of the Rishi horas like Brihat Prajapatya, Vasishta Hora, Kousika Hora, Sounaka Hora etc are based on Skanda Hora. All these texts are already lost though many slokas and references about these texts are available in many medieval astrological classics. Varaha Mihira might have collected the above mentioned idea, possibly from Garga or Skanda. The Garga kula provided many texts and gurus (Garga, Gargi, Gargya, Rishiputra etc), like the Arsha stream (Skanda, Daksha, Vasishta, Viswamitra, Sounaka etc) that followed the ideas put forward by Skanda.

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Yes, it is a mysterious literary history, that needs a lot of study and data collection. Just supplying some side thoughts. Point to remember: 1) The “Hora Kendr Trikona “ theory finds its authenticity in Vasishta Hora. 2) The “Kandaka Kendra” tehory finds its authenticity in Garga Hora. Curious! Isn’t it?! ;) Dear Souvik ji, Depend on your clear understanding, since the list given by various texts may vary slightly. ;) I won’t talk much about the conflicts in texts, but will explain how to depend on your clear understanding of the symbolic shapes ascribed to signs. Let us consider the (imaginary) shape that is ascribed to each signs: 1) Aries : The Sanskrit word is ‘Mesha’, meaning Ram (uncastrated male sheep). As you know it is a four footed animal. so, Aries is a quadruped sign. 2) Taurus : The Sanskrit word is ‘Vrishabha’, meaning Ox. Yes, it is also a quadruped and thus Taurus a quadruped sign. 3) Gemini : The Sanskrit word is ‘Midhuna’, meaning couple (A Male and A Female standing together). So it is clear that it is a Biped human sign. (But this sign also represents many beings with 2 legs, Biped, such as chicken etc as well, since the synonym ‘Jootuma’, of Gemini represents chicken, or many other 2 legged birds that mingle with humans. Remember it is the same situation with all the other signs as well. Each sign is significator of many living beings. I am not going into it, since I want to limit this mail to the subject under discussion) 4) Cancer: The Sanskrit word is ‘Karkata’, meaning crab (yes, thecrab that lives in water). Here a confusion popes up. The

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Nakshatra ‘Aslesha’ represents snake, the Nakshatra Pushyami has got the other name ‘bee hive’. Many saints have told us that we can think about all the non-poisonous reptiles with cancer sign. So in short it is a reptile sign. Actually the word used by saints is ‘Sareesripa’, any thing that move with it belly, such as snake, chameleon et. (This sign could represent not only reptiles but also bees, crabs, fish, butterflies etc as well) To represent such beings only 2 signs are used, Sc and Cn, and so this is a reptile sign for sure. But as you know the crab lives in water, and the sign itself represent, a pure water (not salty water) pond, and therefore it is a water sign as well. So cancer could be a reptile sign or a watery sign! And so the confusion. 5) Leo : The Sanskrit word is ‘Simha’, meaning Lion. Yes, for sure it is a quadruped sign. 6) Virgo : The Sanskrit word is ‘Kanya’, meaning virgin lady. Yes, it is a Biped (human sign) for sure. It is symbolically depicted that this lady is traveling in a boat through a river with plant in one hand and fire in other. So there could arise a confusion that it is a water sign as well. But there is not much support for this argument, as far as the main classification is concerned. Yes, the presence of water becomes important, if you are thinking about the availability of water, with the use of prasan or the like, otherwise we can discard it, and it is a human sign for sure. 7) Libra: The Sanskrit word is ‘Tula’, meaning balance. The symbolic pictorial representation of the sign is of a man with a balance (the measuring instrument) in his hands, sitting is a street side market, selling something. So for sure it is a human sign. 8) Scorpio : The Sanskrit word is ‘Vrischika’, meaning Scorpion itself. The sign has got other names such as Snake, bee hive etc as well. As stated earlier it is one of the 2 ‘Sareesripa’ signs, any thing that move with it belly, so for sure it is a Reptile sign. It

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represents anything that is poisonous and deadly. 9) Sagittarius : The Sanskrit name is ‘Dhanu’, meaning bow. It is symbolically represented as a kingly warrior with bows and arrows, but the portion below hip of that person is horse like! So here also there is little amount of confusion. It is said that, the 1st half of Sagittarius is quadruped and the remaining half human. 10) Capricorn : The Sanskrit name is ‘Makara’, meaning crocodile as well as big fish (like shark). The symbolic representation of the sign is half crocodile like and the remaining half dear like! So here also confusion exists. But yes, the first half of Capricorn could be considered as water sign and the remaining half Quadruped sign. 11) Aquarius : The Sanskrit name is ‘Kumbha’ meaning pot. The symbolic representation is, a man with a pot in his hand going in search of water. So it is for sure a human sign. But the presence of Pot in the symbolic representation of the sign makes someone think that it is a water sign as well, which is false, since the pot is empty. 12) Pisces : The Sanskrit name is ‘Jhasha’, meaning fish. Yes, fish that lives in salt water. The sign itself represents the sea. So it is watery sign for sure. This I think makes the subject clear. Due to this situation, it is better to depend on the symbolic representation, and your own clear understanding of that symbolic representation, to classify the signs, than depending on some slokas without thinking. If you just try to depend on slokas, you will find slokas, that seems to be contradicting each other in the first look. But when you understand the base of this naming you will see that there is no conflict/contradiction between the statements of Saints/ Acharyas. :) There are 2 related points that also should be explained. Signs are Symbolic

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The shape ascribed to the signs are symbolic. The saints wanted those signs to indicate several significance for which the sign stands for and that is why that particular symbol/shape is ascribed to that sign. I will explain. For example take Libra. The symbol is of a man sitting with a balance in his hand weighing something, in a market place. So for sure, Libra represents a town, humans, measuring instruments, food that is eatable for humans, road, crowd, logically correct arguments, interest in maths, business men, learned, luxury, love for good life etc etc. See how clear it is! The same is the situation with other symbols. Significance and its classification

Significance are assigned only to - 1) Signs 2) Nakshatras 3) Houses 4) Planets What can they signify? Each of them can represent ‘any thing’ present in the world!! Or in other words, each of them represents, ‘every thing’ present in the world! Try to classify them yourself. For example a sign could represent1) Humans (classify them based on relationship/cast/job/gender etc) 2) Plants (classify them based on water/land/creeper/tree etc) 3) Animals (classify them based on carnivores /herbivores/wild etc) 3) Non living things (classify them based on metal/nonmetal/liquid/gas etc) Yes, you could extend this list. ;) This same rule for classification of significance for sign applies to Nakshatras, Houses and Plants as well. But the problem is that, due to the vastness this list and the subject you can not find proper lists in classics, but only simple directions. The slokas are just pointers, that directs you, the way through which you would have to exercise on your own thinking ability. :) Don’t ask me as well, I All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

too don’t have a well classified elaborate list, which makes everything clear and lists out everything in the world. ;) We are waiting for better lists on all these from you. ;) “Ohm Sahanavavtu….Sahanou bhunaktu…Saha veeryam karavavahai……………”

Bhava Nasakaro Jeeva? Qn: The ‘bhaavanashaaya thing’ do you for one really apply in your phalaadesha? Tell me. I would joyously like to quote – Let’s go about it baby step by baby step. Because, before I state anything about my own stands, I should clarify what the classics say. Brihat Jatakam states – “Lagnal Putra kalatrabhe subhapati prapteadhavalokite chadradwa yedi sampadasti hi tayo” One of the meanings of this sloka bit is that, if the 5th and 7th from Lagna is aspected (Drishti) or conjoined by Ju then children and wife (vridhi of 5th and 7th house) results. The same can be considered from Moon sign as well. From this sloka it is evident that Mihira is against the “Karako bhavanasaka” concept. Ju is significator of 5th house and Mihira says that if Ju is in 5th house then for sure children will result. Also remember that while speaking about the placement of Ve in 7th Mihira says “priya kalahostagethe suratepsu” meaning an increase (vridhi) in sexual urge. My guru says that Ju in 5th or Ve in 7th is like an over voltage bulb. :) I have seen horoscope with Ju in 5th. Usually that native would be very bright with many capabilities (Ju is significator of intelligence) but in later stages of life (even by half way through life) they behave almost like lunatics! Their mind

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become too unstable! Presnamarga give the same combination to judge lunatics!!! It is really over voltage causing damage to the bulb! :) In essence every karaka amplifies the results the Bhava can produce May be, It would be right to say “Karako Bhava vridhikara”, but may be at the end if the native can not stand it (due to his inner strength), the fuse of the bulb burns!! Like Mihira I would like to stand against the “Bhava nasakaro” concept at the same time accepting the slokas like the one given in texts like Prasanmarga in the light of the advice given by my guru. :) Let us take a real life example and try to understand it in the light of the above knowledge and the words of Rishis. Yap, we are going into the details. Problem: • Ju in 7th in its own house or exaltation should give many wives or increase in sexual urge. • But is it seen that they are satisfied with only one wife! Is it that “Bhava nasakaro jeeva” concept (not supported by Mihira and Rishi horas) at work here or something else? Should we consider and correlate “Bhava vridhikaro Sani” along with it or not? Study: • Ju in 7th cause an increase in sexual urge and beauty of the native. How can I say that?! Because “Pitro gunadhiko jeeve saptame suhrdanvita rati geeta priyaH khalvadanaH kalahavargitaH” Says Hora Pradeepam. Meaning, If Ju is in 7th he would have more good talents than his father, many friends, would like sex and music, love to travel, won’t like to quarrel with any. Look at the statement “rati geeta priyaH” (would like sex and music) in

