Designation: D 1418 – 01a
Standard Practice for
Rubber and Rubber Latices—Nomenclature1 This standard is issued under the ﬁxed designation D 1418; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript superscript epsilon epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
The system of designating rubbers and rubber latices in this practice was developed in 1955 to replace replace designatio designations ns GR-A, GR-I, GR-M, GR-S and GR-T (standing (standing for “Government “Government Rubber”: Rubber”: A-acrylontrile, I-isobutylene, S-styrene, M-monochlorobutadiene and T-thiosulﬁde), T-thiosulﬁde), used for synthetic thetic rubbers rubbers made made in govern governmen mentt owned owned plants plants.. The system system was design designed ed to be a generi genericc classiﬁcation of the rubber polymers that would accommodate both existing and future rubbers. The chemical composition of the polymer chain was selected as the best classiﬁcation proposal to achieve this goal. The rubber polymers were divided into seven classes as described in Section 2 of this practice. The letter symbol for the class was given last in the designation for the rubber. Preceding the class symbol were letter symbols to designate either the monomers used to prepare the polymer or the substituent groups on the polymer chain. The system has been successful both in accommodating the many new polymers developed since 1955 and in conveying to the user certain characteristics of the rubber associated with the chemical composition. 1. Scope Scope
Q—Rubb Q—Rubbers ers having having silico silicon n and oxygen oxygen in the polyme polymerr chain. T—Rubbers having sulfur in the polymer chain. U—Rubb U—Rubbers ers having having carbon carbon,, oxygen oxygen,, and nitrog nitrogen en in the polymer chain. Z—Rubbers having phosphorus and nitrogen in the polymer chain.
1.1 This practice practice covers a system system of general classiﬁcati classiﬁcation on for the basic rubbers both in dry and latex forms determined from the chemical composition of the polymer chain. 1.2 The purpose purpose of this practice practice is to provide provide a standardi standardizazation of terms for use in industry, commerce, and government and and is not not inte intend nded ed to conﬂ conﬂic ictt with with but but rath rather er to act act as a supplement to existing trade names and trademarks. 1.3 In techni technical cal papers papers or presen presentat tation ionss the name of the polymer should be used if possible. The symbols can follow the chemical name for use in later references.
3. Class Class Designations Designations 3.1 The “M” class includes includes rubbers having a saturated chain of the polymethylene type. The following classiﬁcation shall be used: ACM—Copolymers of ethyl or other acrylate and a small amount of monomer which facilitates vulcanization. AEM—Copolymers of ethyl or other acrylates and ethylene. ANM—Copolymers of ethyl or other acrylate and acrylonitrile. CM—Chloro-polyethylene. CFM—Polychloro-triﬂuoro-ethylene. CSM—Chloro-sulfonyl-polyethylene. EOM—Copolymers of ethylene and an octene. EPDM—T EPDM—Terpolymer erpolymer of ethylene, ethylene, propylene, propylene, and a diene with the residual unsaturated portion of the diene in the side chain. EPM—Copolymers of ethylene and propylene. EVM—Copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate. FEPM—A FEPM—A ﬂuoro ﬂuoro rubber rubber of the polyme polymethy thylen lenee type type only only containing one or more of the monomeric alkyl, perﬂuoroalkyl, and/or and/or perﬂuo perﬂuoroa roalko lkoxy xy groups groups,, with with or withou withoutt a cure cure site site monomer (having a reactive pendant group). FFKM—Perﬂu FFKM—Perﬂuorin orinated ated rubbers rubbers of the polymethyl polymethylene ene type
NOTE 1—For terms related to thermoplastic thermoplastic elastomers, elastomers, see D 5538 Practice for Thermoplastic Elastomers – Terminology and Abbreviations.
2. Rubbers Rubbers 2.1 Rubbers Rubbers in both dry and latex form shall be classiﬁed classiﬁed and coded from the chemical composition of the polymer chain in the following manner: M—Rubbers having a saturated chain of the polymethylene type. N—Rubbers having nitrogen, but not oxygen or phosphorus, in the polymer chain. O—Rubbers having oxygen in the polymer chain. R—Rubbers R—Rubbers having an unsaturate unsaturated d carbon carbon chain, chain, for example, ample, natural natural rubber rubber and syntheti syntheticc rubbers rubbers derived derived at least partly from dioleﬁns. 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D11 on Rubber Rubber and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D11.08 on Terminology. Curren Currentt edition edition approv approved ed May 10, 2001. 2001. Publish Published ed Julyl Julyl 2001. 2001. Original Originally ly published published as D 1418 – 56 T. Last previous edition D 1418 – 00.
