Arvind santej internship report

August 2, 2017 | Author: NiveditaKumari | Category: Textiles, Cotton, Weaving, Yarn, Knitting
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summer internship report 2015...

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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY,GANDHINAGAR

2015 Textile Internship Report Arvind Santej

Submitted ToPranav Vora

Submitted BySunidhi Kumari Nivedita Kumari Ravish Khan DFT-V

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Acknowledgement I would like to thank Arvind, Santej unit for giving me the opportunity to undergo training in the textile department and for extending their support towards us all throughout our internship I would also like to thank NIFT, Gandhinagar for giving us this opportunity and facilitating our internship It was a great learning experience throughout to see one of the most well planned and advanced textile units. We take the opportunity to thank all the people who guided us through the entire process and made our training a success by sharing their knowledge. I would like to thank Subhanish Malhotra, Chief Manager H.R. at Arvind, without whose support and guidance the internship couldn’t have been completed satisfactorily. I am also grateful to our College mentor Mr. Pranav Vora for guiding us at every stage and making this project a success. Sunidhi Kumari Nivedita Kumari Ravish Khan DFT-V

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Contents Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................................ 2 OVERVIEW OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY .................................................................................................... 8 ABOUT THE COMPANY- ARVIND LIMITED .................................................................................................... 9 TIMELINE ..................................................................................................................................................... 12 COMPANY’S VISION .................................................................................................................................... 14 DIVISIONS .................................................................................................................................................... 15 Woven Fabrics ............................................................................................................................................ 15 SHIRTING AND BOTTOM WEIGHTS ......................................................................................................... 15 DENIMS ................................................................................................................................................... 16 KHAKI.................................................................................................................................................... 17 VOILES ..................................................................................................................................................... 17 KNITS FABRICS ....................................................................................................................................... 18 Raw Material Store Room ........................................................................................................................... 22 Types of cotton Arvind Mills use:............................................................................................................... 23 1. Pakistan Cotton ................................................................................................................................... 23 2. J34 SG .................................................................................................................................................. 23 3. Shankar-6 Gujarat cotton .................................................................................................................... 23 4. Organic cotton .................................................................................................................................... 23 SPINNING PROCESS ..................................................................................................................................... 25 PROCESS FLOW ........................................................................................................................................... 26 BLOW ROOM............................................................................................................................................... 27 OBJECTIVES OF BLOWROOM: ................................................................................................................. 27 BLENDING (BDT Blendomat) ................................................................................................................... 29 GBR.......................................................................................................................................................... 30 AXI Flow Cleaner .................................................................................................................................... 31 MPM multiple mixer- .............................................................................................................................. 31 ASTA: ....................................................................................................................................................... 32 DUSTEX:................................................................................................................................................... 32 CARDING: ................................................................................................................................................ 33 DRAWING ................................................................................................................................................ 34 ROVING ....................................................................................................................................................... 36

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Speed frame ............................................................................................................................................ 37 Ring frame: .............................................................................................................................................. 37 Random winding/ cone winding: ................................................................................................................ 38 Assembly winding: .................................................................................................................................. 39 TFO: ......................................................................................................................................................... 39 Singeing: .................................................................................................................................................. 39 List of testing instrument and their functions ............................................................................................ 40 WEAVING DEPARTMENT............................................................................................................................. 40 WEAVING PREPARATION ................................................................................................................. 41 YARN DYEING .......................................................................................................................................... 43 The Recipe includes: ........................................................................................................................... 44 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 45 Dyeing related requirements: ................................................................................................................. 45 Beams for Beam dyeing .......................................................................................................................... 46 WINDING ................................................................................................................................................. 48 OBJECTIVES OF WINDING: .................................................................................................................. 48 HOW QUALITY IS MAINTAINED IN ARVIND MILLS? ............................................................................ 49 PRECISION WINDING: ......................................................................................................................... 49 NON PRECISION WINDING .................................................................................................................. 50 FOR WINDING ............................................................................................................................................. 50 WARPING ................................................................................................................................................ 51 (DIRECT WARPING OR BEAM WARPING) ............................................................................................ 52 (SECTIONAL WARPING) ....................................................................................................................... 54 Causes of yarn breakage in warping: .................................................................................................. 56 WARPING MACHINES IN SHIRTING DIVISION OF ARVIND .................................................................. 58 SIZING ...................................................................................................................................................... 59 Properties of Size Ingredients: ............................................................................................................ 59 The Important Features to be remembered During Sizing: ................................................................ 60 Effects of Sizing on Yarn: ..................................................................................................................... 60 Sizing Ingredients- ............................................................................................................................... 60 Sizing Material & Chemical Used: ....................................................................................................... 61 Typical sizing recipe- ........................................................................................................................... 61