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this sloka. Now let us see what Garga hora says about the placement of Ju in 7th – “Gauri suroopam sphuta pankajakshim sitaH subharkshe subhadrishtiyuktaH chirayusham Bhagyayutam naram cha kuryad gurur darpakavasavasi” Meaning, If Ju is in 7th placed in good sign with the benefic aspects then, his wife would be young, beautiful, with beautiful eyes, fair skin. If Ju is in 7th then he would have longevity, luck, and he would be handsome like Kamadeva (the god of sex). Look at the statement “darpakavasavasi” (handsome with good sex urge like the god of sex) in this sloka. From the above due to “Dwi tri samvada bhaval” (since 2 or 3 arguments indicate the same) I conclude that Ju in 7th cause an increase in sexual urge of the native. • If 7th lord is in its own house then the native would be good natured and handsome and will have many abilities. The following two statements substantiate this – “Saptamage saptamape paramayuH preetivatsalaH purushaH Nirmala seela sametastejaswee jayate satatam” Says Vridha Yavana. Meaning, If the 7th lord is in 7th house then the native would have longevity, compaction, good nature, smartness and brightness. This applies to Ju in 7th in its own house as well, as said by Kasyapa Rishi - “Ati guna Jurou jaya dunastite” Says Kasyapa Hora. Meaning, if Ju is in its own house in 7th then, he would have many capabilities (and would be handsome). • But alas! Even though the native have good sexual urge and

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handsome, women won’t show much interest in him! Why?! But before answering that question, let understand who says so. Look at the following sloka from the text Chamatkara Chintamani – “Matistasya bahwee vibhootischa bahwee Rathirvai bhavad bhaminee nama bahwee gurur garva kridyasya jamitra bhave saprindadhikoakhanda kandarpa eva” Meaning, if Ju is in 7th he would be intelligent, will live a good (luxurious) life, but women will not show much interest in him. He would be handsome (and would have good sex urge) like Kamdeva, and would be proud of his own abilities and beuty. He will have many relatives and friends born of his own clan and would be powerful because of this. Just look at the words “Rathirvai bhavad bhaminee nama bahwee” (women will not show much interest in him, and there fore he won’t have much girl friends and much sexual life) and “akhanda kandarpa eva” (He would be handsome and would have good sex urge like the god of sex). Is it not interesting?! This is specially true if Ju is in its own house in Sg or Pi. Ok. Now I think it is time to answer the question, why ladies are not showing much interested in such a personality with good contacts, beauty and sexual urge. Even if the ladies are not showing much interest in him, if he is ready to execute his power and abilities, it would be very very easy for him to get or seduce women! Why he is not doing it? Yap, you guessed it, due to his very own nature! :) He is guru, he is respectable, then how can he do that?! Women are not showing interest in him due to the very fact that he is respectable and serene. Don’t you believe me? Let us look at the predictions given for Ju in Cn (exaltation sign of Ju),

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Sg (own house of Ju) and Pi (own house of Ju). If Ju is in Cn, then “Vidvan suroopa dehaH prajchaH priya dharma swabhavascha sumahalbalo yesaswi prabhuta dhanyakara dhanesaH satya Samadhi sametaH stiratmajo lokasalkritaH khayataH nripatir jeeve sasibhe visishta karma suhrijjatanurataH” Says Saravali. Meaning, if Ju is in Cn then, the native would be knowledgeable, intelligent, powerful, famous, with good wealth, will stand for truth, will be interested in meditation, stable mind, good children, will do good for the world and would be famous due to that, will live/behave like a king, will follow good deeds, and will have many friends and relatives. Dear women, he is highly respectable, and it is better not to go near him seeking sex!! Even if he want to play with you, he won’t violate the etiquette!! It seems that he is not going to fall for you (women really like that), then why fall for him. ;) Probably not! It is better not to go after him seeking sex, and it seems that he won’t come after you as well, though he may like to enjoy high grade sex with his wife. ;) If Ju is in Sg then – Acharyo vrata deeksha yejchadeenamsu samstitarthascha Data suhril swapakshaH priyoparasrutadi rataH Mandaliko mantri va dhanurdharasthe bhavet sada jeeve Nana desa nivasee vivikta teerthayatana budhiH” Says Saravali. Meaning, if Ju is in Sg then, the native would be interested in doing Vrata, Yaga, Mantra worship etc. He will advice to do such thing to others (common people) as well. He will acquire much wealth, will be kind and companionate, helping relatives and friends, will be a member of committees or social organizations. He will visit many countries, many sacred places and sacred buildings like temples.

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Hay man! He is a guru and adviser! It is better to consult him asking for suggestions. Dear women will you dare to make him fall in immoral sex with you?! Or will he like to do so? Probably not! It is better not to go after him seeking sex, and it seems that he won’t come after you as well. ;) If Ju is in Pi then – “Vedartha sastra vetta suhridam poojyassatam cha nripaneta slakhyassadhano adhrisho hyaheena darpasthirambhaH rajchassuneeti siksha vyavahara rana prayoga vetta cha khyataH prasanta cheshata sthirasatwayutascha ménage geeve” Says Saravali. Meaing, if Ju is in Pi then, the native would be very knowledgeable in the etymology meaning of Vedic texts (he would be very knowledgeable and interested in grammar and linguistics), respected by friends, a person with leadership quality, perfect (interested in perfection in every field), egotic, will stick to his aim in all his endeavors, will have good knowledge about lawtraining- teaching etc, will have good understanding about the use of weapons, famous, steady and quit mind, stable, he is not worried about what may come and keeps the stability of mind both in hardships and happiness. Dear women, he is too respectable, steady, able and seems dangerous with his contacts and abilities – it is better to keep away from him! With that much interest in ethics do you think he will come after you, even if there is a huge amount of sex urge in him! Impossible, better to stay away from him and for sure he is not going to hurt you. ;) See how the situation turns out to be! Ju is not destroying anything! Ju is not destroying the normal tendencies of the 7th house, but only enriches it! But when the natural tendencies of Ju takes hold, and strengthens the inner nature of the individual, then some results like many wives becomes almost an impossibility. But we

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should know that if willing for a person with such a placement of Ju in 7th it is very easy to get 2 or more wives or many sexual relations. That means the result is there – but it becomes yapya (hidden/suppressed) due to the very nature of the native. Or due to the very nature Ju in 7th (in exaltation or own house) imparts to the native. It is very clear that the “Karaka bhavanasaya” short cut is not at all necessary to explain or understand the situation. That is all about Ju, “Bhava vridhikaro Sani” is another beautiful story. I will tell about it and will explain why it is irrelevant in the context of ancient classics in another mail. I think my answer is clear by now. I don’t use the “Bhava vridhi karo” or “Bhava nasakaro” ‘thing’. It is better to go the straight but long way, than to take shortcuts that which can not be applied in a generalized manner. If anyone try to do so, he/she will end up standing against the classics, in many situations.

How to predict with Navamsa Navamsa is the 9th Varga. It is 1/9 th of a sign, and that is why the name Navamsa. Nava = 9 Amsa = Division. Navamsa = 1 division out of 9 divisions. Navamsa longitude = R x 9 Navamsa prediction is also based on the 7-fold system [I] Stana (Place)

Saravali says – “Now I will say the lagna navamsa phala for signs starting from Aries. With lagna navamsa we should know the color, shape and lakshana (nature of the native & significance of the amsa). The same method could be applied to Chandra navamsa and the navamsa of all other planets” This sloka indicates that -

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1) Color (based on navamsa sign and navamsa lord)

indicated by the sign in which navamsa falls and the lord of it.

2) Shape (Swaroopa and geography)

[III] Graha (Planet)

3) Nature (character attributes of the native)

The combination (uti) of planet is considered in navamsa as well. For example think that Ma is in the 5th navamsa of Aries (which falls in Leo) and Mo is in the 8th Navamsa of Virgo (which falls in Leo). Also think that Ju is in Leo. Then there is a Ma-Mo combination in Leo in navamsa. Normal prediction (considering the mixing of significance) given for Ma-Mo combination can be given here as well. But no predictions considering Ju-Ma or JuMo should be given, since Ju is in sign and others are in navamsa.