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D 1418 having all ﬂuoro, perﬂuoroalkyl, or perﬂuoroalkoxy substituent groups on the polymer chain; a small fraction of these groups may contain functionality to facilitate vulcanization. FKM—Fluoro rubber of the polymethylene type that utilizes vinylidene ﬂuoride as a comonomer and has substituent ﬂuoro, alkyl, perﬂuoroalkyl or perﬂuoroalkoxy groups on the polymer chain, with or without a cure site monomer (having a reactive pendant group). Type 1—Dipolymer of hexaﬂuoropropylene and vinylidene ﬂuoride. Type 2—Terpolymer of tetraﬂuoroethylene, vinylidene ﬂuoride, and hexaﬂuoropropylene. Type 3—T 3—Terpo erpolyme lymerr of tetr tetraﬂuor aﬂuoroethy oethylene, lene, a ﬂuori ﬂuorinate nated d vinyl ether, and vinylidene ﬂuoride. Type 4—Terpolymer of tetraﬂuoroethylene, propylene and vinylidene ﬂuoride. Type 5—Pen 5—Pentapo tapolyme lymerr of tetr tetraﬂuor aﬂuoroeth oethylene ylene,, hexaﬂ hexaﬂuorouoropropylene propy lene,, viny vinyliden lidenee ﬂuori ﬂuoride, de, ethyl ethylene, ene, and a ﬂuor ﬂuorinate inated d vinyl ether. 3.2 The “O” cla class ss inc includ ludes es rub rubber berss hav having ing oxygen oxygen in the polymer chain. The following classiﬁcation shall be used: CO—Polychloromethyl oxirane (epichlorohydrin polymer). ECO—Ethylene oxide (oxirane) and chloromethyl oxirane (epichlorohydrin copolymer). GECO—Epichlorohydrin-ethylene GECO—Epichlorohydrinethylene oxide-allylgl oxide-allylglycidylether ycidylether terpolymer. GPO—Polypropylene oxide and allyl glycidyl ether. 3.3 The “R” class shall shall be deﬁned by inserting inserting the name of the mon monome omerr or mon monome omers rs bef before ore the wor word d “ru “rubbe bber” r” fro from m which it was prepared (except for natural rubber). The letter immediately preceding the letter R shall signify the dioleﬁn from fr om wh whic ich h th thee ru rubb bber er wa wass pr prep epar ared ed (e (exc xcep eptt fo forr na natu tura rall rubber rub ber). ). Any let letter ter or let letter terss pre preced ceding ing thi thiss dio dioleﬁ leﬁn n let letter ter signiﬁes the comonomer or comonomers. A parenthetical letter (S),, for solution (S) solution,, or (E) (E),, for emulsion emulsion,, is use used d to ind indica icate te whet wh ethe herr th thee ru rubb bber er or la late tex x wa wass pr prep epar ared ed by so solu luti tion on or emulsion polymerization. The following classiﬁcation shall be used for rubbers of the “R” class: ABR—Acrylate-butadiene. BIIR—Bromo-isobutene-isoprene BR—Butadiene. CIIR—Chloro-isobutene-isoprene. CR—Chloroprene. ENR—Epoxidized natural rubber. HNBR—Hydrogenated acrylonitrile acrylonitrile-butadiene. -butadiene. IIR—Isobutene-isoprene. IR—Isoprene, synthetic. NBR—Acrylonitrile-butadiene. NIR—Acrylonitrile-isoprene. NR—Natural rubber. PBR—Vinylpyridine-butadiene. PSBR—Vinylpyridine-styr PSBR—Vi nylpyridine-styrene-butadiene. ene-butadiene. SBR—Styrene-butadiene. SIR—Styrene-isoprene rubbers. 3.3.1 Rubbers of the “R” class having substitute substitute carboxylic acid (COOH) groups on the polymer chain shall be identiﬁed by the preﬁx “X”: XBR—Carboxylic-butadiene rubber
XSBR—Carboxylic-styrene-butadiene. XNBR—Carboxylic-acrylonitrile-butadiene. NOTE 2—When designating latex or latices the terminology shall be, for for example,“ SBR latex” or “SBR latices.”
