Arvind Textile Internship Report

August 21, 2017 | Author: AdityaKohli | Category: Spinning (Textiles), Dyeing, Yarn, Dye, Weaving
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Here is a report on our textile intership at arvind mills,Naroda....



AbstractThe document contains the report for a fifteen day textile internship at Arvind Mills, Naroda plant.


Submitted ByAditya Kohli Prateek Kapoor MentorProf. Pavan Godiawala 11th July, 2014

Page 1 of 97

Table of Contents Part I 1. Certificate For Completing Internship 2. Acknowledgement 3. Project Abstract 4. Objective of Internship 5. Indian Textile Industry 6. Company Profile Part II Raw Material Store Room Part III Spinning Department i. Introduction ii. Process Flow iii. Blow Room Section iv. Carding Section v. Drawing Section vi. Combing Section vii. Spinning Section Part IV Dyeing Department i. Introduction ii. Rope Dyeing a) Preparatory Process c) Machine Specifications e) Process Flow i. Slasher Dyeing a) Preparatory Process c) Machine Specifications e) Process Flow Part V Sizing Department Part VI Weaving Section i. Introduction ii. Types of Looms iii. Air-Jet Loom a) Principle c) Loom Motions e) Advantages g) Machine Specifications i) Process Flow k) Major Defects That Arise m) Role of Labour Force

4-6 7 8 9 10 11-16 17-19 20-35


b) d) f) b) d) f) 51-53 54-65

b) d) f) h) j) l) n)

Page 2 of 97

Part VII Finishing And Processing Department i. Introduction ii. Classification of Finishes iii. Singeing Unit a) Objective c) Process Flow e) Machine Specification g) Methods of Singeing iv. Mercerizing Unit a) Objective c) Process Flow e) Machine Specification g) Factors for Mercerization v. Stenter Unit a) Objective c) Process Flow e) Machine Specifications g) Components of Stenter Machine vi. Foam Finisher a) Objective c) Process Flow e) Machine Specifications g) Advantages vii. Integrated Wet Finishing Unit a) Introduction c) Process Flow. Part VIII Inspection and Testing Department i. Introduction ii. Inspection System iii. Types of Testing Part IX Packaging Department i. Process Flow ii. Machine Specifications Part X DNTG Department (R&D) i. Design Team ii. Technical Team Part XI Policies Regarding Environment Friendliness And Care Part XII Accreditions


b) d) f) h) b) d) f) h) b) d) f) h) b) d) f) h) b) d) 79-87



92-94 95-96

Page 3 of 97

Part XII References


Page 4 of 97

Certificate for Completing Internship

Page 5 of 97

Page 6 of 97

Page 7 of 97


I would like to thank Arvind, Naroda unit for giving me the opportunity to undergo a training in the textile department and for extending their support towards us all throughout our internship. I would also like to thank NIFT, Gandhinagar for giving us this opportunity and facilitating our internship. It was a great learning experience throughout to see one of the most well planned and advanced textile units. We take the opportunity to thank all the people who guided us through the entire process and made our training a success by sharing their knowledge. I would like to thank Ms. Richa Ahuja, Sr. H.R. at Arvind, without whose support and guidance the internship couldn’t have been completed satisfactorily. I am also grateful to our College mentor Prof. Pavan Godiawala for guiding us at every stage and making this project a success.

Page 8 of 97

Project Abstract

Project type

Textile internship


Arvind Mills Limited – Lifestyle Fabrics


Denim Division Arvind Limited Naroda Road Ahmedabad – 380025 Gujarat India Tel: +91-79-30138000 Fax: +91-79-30138671


Ms. Richa Ahuja

Page 9 of 97

Objective of Internship

The project is based on a fifteen day internship, in Arvind Mills denim Department. It covers all the information and learning experiences related to manufacturing of textiles, denim in this case and all the processes involved namely: •







The main objectives of the project/internship were: 1.

Understanding basic principles of production of textiles.

2. In-depth study and understanding of all process involved in textile production and the machinery and equipment used. 3.

Knowledge about the company


Understanding the company’s process flow in production


Study the work environment and practices followed for textile production.

6. Asses the faults and critical factors of production and determine the practices adopted by Arvind Mills.

Page 10 of 97

Indian Textile Industry

Indian textile industry and Market Size - Textiles sector contributes to 14 per cent of industrial production - 4 per cent of National GDP - 10.63 per cent of country's export earnings

Market Size - India's share of global textile exports is expected to increase from the current 4% to around 7% over the next three-years

Growth Rate - 3-4 percent during the last six decade - 9-10 percent during last five year

Scope of rivalry -

Raymond India Welspun India Ltd Alok Industries Gokaldas Exports Arvee Industries Bharat Vijay mills

Page 11 of 97

Company Profile Introduction to the Company –

Arvind Limited started with a share capital of Rs. 2,525,000 ($55,000) in the year 1931. With the aim of manufacturing the high-end superfine fabrics Arvind invested in very sophisticated technology. With 52,560 ring spindles, 2552 doubling spindles and 1122 looms it was one of the few companies in those days to start along with spinning and weaving facilities in addition to full-fledged facilities for dyeing, bleaching, finishing and mercerizing. The sales in the year 1934, three years after establishment were Rs 45.76 lakh and profits were Rs 2.82 lakh. In the mid 1980’s the textile industry faced another major crisis. With the power loom churning out vast quantities of inexpensive fabric, many large composite mills lost their markets, and were on the verge of closure. Yet that period saw Arvind at its highest level of profitability. At this point of time Arvind’s management coined a new word for it new strategy – Renovision. It simply meant a new way of looking at issues, of seeing more than the obvious and that became the corporate philosophy. The national focus paved way for international focus and Arvind’s markets shifted from domestic to global, a market that expected and accepted only quality goods. Cottons were the largest growing segments. But where conventional wisdom pointed to popular priced segments, Renovision pointed to high quality premium niches. Thus in 1987-88 Arvind entered the export market for two sections -Denim for leisure & fashion wear and high quality fabric for cotton shirting and trousers. By 1991 Arvind reached 1600 million meters of Denim per year and it was the third largest producer of Denim in the world. In 1997 Arvind set up a state-of-the-art shirting, gabardine and knits facility, the largest of its kind in India, at Santej. With Arvind’s concern for environment a most modern effluent treatment facility with zero effluent discharge capability was also established. Arvind has carved out an aggressive strategy to increase its current operations by setting up world-scale garmenting facilities and offering a one-stop shop service, by offering garment packages to its international and domestic customers. Of Lee, Wrangler, Arrow and Tommy Hilfiger and its own domestic brands of Flying Machine, Newport, Excalibur and Ruf & Tuf, is setting its vision of becoming the largest apparel brands company in India.

Page 12 of 97

Arvind Portfolio –

Board of Directors – CHAIRMANMr Arvind N. Lalbhai He is a Science Graduate and has been associated with the Company for over 60 years. He has been the Director since March 1974 and Managing Director since January 1975 till November 2002. He is the former President of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry. WHOLETIME DIRECTORS Mr. Sanjay S. Lalbhai, Managing Director A Science Graduate with a Master’s degree in Business Management, has been associated with the Company for more than 25 years. Mr. Jayesh K. Shah, Director Finance A Chartered Accountant having distinguished academic and professional career, has been with the group since the last 17 years. OTHER DIRECTORS Mr. Deepak M. Satwalekar A ‘B. Tech.’ from The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Gandhinagar and a postgraduate in Business Administration from The American University, Washington DC, he is the Managing Director of HDFC since 1993; He is also Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer of HDFC Standard Life Insurance Corporation Ltd.; He

Page 13 of 97

has been a Consultant to the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and other bilateral and multilateral agencies and has worked in several countries. He is a member of Governing Council of various management and educational institutions and government expert groups. Ms. Rama Bijapurkar She is a Bsc (Hons) and MBA from IIM –A and has worked for McKinsey, Lintas and has been the Deputy Managing Director of MARG and a founder Director of MODE Services. She has also been consulting Hindustan Lever and other Indian and Multinational Corporates. She is visiting Professor at IIM- A. and is on the Board of Infosys Technologies Ltd., CRISIL, Titan Industries and Godrej Consumer Products Ltd. Mr. Jaithirth Rao With a Masters Degree from the University of Chicago and IIM-Ahmedabad, he is the Chairman and CEO of MphasiS BFL Ltd. and is on the Board of Cadbury India Ltd., Mahindra Holidays & Resorts India Ltd., IDFC Asset Management Company Limited and Gabriel India Limited Mr. S. Sridhar (Nominee of EXIM Bank) He is an Executive Director of Export-Import Bank of India Mr. Balaji Swaminathan (Nominee of ICICI Bank) A Sr. Gen. Manager and Chief Financial Officer of ICICI Bank Ltd, he is also Director on the Board of ICICI Infotech Ltd., ICICI One-Source Ltd., Kalyani Forge Ltd., Orient Paper & Industries Ltd. and Unison Hotels Ltd. Mr. V.K.Pandit (Nominee of IDBI) He is a retired IAS Officer. Former Secretary to the Government of India. He is on the Board of Shree Maheshwar Hydel Power Corporation Ltd. , Induj Enertech Ltd. and Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd.

Page 14 of 97

Company’s Vision (Information as collected from Company Website)

WE BELIEVE In people and their unlimited potential; in content and in focus on problem solving; in teams for effective performance, in the power of the intellect. WE ENDEAVOUR To select, train and coach people to obtain higher responsibilities; to nurture talent, and to build leaders for the corporations of tomorrow; to reward, celebrate and activate all intellectual business contributions. WE DREAM Of excellence in all endeavours; of mutual benefit and prosperity; of making the world a better place to live in.

Arvind Denim Division – Arvind is a pioneer the manufacture of denim in India. Today with an installed capacity of over 110 million meters per annum, The Naroda plant accounts for 89% of the company's total denim fabric capacity of 108 million metres. CEO of Arvind denim division is Mr. Aamir Akhtar There are many delightful features of Arvind denim: the position of 3rd largest producer of denim in the world; and an export network of 70 countries worldwide. Prominent products in this category include ring denim, indigo voiles, organic denim, bi-stretch denim and fair trade certified denim. This is apart from regular light, medium and heavy weight denims. They come in various shades of indigo, sulphur, yarn-dyed, in 100% cotton and various blends. Arvind is a leading producer of denim worldwide. Design, Innovations and Sustainability have been their core competency and have played a key role in their success in producing the highest quality of denim and being the market leaders. They have a huge DNTG department that is Development and New technology that is the hub of innovation for denims. The use of sophisticated ultramodern technology under the guidance of world-renowned designers has enabled Arvind to deliver many firsts in the international markets. The facilities of Arvind Denim are accredited with ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OEKOTEX 100, GOTS, Organic exchange standard, FLO for fair trade and Lycra Assured. As one of the largest denim producers in the world, Arvind caters to quality markets of Europe, US, West Asia, the Far East and the Asia Pacific. Labs are certified by NABL (ISO 17025 certification) The labs are accredited by DuPont, Levi Strauss.