4) significance assigned to the navamsa Are the basic 4 methods used to extract the stana phala. Let us discuss the Shape (Swaroopa concept in detail). This is one of the basic rule to be followed in prediction based on navamsa. As said earlier, to determine the stana phala for each navamsa several methods are used. One of them is assigning Swaroopa. This has 2 variations. i) Navamsa Swaroopa (assigning imaginary shape to the navamsa) Saravali says – “The person born in the first navamsa of Aries will have a face similar to ram, small nose, short arms, rough sound, half closed eyes, a slim body without handicaps” Saravali assumes/ assigns such imaginary shape to the individuals born in all navamsas. ii) Navamsa Swaroopa based on navamsa number This is another method of assigning navamsa Swaroopa. Here imaginary shape is assigned to individuals born in different navamsa of each rasi based on the navamsa number with in that sign. For example, if a person is born in the first navamsa of any sign, then he would be – “stingy, not bold enough in taking decisions, sinner, wants to hurt others” says shadvarga phala prakash. [II] Bhava (House)

The house (from natal lagna) in which the navamsa falls. For example if the amsa of the 2nd lord is in 12th, assets and bank balance etc can be predicted. Also if we want to speak about expense then in which items the money would be spend would be

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[IV] Stana-Graha (Place-planet)

The traditional astrologers use the “Asraya rasi phala (prediction for placement of planets)” told for planets in natal chart in navamsa as well. [No. Don’t think of navamsa chart. I am speaking about navamsa super imposed on natal chart and not about navamsa chart] But there are 2 other cute methods for place-planet prediction using navamsa. i) Considering the House lord (House = Sign) Saravali says “Without considering the lordship of houses, we can not move even a single step forward in prediction”. Shadvarga phalaprekash says – “If the navamsa of Su is in the house of Su itself then, he would be wealthy and live a good life. But he would like quarrelling with others, taking the wrong methods and approaches and the like. He will have many diseases as well”. Similarly prediction for all the other planets are also given. ii) Navamsaka sign based prediction Sphujidwaja hora says – “Navamsaka in Aries sign (any planet placed in navamsa allotted for Aries sign) indicates, land, gold etc if Ma is strong. Navamsaka in Tarus sign indicates, quadrupeds, women, wealthy people etc”. For example, in a presena if Su

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navamsaka is in Aries, then that sun could indicate gold, if the lagna lord is Su then the presna itself could be about gold. In which sign that sun is placed is not important here. See the difference in use of the these words as wellNavamsa = 1/9th of a sign Navamsaka = to which sign that 1/9th part is allotted. (in which sign that 1/9th part falls). If Su is in Aries 9 deg, then Su in Aries 3rd Navamsa and the Navamsaka falls in Gemini. So Navamsa is Aries 3rd Navamsa and Navamsaka is Gemini. These words are at times used almost in a similar fashion as well. So take those words as having almost same meaning, but don’t get confused. While making Place-Planet predictions with Navamsa, remember that the basic significance o the planets and signs remains the same. The only extra thing being that it is looked though a new dimension. Mihira also speaks about the Place-planet based prediction with navamsa. For example, in Viyoni Janma chapter of Brihat Jataka, he says – “If the lagnamsaka is strong then the color of that sign would be the sign of the animal born at that time” Remember that the word lagnamsaka indicates the sign in which lagnamsa falls. Taking another example from Varaha hora, let us think of the sloka “Ojarkshe purushamsakeshu…”. Mihira says “If Lagna, Su, Moon, Ju and there amsakas falls in male signs then it would be a male birth”. Here Male/Female variation of sign is considered. So it is a placeplanet prediction. See to the fact that Mihira is speaking about the Male/Female variation of 8 signs. They are – • The sign in which lagna is posited. • The sign in which Su is posited • The sign in which Mo is posited • The sign in which Ju is posited

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• The sign in which the lagna navamsa falls (Lagna navamsa sign = Lagnamsaka) • The sign in which the Su navamsa falls (Su navamsa sign = Suryamsaka) • The sign in which the Mo navamsa falls (Mo navamsa sign = Chandramsaka) • The sign in which the Ju navamsa falls (Ju navamsa sign = Gurvamsaka) I started with Place-Planet prediction given for navamsa and now the path, seems to turn may be because of some discussions happening in this forum at this time, so I stop here. ;) By the way there is a whole chapter (Chapter 17) allotted to navamsa based place-planet prediction, in Varaha hora. Have a look at it. [V] Bhava-Graha (House-Planet)

Predictions are given considering the Navamsaka house (starting from natal lagna) in the horoscope. For example, Mihira says – “Koujamsesthe Sourina vyadhi yoni”, meaning if the navamsa of Ma falls in 7th (from natal lagna) then she will have some disease related to sexual organs”. Brihal prajapatyam says – Aste jeevamsake tatra bhargavena nireekshite Ya jata tam vijaneehi yoni manojchakanwitam Meaning, “if the navamsa of Ju falls in 7th from natal lagna and the Drishti of Ve falls in 7th then she will have beautiful hip and sexual organs” Spot the fact that, since 7th house and planets are considered it is a House-Planet prediction. [VI] Stana-Bhava (Place-House)

Since house is always counted from natal lagna this system is not much important in navamsa based prediction. But we can locate some other cute uses of this. Remember that exaltation, deAll rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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bilitation etc is also related to place. (Stana) Look at this sloka from Prasnamarga – Daresasya navamsese moodhe neechari bhagake Papandare papa drishte kalatrantarabhag bhavel Meaning, if the lord of the sign in which the navamsa of the 7th lord falls is combusted, debilitated, in enemy sign, between malefics or aspected (drishti) by malefics then, the native will have more than one wife. For example, think that Virgo is Lagna and the navamsa of the 7th lord Ju Leo. Then if Su (lord of leo) is in Libra, he will have more than one wife. Here Ju = Daresa (7th lord) 2nd navamsa of Pi = Daresasya navamsa (Thus the Ju Navamsaka is Leo) Su = Daresasya navamsesa (navamsa lord for Ju) Notice that, in this sloka, exaltation, debilitation etc (and thus Place) and 7th house (and thus House) is considered and also that the prediction is based on Navamsa. But such slokas are rare and is mostly based on things like exaltation-debilitation (Place), Kendra-trikona (House) etc. [VII] Stana-Bhava-Graha (Place-House-Planet) Look at the Varaha Hora sloka “Vridho MoorkhaH Sooryajarkshamsake va” Meaning, “if the 7th house is Cp or Aq and if the navamsa of Sa falls in that sign, then she will get an aged person with not much education as husband”. For example, if Lagna is Cn and the navamsa of Sa falls in Cp then her husband would be an aged person. Notice that here – Cn (Place), 7th house (House) and Sa (Planet) are considered. Also notice that it is a navamsa based prediction. I think this explanation might have cleared the doubt – “how to predict with navamsa” at least to a certain extend. Always remember that it is the 7-fold prediction

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system that is used both in natal chart and in Vargas (amsas). • The vargas (amsas) only modify the results shown by the natal chart. • Drishti is not considered in Vargas (amsas). This message is becoming too long and I have already covered the 7-fold system. So I stop here. P.S. : Take an example chart and elaborate on the same.

Vasya Signs As per astrological classics, for: Aries - Leo and Scorpio Taurus - Cancer and Libra Gemini - Virgo Cancer - Scorpio and Sagittarius Leo - Libra Virgo - Gemini and Pisces Libra - Virgo and Capricorn Scorpio - Cancer Sagittarius - Pisces Capricorn - Aquarius and Aries Aquarius - Aries Pisces - Capricorn are Vasya signs. What is the logic behind this concept? Let us try to understand. For Aries, Leo and Scorpio are Vasya Signs. Why? Leo - the lord of Leo gets exalted in Aries.

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Scorpio - Aries and Scorpio are ruled by the same planet. Rule : (1) If any other planet gets exalted in the sign then the sign ruled by that planet could be a Vasya sign. Rule : (2) If the lord of 2 signs are the same, the second sign could be a Vasya sign for the first and vice-versa. For Taurus, Libra and Cancer are Vasya signs. Why? Cancer - Rule (1) applies here. Lord of Cancer Moon is exalted in Taurus. Libra - Rule (1) applies here. Taurus and Libra are ruled by the same planet Ve. For Gemini, Virgo is Vasya sign. Why? Virgo - Rule (2) applies here. Gemini and Virgo are ruled by the same planet. For Cancer, Scorpio and Sagittarius are Vasya signs. Why? Scorpio - Is there any connection? The lord of Cancer gets debilitated in Scorpio!! Both Cancer and Scorpio are signs that represent reptiles - i.e. Sareesripa signs. The lord of Scorpio gets debilitated in Cancer. So there is a very strong connection between the two signs. Rule : (3) The sign in which the lord of the first considered sign gets debilitated could be a Vasya sign. (Here Mo gets debilitated in Scorpio) Sagittarius - Rule (1) applies here. The lord of Sagittarius gets exalted in Cancer. For Leo, Libra is Vasya sign. Why? Lira - Rule (3) applies here. Lord of Leo Sun gets debilitated in Leo. For Virgo, Gemini and Pisces are Vasya Signs. Why?

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Gemini - Rule (2) applies. Gemini and Virgo are ruled by the same planet Me. Pisces - Rule (3) applies. Lord of Virgo Me gets debilitated in Piaces. For Libra, Virgo and Capricorn are Vasya signs. Why?

