ASTM D3138

June 22, 2018 | Author: Hernando Andrés Ramírez Gil | Category: Polyvinyl Chloride, Pipe (Fluid Conveyance), Tetrahydrofuran, Plastic, Building Engineering
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An American National Standard

Designation: D3138 – 04

Standard Specification for

Solvent Cements for Transition Joints Between AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS) and Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Non-Pressure Piping Components 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D3138; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of  original origin al adoption or, in the case of revis revision, ion, the year of last revision. revision. A number in paren parenthese thesess indicates the year of last reappr reapproval. oval. A superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Sco Scope pe

2. Referenc Referenced ed Documents 2.1   ASTM Standards: 2 D1084   Test Methods for Viscosity of Adhesives D1600   Term Termino inolog logy y for Abb Abbrev reviate iated d Term ermss Rela Relatin ting g to Plastics D1784   Specification for Rigid Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Compoun Comp ounds ds and Chlo Chlorina rinated ted Poly Poly(V (Vinyl inyl Chlo Chlorid ride) e) (CPVC) Compounds D2235  Specification for Solvent Cement for AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe and Fittings D2564   Specificatio Specification n for Solve Solvent nt Cements for Poly( Poly(V Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Piping Systems D2661 Specification for AcrylonitrileAcrylonitrile-Butadiene-Sty Butadiene-Styrene rene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fitting Fittingss D2665 Specification for Poly(Vinyl Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings F402 Practic Practicee for Safe Handling Handling of Solven Solventt Cements, Primers, and Cleaners Used for Joining Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings F412  Terminology Relating to Plastic Piping Systems F493   Specifi Specificati cation on for Sol Solven ventt Ceme Cements nts for Chl Chlori orinat nated ed Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings

1.1 This spe specific cificatio ation n pro provid vides es gen genera erall req requir uiremen ements ts for solvent cements used in joining acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) (AB S) pla plastic stic pip pipee or fitti fittings ngs to pol poly(v y(viny inyll chlo chlorid ride) e) (PV (PVC) C) plastic pipe or fittings. 1.2 These cements cements are intended for use in cementing transition joints between ABS and PVC materials in non-pressure applications only (25 psi (170 kPa) or less). NOTE   1—This 1—This spe specifi cificati cation on was dev develo eloped ped to pro provid videe a mea means ns for  joining an ABS non-pressure piping system using a solvent-cemented transition joint, for example, joining ABS building drain to a PVC sewer system. The intention was not to create a specification for an all purpose ABS-PVC solvent cement that would be used used for mixing of ABS and PVC piping materials nor to specify a cement that could generally be used for either material. Specific cements for ABS or PVC components should be used (see 1.3 (see  1.3)).

1.3 Solve Solvent nt cements used for joining PVC pipe and fittings are specified in Specification D2564 Specification  D2564..  Solvent cements used for  joining ABS pipe and fittings are specified in Specification D2235.. D2235 1.4 A recom recommended mended proce procedure dure for for joining joining ABS to PVC PVC pipe and an d fitt fittin ings gs fo forr no nonn-pr pres essu sure re ap appl plic icati ation onss is gi give ven n in th thee appendix. 1.5 The values stated in inch-poun inch-pound d units are to be regar regarded ded as th thee st stan anda dard rd.. Th Thee va valu lues es gi give ven n in pa pare rent nthe hese sess ar aree fo forr information only. 1.6 The following following safety hazards hazards caveat pertains only to the test meth methods ods por portio tion, n, Sect Section ion 6, of thi thiss spe specifi cificati cation: on:   This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user  of this sta standa ndard rd to esta establi blish sh app appro ropri priate ate saf safety ety and hea health lth  practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

3. Terminology 3.1   Definitions:   Definitions are in accordance with Terminology  F412,,  and abbreviations are in accordance with Terminology F412 nology D1600 nology  D1600,,   unless otherwise specified. 4. Mater Materials ials and Manuf Manufactu acture re 4.1 4. 1 The The so solv lven entt ce ceme ment nt sh shal alll be a so solu luti tion on of Cl Clas asss 12454-B, unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) molding or extrusion compound as classified in Specification D1784 Specification  D1784,,  or equivalent PVC resin.