Page 15 of 97

Major International Buyers












Page 16 of 97


Arvind Owned Brands For Denim –





The Flying Machine brand is the oldest homegrown denim brand for Arvind. In 2007, it was revived and re-launched in a different avatar with a new logo, placement and philosophy. Since then it has witnessed tremendous growth. Now the company wants to take it to the top three level.

Page 17 of 97

Raw Material Store Room OBJECTIVE The Raw Materials Department is the department from where the work starts in the plant. The main objectives of raw material department are storing, issuing, and reconciliation of raw material intended for manufacturing.

(Raw Materials were placed in the storage Room as per their sourcing places.)

SYSTEM AND PROCEDURE Work takes place in the following systematic order:1. The orders are placed in the Marketing Department, at the Head Office stationed at Naroda road, Ahmedabad. The customer specifies its requirements in the order. 2. A sales order is then prepared giving a systematic description of the requirements by the Marketing Department, which is then sent to the factory. 3. The Sales Order is received at the Production Planning and Commitment Department (PPC). 4. The PPC Department then makes the production planning chart which includes all the characteristics of the yarn required. 5. The Production Program is then sent to the Raw Materials Department.

Page 18 of 97

ROLE OF RAW MATERIAL DEPARTMENT It receives the material, which is ordered by production department and issues the required material to the department. In case of rejection, it stores the rejected material and returns it to the seller end. Types of cotton Arvind Mills use: 1. Pakistan Cotton 2. J34 SG i. It is a selection from non-descriptive hirustum mixtures. Re-selection from Bikaneri Narma. It is sown in the months of April/May and the crop is ready for picking by October/December.. J34RG and SG are grown in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan and total production per annum is around 2.6 million bales of each of 170 Kg. 3. Shankar-6 Gujarat cotton i.It is sown in the month of June-July and is ready for picking in November and may extend upto February. It is cultivated in an area of 4.4 million Acres in the state of Gujarat. 4. Organic cotton a. Organic cotton is being produced in-house by arvind mills, and also being procured from fully organic certified farms, as some environment conscious customers prefer to use it. b. Arvind’s organic cotton contract farming project is located in the cotton growing belt district of Maharashtra; Akola. )

Page 19 of 97

CAPACITY OF RAW MATERIAL DEPARTMENT The textile industry is based on raw material capacity, which costs from 70 to 80% of industry cost. It capacity is about 1870 tons.

MATERIAL PURCHASE In Raw Material, they source both long staple fibers and short staple fibers from Andra Pradesh, Rajasthan,Punjab,Gujarat and imports from Pakistan. Certain prerequisites are considered as to what kind of cotton fibers are required like Length, Strength, Fineness (micronium per inch), Uniformity Ratio. • • •

Geeta cotton Co. Pvt. Ltd. (Andhra Pradesh) Sai Venkata agro industries Pradesh) Sri Ganganagar Pvt. Ltd. (Rajasthan) etc.

Page 20 of 97

Spinning Department 1. Arvind Mills, Naroda has in-house Open-end spinning unit 2. ArvindIntex, Spintex (separate premises) for Ring –spun yarn 3. DDSP plant(separate premises) for Ring –spun yarn The initial stage of denim production is opening and blending of cotton fibers. Opening begins with baled cotton fibers being separated into small tufts. A blend of cotton fibers is made on each opening line. These bales are usually selected based on the basic cotton data, i.e. fiber length, uniformity, maturity and strength. Cotton is delivered by air suction from the opening and blending lines, through additional cleaning and blending machines, to the cards. The major functions of carding are to remove foreign matter and short fibers from the cotton and convert it into a web and covert the web into a rope like Form known as sliver. These card slivers, usually a group of six or eight, are then passed through drawing frames and this process produces a single uniform sliver. The additional blending, parallelizing of fibers and cleaning in this process produces a sliver for Open end and Ring spinning.

Open-end Spinning Drawing frame slivers are fed to open-end machine. Cotton fibers are formed into a yarn by centrifugal action in Open end spinning. Individual fibers are laid down in the groove of a fast spinning rotor and twisted into yarn. After the cotton fibers spun into yarn, the yarn is wound into a large package on the same machine. In Open end spinning machines, there are moving robots on each side, which automatically pieces up broken ends. On the different track, there is another robot that automatically doffs the full packages and starts up a new package. The size and quality of each yarn end are monitored by the computer system to ensure uniformity.

Ring Spinning In case of Ring spinning, this drawing sliver passes through roving frame before final spinning process whereas for Open end spinning it goes directly to the openend machine. In the Ring spinning, yarn is formed from cotton fibers that are twisted together after being drafted by passing between a set of top and bottom rollers. The yarn then is

Page 21 of 97

wrapped on a bobbin as it spins on a spindle by use of a traveller. The relationship between roll speeds, traveller speeds and spindle speeds controls the amount of twist in the yarn. Fascination provision provided on the spinning machines help producing various Slub patterns in the yarn as per desire. Denim made from such yarn has got different character and surface interest than the normal yarn.


ASTA (Heavy Particle material separator)

AFC (Axi Flow Cleaner)

BDT (Blendomat)

GRR (Bale opener)

MPM (Multiple Mixers)

BE-961 (Cleaning Machine)

SRS-6(step Cleaner)

BE 961(Cleaning Machine)

RN (Cleaning Machine)

DUSTEX (Micro dust Cleaner)

RSK (Cleaning Machine)



Blow room operations Owing to the mode of cotton picking, cotton gathering in the fields and subsequent collection and handling till the final bales are ready, quite a good deal of impurities get associated with it. Besides, by the time the bales are brought to the mixing room even the bale surfaces become untidy due to foreign impurities sticking to them. To remove all such impurities from the cotton, blow-room sequence of machines is quite necessary. They were blended as 20% bale of Kalyan,20%from Pakistan, 50% of Bunny/ brahma and 10% comber noil.Second line contains 60:30:10 (Bunny/brahma:kalyan:Pakistan)

Page 22 of 97

BLENDING (BDT Blendomat) The Blendomat machine moves on x & y co-ordinates. Y co-ordinates vary from maximum 1789 to minimum 993. The machine is installed on 8th march 1995. Objective: •To open the cotton from matted condition to the loose open state in which it was before baling. Bale Specification •Bale Capacity : 1000 •Bales Imported: 220 •1 Bale : 165

1200 230 Kgs 170 Kgs

Machine Specification (Blendomat bdt 019) • Place of Origin: Germany • Brand Name : Trutzschler • Model Number: Blendomat BDT 019 • Type : BLENDOMAT • Depth (Limit) : 93-1789 Metres • The machine takes up 50-60 cotton bales (approx.) in 8.5 hours. Each cotton bale weight 165 kg’s. • Machine main supply : 3Ph/Ac, 415V, 50Hz. • Control circuit : 1Ph/Ac, 24V, 50Hz • US patent no. : 4.321.732 • Model no. : BDT 019/2300

Machine Details and Observations • 2 Hooks in reverse directions (Forward and backward)

Page 23 of 97

• The hook movement is opposite to the direction of machine movement. • Hooks are used to lift the cotton fiber so that opening can take place. • Sensors to prevent any disturbances • Mode of bale laying – Manual • Material in process – cotton with seeds and impurities.

Steps: • Cotton is passed from bales and then to apron. Apron moves cotton to blending apron. • Blending apron has sharp spikes the raise cotton until part of it is knocked off by the roll. • Some of the cotton stays on apron. • The cotton knocked back by roll and continues to blend until picked up again by apron. • Another roll strips off cotton that was not knocked back by previous roll. • Cotton falls on conveyor belt and is carried to next process that is blending through an overhead duct. It has been done to obtain uniformity in cotton blending


Machine used: GBR cotton opener- opens about 400 kg/hr

Page 24 of 97

Steps: • Lint cotton falls on apron and passes between feeder rolls to beater cylinder. The rapidly whirling beater blades take off small tufts of cotton, knock out trash, and loosen up the mass. • The two screen rolls are made of screen material and air is sucked out of them by fan. • This draws the cotton from beater and condenses it on the surface of the screen rolls from which it is taken and passed on by the small rolls. • Air suction through cotton takes out dirt and trash. Conveyor belt passes cotton to another type of beater. From beater the cotton passes to a conveyor and is carried to picker.

Why it’s been done? It is necessary in order to loosen hard lumps of fiber and disentangle them; cleaning is required to remove trash such as dirt, leaves, burrs, and any remaining seeds.

GBR Here the cottons are fed for homogenous mixtures and for removing dirts.MPM-8 – it has got 8 chambers. Generally used for homogenous mixture of fibers like while harvesting some cotton are from matured plants and some re not. So that it will affect the fabric. So, after homogenous mixing all will be the same.

AXI Flow Cleaner This is fitted with beaters .Cotton moves from GBR to axiflow by suction and impurities fall below in a bin under the gravitational pull. Objective of AFC is separation of heavy parts (impurities) from cotton.The opened up mass of fiber rotates around two cleaning rollers (beaters) with cylinder steel pins which beat the fiber material, allowing the coarse particles to be separated.The time (in hours) of the passage of material can be regulated The speed range of the beaters varies from 400600 rpm.

Page 25 of 97






50-75 bar


Two metallic perforated cylinders and waste collector

MPM multiple mixerFitted with eight beaters. This sucks cotton from axiflowand pumps to asta meanwhile sorting the cotton fibers.Generally used for homogenous mixture of fibers MAKE: MODEL: MOTOR SPEED: OPENING ROLLS SPEED:

TRUTZSCHLER 10236 1750 rpm 800-850 m/min



OUTPUT: 30-36% PRESSURE: 350 bar Major parts: This machine consists of material feed, reserve tank, reserve tank flaps, optical sensor delivery, rollers, and material suction funnel.

ASTA: Objective of ASTA is Heavy trash separation from cotton. The air and material enters the separation tank in a stream via upper channel and hit baffle plates. Heavy particles are removed away from the lighter fibers by negative acceleration and the force of gravity. The lower channel generates an opulent air stream in the area of baffle plates, which guides the fibers to the outlet.

Page 26 of 97




ASTA 800 principle of aerodynamics

DUSTEX: Dust removal is not an easy operation since the dust particles are completely enclosed in the flocks & hence are back during suction. The suction units remove dust 64% dust.



Cotton through Carding Carding is the heart of the entire spinning process and as such requires utmost care. Next to blow room, carding is the only major stage for cleaning cotton.

Objective The object of carding is to open out thoroughly the tiny lumps or locks to a state where every fiber becomes individualized and the cotton is no more in an entangled state. Equally important is the removal of all the impurities, short fibers, etc. and finally it has to prepare the well cleaned material into a compact sliver form and lay into containers for subsequent process.

Page 27 of 97

Carding theory In carding there is an intensive teasing action on a mass of fibers in order to separate it into individual fibers. In practice the opening, cleaning and separation actions are simultaneously taking place at one point or the other.

Process • Elimination of impurities. • Collection of cleaned or carded fiber • Short fiber separation.

Machine Details and Observations The carding process essentially involves the opening of fibre aggregates by working between two closely spaced surfaces covered with inclined wires. The main objects of carding are:     

To carry further process of fibres opening to a state of fibre individualization To remove neps, tiny lumps of fibres To deliver a continuous sliver for further processes. To remove impurities from the material by individual fibre separation. To enable parallelization of fibres.