Virgo - Rule (3) applies. Lord of Libra gets debilitated in Virgo. Capricorn - Rule (1) applies. Lord of Capricorn Sa gets exalted in Libra. For Scorpio, Cancer is the Vasya sign. Why? Cancer - Rule (3) applies. Lord of Scorpio Ma gets debilitated in Cancer. For Sagittarius, Pisces is Vasya sign. Why? Pisces - Rule (2) applies. Sagittarius and Pisces are ruled by the same planet Ju. For Capricorn, Aquarius and Aries is Vasya sign. Why? Aquarius - Rule (2) applies. Capricorn and Aquarius are ruled by the same planet Sa. Aries - Rule (1) applies. The lord of Aries gets exalted in Capricorn. For Aquarius, Aries is Vasya sign. Why? Aquarius - Rule (3) applies. The lord of Aquarius gets debilitated in Aries. Fro Pisces, Sagittarius is the Vasya sign. Why? Sagittarius - Rule (2) applies. Pisces and Sagittarius are ruled by the same planet. Lesson to remember: The sages never tell a thing without reason and Logic!! We just need to search and find it out!! Vasya means, mutual attraction. The classics talk about signs which have some kind of mutual attraction. Put in other words, the people born in Vasya signs (Asc or Moon sign)of each other

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gets attracted to each other, either sexual attraction or friendship. Because of this Vasya relation between the Lagna of the girl and boy. Vasya between the Moon signs of girl and boy are considered. This concept is normally used while horoscope matching for marriage. Vasya primarily indicates the attraction we feel towards a person, just by seeing him/her, even before knowing his/her abilities and qualities. It is the inherent quality of the horoscope and the sign in which the person is born is causing this attraction. The concept of Vasya (Mutual attraction) can also be used: 1) In Marriage compatibility (This is the traditional use) 2) In selecting your business partner. 3) In selecting your girl friend. 4) In selecting friends etc Of course we are not selecting friends/business_partners/ girl_friends etc after horoscope matching. But if we have some real relations, we can check the horoscope to verify that, whether this principle of Vasya is there at work causing the bond, and helping us to strengthen the relation. I hope, though simple, having this sound and useful concept in our wallet of astrological knowledge, would be useful also in understanding the importance the great seers gave to the concept of Exaltation and Debilitation. Vasya attraction between the Lagna signs or Moon signs is one of the criterion for determining the mutual attraction between two individuals. It is NOT the lone criterion for determining the same! The are other systems that are used for the same purpose such as the one known as “Rana_Ranee Bhava” compatibility in marriage compatibility, which also speak about the plancement of Lagna lord, 7th lord, Lagna and Moon Navamsa etc. There is another system called “Rasi vasyam” to have a primary understanding about the sextual attaction (and compatibility) between people born on

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different signs. As you know there are some Nakshatra based rules as well to do the same. It is due to the existance of these many authentic rules, which gives prime importance to different factors that, we consider all of them in the marriage compatibility (along with other rules to validate the future incidents in life) and come to a conclusion almost in a statistical manner!! Yes, I agree, it is not the statistics but the understanding of the astrologer about the future events in store for the couple is more important. But the well founded rules like Vasya really needs consideration, and should be appreciated. :)

The period of influence for any YOGA in horoscope is determined by DASA and supporting GOCHARA. YOGA could be 1) Sign based, 2) Bhava based, 3) Planet based, 4) Sign-Bhava based, 5) Sign-Planet based, 6) Bhava-Planet based, or 7)Sign-BhavaPlanet based. You can rephrace the above terminology based on Nakshatra as well.

But the Vasya I told is not a YOGA! It is more related to the basic nature of the sign itself. I will elaborate little further: Point -1

The nature of a sign is determined based on divisions such as: 1) Kalapurusha (1 fold) 2) The Male-Female classification (2 fold) 3) Chara-Stira-Ubhaya, Srishti-Stiti-Samhara etc (3 fold) 4) Satya-Dwapara-Treta-Kali Yogadi etc (4 fold) 5) Earth-Water-Fire-Air-Sky (Pancha bhootadi)etc (5 fold) etc. Point -2

The nature of the sign is further clarified based on the following or similar concepts which fundamentally depends on the underlying concepts noted as point -1. They are: 1) Rasyadhipatya 2) Exaltation-Debilitation 3) Human-Watery-Reptail-Quadrapad etc

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Point -3

The concepts that are based on concepts noted under point 1 or point 2 or similar ones. 1) Rasi Vasya and RasiBhava vasya 2) Preeti signs etc etc.

Actually concepts noted under points 2 and 3, which are fundamentally based on the primary concepts or in turn on the secondary concepts needs to be pondered more, logically, so as to bringout the essential logic used by Rishis in designing them. Point -4

All of these are not YOGAS since the YOGA concept came into existance only in the horoscope. But here (in Vasya etc) we are actually speaking about the nature of the sign, rather than the horoscope itself!! I think the point is clear at least to an extend, and expects more inputs from the leaned members.

Marriage compatibility (A conversation with Arjun ji)

Arjun ji: Dinam, ganam, mahendram, dheergham, yoni, rasi, rasyadhipati, vasyam, rajju, vedha or dosham, gothram, nakshatram, pakshi, bhootam and others are all listed for measuring each parameter of compatibility required in any relation between two individuals. to add to these, manglik dosham, kaalasarpa dosham, grahana dosham, Besides various modern man researched or invented doshams are all there. unfortunately, the various measuring tools mentioned in various medieval classics have some inherent contradictions. Me: I feel that it is unsystematic (i.e. non-classified) view of the concepts presented, is causing us the trouble in understanding the

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(actually well classified!!) ideas put forward by saints and acharyas. I will clarify:Let us approach the first confusion encountered by any one approaching and trying to use marriage compatibility. You stated it nicely. I agree with your statement. It would be the prime view that would be felt by any sincere person approching marriage compatibility. But the point to remember is thatThe Acharyas have classified compatibility considerations stated above by you (dinam, ganam etc..) as (“Agoodha Goodha Bhedena dwidha hi khadana gunai”): I. Agoodha (Non-hidden) marriage compatibility considerations Eg: Rasi, Rasyadhipa, Vasya, Gana, Mahendra, Yoni, etc...... II. Goodha (Hidden) marriage compatibility considerations Eg: Drishti (Liking), Mana (Love), Deha (Health and Body), Vidya-Vinaya (Education), Stanabhijatya (Status&Position), Vaya (Age) etc Now the Non-hidden (Agoodha) marriage compatibility considerations are again classified into four. 1) Sign Based Eg: Rasi, Rasi-vasya, Rasi-Yoni, Rasi-Bhoota, Rasi-Varna etc 2) Sign-lord Based Eg: Rasyadhipa, Rasi-bhava vasya etc 3)Star Based Eg: Gana, Dina, Mahendra, Strideerkha, Nakshatra-Yoni etc. 4) Star related (Not important) Eg: Nakshatra-bhoota, Nakshatra-Pakshi, Nakshatra-Mriga,

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Nakshatra-Linga, Tara-Maitri, Rina-dhana etc. Of the above four the first 4 are direct “application” of some ancient concepts in marriage compatibility. (The marriage compatibility system originated later only compared to those concepts). The compatibility considerations given as Nakshatra-related are may of still later application of some nakshatra related concepts into compatibility, and many acharyas have told us that they should not be given much importance. Now comes the considering of the Nakshatra based Doshas. Yes, except one of them (i.e. Vedha) all of these are star based, and therefore the importance is to that extent only. 1) Nakshatra-Vedha : Though the word Nakshatra is there in the name, it is actually a method for locating star combinations, that fall in the Shashtashtama (6-8 axis) signs that cause the most trouble. So in essence it considers Sign and Nakshatra. 2) Nakshatra varga vedha 3) Rajju Dosha etc But still now, except the general qualities of sign and star, the planetary placement in horoscope is not considered yet!! So let us consider if the planetary placement supports/indicates marriage between those 2 people, by using, 1) Rana-Ranee Bhava (Structural compatibility between horoscopes) and Now let us compare the placement of malefic in the horoscope in a ‘general’ manner, by using, 2) Papa samya (Mangala dosha is just something comes with in this) Actually all the systems said above is child play, and the real All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

ability and understanding of the astrologer in understanding the horoscope, is used from here onwards. i.e. Now we have to check for: 1) Chance for having children 2) Death/Divorce 3) Poverty and scope for economic success 4) Possible Health problems in future 5) Lesbian/Gay nature of male/female Yes, All of these together it is popularly known as Jataka Poruta (meaning ‘Horoscope Matching’) which indicates that this is the most important considerations in horoscope matching and also that these are to be looked IN HOROSCOPE rather than in the mere name of sign or star. Now consider the Agoodha compatibility options as well based on your understanding of the family, education, status, health etc of male and female and their family!! The relatives of bride and groom will do this, even if the astrologer is not doing it. So we don’t have to worry much about it. This is the well-classified system put forward by the Acharyas. Can we call it un-scientific, or unsystematic?! We follow it or not, the situations allow us to do it or not, etc are all our trouble and the Acharyas should not be blamed for that!! Arjun ji: Yes, this is where a practicing astrologer if follows saatvik lifestyle and develops divine intuition, due to the vaak suddhi and vaak siddhi, the reading, analysis and prediction become simpler. Me:

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Yes, yes, all this is necessary, and I agree completely. But would like to add that, we should add it up to the above (systematic understanding of the system put forward by the Acharyas)for the best results.