This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F17 Committee  F17 on  on Plastic Piping Systems and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee  F17.20  F17.20 on  on Joining. Current Curre nt editi edition on approv approved ed Oct. 1, 2004. Published Published Octob October er 2004. Originally Originally approved in 1972. Last previous edition approved in 2002 as D3138 – 02. DOI: 10.1520/D3138-04.


For refere referenced nced ASTM stand standards, ards, visit the ASTM webs website, ite, www www.ast,, or contact ASTM Customer Service at [email protected] For  Annual Book of ASTM  Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on the ASTM website.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.


D3138 – 04 4.2 Either virgin virgin or clean rew rework ork material material may be use used, d, provided that the rework material is generated from the solvent cement ceme nt man manufa ufactu cturer rer’s ’s own pro produc ductio tion, n, is com compat patible ible with virg vi rgin in mat mater erial ial,, an and d wi will ll pr prod oduc ucee a cem cemen entt th that at me meets ets th thee requirements requir ements of this specifi specification cation.. 4.3 The cement shall be free-flowing free-flowing and shall not contain lumps, lum ps, mac macros roscop copic ic und undiss issolv olved ed par particl ticles, es, or any for foreig eign n matter that will adversely affect the ultimate joint strength or chemical resistance of the cement. 4.4 The cement cement sha shall ll sho show w no gelation. gelation. It sha shall ll sho show w no stratification or separation that cannot be removed by stirring or shaking. 4.5 Inert fillers may be added, added, provided the resulting cement meets all requirements of this specification. 4.6 The sol solven vents ts use used d in the formulati formulation on of this solvent solvent cement shall consist of tetrahydrofuran (THF) in combination with cyclohexanone or methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), or both.

Remove the tin from the oven and place in a desiccator until cooled to room temper temperature. ature. Weigh Weigh the tin and dried sample to the nearest 1 mg. NOTE  4—This material is usually nonhomogeneous and shall be thoroughly stirred before weighing. The weighing shall also be accomplished quickly to avoid loss of solvent by volatilization. Some vacuum ovens require a longer period of time than 15 min to reach 120°C, even after preheating. It is recommended that the operator watch closely the time requ re quir ired ed to re reac ach h 12 120° 0°C C an and, d, by ma mani nipu pulat latio ion n of th thee he heat at co cont ntro roll mechanism, minimize the amount of time required to reach 120°C while not exceed exceeding ing the requir required ed tempe temperature rature.. NOTE   5—Th 5—Thee us usee of a va vacu cuum um ov oven en is ma mand ndato atory ry fo forr dr dryi ying ng th thee specimen. This oven has neither an exposed heating surface nor an open flame, thus avoiding the danger of flashing. The oven also provides an open vacuum to exhaust solvent fumes. After weighing, weighing, dissolve the dried sample in THF and det determ ermine ine qua quantit ntitativ atively ely any iner inertt fille fillers rs by mean meanss of  centrifuging. Deduct the weight of the fillers determined from the weight of the dried sample prior to calculating the content of PVC resin in the cement.

NOTE  2—It is recommended that solvent cements made to this specification not be orange since that color is recommended for use with CPVC solvent cement under Specification F493 Specification F493..

NOTE  6—Dissolve most of the dried sample by adding 15 mL of THF to the sample in the ointment tin and stirring with a glass rod for 15 min. Dissolve the remainder with a second addition of 15 mL of THF, followed by a third addition of 5 mL of THF to rinse the ointment tin. Centrifuge the entire volume at 20 000 r/min for 15 min. Discard the supernatant supernatant liquid. Add 15 mL of THF to the tube, mix thoroughly, and transfer the tube contents to the ointment tin. Use 2 mL more of THF to wash down the tube, and pour into the ointment tin. Evaporate off the THF in the vacuum oven at 248°F (120°C) for 45 min. Cool in desiccator, weigh the tin to the nearest 1 mg, and calculate the percent of inert filler present in the cement.