The carding machine is supplied with cotton flocks through FBK ducts continuously. The cotton then traverses through the rollers. The material is fed inside with the help of feed roller which is located above the feed plate. The feed roller is followed by the licker-in cylinder. There is a licker in undercasing and back plate below and in front of the rollers respectively. Undercasing is a perforated plate which is responsible for collection of the waste removal from the card. Back plate is positioned between the licker-in and cylinder. Front plate is positioned between cylinder and the doffer. Both have spikes and perform the same function as that of the set of cylinder and flats. Flats are clothing on the rollers which is in the form of spiked belt. There are 102 flats of which about 42 are in working position at time of contact with cylinder. Cylinder moves very fast as compared to the flats. Due to this movement, the best fibres are straightened, made parallel and opening and cleaning is performed. The back plate and front plate reduces the loading on the cylinder. The voids between the cylinder, licker-in and cylinder, doffer are thus covered by front and back plates. The cylinder is having the main function of opening and cleaning the fibres.

Page 28 of 97

The main function of the doffer is to collect the fibres from the cylinder and deliver them in the form of a web. The function of the licker-in is breaking and opening of the tufts of cotton and pass them onto the cylinder without retaining any of them. To get optimum performance from the various elements of a card, it is essential to use the right type and right combination of wire clothing. The metallic wire particulars which could influence the carding process are: wire width, wire point density, tooth angle, shape and height. Carding performance can be improved by increasing the number of teeth cross wise along the width of the card. This has led to the development of finer rib wires. The doffer is clothed with a wire which has a higher trapping and holding power than the cylinder wire. Thus it has a greater point density than cylinder wire.

Cotton carding

Machine Specifications Cylinder Speed Licker-in Speed Doffer Speed Flat Speed Cylinder Diameter Licker-in Diameter Doffer Diameter Can Diameter Can Height

450-500 rpm 1100-1200 rpm 25-30 rpm 22-25 cm/min 1290 mm 250 mm 500 mm 24” 42”

Technical Specifications Linear Density of Lap Fed Rate of Feed Length of Sliver/Can Weight of Sliver/Can Linear Density of Sliver

400 gm/m 500 gm/min 5500 m 26 kg 4.8 gm/m

Page 29 of 97

Production/min Production/hour Production (kg/hr)

85 m/min 5100 m/hr 25 kg/hr

At Arvind mills, Naroda: • No of carding machines: 14 machines • Brand name of machine: Trutzschler

Fibers through drawing In the spinning process, the next important stage in the cotton process is draw frame. By carding the entangled mass of fibers is well opened so that every fiber becomes quite free. These individual fibers lie criss-cross in the web. These fibers require be straightening and parallelizing to the possible extent.

Objective of drawing • To straightened the fibers in the slivers. • To make them lie in a manner parallel to their neighbours and to the sliver axis. • To improve the uniformity or evenness of the slivers.

Page 30 of 97

(Drawing of sliver)

Process Fibers imparts slivers are irregularly arranged and need improvement both in uniformity and fiber straightening. It is accomplished by drafting them with pairs of rollers which are made to revolve at different surface speeds. Machine Maker: MODEL: Objective:

Drafting Systems: No of doubling: Drafting : Machine Speed: Average cycle time: Capacity/day: No of workmen/shift: Input Material: Output Material:


Padmatex/Trutzschler Padmatex 720/HSR 900 To parallise fibre to each other To even out weight/unit length 4 over 3-Spring loaded top arm 6 6 650 rpm 15min 3.5 tons 3 6 Sliver 1 Sliver

Page 31 of 97

Twisting together to a more yarns to form one final yarn is known as doubling. The object of doubling is to combine two or more yarns to get: • Much stronger yarns • More regular yarns • Yarns for different purpose and • Novel or fancy effects Yarns are combined either in one stage or in several stages, either in dry or in wet state, either with identical tensions or in varying degrees of tension, similar yarns or dissimilar yarns etc. Doubling sequences components threads, grouping styles at each operation, direction of twist, doubling conditions (wet or dry) etc., alter the very appearance of the final product, inspire of the same basic single yarns employed.

Production • The plant at Naroda works entirely on open end spinning technology/rotar spinning and produces 5400 to 5500 tonnes of yarn a month with 5472 rotars being around on campus. • The speed of the rotar roll varies from 80,000 rpm to 130,000 rpm. • Machine installed : autocoro comb+spin technology • Corolab - automated yarn monitoring system(automatic detection of defects by drop wire technology) The maximum count of yarn is 20.

Page 32 of 97

Open end spinning:

• Rotor Spinning is a more recent method of yarn formation compared to Ring Spinning. • This is a form of open-end spinning where twist is introduced into the yarn without the need for package rotation. Allowing higher twisting speeds with a relatively low power cost. • In rotor spinning a continuous supply of fibers is delivered from delivery rollers off a drafting system or from an opening unit. • The fibres are sucked down a delivery tube and deposited in the groove of the rotor as a continuous ring of fibre. The fibre layer is stripped off the rotor groove and the resultant yarn wound onto a package. • The twist in the yarn being determined by the ratio of the rotational speed of the rotor and the linear speed of the yarn. • Sliver is fed into the machine and combed and individualized by the opening roller. • The fibres are then deposited into the rotor where air current and centrifugal force deposits them along the groove of the rotor where they are evenly distributed. • The fibers are twisted together by the spinning action of the rotor, and the yarn is continuously drawn from the centre of the rotor. The resultant yarn is cleared of any defects and wound onto packages. • The production rates of rotor spinning is 6-8 times higher than that of ring spinning and as the machines are fed directly by sliver and yarn is wound onto packages ready for use in fabric formation the yarn is a lot cheaper to produce.

Page 33 of 97

• Rotor spun yarns are more even, somewhat weaker and have a harsher feel than ring spun yarns. • Rotor spun yarns are mainly produced in the medium count (30 Ne, 20 tex) to coarse count (10 Ne, 60 Tex) range. • The yarn is wound on a big package of about 4 kg. • The use of this system has two basic advantages. It is fed by sliver, not as with the ring frame by roving, and so eliminates the speed frame from the process line. It can also be modified to remove any remaining trash, thereby improving the yarn quality.

The OE spinning process is employed for production of slub yarns. The same procedure is followed till the sliver stage. During the yarn formation, a special attachment is added with Autocoro. A program is fed into the attachment specifying • Slub length • Slub diameter • Slub frequency Now the rotor adjusts itself and takes the fibers according to the given specifications providing knots/slobs at different intervals throughout the yarn length.

No. of Autocoro machines: 7 each with 240 Heads

Page 34 of 97

Layout of spinning department SLEEVE ROOM COTTON

Facts and Figures BLENDOMET

- O.E. spinning Production = 10 times Production of Ring frame



- Fiber procured from Maharashtra, Haryana, and Gujarat ROOM

- Impact of Recession: Production, Quality, Maintenance has reduced. - Labour cut down from 86 to 63 OFFICE

- 72tonnes per day ring yarn - Otherwise imported from Alok, Abhishek, Vardhmaaan, Nahar spinning mills etc - Efficiency: 91%



- Count Ranges (Ne) - OE Yarn: 5.3s to 20s, Ring Yarn: 6.4s to 20s

Major Problems:


DEPARTMENT - Production: 60 CARDING tonnes per day

Page 35 of 97

Carding Neps which in turn become major defect in fabric and is caused due to wire run out and low micronium per inch fibre.

Solution: 1. Gauge and settings should be accurate. 2. Condition of wires.  

Yarn formed is usually of coarser count. Finer counts cannot be made. Trash In the Card Sliver

Solution: 1. Improve the condition of flat tops, 2. Cleaning and machine setting. 3. Suction 4. Gauges

Page 36 of 97

Dyeing Department CAPACITY: Total Capacity

110 million meters per annum

Slasher Capacity

70 million meters per annum

Rope Capacity

40 million meters per annum

Dyes used: 

Indigo blue- china

Sulphur dye- Black, Brown, Green

In Arvind Mills the yarn is dyed and then it is weaved. The yarn dyeing is done by two methods:



Page 37 of 97


I. BALL WARPING UNIT This is the preparatory process for ROPE DYEING. In ball warping, 250 to 400 yarn ends are pulled from the creel. Rope dyeing is followed by Re-beaming process. The planning for the no. of ends in the rope is decided on the basis of the no. of ends in the weavers beam This is done as follows: Consider a fabric with 4000 ends. Package Ball warping Ball (Ends: 400, Length: 2000m) Rope dyeing (Balls: 50) Rebeaming Unsized Beam (Ends: 400, Length: 2000m) Sizing (Beams: 10) Weaver’s Beam (Ends: 4000; Length: 2000m; No. of sets: 5) Ball warping involves creeling multiple ends of yarn and selecting them into an untwisted rope for dyeing. The ball warping is similar to normal warping with an attachment to make a compact structure instead of full width weaver’s beam. This rope is wound on a long cylinder called a ball warper .And this is use as supply package for rope dyeing.



Guide rolls (for compaction)


II. ROPE DYEING Denim dyeing is highly sophisticated. Indigo is a vat dye and is insoluble in water. Although full shades can be obtained from the concentrated dyeing vats in only one pass, such dyeing have inadequate fastness because indigo in the vatted or reduced state has only limited affinity for cotton. Dyeing is not in the fabric form but in the yarn stage. The warps are dyed; fabric is made using undyed or different colored weft. Yarn dyeing is basically of two types: ROPE DYEING and SLASHER DYEING (sheet dyeing).The dyeing principle is same i.e. passing the material through a dip vat, a subsequent squeezing to remove the excess and giving air passage to allow the dyeing to oxidize.

Page 38 of 97

(Rope Dyeing Machine Model) Dyeing Styles: - IBST: Indigo Bottom Sulphur Top - SBIT: Sulphur Bottom Indigo Top - Indigo - Sulphur - Others: GBIT, VBIT, IBVT, IBBT, IBKT, Super Dark, IBIT etc.

Page 39 of 97

The first section is known as setup section but after that it comes the machine layout portion i.e. there are 19 Boxes through which Rope passes for pre-wetting section

Tank-1 PREWETTING: - This process is used to increase dye uptake and wet ability by mild scouring to remove wax material and impurities. Bath contains sequestering agent, wetting agent and caustic. In SBIT, Sulphur bottoming is done in this tank Type: 1dip, 1 nip; Temperature: 50◦C Tank Capacity: 6000l Dip Time: 39 sec.; Aeration Time: 24 sec (at speed of 20m/min)

Page 40 of 97

Prewetting Solution: Caustic (15gpl), PrimasolNF(wetting)

Tank-2-6 PRE-WASHING:- Used for removal of caustic and other chemicals from the rope. Mercerization can also be carried out but again it is mild as there is no provision for stretching and shrinkage. Mercerization (Floating Roller Type) is done to increase dimensional stability, lustre and absorbency. Temperature: 50◦C (Tank 2 and 3), R.T. (Tank 4), Tank 5 and 6 are usually bypassed (Note: Bath temperatures are maintained by steam-heated coils)

(Pre Washing Bath)

Tank-7-12 DYE BATH: - Used to carry out ring dyeing of denim with indigo. Repetitive dip and nip are carried out. Aeration length is provided for oxidation of indigo. Type: 1 dip 1 nip; Temperature: R.T.; Tank Capacity: 7200l pH-12.7-12.8; Potential : Dependent on dyeing style Dip time: 27 sec Aeration Time: 3 min (at speed 20m/min)


Page 41 of 97

This bath may contain sulphur/indigo as per IBST or SDI style For sulphur topping Temperature: 85oC (Note hardness of nip rollers varies from 70 to 80)

Tank-14 This bath may contain indigo if we are going for dark indigo or it may contain water for washing if IBST style is running on the machine.