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DRAWING-IN (REEDING) ......................................................................................................................... 63 PROCEDURE: ....................................................................................................................................... 63 FOR REMOVAL OF DEFECTS FROM WARP .............................................................................................. 64 WEAVING MECHANISM .......................................................................................................................... 64 PRIMARY MOTION .............................................................................................................................. 64 Shedding-Positive Electronic Dobby ................................................................................................... 64 Picking-Air-Jet Insertion ...................................................................................................................... 65 Picking- Double Rapier System ........................................................................................................... 65 Beating- Up ......................................................................................................................................... 65 SECONDARY MOTION ......................................................................................................................... 65 Let-Off ................................................................................................................................................. 66 Take-Up ............................................................................................................................................... 66 Weft Selection or Patterning .............................................................................................................. 66 ANCILLARY MOTION................................................................................................................................ 66 PROCESSING ................................................................................................................................................ 67 SINGEING: ................................................................................................................................................... 67 DESIZING ..................................................................................................................................................... 67 Different methods of Desizing: ............................................................................................................... 68 1. Enzymatic desizing .............................................................................................................................. 68 The common components of an enzymatic desizing bath are as follows: ......................................... 68 Advantages of Enzymatic desizing ...................................................................................................... 68 Disadvantages: .................................................................................................................................... 69 2.Oxidative desizing ................................................................................................................................ 69 Two important oxidative desizing processes are: ............................................................................... 69 The advantages offered by oxidative desizing are .............................................................................. 69 SCOURING ................................................................................................................................................... 69 Objectives of Scouring: ........................................................................................................................... 70 Scouring process depends on: ................................................................................................................ 70 Description and Working Principle of Scouring Process: ........................................................................ 70 Precaution: .............................................................................................................................................. 70 BLEACHING.................................................................................................................................................. 71 DYEING AND PRINTING ............................................................................................................................... 71

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PRINTING..................................................................................................................................................... 73 ROTARY-SCREEN PRINTING ......................................................................................................................... 73 Finishing techniques used in Arvind mills are: ............................................................................................ 76 Microsanding finish ................................................................................................................................. 77 SANFORIZING: Shrinkage CONTROL FINISH ............................................................................................ 78 MERCERIZING .......................................................................................................................................... 80 Effect of Mercerization - ..................................................................................................................... 80 Calendering finish ................................................................................................................................... 81 Stentering finish ...................................................................................................................................... 82 Softening airo finish ................................................................................................................................ 84 Technical advancements in finishing ...................................................................................................... 84 PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL DEPARTMENT............................................................................ 92 COSTING .................................................................................................................................................. 94 QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT .......................................................................................................... 94 COTTON LABORTARY: ............................................................................................................................. 95 PHYSICAL TESTING LABORTARY .............................................................................................................. 96 CHEMICAL TESTING LABORTARY: ........................................................................................................... 96 COLOUR QUEST LABORTARY:.................................................................................................................. 96 CALIBRATION LABORATORY:................................................................................................................... 97 CHECK POINTS IN GREY FABRIC INSPECTION (ARVIND SHIRTING): ............................................................ 98 PROFORMA OF FABRIC INSPECTION REPORT ( ARVIND SHIRTING)........................................................ 98 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION DEPARTMENT: ................................................................ 100 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ............................................................................................................................ 102 ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES .............................................................................................................. 103

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OBJECTIVES OF INTERNSHIP

The main objectives of the project/internship were: 1. Understanding basic principles of production of textiles. 2. In depth study and understanding of all process involved in textile production and the machinery and equipment used. 3. Knowledge about the company. 4. Understanding the company‘s process flow in production 5. Study the work environment and practices followed for textile production. The project is based on two weeks (i.e., May 25, 2015 to June 6, 2015) internship in Arvind Mills- Shirting Division, Santej (Gandhinagar) unit. It covers the information and learning experiences related to manufacturing shirting fabrics and the the processes involved are: 

Spinning



Dyeing



Weaving



Finishing



Testing

Industry Mentor- MR. SUBHANISH MALHOTARA (Chief Manager HR)

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OVERVIEW OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY The textile industry has been gradually re-located from the developed to the developing countries, over the last few decades. This phenomenon has increased the opportunity for developing countries to boost manufacturing and trade in textiles. It is highly competitive and its prospects are continuously increasing. The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the international textile economy. Its contribution to the Indian economy is manifested in terms of its contribution to the industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. It contributes 20 percent of industrial production, 9 percent of excise collections, 18 percent of employment in the industrial sector, nearly 20 percent to the country‘s total export earning and 4 percent to the Gross Domestic Product. A strong raw material production base, a vast pool of skilled and unskilled personnel, cheap labour, good export potential and low import content are some of the salient features of the Indian textile industry. This is a traditional, robust, wellestablished industry, enjoying considerable demand in the domestic as well as global markets.