Stars and Planets (A conversation with Arjun ji) Arjun ji:

Stars and planets are existing in nature, rasis are mythical in nature. Me: I disagree!! Why? I will explain. 1) Stars : They are also mythical (following your terminology) since we are talking about stellar divisions and NOT Yoga taras. Our star (i.e. Nakshatra) is ‘an area in sky’, a stellar division, covering 13 deg 20 min. Thus become mythological due to the same reason you ascribed to rasi. 2) Rasis (Signs) : They are also mythological (following your terminology) since they represent ‘an area in sky’ covering 30 deg.

3) Planets : They are also mythological, since in astrology, we are not talking about the planets that physical entities having no special qualities and significance 9we ascribe to them in astrology). But instead we are talking about Sun that is Father and Atma karaka, Moon that is mother and water, Mars that is warrior etc!!! If not mythological how will you understand it scientifically!! I will better agree upon using the word ‘concept’ or ‘hypothetical construct’ rather than the word ‘mythological’. In astrology 1) Signs 2) Nakshatras 3) Planets 4) Bhavas(Houses) become concepts!!! Actually these are the basic ‘constructs’ in astrology (similar

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to ‘Vata-Pita-Kapha’ in Ayurveda and ‘Vital force’ in naturopathy) and that is why significance is assigned to these 4 categories only. :) I think you will support this view which helps us much, in understanding the logical system called astrology, and understanding it as a system that fits into ‘holistic approach’. Arjun ji: Over and above, we have astrology derived from hindu mythology. While according to mythology we treat planets including satellite moon as gods and worship their personalities, astronomy and science paints them as balls of some mass. while the science says how moon waxes and wanes, all puranas says how moon was cursed with kshaya roga due to his neglecting of his 27 wives, how the modern man percieves these contradictions - to see stars as wives and planets as husbands or just balls of some light. Me: Here also the problem is with understanding the views of ancient Rishi’s in there own light, I mean the system provided by they themselves. I will explain: In there holistic approach to subjects under study, the ancient Rishis from the period of Vedas itself, uses approaches such as1) Adhi-Bhowtika 2) Adhi-Daivika etc. Ascribing human nature or thinking that a divine god/goddess with a particular shape/body/qualities is present within ‘each and every material’ (They left nothing! It was a system of study!) is a method utilized by the saints in study!! But, yes, I should agree that, this lead to too many misunderstandings and confusions. But should also understand that, this system of study is beautifully utilized in astrology which negates this disqualification ascribed to it. Just see how beautifully we can picturise things, when we see-

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Sun - as a king, with a strong and matured body Moon - as a queen, with a motherly nature Venus - as the beautiful lady Gulika - as the snake etc !! The same system is in use, when we see -

mostly fail to see what others think and feel since he/she is too much immersed in his own thoughts and emotions. Ta is a quadruped sign. This indicates that the native spend his/her childhood in a good house in a village in kingly manner. Agriculture, servants (helpers 3rd house), good amount of land property for relatives, etc will be part of memory. The native Sign Lord = Venus.

Aries - as Ram Taurus - as Ox etc as well!! It is better to have a closer look at the logical systems used by the Rishis, such as Adhi-Bhowtika, Adhi-Daivika etc and also to have a closer look at the holistic system of study, before jumping into conclusions. It is easy to ascribe/accept everything as part of mythology, but I would add that, it does not help much in understanding the systematic approach of our ancient seers. Understanding the system they followed, in their own terms, is what we lacked till date, and better than late to save our ancient knowledge in good shape, let us try to do that. PS: It is the bigger picture, and the exact understanding of outlines of the subject under scrutiny is of importance in any study. That makes our work simpler.

Tarus Lagna Shape = Bull. A good and beautiful body, almost a narcissist, care too much for the bodily and mental well being of oneself, selfish, good high, muscle body, healthy physique, beautiful walking style, likes vegetarian food than non-veg, strong thighs and bulky bottom, kind, helping nature, takes too much responsibilities, feels that life is burdened with too much responsibilities, takes life too seriously,

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Probably dark brown skin or clear white skin, interest in music and other art forms, special interest in dress and cosmetics, big beautiful eyes, clear black beautiful hair, likes luxuries and enjoys sex. Oily skin, pimples etc and beauty problems due to that at teenage. Ve is lord of Lagna and 6th exalted in Pc and debilitated in Vi There is a constant inner conflict in him. The mind is always ripped apart between selfishness and understanding of real justice. Mostly justice (Li) fails and Selfishness (Ta) wins. Since Ve is the 6th lord as well, the fight in support of or against sex life rules their life. Likes cleanliness and will try to exercise the same habit in others as well. Likes gardening, agriculture etc. Lagna lord exalted in 11th – will have elder brothers or sisters, but will get a chance to control even them like an elder one, as indicated by 11th lord exalted in 3rd. 6th lord exalted in 11th – will have many enemies. Lagna lord Ve debilitated in 2nd – Will have some trouble having children. 5th sign Vi is female, indicating that the native will probably would have one or two (probably two since Vi is dwiswabhava sign indicating two) daughters. Lagna lord debilitated in Vi (naval portion), some trouble related to interior organs in navel portion. Pregnancy problems, urinary excretory organs related problems, infections etc is a possibility. 6th lord Ve is Female sign – enmity with ladies or due to ladies. Ve exalted in 11th – more than one elder ones (brothers/sisters). Ta is a stira sign, which indicates that the native has a steady nature, and at times

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fails to change with the changing situations. Due to this memory will be given more importance and good/bad memories would be cherished always. In essence he/she would like to live a half real/ half imaginative life. 3rd lord Mo exalted in Lagna Some special preference as an youngster among co-born. Nature of mind and body of a Taurus native depends too much on the strength (pakshabala) of Mo for this reason. If Mo is week, then the native will have darkish skin, slim body, won’t care much for beauty in the early stages of life etc. If Mo is strong, then the native will have a strong and bulky body, fair skin, plump body, will care too much about beauty and cosmetics even from the early stages of life etc. Mo (significator of Mother) exalted in Lagna indicates that, especially if the native is a girl, she would have to full fill many responsibilities at home like her mother. 3rd house Cn is a water sign, and the lord of it exalted in Lagna indicates that the native will have a special interest in Water sports like swimming, would like to bath many times a day, will like to visit sea lakes and the like etc. Here analysis is shown only for Lagna house. Continue with the same type of analysis for all the houses such as 2nd house, 3rd house etc, which will give a better picture about the life and nature of the Taurus Lagna native. Some other points

Mo owns 12th house from 4th (signifies mother). The 4th lord exalted in 12th house from Lagna. The significator of mother Mo gets exalted in Lagna. All these together indicates that, the hard life lead by the mother of the native will have a high impact on the memories and nature of the native. The native won’t get much love neither from mother (4th house owned by a fire planet), nor from father (9th house owned by another malefic). He/She would be more affectionate towards the mother, and will think that the suffering to the mother is mostly caused by the father, even though

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there would be a some what good relation between the mother and father. A ruling father (or a father with bad habits such as drinking or the like) and an obedient/suffering/occasionally revolting mother is the general trend for Taurus native. This gives a hard impression of life for him, and he/she really tries to shake off and come out of this shade, and runs after happiness and life without worries. But for sure these memories leave a permanent mark on the native, making him/her improper to handle responsibilities. Coupled with natures like selfishness, running after happiness, tendency to avoid responsibilities, taking life too seriously etc, makes the native fearful, an individual who normally lacks leadership qualities etc, makes him/her an improper fellow to handle independent responsibilities, or do true innovative revolutionary studies. But the native will never be ready to accept this fact, and always thinks and tries to project him/her as an able person. He/ She always seeks for appreciation form all quarters and feels happy if it is awarded and feels offended if someone criticizes him/her, even if it is true. But inside them they know this truth, and so respects those who do this kind of criticism but at the same time convinces them (through love) that he/she is not against them. Some other points – • Many brothers/sisters as pointed by 11th lord exalted in 3rd. • Untimely death of elder co-born as indicated by 11th lord having 8th lordship as well. • Relatives in high power in the past as indicated by 4th lord Su exalted in 12th. • Pregnancy problems for women. • Loss of relatives and high interest in family history as indicated by Stira sign in 4th and Su exalted in 12th. • Job away from home (native place) playing a major role in

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life, even though the native will return to his native place later, and would have strong ties there. • Unsatisfied married life, and early death of husband/wife than the native, as indicated by the lordship of 12th for the 7th lord. • Long life (longevity) as indicated by the lordship of 8th house for Ju, and amrita graha.

than usual and wondering if I had missed the milkman’s knock. A crow came up and perched on the parapet wall near to where I was sitting. Into my mind came the following questions in *sequence*: (1) Will the milkman come to deliver the milk? Crows response: three caws

• Planet that can cause either maximum damage or maximum help to the native due to its unique ownership of house and exaltation debilitation relations – Sa (father, guru, luck) and Ma (brothers/sisters, husband, sadness).

(2) Will I get the expected speedpost today?