Tank-15 WASH BATH: - Detergent is used to remove superficial dye from the rope. Water jets are also used at nip to remove unfixed dye Temperature: 65OC; Tank Capacity: 3200-4000l Detergent used: Refnol DSW

Tank-16-18 POST-WASHING: To remove detergent or superficial dye

Tank-19 Softener helps in separation of ends in the Rebeaming process Softeners for SDI style – SWPI (80gpl) and SRPL (pH-5.9) SBIT style- BA and Acid IBST style- SPWBA (4-6 pH). DRYING UNIT: Steaming/drying unit has 48 cylinders (3 sets) each with 5kg pressure.

Page 42 of 97

(Drying cylinders in Rope Dyeing)

COILING: The dyed rope is coiled in cans and taken to Rebeaming section

Page 43 of 97

(Dyed Rope Coiled in Cans)

Facts and figures: 

Circulation is provided in each tank to ensure uniformity using overflowing system.

The machine has 2 jumbo pumps and 3 centrifugal pumps.

Redox and pH are measured after every 30 min.

Auto levellers are there to adjust tension using resistors.

Dyeing Capacity: 50 balls which is the highest in the world.

Rope dyeing unit has a control room which controls the concentration of various baths via dosages and checking the shades using hunter lab.

About 97% shade consistency is there.

The machine stops for 5 hrs. if the new styles come.

30 different styles can be worked with different machine.

No of machines: -1.

There are one operator, two asst. operators and 6 workers.

Three workers are for color preparation and the rest are for oiling and patrolling.

Page 44 of 97

DYE PREPARATION a. Indigo preparation: 200kg indigo + 150kg caustic + 250kg hydrosulphite in 700-1000l water Mix indigo and caustic in water for 2-3 hrs, cool for 1 hr and then add hydrosulphite and again cool for 1 hr b. Sulphur dye preparation:Sulphur(x) + sulphite (1.2x) + premasol + decol + setapol (2gpl) + caustic (.5x) Dosage is set and controlled by air valve

III. REBEAMING The dyed rope is rebeamed in a beam of width same as that of weaver’s beam. The rope is opened by passing it through a reed which ensures that the first end in the ball remains the first end in the weaver’s beam.

(Dyed Rope is Rebeamed in a beam) Machine Specifications: Make: West point WP No. of Machines: 13 Machine mode: Semi-automatic with manual compression breaking system Speed: 100-250m/min

Page 45 of 97

Production: 33000meters/shift

Precautions The thread should not break and the knot should be so small that it should pass through the needle eye. Objective 

The rope is converted into sheet and they also check for the shading yarn, which remains undyed during the dyeing process.

One set of 10 beams giving for further sizing.

There are 20 workers per shift.

Per Shift Production: 1st -33,000 meter 2nd – 33,000 meter 3rd – 30,000 meter

Page 46 of 97

SLASHER DYEING (SUCKER MULLER) A slasher is a range and is normally employed to apply size formulations onto warp yarns before weaving. This range, when used for slasher dyeing of indigo, consists of section beams of warp yarn, which are forced into a sheet of yarn.

Creel zone

Pretwet zone

Wasing zone(50 degrees. 22m/min)

Pre- drying


Indigo Dyeing


Post drying


A slasher is a range is normally employed to apply size formulations onto warp yarns before weaving.

This range when used for slasher dyeing of indigo consists of section beams of warp yarn, which are forced into a sheet of yarn. 1 beam is 2500mts in length.

12 beams layers are put together in a sheet.

Page 47 of 97

(12 beams are put together in a sheet)

Each beam has 575 ends.

This yarn sheet is then fed into a scouring and washing section where natural impurities are removed.

Temperature of 50 ̊C is maintained and the sheet of yarns is under water for 45 seconds. The next section is where indigo is applied. In order to achieve fairly deep shades, the indigo is applied in a series of 6 dips(After each dip, darker shade is obtained, green oxidises to blue ) and sky applications to allow for shade build up. There is continuous color feed in the dye bath. The dye application is followed by afterwashing (normal water at 50 ̊ C) and drying. With some machinery arrangement, warp size for weaving is immediately applied. For sizing the temperature of 90 ̊ C is maintained in starch solution.

After starching post drying is carried out (5-7 % moisture) and thereafter there comes the leasing zone, where there is separation of layers which were pressed together. Here the number of beams in the leasing zone is equal to the number of layer pressed together, i.e. 12 beams. The next section is the headstock; here rolls on beams are prepared for weaving.

Page 48 of 97

Slasher Dye Range Slasher dyeing ranges have a number of advantages and unique characteristics. Slasher dyeing employs a sheet of yarn, which is wound directly onto a warp beam rather than ropes of yarn, which then requires additional handling. This type of dyeing works well with lightweight denims. In general, these machines require less floor space, enable smaller production runs, have a quicker turn over time, and are more flexible in their response to changes in the market. As an overall process these ranges have lower machinery cost; therefore, lower dye costs are realized for specific fabric types. Additionally, the slasher dyeing technique can be used for other dye types for cotton and thus can produce a wide variety of colours other than indigo blue.

(The sheet of yarns is dyed in a series of 6 dips) The chemicals used in the dyeing and sizing range are as under:

Page 49 of 97

(For dyeing) Chemical Name



Mercerol QWLF

Mercerizing agent



Dye stuff



Reducer for indigo


Caustic soda 50% liquid

For general purpose


Premasol NF

Anti Foaming Agent


Setamol BL

Dispersing Agent


Sodium Sulfide

Reducer for Sulfur Black


Sulfur Black BR-200%

Dye stuff


Formic acid

for pH control


Hydrogen peroxide

for oxidation


(For sizing) Chemical Name



Texo-Film Maiz Starch




Sizing Softener



Sizing wax


Size CB



The difference between slasher dyeing and rope dying is:

Page 50 of 97

Rope dyeing

Slasher dyeing

 Warp yarn are in the form of a rope

 Warp yarns are in the form of a beam

 Can only handle dying capacity of more than 11000 m.

 Can handle dying capacity of more than 5000 m

 Short slots not possible

 Short slots possible

 Good depth of shade and lower washdown

 Shade of depth not that good

 No center to Selvedge shade variation

 Center to selvedge variation may occur

 Rebeaming is required process hence more consuming

 Rebeaming is not required.

after time


 More expensive machine as it is huge

 Less expensive machine

 It can only be done for coarse yarns, as the tension of the rope breaks the yarn

 Can be done for fine yarns too

 Oxidation time is much greater

 The immersion and oxidation times are lower

Page 51 of 97

Sizing Department There are complete automatic computerized sizing machines (Benninger). Here they can load 2 sets at a time. In this machine, 2 sizing boxes having capacity of 400x2 lit in which warp sheet passes through in such a way that 6beams(half sheet) pass through 1st size box and other half sheet pass through 2nd size box and then they combine together for weave able beams. The avg. maximum workable speed is 4560m/min. the avg. production of this dept. per day is ~50,000m. Following chemicals we are currently using in Sizing are:

Chemical Name



Texo-Film Maiz Starch



Arca Base

Acrylic Binder


Sizing Softener

FFD Brothers FFD Brothers

Checking and monitoring the sizing process Programming the machine:The easy to follow visualization and recipe management, in which all the machine and textile parameters are stored, permit fast and simple programming.

Sizing monitoring:-

Page 52 of 97

The sizing process is automatically monitored. All setpoints are specified with upper and lower tolerance limits. Deviations from the programmed value are displayed at once and instructions for their rectification are explained in the language of the operator.

Controlled tensions:The special arrangement of rollers in the 3- roller set prevents threads from slipping through and keeps the thread tension constant in the dry split section when changing beams.

Reproducible size cooking:-

The SIZEMIX cooker, equipped with a high powered agitator ensures homogeneous liquor. The cooker is programmed via the size recipe at the machine PC. In this way, cooking temperature, water quantity and cooking time are preset and automatically maintained. Attendance takes place optionally from the PC or directly at the cooker.

Proposed numbers of ends/inch in size box:The table describes the numbers of ends/inch of ring spun an open end yarn in size box according to count.

Page 53 of 97

Maximum ends/inch in Size box Yarn count

Ring Spun

Open End






















Viscosity of size paste:Viscosity of size pate should not deviate from required value. Less viscose paste makes adhesion of size material well but coating on the surface of the yarn is not done properly. While paste with higher viscosity coats the yarn very well but adhesion of paste into the core of yarn in terms of increasing its strength is not done properly. Size box temperature control:The degree of size penetration and coating depends not only on the nature of yarn & the size solution but also upon the viscosity which in turn largely depends on the temperature. It should be about 200F°-206F°. Fluctuation should be ±3 F°. The temperature gauge should be installed on the size box. Perforated copper pipe lining is laid in the bottom of size box to supply the steam for keeping the paste warm up to the above mentioned temperature. Low temperature will make gelling of paste which will not penetrate through the yarn and higher temperature create thinning of the size paste which is also unsuitable to be used as sticky paste. So to maintain the temperature of above value is very important. If the size paste is prepared with rich PVA or CMC then temperature of 75C° to 80C° is sufficient. Moisture content in the yarn:The moisture content in the sized yarn should not go below 6%. Otherwise the coating of size film will not allow absorbing moisture in the loom shed which is necessary for good working. For this moisture monitor is being supplied with the machine. The temperature of the drying cylinders should be kept 140-150 to maintain 6-7% moisture in the yarn.

Page 54 of 97

Weaving Weaving is the interlacing of warp filling yarns perpendicular to each other at 90degree. These are practically an endless number of ways of interlacing warp and filling yarn. The waving machines are named after their filling insertion system. Schematics of the filling insertion systems that are used in the market are: I.





Rigid rapier


Flexible rapier


Air jet


Water jet

Based on the filling insertion system, the weaving machine can be classified as shuttle and shuttle less weaving machines. Shuttle looms have been used for centuries to make woven fabrics.

Air Jet Looms or Air Jet Weft Insertion System This system is most improved form of weft insertion. In this system, the mechanism and machine parts have been totally eliminated used to drive the weft insertion source. This facilitate to increase the insertion rate up to 2500 r.p.m this type of machine is firstly commercialized by Swedish engineer Max Paabo in 1951. Weft thread is propelled using compressed air. It is simple operation with reduced mechanical parts and hence the maintenance cost is very low.