5. Other Require Requirement mentss 5.1   Resin Content —The —The PVC resin content shall be 10 % minimum when tested in accordance with 6.1 6.1.. 5.2   Dissolution—The cement shall be capable of dissolving an additional 3 weight % of Class 12454-B, PVC compound or the equivalent PVC resin at 73.4  6  3.6°F (23  6  2°C) without evidence of gelation. 5.3   Viscosity—The minimum viscosity at room temperature temperature shall be 90 cP (90 mPa·s) when tested in accordance with 6.2 with  6.2..

6.1.3   Calculation—Calculate the percentage of PVC resin,  R, as follows:

NOTE   3—Cements approaching the minimum viscosity requirement of  this specification generally are not recommended for noninterference-type fit (where a gap exists between the pipe and fitting socket).

 2  A !# 3  100  R, %  5  [~ B  2  A  2  D ! / ~C  2

where:  A = weig weight ht  B = weight C  = weight  D = weight

5.4   Lap Shear Strength—The minimum average lap shear strength when tested in accordance with 6.3.2 with  6.3.2 shall  shall be 600 psi (4.1 MPa) after a 72-h curing time. 5.5   Hydrostatic Burst Strength—The minimum average hydrostatic burst strength when tested in accordance with  6.3.3 shall be 200 psi (1.4 MPa) after a 72-h curing time.

of ointm ointment ent tin, tin, of tin and specime of specimen n after drying drying,, of tin and specimen of specimen before before drying, drying, and of inert filler of filler,, if present. present.

6.2   Viscosity—Me —Measu asure re the vis viscos cosity ity in acc accord ordanc ancee wit with h Method B of Test Methods D1084 Methods  D1084 except  except that conditioning to tempera temp eratur turee equ equilib ilibriu rium m onl only y is req requir uired. ed. For qua qualific lificatio ation n purposes use a Model RVF viscometer, a speed of 10 r/min, and the spindle that, by trial, gives the closest reading to center range of scale for the cement being tested. Other speeds may be used for quality control purposes. 6.3   Bond Strength: 6.3.1   Number of Specimens —A minimum of seven specimens shall be tested for the lap shear strength test (see  5.4  5.4). ). A minimum of five specimens shall be tested for the hydrostatic burst strength test (see5.5 (see5.5). ). 6.3.2   Lap Shear Strength: 6.3.2 .1 Each test specimen (Fig. 1) 1) shall consist of a 1 by 1-in. (25 by 25-mm) section cut from a 1 ⁄ 4-in. (6-mm) thick  Type I rigid ABS sheet and a 1 by 2-in. (25 by 50-mm) section cut from a 1 ⁄ 4-in. (6-mm) thick Type I rigid PVC sheet. 6.3. 6. 3.2. 2.2 2 Clean Clean th thee su surf rface acess to be ad adhe here red d wi with th a cl clot oth h dampened with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK).

6. Test Methods Methods 6.1   Solids Content : 6.1.1   Apparatus: Ointment Ti Tins ns   (St   Ointment (Styl ylee No No.. 12 12,, 11-oz oz (3 (300-mL mL), ), all metal).   Vacuum Oven.   Analytical Balance.   Centrifuge. 6.1.2   Procedure: 6.1.2. 6.1 .2.1 1 Stir the sam sample ple tho thorou roughl ghly y with a spa spatula tula before before weighing (Note (Note 4). 4). Weight 3.0 6  0.5 g of the sample to the nearest 1 mg into a tared ointment tin. Place the tin into the vacuum oven (Note ( Note 5) 5), and heat at 248°F (120°C) for 45 min + 15, −0 min. Discard specimens left in for more than 1 h. The vacuum must be continually in operation to draw off flammable solven sol vents. ts. Absolut Absolutee pre pressu ssure re sho should uld not exc exceed eed 15 mm Hg. 2