• The planet that can give maximum positive effect and happiness – Me (children and knowledge)

Actual situation: The milkman came and the speedpost didn’t

• Remedial gem stone – Emerald in platinum ring. Remember that all these covers only 1/12 of what can be predicted after knowing that the native is born in Taurus Lagna. I hope others will continue with the same technique, and bring out the total general nature and life events of the native, just by knowing the fact that he/she is born in Taurus Lagna.

Sakunas and Nimittas (A good string of thoughts and mails) In a yahoo group on astrology, I saw the following message: — In [email protected], “Jyotisa Shisya” > > wrote: |om| Dear Jyotisas, Nowadays, in the early morning, I go outside and sit on the porch to enjoy the cool morning air. Today I was a little later

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Crows response: two caws The crow then flew away. arrive as of now. Is it a coincidence that YES has three letters while NO has two letters? Who is more intuitive? The crow or the fellow sitting on the porch? Jyotish lesson: Make it a habit to observe acutely what is happening around. you and try to decipher the meaning of what you observe relative to the situation. The art of deciphering nimittas or sakuna sastra is an invaluable tool for the jyotisa. best regards Hari This story aroused my interest and so I forwarded it to [email protected], with the following note: — In [email protected], Sreenadh” wrote: Dear All, I have seen the following message in one of the yahoo groups. It is the description of just an incident but the story seems to hide a lot of meaning - and is really good!! So I am forwarding it to our All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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forum for all of us to read. Sreenadh I got the following replay for the same from Pandit Arjun ji. — In [email protected], “panditarjun2004” wrote: dear sreenadh ji Even though these shakuna shastras are interesting, i did not read or learn them as i did not find any classics on them. if you could refer any classics mentioning these shakuna shastra or any old books on how to read from animal hints, i would like to learn them also. if predictions can be made on the caws of a crow and barks of a dog and the fall of a lizard, it is really an easy task for an astrologer. with best wishes arjun This prompted me to write a detailed replay for the same, as follows— In [email protected], Sreenadh” wrote: Dear Arjun ji, It not due to the reference to sakuna shastras that i presented that mail, but due to the hidden double meaning and anomali. ;) Becoming serious, :) Now coming to the subject of ‘Sakuna’ and ‘Nimitta’ (If you are one a travel the Nimittas that you observe in the start of the journey - with approx 100 m - is termed Sakuna and all omens are generally termed ‘Nimitta’), it is a subject dealt with in Samhitas. So the available ancient classics that deal with this subject would be samhita texts like - Brihat samhita, Harita samhita, Samasa samhita, Maha yatra etc. Prasna texts like Prasnamaraga, Prasnanushtana padhati etc also refer to various

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omens related to Prasna in an elaborate manner. Texts like Kerala prasna samgraha, Prasna Koutuka gives omens to be observed related to touching of body parts by the qurent. In texts like Siva sworodaya and Agni purana omens judged from breath pattern are mentioned. Even Ayurvedic classic texts like Ashtanga Hridaya also discusses omens that would help the doctor to judge the disease, situation and the possible outcome of the treatment. This system is very old as is evident from the statement of ‘Vishnugupta’ (chanakya) in Chanakya sutra: “Upastita vinasa prakrityakarena karyena drisyate” Meaning, the future possibility of destruction or bad out comes would be indicated by the natural omens. Eg: Before rain we see the clouds - it is an omen Before earth quake the animals react - it is an omen. The classification of omens which depends on various basic principles itself is a big subject to deal with. By the way we value the statement of Vishnugupta (chanakya) because he is the reputed author of a reputed astrological classic called ‘Vishnugupta Hora’. You said: “ if you could refer any classics mentioning these shakuna shastra or any old books on how to read from animal hints, i would like to learn them also” If we want to be systematic and authentic, to understand the animal behavior, it is better to read modern texts on the subject and depend on direct observation and study of animals and nature. :) Mihira in Mahayatra (also known as Brihat yogayatra) asks us to study the animal behavior and nature from direct observation. Yes, I here you ask, where is astrology in it. :) The astrologer is supposed to predict and for that he is collecting all the tools he could, whether that is related to planets and rasi chakra or not. This is specially important in Ashtamangala Prasna etc. For them the concept while considering animal behaviour etc was, “it is important are you able to predict future events accurately and how you do it is not important”! But remember, this concept is JUST PART of the big nimitta system and not a rule that depict the WHOLE nimitta system. I hope the above references will be sufAll rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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ficient to give you a start on the subject, of omens. “if predictions can be made on the caws of a crow and barks of a dog > and the fall of a lizard, it is really an easy task for an astrologer.” No wrong! Wisely and efficiently using and understanding this system is one of the hardest tasks! I have heard a story related to observation of a nimtta by an Ayurvedic doctor. He visited one of the patients with his sishya and having digestion problems. He observed the smell and presence of Jackfruit near to the bed of the patient, and from that omen observed that eating of too much jackfruit was the cause of indigestion. Another day the in the absence of the guru the sishya had to visit a patient with the same problem. He was unable to locate the problem by diagnosis, so he looked around for omens, and found some grass near to the bed of patient. So he immediately asked “Did you ate grass yesterday?”. Same is story of and the study of the system of “Omen observation”. It is in a better damaged state similar to the jataka stream of astrology at present. :) We could find knowledge related to Nature, climate, body language, breath pattern, astrological knowledge of zodiac and planets, animal behavior, biology, psychology, hundreds of beliefs, many superstitions all getting used WITH THE AIM OF PREDICTING THE FUTURE in this branch astrology. It is the ancient mother of several streams of knowledge. :) We should have to look at the subject of omens in a new light. May the grace of nature be with us, with that grace let us be with it, to understand the world around us in a better way, so that everything will reflect in us, and give us clues about the future possibilities which helps us in prediction. PS: * The astrologer is like a mirror who reflects the nature and the qurent himself.

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* He is a person who see - which others can not see (Even in day to day life) * He is a person who hear - which others can not hear (Even in day to day life) Meaning he observes with attention and understands much more from what others too see and hear. He is the wise man who is there to say what he saw and heard to others, but in a differnt mould, so that it would be beneficial to them. Sreenadh To this mail, I got an interesting response, as follows from Souvik datta ji: — In [email protected], Sauvik Datta” wrote: Sreenadhji, This reminds me of the string theory on quanum physics... Sreenadhji, do you exist in parallel universes? :) Thanks Souvik My response was as follows— In [email protected], Sreenadh” wrote: Dear Sauvik ji, lol.....In a parallel universe called Kerala (with an indecipherable and cumbersome language ‘Malalayalam’), where an astrologer started speaking english recently only... :)) But the wonder is that, these people of the south India, have started copying old Sanskrit texts into their regional scripts, before hundreds of years, and those texts become extinct in North India but still many references and slokas are still available in these regional scripts! They felt it

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difficult to write Sanskrit and have created 2 scripts - popularly known as ‘Grandha lipi’ or ‘Grandha script’. Grandha lipi means a script that was created to write Sanskrit in a script that resembles regional scripts (with less alphabets)of Kerala and Tamilnadu. These scripts are 1) Tamil Grandha lipi (Now only available in preserved texts in manuscript libraries) [Tamil is the language of the state ‘Tamilnadu’] 2) Malayalam Grandha lipi (This later become the slandered script of Malayalam) [Malayalam is the language of the state ‘Kerala’] Malayalam Grandha lipi become Malayalam and many be because of that many ancient Sanskrit slokas and sloka references are available in in this language and texts. The astrological knowledge in this language is already explored although the fruits are not yet completely presented to the world. But the Tamil Grandha lipi is an unexplored treasure!! Many spend years to translate Sanskrit texts to Tamil Grandha lipi and as you may know Tamil is an older and anceient language than Malayalam. Now nobody reads and uses ‘Tamil Grandha lipi’, but the manuscripts libraries (all over India) have thousands of ‘Grandha lipi’ texts preserved with them!! Who knows, we many find many, ‘thought to be lost texts’ in this collection. It is another treasure for we children to play with - caused by language development and its history. I think, even though I am able to notice this regarding Malayalam and Tamil, there is a possibility that this is the same situation with all the other regional scripts as well. Somebody should conduct a search for ‘Sanskrit astrological classics in regional scripts’. Then from Southern states and from states like Kashmir, Orisa etc new knowledge and lost texts may sprung and rise to their feet, becoming visible to all. :) Love, Sreenadh

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I think, all these shows how even stories becomes Nimittas for good knowledge sharing.