Page 55 of 97

The working principles of air jet weaving machines are based on carrying the yarn by the friction of the air jet. During the yarn’s forward movement by the air in the sheds, the velocity of the weft yarn decreases because of the decreasing pressure and the disturbance on the air flow direction. The air jet must provide a constant speed to the weft yarn along the weaving wideness. However, weft yarn of a certain mass is carried by a single jet at a limited distance. That is why the relay nozzles are installed at certain distances, in order to prevent a decrease in yarn velocity. The relay nozzle system and the general characteristics of the weft yarn speed in the shed. These are implemented on a movable hollow-needle or slay system. The basic function of the main jet is to load the weft yarn into the shed, and then to carry it to the first relay nozzle at a certain speed. The weft yarn suddenly reaches high velocity by means of the main jet. To preserve weaving defects and a synchronous beat-up movement, the weft yarn position and the instant velocity of the weft yarn must be fully controlled during the weaving process.

Page 56 of 97

Advantages of Air-Jet Weaving Machine           

High productivity High filling insertion system Reduced hazard because of few moving parts Low noise and vibration Low spare parts requirements To increase the production of loom by increasing the speed and by increasing the width of loom Machines are versatile and roust to produces light to heavy value added fabric Almost all loom motions are being controlled electronically These looms can be operated up to 40 looms per operated Fully auto matic lubrication system Produce 100% export quality goods

LOOM MOTIONS There are three types of loom motions which are given below-

Primary Loom Motions a. Shedding b. Picking c. Beating d. Take-up motion e. Let-off motion

Secondary Motion a) b) c) d)

Warp stop motion Weft stop motion Warp protector motion Weft replenishing motion

Auxiliary Motion a) Terry motion b) Selvedge motion

Page 57 of 97

c) Weft petering motion d) Temples e) Brake

After passing through different processes such as Spinning, Warping, Dyeing and Sizing this is a stage where Raw Fabric is processed and then finally it goes to Finishing Department. Now this stage is processed through Zax a loom set which is basically a model of Machines. These Machines works with a speed of 700 to 750 Rotations per Minute (RPM). There are 203 Machines out of which 159 are Zax Machines and 44 (209i) Machines. There are 13 meters per Roll as per customer’s requirements and after making a Raw Fabric, it generally goes for detecting the defects. Generally, yarn is produced from cotton, filaments, Lycra, Poly-lycra. Warp Beamers first installed to the Air jet loom set, which is Technology from Japan (Tsudakoma) and then after a weft is entered into nozzles through air pressure. Warp is seen vertically on these machines and weft is horizontal to it. Weft enters through sensors and passes the full lobby of warp and the dents of warp are set before starting the machine. Dents are defined as gap between two ends. The larger the dents the lesser will be the gap between two ends. Generally, one machine produces 500 meters of Raw Fabric daily depends on picks. In addition, to produce in such a hassle environment you need to have 75 to 80 % of

Page 58 of 97

humidity required in every textile mills and due to this 10% contraction of fabric takes place in weaving department. There is inflow of cool atmospheric air from above floor and outflow of air ventilation is given at underground level. There is air blower attached on the above of such machines to remove unwanted fibers on machines, which is continuously rotating for cleaning purpose. After one beam is over there is a need for knotting to have a continuous production for Raw Fabric and for that, this department is having a Knotting machine to join the next beam. There are indicators on each machine for the Terminologies such as T- Total Breakages W- Warp Damages F- Weft Breakages L- Leno and other Breakages.

This indicators help operators in make out damages that occurs due to Dyeing and Sizing and sometimes due to weft also. Weft is procured from outside suppliers, so if there are more damages or breakages of weft then suppliers are to be aware and they will have to give more focus on these breakages. Due to hassle, working environment workers are given Earplugs and Masks due to humidity level. There are 100 workers in a shift and total there are 3 shifts and approximately 300 workers work in this department. Recycles wastewater and converts denim waste to denim paper, in keeping with their eco-friendly production process. MAJOR DEFECTS: • • • •

Band pick Double end Starting mark Weft cut

The defect acceptance percentage at Arvind is 2.4 and efficiency is 85-87%, efficiency being measured in terms of number of picks to be inserted vis-à-vis actual number of picks inserted. The object of weaving to produce the fabric by the interlacement of warp & weft. The other object is to produce defect free fabric by using the suitable mechanisms.

Page 59 of 97

Classification of Weaving Machines: Weaving machines are classified according to their filling insertion mechanism. The classification is as follows: 1. SHUTTLE LOOM 2. SHUTTLE-LESS - Rapier - Projectile - Air-Jet - Water-Jet

AIR-JET WEAVING: Air-jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air. Air-jet system utilizes a multiple nozzle systems and a profiled reed. Yarn is drawn from a filing supply package by the filing feeder and each pick is measured for the filling insertion by means of a stopper. Upon release of the filling yarn by the stopper, the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles, which provide the initial acceleration. The relay nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave shed. Profiled reed provides guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the warp yarn.

Page 60 of 97

Process Flow Chart

LOOMING IN It is process of drawing of warp yarn through the drop pins, heald frames, and reed which is then mounted on the loom for weaving. KNOTTING IN If the same weft & warp count, same weave are to be employed then the yarn from the new warp beam is tied to the previous one (end-end knotting). A knotting m/c is used for this purpose.

Page 61 of 97


No. of Looms: 203 Air jet Looms: 155 Air jet looms of model ZAX, 48 looms of type 209i. Average production capacity-2.7lakh meter/day. Average monthly production -80 lakh meter/day(product wise vary) . 100% Denim oriented . Efficiency: 88% .

Reasons for low efficiency: a) b) c) d) e) f)

4-5% efficiency loss due to electrical problems 1-2% efficiency loss due to material stock-out Absenteeism of workers Maximum Operating Speed: 750 picks/min Operating speed: 663 picks/min Selvedge Types: Loose, Reverse, Mat Selvedge

Defects and Faults commonly found after weaving: - Floats - Short pick - Defective shedding - False Stop - Breakage - Missing Ends - Knots, Pulls - Fluffs - Size Residue - Start Marks

Page 62 of 97

Different lights of signals and there meanings: • • • • • • • • • • • •

Red: warp stop. Red: waste selvedge stop. Yellow: full leno selvedge stop, right hand. Yellow: full leno selvedge stop, left hand Green: weft stop by WF1 (color1) Green: weft stop by WF2 (color2) White (Flashing): cloth beam full. White (Flashing): cloth beam to be doffed White: stop switch pressed. White Flashing: Emergency stop button pressed. Green-TAPO: processing interrupted by an external access Green-TAPO: Inoperable over.

Role of various categories of workers –

1. Responsibility of Weaver:• • • • • • • • •

Attend warp breaks. To take details from previous shift weaver. To take proper quality round from front and back side of loom. To doff cloth roller. Not to take selvedge yarn and other beam yarn into body of other yarn. To clean area of drop pins, beam, and surrounding of loom. To throw warp and weft waste into waste box only. Knot tail end of weft and creeling of package. Selector and accumulator cleaning.

2. Responsibility of Knotter:• • • • • •

To take knotting machine and accessories properly. After every knotting clear knotting machine and accessories used. At time of knotting, to clean loom as per preventive maintenance. To pass knot properly and pick dents, double ends, miss ends, wrong drawing and denting should be checked and corrected. If necessary, join extra weft clamp and straightening of every cross end. If necessary, change weft yarn trolley.

Page 63 of 97

3. Responsibility of Fitter:• •

In shift- To do proper cam changes, break down and running maintenance. Qualitya) To attain fabric defects. b) To help loom technician. c) To attain weft break, warp and Lena break.

4. Responsibility of Reliever:• • • • • •

To maintain proper weft trolley To clean area of loom. To check all moving parts. Creeling of weft. Knotting of tail ends.

5.Responsibility of Transporter:•

• • • • • •

As per instruction of sift in charge, to bring appropriate drawn beam from drawing in department and transport empty beam into dyeing department. Make appropriate marking on cloth roller and transport it into finishing department. To keep spare pallet for charging. To fill transporter log book and take signature of finishing and weaving in charge. At time of sift change, take charge from previous shift and a end of shift, give to next. To keep beam pallet in proper condition.

6. Responsibility of Drawer:• • • •

To make set and do drawing. To make extra and cross end proper. To do work according to shift .

7. Responsibility of Cleaner:• • •

To clean floor and keep good housekeeping. After cleaning, to keep all waste in bag and keep it in waste area. To keep beam waste into bag and take weight of separate beam waste and keep in waste area.

Page 64 of 97

To do work as per instruction of shift in charge


• • • • • •

10 Looms / weaver Around 40 looms /supervisor 1 knotter / 80 looms 2 dressers /80 looms 4 helper / 80 looms 1 maintenance /shift 2 shift in charge

Key Points :• • • • • • • •

206 machines (154ZAX) 100% denim products Running 24 hours 364 days continuously 1 day in a month to clean the waste 3 shifts Worker strength= 415 251 per shift on machines 15 staff members (1 maintenance in charge, 1 quality in charge, 1 head of the department)

Technical Details Of The fabric • • • • • •

Twill- 3 by 1 5.3s count to 20 s Width of the fabric-64.5,68.5,71.5 Maximum width possible is 119 mtrs. Picks per inch 30ppi-68ppi Ends per inch : 52epi-104epi

Machine specification 1. ZAX- 750 rpm 2. Tsudakoma-650rpm • Widths are same

Page 65 of 97

Diameter Range. Efficiency.

1100mm. 90%.

980mm 90%

Details :-

500m length per machine depends on picks. Picks more = Production less

Machine Details :• • •

2 types of Stop Motion - Warp Stop Motion Weft Stop Motion - 2 stops. H1(edge),H2(excess) Leno motion to balance the structure at the ends.

No of ends= no of heald shafts Fabric twill= 3x1 and selvedge= 1x3 so that when it is passed through stenters, it is not damaged.

Preventive measures 1. Ear plugs 2. Mask 3. Safety shoes 4. Safety training 5. Fire extinguisher

Waste percentage: 2.4-2.5 • • • • • •

If stoppage more rpm less quality less. 750 rpm without stoppage and is calculated per 24 hours. 36 stoppage in 24 hours are acceptable. Mending time will affect the quality of fabric. 1 beam of fabric requires 60 hours with minor stoppage. 1 or 2 hours stop of machine after every beam.

Page 66 of 97

Finishing and Processing Finishing of grey denim fabric normally carried out after weaving. It takes an important role in fabric properties, appearance, softness and residual fabric shrinkage. The department churns out 300000 meters of finished denim cloth a day. The main purposes of applying various finishes may be summarised as under. 1. HIGH SALES APPEAL: To impart properties of attractive appearance, supple handle, softness and good drape. 2.

HIGH WEAR QUALITY: This refers to adequate tensile and abrasion strengths, dimensional stability, crease recovery and freedom from pilling.


BODY PROTECTION AND COMFORT: This relates to proper heat insulation, moisture absorption and air permeability.


SPECIAL EFFECTS: These include water-repellency, reduced flammability, mildew and moth-proofing, anti-static behaviour and soil release property.