D3138 – 04 6.3.3. 9 Ass Assemb emble le imme immedia diately tely whi while le joi joinin ning g sur surfac faces es are wet. Hold joint together for 1 min for initial set and wipe off  bead of cement at juncture of pipe and fitting. 6.3.3 .10 Store the cemented specimens specimens at 73.4  6  3.6°F (23 relativ tivee hum humidi idity ty for 72 h and test 6   2°C) and 50 6   5 % rela immediately. 6.3.3 .11 Increa Increase se the internal hydrostatic hydrostatic pressure pressure at the rate of 200 psi (1.4 MPa)  6  10 % until failure occurs. 7. Rete Retest st and Rejection Rejection 7.1 If the results of any test(s) test(s) do not meet the requirements requirements of this specificati specification, on, the test test(s) (s) may be con conduc ducted ted aga again in in accordance with an agreement between the purchaser and the seller sell er.. The There re sha shall ll be no agr agreeme eement nt to low lower er the min minimu imum m requir req uiremen ementt of the spe specific cificatio ation n by suc such h mean meanss as omi omittin tting g tests tes ts th that at ar aree a pa part rt of th thee sp speci ecific ficati ation on,, su subs bstit titut utin ing g or modify mod ifying ing a test method, method, or by cha changi nging ng the spe specifi cificati cation on limits. In retesting, the product requirements of this specification tio n sh shal alll be me met, t, an and d th thee tes testt me meth thod odss de desig signa nated ted in th thee specification shall be followed. If, upon retest, failure occurs, the quantity of product represented by the test(s) does not meet the requirements of this specification.

FIG. 1 Compressive Shear Specimen Using a 1-in. (25-mm) (25-mm) natural bristle brush, brush, apply a thin layer of cement to the complete surface of a 1 by 1-in. (25 by 25-mm) sheet section and to the center of a 1 by 2-in. (25 by 50-mm) sheet section. 6.3.2 .4 Assemb Assemble le these sections immediately and rotate the 1 by 1-in. (25 by 25-mm) section 180° on the 1 by 2-in. (25 by 50-mm) section, within 5 s, using light hand pressure (approximately 0.5 lbf (2 N)). 6.3.2 .5 Place the assembled test specimen specimen on a clean, level surface using the 1 by 2-in. (25 by 50-mm) section as a base. After 30 s, place a 4.4-lb (2-kg) weight on the test specimen for a period of 3 min, and then remove. 6.3.2 .6 Store the assembled assembled test specimens at 73.4  6  3.6°F (23 6  2°C) for the specified time and test immediately in a holding holdin g fixture similar to that shown in Fig. in  Fig. 2. 2. The shear speed shall be 0.05 in. (1.25 mm)/min. Express the results in pounds per square inch (or megapascals). 6.3. 6. 3.2. 2.7 7 Di Disr sreg egar ard d th thee lo lowe west st an and d hi high ghes estt va valu luee fo forr th thee calculation of the average lap shear strength. 6.3.3   Hydrostatic Burst Strength: 6.3.3. 6.3 .3.1 1 Use nominal nominal 2-i 2-in. n. PVC pip pipee mee meeting ting the req requir uireements of Specification D2665 Specification  D2665 and  and 2-in. ABS couplings meeting the requirements of Specification D2661 Specification  D2661.. 6.3.3 .2 Cut the pipe square into 6-in. (152-mm) (152-mm) lengths. 6.3.3 .3 Debur Deburrr the pipe and clean the pipe and fitting with a clean dry rag. 6.3.3 .4 Check the dry fit of the pipe into the coupling socket socket for interference fit. The fit shall be such that the pipe will enter the soc socket ket fro from m 1 ⁄ 3 to 2 ⁄ 3 of th thee so sock cket et de dept pth h dr dry y wh when en assembled by hand. 6.3.3. 6.3 .3.5 5 Dip a 1-i 1-in. n. brush into MEK and apply apply a uni unifor form m coating of MEK on the PVC pipe. Allow to set 30 s. 6.3. 6. 3.3. 3.6 6 Immedi Immediate ately ly flo flow w on a un unifo iform rm lib liber eral al co coat at of  cement on the PVC pipe with a 1-in. bristle brush. 6.3.3. 6.3 .3.7 7 App Apply ly a uni unifor form m ligh lightt coa coatt of cement cement to the ABS coupling. 6.3.3 .8 Apply a second uniform uniform layer of cement to the pipe.