Chaya Jyotish In ancient_indian_astrology yahoo group, one of the members pointed to a narration about the experience of “Vargeese Kuryan” (as narrated in one of his books) on Chaya Jyotish. The auther said that, even though “Vargees Kuryan” was intially relectent to belive in the predictions given by the astrologer, he was wonder struck by the accuracy of the system. After Medora’s brother got his shadow ‘read’, they persuded me to do the same. So as not to appear a spoilsport and also for some fun I stood in the sun with the jyotishi measured my shadow. Shuffling through the bunch of parchment-like leaves, and finding what he was looking for, he read out: “You have no faith.” We were all wondering what this ‘Chaya Jyotish’ is! The name was new to us. While disussing about this, another member astrologer of the group ‘jagannathan ji’ pointed out - “Possibly the lagnam is arrived at by measuring the chaaya.” I suggested we will look for more slokas (apart from the ‘Chaya purusha lakshanam’ mentioned by Mihira) related to this method, so as to reach a defenit conclution about the subject and its method. Yesterday I bought a book on “Hanuman Jyothish”, a collection of some locally popular astrological systems which traditionally gets associated with the Tantric systems related to “Hanuman”. Most of them are simple predictions using charts or chakras. The text I bought does not seemed to be authentic and didn’t gave the original sources clearly. (It is compiled by one “Pramod Sagar” and published by “Manoj Packet Books”) In one of its chapters, I found some slokas related to omen interpretation related to crows. All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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The chapter started with the words, “Nagarjuna Uvacha”. As some of you may know “Nagarjuna” is a popular Tantric Guru who wrote Tantric texts like “Kakshapuda” which contains astrology (Kala Tantra) Medicine (Kalamantra) etc as well. He is reputed guru of Ayurveda as well. What ever that be, Nagarjuna is a well respected Guru of the Tantric Stream, even though his Tantri/Matric books contain a large amount of superstitions as well. The purpose of telling it all here is that, I found some info about “Chhaya prasna” and the end of this chapter on `omens related to crows’ in this text of `Hanuman Jyotish”. In the last but one sloka of this chapter is as follows: “Dharopari Trimsavid khande `aava aava’ swaram punaH Yeda ratati kakastada dukhavarta kathayati” Meaning (During Prasna) if in the 3rd Khanda of a day crow cries that would sound ‘aava aava’, then the astrologer should think that some danger is going to happen for that individual. I am not much interested in this bit of info, since I am not an expert in animal behavior, or understanding and interpreting the behavior and sounds of birds and animal. ;) But notice the fact that above quoted, Nagarjuna slokas is in Sanskrit. After this sloka two versions of “Chhaya Prasna” are mentioned by the compiler of the book Hanuman jyothis (pramod sagar). 1) Chhaya Prasna – 1st Version

As an extension to the above sloka the compiler (of the book ‘Hanuman Jyotish’) quotes some local Hindi slokas that are related to “Chhaya Prasna”. Look at what he quotes, after saying “Punar vaktavayam adhikokti” (Then I am going to say some extra things that can be said along with) – “Kaka jo bole apana man. Chhaya napike keeje dugane. Sapta bhag se baki joyi. Bole kak pramane hai soyi.

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Ek rahai to bhojanakari. Dooja lambi jaya savari. Teeje mrityu yatra pavai. Choudha kalaha aag jalavai Panch se mangal yatra kahai. Soonya aru chaH tij man ko lahai” Notice that the language of this sloka is ancient Hindi, that sounds similar to some doha of Kabir. ;) The meaning of the sloka is – When the crow sounds like that, measure the shadow of the native in angulas (an ancient unit of length). Then multiply this length with two and divide it with seven. Take the remainder and based on that (based on the planet indicated by that number?) give the predictions. The predictions given should be 1- gain of food, 2- birth of someone, 3-death of someone, 4-more troubles, 5-getting a good message, 6-no prediction, 7-no prediction. If six or seven is the remainder then think that the crow is speaking it own language and that it is not related to that Prasna. Why it interests me? It seems that if we remove the crow from this slokas, then a new system of Prasna emerges. The advice would be – “Measure the shadow of the native in angulas (an ancient unit of length). Then multiply this length with two and divide it with seven. Take the remainder and the based on the planet indicated by that number give the elaborate predictions. Take the sign in which the planet is placed as the Chhaya Arudha (Shadow Arudha). The simple predictions for the remainder number would be, 1gain of food, 2- birth of someone, 3-death of someone, 4-more troubles, 5-getting a good message, 6-no prediction, 0-no prediction. If six or seven is the remainder then think that the crow is speaking it own language and that it is not related to that Prasna. And so if the remainder is 6 or 0 (7) then depend totally on the Chhaya Arudha. Taking that sign as the starting point and considering the planetary placement at the time of Prasna related to that Arudha, we can give the total predictions for that native”.

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Why such a conclusion?! Because there are already several similar systems present as part of normal prasna system of astrology. To mention some – Tamboola Prasna, Akshara Prasna, Dinanadika Prasna etc follow a similar scheme. If this is the case then it becomes clear that Chhaya Jotish or Chhaya Prasna is a sub system (or local deviation) of the normal prasna system that is followed everywhere. And also that it is just part of the normal system of astrology. Nothing much new info is there related to that, except the above quoted bit of info. The length of shadow of the native would be just used to determine the planet and thus (from the placement of the planet in any sign) to derive “Chhaya Arudha”. Taking that sign as the starting point and considering the planetary placement at the time of Prasna related to that Arudha, we can give the total predictions for that native. The above method is briefed by Nagarjuna in Sanskrit as – “Saptaguli parimita chhaya cha dwiguneekrita”. Meaning, Multiply the shadow length (of the native) by two and divide by seven. (and give predictions based on that). The total system of “Chhaya Prasna” is based on this sloka bit by Nagarguna that is part of Tantric school of astrology. The author of the book “Hanuman Jyotish” gives one more interpretation to this bit, which is given below2) Chhaya Prasna – 2nd Version

Take a stick (pole) of 7 angula length and measure the length of the shadow of this pole at the time of Prasna. Multiply it by two and divide the result by seven. Give the prediction based on the remainder number (as given above). Here the difference in system followed is only that the instead of the length of the shadow of the native, the length of shadow the seven angula pole is measured at the time of Prasna. Here also the above sloka bit by Nagarguna forms the supporting base and noth-

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ing else. Since there is no supporting indication for “Take a stick (pole) of 7 angula length” in the Nagarjuna sloka bit, I feel that the first version is slightly better than this one. I think this clarifies what “Chhaya Jyotish” is or better, what Chhaya Prasna is. :) Thus to conclude “Chhaya Prasna” is an extension of the normal system of Prasna by some local astrologers, based on some slight directions given by the Tantric guru Nagarguna. May be it is also possible that this system is adopted by astrologers who depend on “Hanuman Jyothish” of Tantric astrology than the followers of other streams. But I can not hold wondering how both these streams of “Nagarguna system of Tantric astrology” and “Hanuman system of Tantric astrology” are related. Is it that both are part of Tantric astrology, that holds the link?! I can not also stop wondering – how and why when books and related slokas came to me from nowhere when I just gets interested in them! Thus, those “parchment-like leaves” (mentioned by ‘Vargees Kuryan’) could be some manuscript of normal astrology (since, once the Arudha is determined based on shadow it is easy to make predictions based on normal prasna system of astrology) or could be some special manuscript on “Chhaya Prasna”. This points to necessity of further search for unique texts that deals with “Chhaya Prasna” alone or describes “Chhaya Prasna” in more detail. But for know I think we know what it is. :) Therefore, as far as its accuracy is concerned “It can be accurate only as much as normal system of Prasna - nothing more nothing less”. :) Or better, It is just a small side stream of normal prasna system. This helps us to come out of wondering about the mystery of this system - and get fascinated too much and erroneously judging by mistake that it is better than normal system of astrology. ;)

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What is Drishti?

270 deg = 50 %

I am presenting my ideas and thoughts on Drishti. I hope that the following will be helpful in search for the original system of Indian Astrology.

300 deg = 25 %

View 1 :- Drishti is relative angles between planets In classics (Krishneeyam, BPHS, Varaha Hora, Yavana Hora) it is said that the planets have partial Drishti towards some houses. It is said that3rd House - 1/4 Drishti 4th House - 3/4 Drishti 5th House - 1/2 Drishti 7th House - 1 Drishti 8th House - 3/4 Drishti 9th House - 1/2 Drishti 10th House - 1/4 Drishti Here you can note that the Drishti is NOT increasing in a gradual manner in the first half till 180 deg, SEEMS TO gradually decrease after 180 deg. This lead somebody (like Sripati) to suggest that, Drishti should be calculated for ALL DEGREES in a Shashtyamsa or Percentage bases. Thus the proposed suggestion by him would be90 deg = 25 % 120 deg = 75 % 150 deg = 50 % 180 deg = 100 % 240 deg = 75 %

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But as you could understand, calculating Drishti for ALL DEGREES becomes relevant only when we accept the “unequal house division system” (Bhava system) proposed by Sripati himself!! Because then only the GRADUAL increment or decrement of a planet’s influence in a single house itself comes into consideration! But as we know already, the ancient Saints considered House and Sign as the same. And therefore no “unequal house division system” was prevalent as per ancient Indian astrology, but only equal signs/houses of 30 deg each. Another pitfall this view leads into is “Associating Drishti with angles”. This concept leads to the view that “Drishti is nothing but relative angles between planets”. If this was the basic concept then the saints could have arranged the Partial Drishti in the following way 90 deg = 25 % 120 deg = 50 % 150 deg = 75 % 180 deg = 100 % 240 deg = 75 % 270 deg = 50 % 300 deg = 25 % Which makes calculation easy, because then we could use the simple formula, (100/180) x Angle = Drishti % But this not possible, since NO CLASSICS by saints support neither this view, nor the concept of “unequal house division”.