3.4 The “Q” class shall shall be deﬁned by inserting inserting the name of the substituent group on the polymer chain prior to the silicone design des ignati ation. on. The fol follow lowing ing cla classi ssiﬁca ﬁcatio tion n sha shall ll be use used d for members of the“ Q” class. (The M preceding the Q indicates that methyl is one of the substituent groups on the polymer chain.) FMQ—Si FMQ —Silic licone one rub rubber ber hav having ing bot both h met methyl hyl and ﬂuo ﬂuorin rinee substituent groups on the polymer chain. FVMQ—Silicone rubber having ﬂuorine, vinyl, and methyl substitute groups on the polymer chain. PMQ—Si PMQ —Silic licone one rub rubber berss hav having ing bot both h me methy thyll and phe phenyl nyl substituent groups on the polymer chain. PVMQ—Silicone rubbers having methyl, phenyl, and vinyl substituent groups on the polymer chain. MQ—Silic MQ—S ilicone one rubb rubbers ers havi having ng only met methyl hyl subs substit tituent uent groups on the polymer chain, such as dimethyl polysiloxane. VMQ—Silicone rubber having both methyl and vinyl substituent groups on the polymer chain. 3.5 The “U” class includes includes rubbers rubbers having carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in the polymer chain. The following classiﬁcation shall be used: AFMU—T AFMU— Terpol erpolymer ymer of tetr tetraﬂuor aﬂuoroethy oethylene, lene, triﬂu triﬂuoron oroniitrosomethane, and nitrosoperﬂuorobutyric acid. AU—Polyester urethane. EU—Polyether urethane. 3.6 The “T” class includes includes rubbers having having carbo carbon, n, oxygen, and sulfur in the polymer chain. The following classiﬁcation shall be used for members of the “T” class: OT—A rubber having either a -CH 2-CH2-O-CH 2-O-CH2CH2 group or occasionally an -R-group, where R is an aliphatic hydrocarbon between the polysulﬁde linkages in the polymer chain. EOT—A EOT —A rubber rubber hav having ing a -CH2-CH2-O-CH 2-O-CH2-CH2 group and R groups that are usually -CH 2-CH2 but occasionally other aliphatic groups between the polysulﬁde linkages in the polymer chain. 3.7 The “Z” class includes includes rubbers having phosphorus phosphorus and nitrogen nitro gen in the polym polymer er chain chain.. The foll following owing classiﬁcation classiﬁcation shall be used: FZ—A rubber having a -P|CxN- chain and having ﬂuoroalkoxy groups attached to the phosphorus atoms in the chain. PZ—A rubber having a -P|CxN- chain and having aryloxy (pheno (ph enoxy xy and sub substi stitut tuted ed phe phenox noxy) y) gro groups ups att attach ached ed to the phosphorus atoms in the chain. 3.8 Mix Mixtur tures es of rub rubber berss are identiﬁe identiﬁed d by usi using ng the class design des ignati ations ons for the types of rub rubber berss in the mixture mixture.. If the composition is known, the major component is listed ﬁrst; for exam ex ampl ple, e, a bl blen end d of NR NR/B /BR R in 60 60/4 /40 0 ra rati tio o is de desi sign gnat ated ed NR/BR. If the rubbers are present in equal amounts or if the proportion is unknown, the rubbers should be designated in alphabetical order; for example, BR/NR is used for a 50/50 ratio, and BR-NR is used for an unknown composition. 2
D 1418 4. Keyw Keywords ords 4.1 acro acronyms nyms for lati latices; ces; acronyms acronyms for rubber; nomenclanomenclature
APPENDIX X1. HISTORICAL NOMENCLATURE NOMENCLATURE
X1.1 X1. 1 The follow following ing terms terms have been been rem remove oved d from the main body of this standard because they are obsolete and no longer commercially available. This appendix will serve as an historical reference.
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