8. Repor Reportt 8.1 Report the following following information: information: 8.1.1 Name of cement manufacturer, manufacturer, 8.1.2 Lot number, number, 8.1.3 Total PVC resin resin,, −0/0W −0/0W,, 8.1.4 Dissol Dissolution, ution, pass pass or fail, 8.1.5 Viscosity Viscosity,, 8.1. 8. 1.6 6 Ave vera rage ge la lap p sh shea earr st stre reng ngth th at ea each ch cu cure re tim timee an and d complete identification of PVC and ABS sheet stock used in the tests, 8.1.7 Averag veragee hydr hydrostatic ostatic burst strength, and 8.1.8 Total inert filler filler,, −0/0W −0/0W.. 9. Cert Certifica ification tion 9.1 When specified specified in the purchase purchase order, the manufacturer manufacturer shall certify to the purchaser or to his nominee that the products in the specified lots meet all the requirements of this specificatio ca tion n an and, d, wh when en re requ ques ested ted,, sh shall all in inclu clude de a co copy py of th thee manufacturer’s routine quality control tests results to document that the specification requirements have been met. Each certification so furnished shall be signed by an authorized agent of  the manufacturer. 10. Conta Container iner Labeling Labeling and Marki Marking ng 10.1 Contai Container ner labeling of cement shall include the following: 10.1.1 10.1. 1 Manuf Manufacture acturer’s r’s or suppl supplier’s ier’s name and addres addresss and tradename traden ame or tradem trademark. ark. 10.1.2 10.1. 2 This designation: designation: ASTM D3138. 10.1.3 10. 1.3 Functio Function n of mat materia erial; l; for use on tran transiti sition on joi joints nts betwee bet ween n ABS and PVC non non-pr -pressu essure re sys systems tems (ex (examp amples: les: build bu ildin ing g dr drai ain n to bu build ildin ing g se sewe werr, bu build ildin ing g se sewe werr to ma main in sewer). 10.1.4 10.1. 4 Proced Procedure ure or instructions instructions for applic application ation of the cement.

FIG. 2 Typical Specimen Holding Fixture


D3138 – 04 10.1.5 Lot number of batch on container 10.1.5 container (not on closure or lid.) 10.1.6 10.1. 6 All warnings and cautions cautions necessitated by: 10.1. 6.1 Ingr Ingredients edients,, 10.1. 6.2 Handl Handling ing and distrib distribution ution of the produ product, ct, 10.1. 6.3 Inten Intended ded use of the produ product, ct, and 10.1. 6.4 Requir Requirements ements of law (such as the Federal Hazardous Substanc Substancee Act Act). ). The These se are intended intended to war warn n tho those se who handle or use the product against potential hazards, such as flammability, toxicity, etc.

ignition. Good ventilation should be maintained to reduce fire hazard haz ard and to min minimiz imizee bre breath athing ing of sol solven ventt vap vapors ors.. Avoi void d contact of cement with skin and eyes. 11.2 11 .2 Refer to Practice Practice F402  F402   for additional information. 12. Quali Quality ty Assurance Assurance 12.1 Whe 12.1 When n the pro produc ductt is mar marked ked wit with h this designatio designation, n, D3138, the manufacturer affirms that the product was manufactured, inspected, sampled, and tested in accordance with this specification and has been found to meet the requirements of  this specification.