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View 2 :- Drishti is relative signs the planets influence from the sign of their placement As it happens in several other instances, the very good text “Krishneeya” gives as the clue to the original system followed by the saints. In Krishneeya it is said that Shashtam dwiteeya bhavanam Dwadasamekadesam na pasyati Swastanadweeshyante grahastadanyani bhavanani [The planet does not look (Drishti) towards 2, 6, 11, 12 houses/ signs from the house/sign they are posited in] As we know well the word Bhavana means Sign as clearly stated by Mihira in the sloka, “Rasi Kshetra Griha Rksha Bhani Bhavanm chikartha sampretyaye” [Rasi, Kshetra, Griha, Rksha, Bham, Bhavanam are words with same meaning] Thus it means that, the planets have 0% drishti towards 2, 6, 11, 12 signs from the sign they are posited in! This also means that the concept of GRADUAL increment or decrement of Drishti (proposed by Sripati) should be discarded! If we follow the clear cut rule put forward by the saints, what we get is All planets have Drishti towards -

6th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - Nil 7th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - (Full) 8th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 3/4 9th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 1/2 10th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 1/4 11th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - Nil 12th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - Nil Or in other words All planets have Drishti towards 1st Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 100 %

1st Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - (Full)

2nd Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 0 %

2nd Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - Nil

3rd Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 50 %

3rd Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 1/2

4th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 75 %

4th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 3/4

5th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 50 %

5th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 1/2

6th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 0 %

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7th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 100 %

of Parasara Hora, i.e. 1400 BC], many have even abused Parasara as Yevana! So -

8th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 75 %

1) if you want to go by the original steam of Indian astrology, let us first discard the “gradually increasing or decreasing drishti” concept of Sripati and the idea that “Drishti is relative angles between planets”.

9th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 50 % 10th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 25 % 11th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 0 % 12th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 0 % If you feel that this concept of Saints about partial Drishti is primitive and incomplete, then I would boldly say that, we should accept their concept AS IS till we understand the original astrological system proposed by them, completely. We have NO RIGHT to pour water into the system they proposed without clearly understanding the system proposed by them. I reject Sripati (his corrupting of the original system) also in the same spirit. One more point we should remember - The saints of Arsha School (Skanda, Vasishta, Viswamitra etc), Garga School (Garga, Rishiputra etc) NEVER proposed any “Partial Drishti” system! They have only talked about “Full Drishti” (towards 7th House) and “Special Drishti” (of Ma, Sa and Ju) only and NOT about “Partial Drishti”! It is the Yavana School (Yevanewara, Meenaraja, Sphujidhwaja etc) that proposed partial Drishti. Probably it is from Yevanewara that Parasara borrowed this concept of Partial Drishti. Since Parasara borrowed many concepts from Yavaneswara [An Indian (Afghanistan?) guru of an astrological school of thought who lived far before Alexander’s invasion to India and before the period

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2) If you are strong willed and a real puritan then, discard the concept of partial drishti itself, since the Arsha School and the Garga School never propose such a thing!! But I won’t suggest you to do the second thing, since we also respect the views of Yevanewara and Parasara as well. Moreover Krishneeyam and Saravali also talk about Partial Drishti (probably following Parasara). Saravali even goes to the extend of proposing some Rajayoga based on Partial Drishti in slokas like “Vrishe Sasi lagnagataH supoorno...” and “EkaH sweche subhaH syachubha gaganagaH...” etc. So I won’t suggest discarding the “Partial Drishti” concept, but for sure we should discard the corrupting ideas put forward by Sripati, with the malicious intention of giving a strong hold to his “unequal house division system”. I don’find any statement in support of considering Rasi and Bhava as seperate entities in texts before 10th century. But I do find statements that supports considering Rasi and Bhava as one and the same entities, with the only difference that Rasis statrs from Aries, and Bhavas starts from Lagna. (This subject is already dealt in detail in one of the earlier articles) Qn: Do the special aspects of 4,8 for mars and 3,10 for saturn and 5,9 for jupiter have any logic behind them. if so, why venus, mercury, sun and moon do not have these special aspects. Ans: I don’t know. May be the rational for this is present in lost part All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG , [email protected]

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of the Rishi horas. The only thing I know is that all the different schools of astrological thought such as Arsha school, Jain school, Yavana School support the concept of special drishti. I will supply the available quotes below: Triteeye dasame souriH jeevastad trikonage Chaturasram dharasoonuH kalatre nikhila grahaH Poornam pasyanti sarvatra prayaschanti phalam tatha (Surya hora) This is a text of the Arsha school. Although similar sloka is not available from the other slokas we can see that Skanda Hora, Brihay prajapatya, Vasishta hora, Kousika hora and Sounaka hora also supports the concept of “Special Drishti” (Ma to 4th and 8th, Ju to 5th and 9th, Sa to 3rd and 10th) These are all texts of the Arsha school. Now considering the Jain school of thought – Duschitkagan souristrikonastan brihaspatiH Chaturthashtamagan bhoumaH seshaH saptama samstitan Bhavanti veekshane nityam uktadhika phala grahaH (Gargi hora) This is a text of Jain school of thought. Including Garga and Rishiputra all the Rishis of this school as well support the concept of special drishti as evident from the above sloka. Now coming to Yavana school of thought – Phalam visesham pravadamyathato Bhoumasay poornam chaturasrabhe syat Phalam cha jeevasya tatha trikonam Poornam saneH syad dasame triteeye (Yevaneswara Hora) The scholars like Yevanacharya, Meenaraja, Sphujidhwaja etc of this stream of thought also fully support the concept of special drishti. Being the students of ancient Indian astrological system, we are trying to understand this ancient system without violating the All rights reserved © Sreenadh OG, [email protected]

basic rules put forward by them. Therefore even though we don’t know the exact logic behind the concept of special drishti we have to accept it. Yes, of course we can continue our search for the logic behind this concept. When the time and effort is ripe the truth will be revealed to us. Except Spujudwaja Hora and Meenaraja Hora all the texts mentioned above are lost and only some slokas are available. The available slokas does not discuss the logic behind this concept, so we presume that it would be there in the lost part of these texts. But yes, the concept of special drishti for Ma, Ju and Sa is one of the age old, fundamental concept in astrology. PS: I forgot to add, all those slokas mean, “all planets have drishti towards the 7th house from the house it is placed. Sa has special drishti towards 3rd and 10th house. Ju has special drishti towards 5th and 9th house. Ma has special drishti towards 4th and 8th house” Qn (Arjun ji): Till date i did not get the answer to “why” these special aspects for three planets? “why” the other planets do not have special aspects? Ans (Me): Me too is searching for the answer to that question. But the fact remains that even when we find some logically correct answer [that ofcourse we can find ;) ] that may not be the true one!!! I will try to provide (inventions!!) some possible EXPLANATIONS later (let me think about it), but be sure to remember that they may not be the true ones. :) Let us try some EXPLANATIONS: Logic -1 The special drishti is - “Charanabhi vridhita”, starts from legs! :) Now consider kala purusha, let us alote leg to Sa, 10 th house

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indicates middle portion of legs. let us make it short Sa = 3rd and 10th = Throat (Sound - Air) and Legs. Ma = 4th and 8th = Chest and Sexual organs (Courage and Kama) Ju = 5th and 9th = Belly and Thigh So it is the Kalapurusha concept and the significance of body parts is there behind. Logic -2 (Not perfect) The special drishti is - “Charanabhi vridhita”, one by fourth! 12/4 = 3. Meaning it increase by 3 signs in the order “Ravija Amaredhya Rudira pare cha” (Varaha hora), i.e Sa, Ju, Ma, others. Count 3 from Lagna = 3rd hous = Sa. Count 3 from 3rd house = 5th house = ju Count 3 from 5th house = 7th house = Ma and others. Count 3 from 7th house = 9th house = Ju Count 3 from 9th house = 11th house(!) = Sa ? [Here the logic fails and I stopped. :)) ] Logic -3 (Not perfect) Let us do some maths 3+10 = 13 ; 13-12 = 1 ; Lagna 4+8 = 12 ; 12th house 5+9 = 14 ; 14-12 = 2 ; 2nd house Ju is the karaka for 2nd house. Any connection? ;) Logic -4

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Sa is karaka for 10th, Ju for 9th etc. So the Drishti may have something to do with (fixed) Bhava karakatwa assigned to planets as well. But yes, it could be one of the reasons. “Special Complete Drishti” is supported by “NO Rishi horas” of the Arsha Kula! They have approved only that, ALL PLANETS have 1/4th Drishti in 3rd and 10 house 1/2 Drishti in 5th and 9th 3/4th Drishti in 4th and 8th The concept of Special complete Drishti is a concept by Jain school of astrology, and is first given in Gargi hora. Even Varaha mihira indicates that it is not his concept but of others!! In the sloka “Tri dasa trikona.......kila veekshanedhika”, He says that it is an openion of “kila”, some others (not mihira)! But yes, as you know Laghu parasari supports this concept of Special complete drishti. (But now the question comes Laghu parasari is by Parasara or some body else?) Ok, what ever that be, we can accept that Gargi and Parasara approves the concept of special Drishtis, and it is extensively in use now a days as well. :) — In [email protected], “panditarjun2004”
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