Classification of Finishes:Considering the existence of a large number and a great variety of the finishes for the cellulosic fibres, it is understandable that a completely satisfactory classification is not possible to make. The finishes are often sub-divided as physical and chemical, permanent and temporary, deposition and reactive etc. Sometimes the finishes are classified according to the effects obtained like appearance, wearing qualities, weighting etc. To complicate the matter further, the final folding and packing of the materials is sometimes included in the list. However the following description, though not perfect, is fairly rational and does justice to the topic. Physical /Mechanical Finishes:(a) TEMPORARY / NON PERMANENT (i) Calendering : Swizzing, Friction, Beetling, Chasing, Schreiner, Embossing and Felting (ii) Singeing (b) DURABLE (i) Raising, Sueding, (Emerising or Peach Finish) (ii) Sanforizing Chemical Finishes:(a) TEMPORARY / NON PERMANENT

Page 67 of 97

(i) (ii)

For Handle and Appearance: Softening, Stiffening, Weighting, Lustering (other than Mercerising) Special Effects: Water-Repellency, Flame-Retardancy, Mildew Proofing

(b) PERMANENT (i) Crease Recovery, Softening (ii) Water-Repellency, Flame-Retardancy, Mildew-Proofing

1. SINGEING UNIT Technically, singeing refers to the burning-off of loose fibres not firmly bound into the yarn and/or fabric structure. Singeing is an important part of pre-treatment. If not done properly, unclear print patterns, mottled fabric surfaces, and results in pilling. • Loose yarns not firmly bound into the fabric structure; • Protruding fibre ends sticking out of the textile yarns and/or fabrics. The denim fabric is then passed through a singing unit. Here the fabric is singed two times on the face side at a temperature of 800 to 990 degrees.

Process FlowCradle Unit

Brushing Unit J Scray Unit

Nip Unit Singeing Unit

Page 68 of 97

Unit Specificationa. b. c. d. e.

Capacity: 40-50 m/min Production: 41000-45000 m/ day 15000-17000 m/shift CNG Gas Burner - 90˚ Flame Interaction 3 operator per machine

Objectives & Advantages of Singeing: • Singeing of a fabric is done in order to obtain a clean fabric surface which allows the structure of the fabric to be clearly seen. • Fabrics, which have been singed, soil less easily than un-singed fabrics. • The risk of pilling, especially with synthetics and their blends, is reduced in case of singed fabrics. • Singed fabrics allow printing of fine intricate patterns with high clarity and detail. • The risk of skitter dyeing with singed articles dyed in dark shades is considerably reduced, as randomly protruding fibres are removed in singeing which could cause diffused reflection of light.

Singeing Process •To produce a smooth surface finish on fabrics made from staple fibers first the fabric surfaces are brushed lightly to raise the unwanted fiber ends. •Then the fabric is singed with or passed over heated copper plates or open gas flames. The fiber ends burn off. •The fabric is moved very rapidly, and only the fiber ends are destroyed. •As soon as the fabric leaves the singeing area, it enters a water bath or desizing bath. This stops any singeing afterglow or sparks that might damage the cloth. Precaution during Singeing: Some of the precautions to be taken in considerations during singeing:•The fabric to be singed should be dry as wet fabric tends to scorch more readily than dry. •Uneven singeing may cause streaks on fabric or bubbles when the fabric is finished. •Improper singeing may lead to loss of 75 % loss in tensile strength loss in warp direction. •The fabric should not contain any acid releasing salt, which may release acid on heating and tender the fabric. •Stopping the machines may cause bars on the fabrics. •Singeing may cause hardening of the size thus leading to difficulty in its removal. •Possibility of thermal damage to temperature sensitive fabrics.

Page 69 of 97

•The burning characteristics of fibers must be taken into account when this process is applied, as heat-sensitive fibers melt, forming tiny balls on the surface of the fabric. These balls interfere with dye absorption, so that, as a general rule, heat sensitive fibers would be singed after dyeing or printing. Methods of Singeing: 1. Plate Singeing Machine Plate singeing essentially consist of two covered copper plates thick and slightly barrelled which way be set in the fire clay and heated to bright redness by a furnace below or by a suitable heating arrangement. The cloth in open with passes and it contact with the hot plates at a speed varying between 135 to 225 meter/minute. The protruding fibers are burnt during the passage of the cloth through the machine. However, the fiber ends present in the interstices of warp and weft are not signed. Since they are not made assessable to the action of intense heat. Secondly since there is actual contact between the cloth and a hard and hot surface of the metal a certain amount of luster is produced in the cloth due to friction. The main objective to plate singeing is that it may not be possible to maintain the plates at a uniform temperature and this cause unnerve singeing. 2. Roller Singeing Machine Some of the defects of plate singeing machine are over come in roller singeing machine which way be considered as a modification of the formers. In this machine, the singeing surface is a rotating cylinder instead of stationary curved plate. It may be made of either copper or cast-iron and provided with the internal fairing system. A fresh not surface of the cylinder is presented in to the coming fabric by the slow rotating of the cylinder. In this case, the surface temperature of the cylinder is more uniform at all places. Than in the case of hot plates, the reaction of the cylinder is in the opposite direction to the fabric movement which rises the naps-ensuring efficient singeing. As in plate singeing the fabric end in the interstices are not removed from the fabric and luster is imported to the fabric to some extent due to the contact with the hard and not-metal surface in roller singeing. 3. Gas Singeing Machine Gas Singeing is intended for single and double face singeing of fabric with passes through the guide roller. Then in brushing zone which rotate in the sense opposite to fabric to be singed. The brushes are placed in a special chamber from which dust and fluff removed from the fabric are exhausted by a fan. Then the fabric passes over gas burner with ceramics nozzles where singeing is covered out. Coming out of the gas singeing machine a box containing water. This bath may also contain desizing agent. In this way after singeing we can desize and batched the fabric. 2. MERCERIZING UNIT

Page 70 of 97

Mercerization is a finishing treatment of cotton with a strong caustic alkaline solution in order to improve the luster, hard and other properties was names after its discoverer, John Mercer, and has been in use for some time. It has been seeing an increase in application recently. During mercerization, singeing or desized material is used. The mercerization unit has a total of 7 rollers which move at a speed of 42 rpm. The tank has a capacity of 3 tonnes. Caustic soda is used during this process and full pressure is applied to remove traces of extra caustic soda. This process has a brusher unit as well and reisky padders.

Process Flow –

Inlet J Scray Unit

Brushing Unit

Caustic Impregnator

Stabilizer Unit

Washing Unit

Effect of Mercerization • Improve Luster. • Increase ability to absorb dye. • Improve reaction with a verity of chemicals. • Improve stability of form.

Acid Unit

Drying Zone

Outlet J Scray Unit

Page 71 of 97

• • • • •

Improve strength/elongation. Improve smoothness. It has been shown that the increase in the luster occurs because of an effect. The cotton fiber do convoluted. The cross-sectional shape changes.

Factors of Mercerizing In mercerizing followings are important: • Twaddle • Temperature • Tension • Time (1) Twaddle (Concentration of NaOH): If the concentration of NaOH is increased above 56oTw improvement in luster will be attained but if it is decrease below 48o Tw. The quality of luster will begin to be adversely affected. (2)Temperature: High degree of luster is attained at temperature 18-20oC. As the temperature is increased the quality of luster is adversely affected but on lowering the temperature no improvement in the luster is obtained. (3) Tension: For acquiring better luster the material must be stretch to its original dimension (both in warp and weft direction during mercerization). If the material is allowed to shrink during mercerizing then quality of luster will be impaired on the other hand if the material is stretched more no improvement in luster is achieved. (4) Time: The optimum time for mercerizing is 30-60 seconds by increasing the duration of time no applicable improvement in the quality of mercerization can be achieved but if the time limit is less than 30 seconds in the quality of mercerization will be improved.

3. STENTERING UNIT Stenter is a finishing machine which dries up the cloth and removes the dimensional instability that occurs during the processing. The final finishing of fabric is always done on a Stenter. The Stenters are normally provided with a padder, a bow and a weft straightener device. The cloth to be finished passes through the padder, where finishing chemicals are added and goes through bow and weft correction device before entering the drying chamber. It can be either pad or dip stenter. The pair chains hold the cloth horizontally. The process is pad-dry and drying is achieved by blowing hot air in the stenter chamber. The stenter is the most important machine in the finishing for stretching or stentering fabrics.

Page 72 of 97

The purpose of the stenter machine is to bringing the length and width to pre determine dimensions and also for heat setting and it is used for applying finishing chemicals and also shade variation is adjusted. The main function of the stenter is to stretch the fabric width-wise and to recover the uniform width. Sometimes wetting agent for example a mixture of surface active compound are used as chemical for the heat setting and stretching process.

(Stenter Machine)

Process Flow Inlet J Scray Unit

Chemic al Padder Brushing

Clipping Unit Foam Coating Unit

Coiler Drum Chamber •CNG •Blower •Heat Setting

Batching Unit Outlet J Scray Unit

Function of Stenter Machine:• Heat setting is done by the stenter for Lycra fabric, synthetic and blended fabric. • Width of the fabric is controlled by the stenter. • Finishing chemical apply on fabric by the stenter.

Page 73 of 97

• • • • • • •

Loop of the knit fabric is controlled. Moisture of the fabric is controlled by the stenter. Spirality controlled by the stenter. GSM of the fabric is controlled by stenter. Fabric is dried by the stentering process. Shrinkage property of the fabric is controlled. Curing treatment for resin, water repellent fabric is done by the stenter.

Components of Stenter Machine:• Padders • Weft straightener • Burners - 10 • Heat recovery • Attraction rollers • Circulating fans - 10, 8 • Exhaust fans - 2 • Winder - 2 • Clips • Pins • I.R • Cooling drums – 2 Stentering Unit Components:•Inlet J Unit •Brushing Unit - In the integrated finishing range, the grey denim fabric is first passed through a brushing and suction unit, where loose lint, fluff are removed from the fabric surface. The protruding fibers adhere on the fabric surface are also raised to burned in the next process. •Chemical Padder - The denim fabric is then padded to apply finish to the fabric. Here the fabric passes into a full immersion pad and finish is added at high wet pick up. The finish is necessary to properly lubricate fabric for the subsequent skewing operation. The chemical used is caustic soda. •Foam Coating Unit- It depends on the style of the fabric. Foam coating unit is to coat colour on either side of denim. Coating can be done on both sides: Bottom Applicator, Top Applicator. Both have different operators. •Mahlo (Weft Pulling) - When the fabric is passed through Mahlo, the fabric is gripped by the clips to elongate the fabric. These clips are joined to endless chains which go to 9 chambers. •Chamber- There are 9 chambers provided in the machine for drying. Each chamber has blowers and filters to separate dust from air. •Outlet J Unit •Batching Unit Working Procedure of Stenter Machine:-

Page 74 of 97

The fabric is collected from the batcher to the scray and then it is passed through the padders where the finishes are applied and sometimes shade variation is corrected. The fabric is entered into the weft straightener. The function is to set the bow and also weave of the fabric is gripped by the clips and pins are also provided but the pins has a disadvantage that they pins make holes at the selvedge but the stretching of the pins are greater than the clips. These clips and pins are joined to endless chain. There are 9 chambers provided on the machine each chamber contains a burner and filters are provided to separate dust from air. The circulating fans blow air from the base to the upper side and exhaust fans sucks all the hot air within the chambers. Attraction rollers are provided to stretch the warp yarn. After stentering we can increase the width of the fabric up to 1.5-2 inch. The speed of the machine is about 7-150 m/min.3 meters fabric can run in each chamber. Temperature is adjusted that according to the fabric as for, •

PC 210 c

Cotton 110-130 c

After dyeing 160-170 ͦC and after print 130-140 ͦC.