NOTE 7—It is recommended recommended that the color of the contents be indicated on the label.

11.. Safe Handling 11 Handling of Solve Solvent nt Cement 11.1 Solven 11.1 Solventt cements for plastic pipe are made from flammable liquids and should be kept away from all sources of 


X1.1 Cut —Cutt the pip pipee usi using ng a fine fine-to -tooth oth Cuttin ting g the Pip Pipee—Cu hand saw and a mitre box or a fine-toothed power saw with a suitablee guide. A rotary cutter suitabl cutter may be used if the cutting cutting blades are specially designed for cutting plastic in such a way as not to raise a burr or ridge (flare) at the cut end of the pipe. Remove all burrs with a knife, file, or abrasive paper.

the depth of the fitting socket. socket. Nex Next, t, app apply ly a uni unifor form m ligh lightt coat co atin ing g of cem cemen entt to th thee AB ABS S so sock cket. et. Avoi Avoid d pu pudd ddlin ling g of  cement in socket. Re-coat the PVC pipe with a second uniform uniform coat of cement. X1.4.2 For Joining Joining ABS Pipe to PVC Fitting—First apply a uniform light coat of cement to the PVC socket, and avoid puddling of cement in socket. Next, apply a uniform moderate coat of cement to the ABS pipe. Re-coat the PVC socket with a second uniform light coat of cement.

X1.2 Test Fitting—Wipe both the outside of the pipe and the fitting socket with a clean dry cloth to remove moisture and foreign matter. Mate the two parts without forcing. The pipe should enter the socket one quarter to three quarters of the socket depth. Very tight fits (pipe will not enter socket without forcing) and loose fits (pipe bottoms easily in socket with slop) are to be avoided.

Assembl mblyy of Joi Joint  nt —Immediately X1.5 Asse —Immediately after applyi applying ng the last co last coat at of cem cemen ent, t, in inser sertt th thee pi pipe pe in into to th thee fit fittin ting g un unti till it bottoms. If possible, turn the pipe during assembly one quarter of a turn (but not after the pipe is bottomed) to evenly distribute the cement. If there are signs of drying of the cement surfaces, due to del delay ay in ass assemb embly ly,, the sur surfac faces es sho should uld be rere-coa coated, ted, taking care again to avoid puddling of cement in the socket. Hold the pipe and fitting in place for approximately 1 min to keep the pipe from backing out of the socket. Wipe excess cement from the pipe at the end of the socket with a clean dry cloth clo th.. Al Allo low w th thee jo join intt to se sett fo forr ap appr prox oxima imatel tely y 15 min to develop good handling strength, longer periods are necessary in cold weather, below 60°F (15.6°C).

Preparation—Surfaces to be joined should be X1.3 Joint Preparation clean and free of moisture before application of the cement. Remove the gloss from the surface of the PVC part to be joined with a cleaner or primer recommended by the cement manufacturer. It is generally generally not necessary to prime the ABS surface.

X1.4 Applying the Cement —Apply —Apply the cement with a 1-in. brush for pipe sizes up to 2-in. and a brush width at least one half ha lf of th thee pi pipe pe di diam amete eterr fo forr th thee la larg rger er siz sizee pi pipe pe.. Ot Othe herr applicators may be used effectively provided their use results in an equivalent amount of cement applied to the joining surfaces.

X1.6 Cure Time —Follow w solven solventt cement manuf manufacturer acturer’s ’s Time—Follo recommendations for cure time.

X1.4.1   For For Jo Join inin ing g PV PVC C Pip Pipee to an AB ABS S Fi Fitti tting ng—First apply a uniform moderate coat of cement to the PVC pipe to


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