India’s presence in the international market is significant in the areas of fabrics and yarn as:     

India is the largest exporter of yarn in the international market and has a share of 25% in world cotton yarn exports. India accounts for 12% of the world‘s production of textile fibres and yarn. In terms of spindleage, the Indian textile industry is ranked second, after China, and accounts for 23% of the world‘s spindle capacity. Around 6% of global rotor capacity is in India. The country has the highest loom capacity, including handlooms, with a share of 61% in world loomage.

India has the potential to increase its textile and apparel share in the world trade from the current level of 4.5% to 8% and reach US $ 80 by 2020.

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ABOUT THE COMPANY- ARVIND LIMITED The Arvind Limited is one of the largest textile conglomerates in Asia. Its headquarters is in Ahmedabad (Gujarat). It manufactures a range of Shirting, Denims, Knits and Bottom weights (Khakis) fabrics. The company has a turnover of approximately $ 500 million and is a part of over 100 years old Lalbhai Group. Arvind ranks in top three largest Denim producers worldwide with an annual production of over 90 million meters of Denim Fabric and Exports to over 70 countries. It is also one of the largest producers in Asia of high value cotton shirting fabrics. It has a capacity of around 34 MMPA (million meters per annum) of yard dyed shirting and piece dyed shirting fabric including specialty Fine count Indigo yarn dyed and solid Shirting fabric. It produces approximately 20 MMPA of Piece Dyed Khaki's fabrics and around 16 TPD (tones per day) of Knits Fabrics which is vertically integrated into Knits Garments. Arvind started with a share capital of ₹ 2,525,000 ($55,000) in the year 1931. With the aim of manufacturing the high-end superfine fabrics Arvind Limited invested in very sophisticated technology. With 52,560 ring spindles, 2552 doubling spindles and 1122 looms it was one of the few companies in those days to start along with spinning and weaving facilities in addition to full-fledged facilities for dyeing, bleaching, finishing and mercerizing. The sales in the year 1934, three years after establishment were ₹ 45.76 lakh and profits were ₹ 2.82 lakh. In the mid 1980‘s the textile industry faced another major crisis. With the power loom churning out vast quantities of inexpensive fabric, many large composite mills lost their markets, and were on the verge of closure. Yet that period saw Arvind at its highest level of profitability. At this point of time Arvind‘s management coined a new word for it new strategy – Reno Vision. It simply meant a new way of looking at issues, of seeing more than the obvious and that became the corporate philosophy. The national focus paved way for international focus and Arvind‘s markets shifted from domestic to global, a market that expected and accepted only quality goods. Cottons were the largest growing segments. But where conventional wisdom pointed to popular priced segments, Reno vision pointed to high quality premium niches. Thus in 1987-88 Arvind entered the export market for two sections: Denim for leisure & fashion wear and high quality fabric for cotton shirting and trousers. By 1991 Arvind reached 1600 million meters of Denim per year and it was the third largest producer of Denim in the world.

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In 1997 Arvind set up a state-of-the-art shirting, gabardine and knits facility, the largest of its kind in India, at Santej, Gandhinagar (Gujarat). With Arvind‘s concern for environment a most modern effluent treatment facility with zero effluent discharge capability was also established. Arvind entered into exports of garments setting up Shirt factories in Bangalore in 2001. This modest beginning has quickly grown to a capacity of around 4.50 Million Shirts per annum and the list of customers includes Gap, Dockers, Next, Esprit,and many others. Arvind's entry into Jeans/ Pants was delayed due to the tight quota situation in India. It entered into Jeans Garment exports with its first Jeans factory ―The Arvind Overseas (Mauritius) Ltd., Mauritius, to offer full Garment package to its customers in USA and Europe. This factory which started in March 2002 was a good stepping stone/ pilot plant and did programs with customers which included Express, Next, M&S, Lee Cooper, Rocawear and others. With the world moving into a new Quota Free world, Arvind decided to move the Garment factory to Bangalore, India in September 2004, to offer its customers more flexibility and better cost effectiveness. Company's current Jeans capacity is around 10 Million Pieces per annum. Year 2005 was a watershed year for textiles. With the muliti-fiber agreement getting phased out and the disbanding of quotas, international textile trade was poised for a quantum leap. In the domestic market too, the rationalizing of the cenvat chain and the growth of the organized retail industry was likely to make textiles and apparel see an explosive growth. Arvind has carved out an aggressive strategy to verticalize its current operations by setting up world-scale garmenting facilities and offering a one-stop shop services, by offering garment packages to its international and domestic customers. With Lee, Wrangler, Arrow and Tommy Hilfiger and its own domestic brands of Flying Machine, Newport, Excalibur and Ruf & Tuf, Arvind is setting its vision of becoming the largest apparel brands company in India. Arvind also runs a value retail chain, Megamart, which stocks company brands. Arvind feature is that its enterprises are equipped with highly advanced equipment of a full cycle- from painting the fiber to the finished product. With the best of technology and business acumen, Arvind has become a true Indian multinational, having chosen to invest strategically, where demand has been high and quality requirement is being superlative. Arvind has set the pace for changing global customer demands of textiles and has focused its attention on selected core products. Such a focus has enabled the company to play a dominant role in the global textile arena. Today, The Arvind Limited is the flagship company of ₹ 30 billion Lalbhai Group.