4. FOAM FINISHER The foam finishing technology (FFT) process is a novel application system for treating porous substrates with foamed chemicals at very low wet pick-ups. It involves the use of a rapidly-breaking low-density foam or froth as the delivery medium for finishing chemicals, precise metering and flow control for delivery of foam to the substrate, pressure-driven impregnation of the foam into the substrate, and an applicator system designed to allow uniform high-speed application and collapse of the foam in a single step.

Machine Specifications ARRANGEMENT


Page 75 of 97















a. Foam Unit - Foaming Agent AGROSOFT is used and is uniformly applied with the help of a knife. b. Nip Roll c. Skew Roll It is used to correct the distortions in the fabric due to different processes. Skew is done by providing tension through rollers. d. Sanforizer - A machine that has drums filled with hot steam. This process is done to control the shrinkage of the fabric and gives dimensional stability by applying mechanic forces and water vapour. e. Palmer - It is used for ironing and pressing the fabric as it is rolled out of the machine. f. Outlet – The fabric comes out in a bundle form and is collected in a trolley. (Output of Foam Finishing Machine)

Page 76 of 97

Advantage of FFT:1. Get low pick up even down to 5% for various applications, quicker water drying with energy saving of more than 50%. 2. Chemicals can be saved in many circumstances in textile finishing treatments. Stenter speed can be increased for drying or stenter, predrying can be eliminated. 3. Minimized down time compared to padding process. 4. Shorten the length of equipment, plant and reduce the investment. 5. Reduce environmental pollution and water waste. 6. Can be carried on single or double-side of fabric (can be imposed on both sides with different agents).

5. WET FINISHING Chemical finishes: These are also known as wet finishes. In these, chemical treatment is given to fabric, either to change its appearance or basic properties. These finishes are usually durable and permanent or wet finishes. Examples are: fireproof, crease resistance, etc. Wet process is usually done on the manufactured assembly of interlacing fibers, filaments, and/or yarns having substantial surface (planar) area in relation to its thickness, and adequate mechanical strength to give it a cohesive structure. In other words, wet process is done on manufactured fabric. The processes of this stream is involved or carried out in aqueous stage and thus it is called wet process which usually covers pretreatment, dyeing, printing and finishing. All of these stages are required aqueous medium which is created by water. A massive amount of water is required in these processes per day. It is estimated that, on an average, almost 100 liter of water is used to process only 1 kg of textile goods.

Page 77 of 97

Water can be of various quality and attributes. Not all water can be used in the textile process, it must have some certain properties, quality, color & attributes for being used in textile processes. That is why water is a prime concerned in wet processing engineering.

(Skew Unit of Wet Finishing Machine)

Process Flow –

a. Infeed - The fabric is feeded through J Scray structure. b. Brushing - Brushes are used to remove extra waste fiber on fabric surface

known as pumb. c. Padding (Chemical) - Chemicals are used and the fabric is dipped in it as it

passes through padder tank.

Page 78 of 97 d. Padder Nip - It takes out all the extra chemical and water. Only 15% is left as

moisture within the fabric. So nip rollers are used to squeeze the water. e. Mahlo Unit (Skew) - It has 4 rollers and adjusting instrument from which the

amount of tension that should be provided is adjusted. It is used to rectify the distortion in the fabric. Moisture Content-11.7%. f.

Drying Zone - 10 Cylinders with hot steam passing is used to dry the fabric and prepared for robber unit with 10 Dragon rolls.

g. Robber Unit - Temp: STD+-5 degree Celsius. It is same as Sanforizer in which

rubber belt is used and fabric is passed through roller and rubber belt. h. Palmer Unit - It is used to iron or press the fabric.

During wet-finishing, any fugitive dye can be dealt with, threads will slide to areas of least resistance so that weave structures such as waffle weave and lace weave will develop to their full potential, woollens can be fulled, and small inconsistencies in the cloth due to reed marks or irregular beating will be reduced or eliminated altogether.

Page 79 of 97

Inspection and Testing Arvind is committed at providing the best quality of fabric to the consumers for over 80 years now. The quality control is an integrated process that starts when the customer gives the order, and the DNTG develops the samples accordingly, it is checked for quality assurance measures and compliances with customer needs. At later stages the fabric is inspected and testing of parameters of fabric is done. Essentially there are 2 major parts of quality assurance

Quality Assurance Testing


Physical Testing

in process

Chemical Testing


Shade testing Process Control shipment clearance certification and accreditation

Page 80 of 97

Inspection: Arvind follows 100 percent inspection procedures. The acceptance level of the fabric depends on the customer preferences.

Inspection department uses 13 Kitamura Machine to find such defects in fabrics. The inspection frame is aligned at an angle between 45 and 60 degrees. Speed of fabric on inspection m/c : 25m/min Light of 100 Lux Inclination : 57 ̊ Cost of inspection rs0.65/mtr

There are two inspectors to keep continuous watch on fabric for finding the defects. The 4-point grading system indicates that as per customer requirement defects are allowable upto their levels. We have observed that in VF brand the 4-point allowable are only 4 that is total 16 defects per 135-meter roll. 4-point grading system is used for inspection of fabrics and this includes:

Size of defect

Penalty Points

3” or less

1 Point

3” to 6”

2 Points

6” to 9”

3 Points

More than 9”

4 Points

Holes or Openings(Largest Dimension) 1” or less

2 Points

More than 1”

4 Points

No penalty points are recorded for minor defects. Major Defects are classified as follows:- Major woven fabric defects such as slubs, holes, missing yarn, conspicuous yarn variation, end out, soiled yarn, and wrong yarn.- Major knitted fabric defects are mixed yarn, yarn variation, runner, needle line, barre, slub,hole, press off.- Major dye or printing defects are print out, dye spots, machine stop, color smear or shading.

Page 81 of 97

•Points per 100 square yards =

Total points scored in the roll x 3600

Fabric width in inches

x Total yards inspected

•Fabric containing more than 40 points per 100 square yards is considered as SECONDS At the beginning of the month the inspection department gets the production plan for the entire month and they plan their procedures accordingly. The finishing department gives the material transfer note to the inspection department where the material is checked for the following defects: Spinning related Defects: 

Warp Slub

Weft Slub

Thick end

Coarse/fine weft

Weft bar

Weaving preparatory related defects 


Slack end

Ball formation

Size patches

Weaving related defects 

Starting mark

Tight end

Weft float



Repaired warp

Double end

Bowing and Skewing Check for skewed, bowed and biased fabric. For this purpose check the bowing and s skewing at every 10 meters.

Page 82 of 97

The bowing and skewing are calculated as follows: Bow: A bow is an uneven deviation of a weft from a line drawn perpendicular to the selvedge of the fabric. A bow may have different forms: Single Bow%= Dip of the Bow (Maximum deviation from perpendicular line) X 100½ Width of the fabricDouble

Bow%= Dip of the Bow (Maximum deviation from perpendicular line) X 100 ¼ Width of the fabricSkew: Skew is a straight line deviation of a weft from a line drawn perpendicular to the selvedgeof the fabric.

Skew%= Dip of the Skew (Maximum deviation from perpendicular line) X 100 Width of the fabric

If the average Bowing or Skewing for a roll is more than 2-3%, reject the roll.

Page 83 of 97


Physical Testing: The samples are tested for/by: 1. Yarn evenness: USTER TESTER 5 2. Statex CSP(cascade strength tester) system: yarn count and strength 3. Single yarn tester 4. Instron 4465: Tensile Test for fabric 5. Elemendorf Tearing Strength: tearing strength check by application of 9000g force 6. Chatillon Stiffness Tester- resistance to bending 7. Paramount humidity checker- for humidity control 8. Stretch/elongation test- weight of 1.35 kg applied on a designated swatch sample for half an hr 9. Dimensional Stability and skew movement test 10. Shrinkage test- measure shrinkage after washing thrice + conditioning 11. Ozone test chamber by USA inc. 12. Snarl indicator 13. Twist tester- Statex (14.4 tpi)

Page 84 of 97

Shade testing: The software used for shade testing is EASY MATCH. 

HunterLab's EasyMatch QC software gives unprecedented flexibility to process, display, analyze and report color measurement results.

Color measurement and analysis software reports absolute and color difference data in all widely used color scales, for various lighting and observing conditions. Pass/Fail functions provide fast go/no-go decisions.

Data can be reported numerically in tabular or spreadsheet form.

Data can also be graphically displayed as color difference plots, trend plots and spectral curves.

All results can be viewed, stored, printed or imported into your database

programs. 

The software uses a spectrophotometer to record observations, and plots deviations from average and perfect sample for each roll.

It also provides pass and fail options for rolls that deviate too much from normal value making it very easy for the operator to assure quality and minimize shade variation.

It also helps in shade wise differentiation and categorization of rolls. So that the consumer may be able to easily distinguish between lots of various shades.

Page 85 of 97

Page 86 of 97

Chemical testing :Tests requested by preferred customers: LEVI’s Test method PH





SI 1005

Water Repellancy

ISO 105-E01


ISO 105-E02


ISO 105-E04

VF corporation Test








POLO method PH



ISO 105*12


SI 1005

Water Repellancy

ISO 105-E01


ISO 105-E02


ISO 105-E04



Chemical Tests Conducted in the lab: 1. Raw Material checking like dyeing/finishing auxhillaries a) Basic chemical. b) Percentage of purity of Hydros, Caustic acid, peroxides etc

Page 87 of 97

c) Purity performance of dyes like indigo, vat sulphur d) Auhilaries like wetting agents, sizing, finishing etc

2. Stock Weight of indigo (gpl)- Brandsbender moisture tester (105 degree c. for 4 hrs)

3. Weighing balance – Mettler Toledo

4. Crockmeter – AATCC

5. Formldehyde content in dye/stock bath

6. Thermo orion pH meter

7. Launder-O-meter

8. ATLAS crockmeter

9. Genesys 10 spectrophotometer

10. Muffle furnace

11. Cintex incubator

12. EEC beaker dyeing machine

13. USA ozone test chamber

14. Flamability tester- coming next y

Page 88 of 97

Packaging Department Details on the packages : 1. Shipment no. 2. Date 3. Sort no 4. F.M.C 5. Code no 6. Meters 7. Flags/points 8. Opt no. Rolls of approx. 135m each sealed by polythene Spec. of polythene cover: Plastic bags of 23 micron used

Page 89 of 97

DNTG Department

The Development and New Technology Group department is a critical unit for the innovation and creativity that Arvind mills projects. The department has been constituted in such a manner that it has 2 parts

The Design Team

The Technical Team

Design Team: 

The design team has a constant responsibility of re-innovating denims.