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Current Chairman and Managing Director – MR. SANJAY S. LALBHAI

Figure 1: Journey Of Arvind Limited

In 1930, the world suffered a traumatic depression. Companies across the globe began closing down. In UK and in India, the textile industry in particular, was in trouble. At about this time, Mahatma Gandhi championed the Swadeshi Movement and at his call, people from all India began boycotting fine and superfine fabrics, which had so far been imported from England. In the midst of this depression one family saw opportunity. The Lalbhais reasoned that the demand for fine and superfine fabrics still existed. And any Indian company that met this demand would surely prosper. The three brothers, Kasturbhai, Narottambhai and Chimanbhai decided to put up a mill to produce this superfine fabric and the Arvind Mills (Arvind Limited) was born. The best technology of that time was acquired at a most attractive price.

Figure 2: Beginning Of Arvind Limited

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TIMELINE 1931

1934 1980

1986

1987-88

1991 1992 1993

1993-94 1995

1997

Arvind Limited is set up by three brothers Kasturbhai, Narottambhai and Chimanbhai Lalbhai with a share capital of ₹2,525,000 (US$55,000) backed by state-of-the-art technology of England, with the aim to produce high-end superfine fabric. Products manufactured are dhoties, sarees, mulls, dorias, crepes, shirtings, bra, panties, coatings, printed lawns & voiles cambrics, twills gaberdine etc. With sales reaching ₹45.76 Lakhs, and a profit of almost ₹3 Lakhs, Arvind Limited establishes itself amongst the foremost textile units in the country. Arvind Limited records highest levels of profitability. The new strategy – ‗Reno vision‘, points at changing the business focus from local to global, towards a highquality premium niche market.  An uninterrupted record of not missing out on paying dividend to its shareholders.  First company to bring globally accepted fabrics Denim, yarn dyed shirting fabrics and wrinkle free gabardines to India.  Arvind enters the export market for Denims with a dual focus - Denim for leisure and Denim for fashion wear.  An established leader in fine and superfine cotton fabrics in Indian markets. Arvind reached 100 million meters of denim per year. Arvind emerges as the third largest manufacturer of denim in the world. The Company increased the production of denim cloth by 23,000 tonnes per day by modernising the plant located at Khatraj of Ankur Textiles.  The Company proposed to expand the denim manufacturing capacity by 85,00,000 metres per annum.  The Company also proposed to set up a new composite mill for producing annually 120 lakh meters of high quality shirting fabrics to be marketed in the domestic as well as international markets.  First Company to bring International Shirt brand ‗Arrow‘ to India.  First company to start retail outlets for Arrow brand.  The performance of textile division was significantly affected due to an unprecedented rise in cost of cotton.  Garment division launched ready to stitch jeans pack under the brand ‗Ruf & Tuf‘.  India‘s largest state-of-the-art facility for shirting, gabardine and knits is set up at Santej, Gandhinagar (Gujarat).  The largest zero discharge green effluent treatment plant in India.  The marketing and distribution network of ‗Newport‘ brand was strengthened and the relaunched ‗Flying Machine‘ and ‗Ruggers‘ brand

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 

    1998



1999

 

2000



2001

 

 2002



2003

 

2004

 