It consists of fashion consultants from Europe and other countries along with the textile experts and textile designers.

The team works together to create a completely different denim design. Though it seems like innovation in design in denims has limited scope, this group of professionals use their creativity and constant thinking skills to come up with unprecedented designs.

These new designs are featured in fashion shows across the globe, for top fashion experts to see and review, and hence maintain the exclusiveness of denim produced by Arvind Mills.

Top designers like Calvin Klien, Chanel etc. and brands like Zara, Abercrombie and Fitch, Mango, Gap and many others, select these designs and order them to be produced in mass.

The designs can be created by changing one of the following characteristics of the fabric :


Weave of the fabric:

(Denim is usually 3 x 1 twill)- variations are made in twill weave or by changing the nature of the weave all together. Like 2X1 or other variations 2.

The dyeing procedure’s output:

(usually done with indigo and sulphur dyes) – The dying can give colour effects to the fabric. Different compositions of dyes are used and innovations and creativity in the use of colors, produces more number of designs. Sometimes the weft and the warp are of different dyes, creating an iridescent effect. Though traditionally blue or black, many other colours of denims are created

Page 90 of 97 3.

Fiber Used:

Authentic denim uses cotton fiber, but for design variations cotton blends are used. Light weight yarns like polyester are used to manufacture denim used in garments like jeggings and lighter weight denim requirements. Most popular addition to denim fabric is Lycra for streatchability as that is a prominent feature of jeans. Also the yarn count and yarn density dictate the nature of fabric formed. Though yarn of higher count is used, as denim is thick fabric. 4.

Finishes Applied:

Fabrics can be re-innovated in terms of the type of finish applied, Now-a-days, there are a variety of finishes that can be applied to any fabric and same goes for denim. Usually mercerization is a process not done for denims, as it does not require very soft and smooth fibers, but inclusion of finished like mercerization or resin finish, can completely change the look and feel of the fabric. Other aesthetic finishes, like partial napping or emerization, anti-crease finish, permanent creases by resin finish can be given.

The following are a few lines of denim that have been developed and new products are added to it every day: 1.

Kato (Japanese denim line):

Kato brings in the authentic attributes of denim in collections, fabrics mostly made on the shuttle loom and with selvedge. For s/s 2011, we have work wear cast in nappy selvedge denim, indigo with indigo-dyed Fill-and-Glen checks denim to name a few. His collection serves as early directions for all brands.


ADL (American Denim Lab):

The ADL line is specifically for the US brands. The s/s 2011collection has special attractions in the form of colour denims, indigos with colour fills and summer lights in excel along with the authentic core line


Euroline (European denim line):

The Euroline is specifically for the brand needs in Europe. The s/s 2011 collection has an introduction of four new indigo shades omega, greycast indigo, oil authentic blue cast indigo, tribe–green cast indigo and clan–petrol blue indigo, all in fine subtle slubs in compact construction.

Page 91 of 97


Metro (Indian denim line):

The metro line is designed by Arvind’s in-house design team specifically for Indian brands. The collection has the flavour of a true Indian denim. For the coming season, we have a set of fine coated products and a big set of power stretches for jeggings in indigo and black. We have also recently launched a collection in Excel called Excelush in collaboration with Birla Cellulose. Excelush is a super soft, lustrous and bouncy denim fabric. It is made from a highly refined eco-friendly and sophisticated process after scientific research and development conducted at Birla Research Institute.


New washes, treatments:

We wash our collections in laundries around the world, including LA, Italy, Turkey, Korea, Japan and in our own lab in Ahmedabad. Some of the new washes we are doing presently have crispy raw touch, naturally worn/used look, good localised abrasion, extreme contrast of high and low where some areas still show the depth of colour even after heavy washing, a comeback of acid wash look, fully wash out look with dirty areas.


New colours:

In the indigo family, one can expect green cast indigo, grey cast indigo, greasy oil cast indigo, petrol blue cast indigo, hydron blue, and baby blue. In the pure colour family, one can expect all black, stay black, fade black, gunmetal grey, smoky grey, burgundy, diner green, and coral blue.

Technical Team:

The technical team of the development and new technology team aims at developing the fabric as per customer requirements.

They have technicians and fabric experts who constantly work together and collaborate with each of the processing units to get the desired output of the fabric.

Then, they calculate/concur and document the exact procedures and processes to be followed to create the fabric exactly matching customer requirements.

Once the processes have been determined by the DNTG department, they are delegated to the individual units for mass production.

The DNTG DEPARTMENT at Arvind mills has a databse of more than 8000 fabrics, that have been created for all kinds of uses. The designs range from all kinds of usage of yarn, to differentiation based on any of the factors mentioned above.

Customers and designers may choose out of this data base to order in bulk, The data then goes to PPC department, that is production Planning and Control and the mass production of fabrics start.

Page 92 of 97

Environmental Policy Arvind Mills commits itself to continually improve our environmental management. It strives to go beyond the requirements of the applicable environmental laws & other regulations through: 

Optimizing usage of cotton, energy, chemicals & water.

Adopting preventive strategies to reduce the generation of effluents, waste & air emissions.

Maximizing the recycling of inevitable wastes.

Encouraging suppliers & buyers to become environmentally responsible.

Maintaining a safe working environment.

Increasing the green cover.

Training employees on environmental issues.

Water Treatment at Arvind Mill: Arvind Limited at the main site at Naroda also possess chemical, biological treatment facilities to treat 10000 m3/day of effluents to meet the pollution control board norms. Effluents due to washing: The effluents are generated from the washing carried out in between successive processes. 

In the dye house, after dyeing activity, fixation of dye is one of the most important stages.

Usually, 70-80% of fixation is practicable and the rest i.e. 20% of the dye used comes out in the effluent generated due to washing.

Effluent generated from the dye house has high concentration of pollutant as compared to other processes in the textile processing unit.

It also contains high amount of inorganic salts like sodium sulphate or sodium chloride which is used for dye fixing and acts as an electrolyte.

Page 93 of 97

Effluents due to Mercerization 

Mercerization imparts shining characteristic to the fabric.

Washing after mercerization generates typical effluent containing caustic solution and other impurities.

Bleaching is done by peroxide method.

Treatment: The treatment processes at the water treatment plant at Arvind is divided into three parts: i)

Main treatment facility,


Pre-treatment (prior to reverse osmosis)


Reverse osmosis.

Main treatment facility: Effluent in the form of generated from the sizing & de-sizing, bleaching & sections are subjected to processes, both physical and chemical 

Effluent is collected in an equalization tank.

After pH adjustment there is addition of poly electrolytes

Then the effluent is sent to the clarifier for sedimentation.

Effluent from the dying unit is collected separately in an equalization tank where: 

PH is adjusted and a chemical is added in acidic medium (pH 5.5) to decolorize the effluent. The unit uses a chemical Micro Plus which is claimed to act as a color removal agent.

This effluent is then mixed with the entire effluent from the mercerized, sizing & humidification sections.

These effluents are then fed into biological system comprising of degradation of organic components by microorganisms

Then it is sent to sedimentation in clarifier and to the aeration unit.

In the aeration unit it is kept for a time of approximately 16 hours DO level is maintained at 2.5 to 3.0.

Page 94 of 97

Pre-treatment facility: Pretreatment or primary treatment facilities are adopted before the effluent is subjected to reverse osmosis. This stage comprises of two unit operations in succession turbo circulator followed by pressure sand filter. Turbo circulator is basically a flash mixer. After main treatment facility, poly aluminum chloride, poly electrolyte are added in the effluent and are passed to turbo-circulator and then to the sand filter before being subjected to reverse osmosis. The unit has intermediate storage tank of capacity 2400 cubic meter for storage of the treated effluent.

Reverse Osmosis: After pre-treatment the effluent is sent to the reverse osmosis plant. Reverse osmosis is just the reverse process of osmosis. Osmosis as we know, is a natural process and is the tendency of two liquids of different concentrations separated by a semi permeable membrane, to move from low to high concentrations for chemical potential equilibrium. But in reverse osmosis, when high pressure is applied, liquid moves from high concentration to lower concentration. Reverse (RO) is a method that removes many types of large and from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective . The result is that the is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure is allowed to pass to the other side. Reject of the reverse osmosis plant is fed into the desalination plant (thermal). Backwash of the sand filter is fed into the main treatment facility. Total cost of treating the effluent for the said unit is approximately Rs. 4.5/ cu.m. of effluent including RO plant cost. Air pollution Control: Arvind Limited has switched from liquid fuel to Natural gas for all their heating& steam requirements in order to avoid the air pollution. Solid Waste Management All the units believe in waste minimization measures. The plant is provided with adequate sludge Dewatering facilities with decanter centrifuges. De-watered sludge is dried in solar evaporation pans for further volume reduction. Waste oil generated in all the units is recycled. Polythene liners, discarded containers are disposed-off to the respective buyers.

Page 95 of 97


ISO 9001:2000 by BVQI (India) Pvt. Ltd., Gandhinagar-India, for Manufacture and Supply of Denim Fabrics.

The ISO 9000 family of standards is related to quality management systems and designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related to the product. The ISO 9001:2000 version sought to make a radical change in thinking by actually placing the concept of process management front and center ("Process management" was the monitoring and optimization of a company's tasks and activities, instead of just inspection of the final product).

IS0 14000: Provides environment management standards to help organizations minimize their negative impact on the environment

Environment Management System (EMS) mandatory Certification carried out by third party Focuses on process as in case of ISO 9000 

Oeko-Tex Standard 100 by Shirley Technologies Ltd., UK, for Black and Indigo dyed denim fabrics, black / indigo printed denim fabric –including stretch denims.

The Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 is a globally uniform testing and certification system for textile raw materials, intermediate and end products at all stages of production. The tests for harmful substances comprise substances which are prohibited or regulated by law, chemicals which are known to be harmful to health, and parameters which are included as a precautionary measure to safeguard health. 

“Skal International Standards for Sustainable Textile Production” by Control Union Certifications, The Netherlands, for Processing of organic cotton.

“Global Organic Textile Standards”, Control Union Certifications, The Netherlands, for Processing of fibres from certified organic agriculture.

Page 96 of 97 

Levi’s strauss: Laboratory Certification by Levi Strauss & Co., Test Methods and conditions set forth, Denim Laboratory, The Arvind Mills Ltd.

ISO-17025 NABL – National Accreditation Board for Laboratories, Delhi, India, for Chemical & Mechanical disciplines of testing.

Premier Accreditation Scheme by Marks & Spencer, Test Methods and conditions set forth, Laboratory, Shirting Division Business, The Arvind Mills Ltd.

Liz Claiborne Int’l Ltd., Testing audit performance, Laboratory, Shirting Business Division, The Arvind Mills Ltd.

Labs certified by duPont

Page 97 of 97

References 

Fabric science – Glock and Kunj

Fabric Finishing – J T Marsh

Textile Science - B P Corbman

Textile Science – Tortora


View more...


Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.