2005



were strengthened. The Company reported a fire in the goods godown & folding packing department in Naroda Road unit of the company. Arvind sets up the anti-piracy cell for the first time in India to curb large scale counterfeiting of their highly successful brands Ruf & Tuf and Newport jeans. Arvind Limited adopts the franchisee system for the manufacture and distribution of Ruf and Tuf jeans. Arvind Fashions, doubles its capacity in the state-of-the-art manufacturing facility in Bangalore to produce Lee jeans. First Indian company to verticalize the cotton textile business from cotton fields to apparel retailing. 1997 was also the year when Arvind Limited started facing serious troubles financially. First company to introduce ERP SAP business solutions in their new manufacturing unit in April 1998. Largest Denim and Shirting in South Asia. Arvind sets a two-month deadline for hiving off its garments division into a separate company and sale of its real estate in Delhi. CRISIL downgrades the debenture issues of Arvind Limited, indicating that the instruments were in default. Arvind entered into exports of garments setting up Shirt factories in Bangalore in 2001. Arvind defaults on a $125 million floating rate note issue and puts forward a debt restructuring proposal that could significantly reduce its debt burden and sharply improve its financial health. Arvind Limited posts a net loss of ₹44.59 crore for the quarter ended September 30, 2001. Arvind entered into Jeans Garment exports in March 2002 with its first Jeans factory ‗The Arvind Overseas (Mauritius) Ltd.‘, Mauritius, to offer full Garment package to its customers in USA and Europe. For the fourth quarter, Arvind witnesses 280% growth in the net profit. Arvind Limited is assigned a `P1+` rating by CRISIL, which indicates a very strong rating for their commercial paper. Company turns itself around showing remarkable improvement in financial performance. Arvind decided to move the Denim Garment factory to Bangalore, India in September 2004. Arvind creates a unique one-stop shop service on a global scale, offering

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  2007



2008



2010





garment packages to reputed national and international customers. For the fourth quarter in a row, Arvind has managed to post a profit growth in excess of 80 per cent. Arvind Limited decides to buy entire stake in Arvind Brands from ICICI Ventures Arvind expands its presence in the brands and retail segment by establishing MegaMart – One of India‘s largest value retail chains. Largest portfolio of International brands: Lee, Wrangler, Nautica, Jansport, Kipling, Tommy, Arrow, US Polo, Izod, Pierre Cardin, Palm Beach, Cherokee etc. Arvind Limited launches ‗The Arvind Store‘, a concept putting the company‘s best fabrics, brands and bespoke styling and tailoring solutions under one roof. Arvind becomes one of India‘s largest producers of fire protection fabrics. Table 1: Timeline of Arvind Limited

COMPANY’S VISION They Believe In people and their unlimited potential; in content and in focus on problem solving; in teams for effective performance, in the power of the intellect.

They Endeavour To select, train and coach people to obtain higher responsibilities; to nurture talent, and to build leaders for the corporations of tomorrow; to reward, celebrate and activate all intellectual business contributions.

They Dream Of excellence in all endeavors; of mutual benefit and prosperity; of making the world a better place to live in.

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EXECUTIVE LEADERS Corporate

Lifestyle Fabrics

Jayesh Shah Director & CFO

Aamir Akhtar CEO, Lifestyle Fabrics - Denim

Anang Lalbhai MD - Arvind Products

Susheel Kaul CEO, Knits & Woven Fabrics PD Chavda President, Voiles

Lifestyle Apparel Ashish Kumar CEO, Lifestyle Apparel - Jeans & Shirts

Brands & Retail J.Suresh Managing Director - Brands & Retail

Table 2: Executive Leaders Of Arvind Limited (Source: Company official website www.arvindmills.com)

DIVISIONS Woven Fabrics SHIRTING AND BOTTOM WEIGHTS Arvind‘s expertise in new age shirting fabric and bottom weights is unparalleled. Their shirting fabrics have consistently fetched a premium in the local and international markets. Prominent products within shirting category include fabrics with non-iron properties, mechanical finishes, printed fabrics apart from the cotton and cotton blends in Linen, Lycra, Polyester, Modal, Silk etc. with varieties in yarn dyes and solids. The state of the art facility is capable of producing a total of 65 million meters per annum of Shirting (35 million meters) and bottom weight fabrics (30 million meters). It ensures that stringent quality standards are met and products remain eco-friendly. This capacity is set to increase reaching a total of 84 million meters by the next financial year. Further, Arvind has a unique plant for manufacturing very light weight indigo dyed fabrics in yarn dyed and solids for top weights. Arvind Shirting has a liquid ammonia based fabric processing plant and a state-of-the-art print house – a first for India and one of the few in Asia.

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They have a dedicated in-house design team constantly working on product innovation and fashion forecasts for the domestic and international markets. They also boast of the largest yardage and sampling mill in India. Their spinning setup can produce a variety of counts for yarn types like compacts, slubs, signed yarn etc. The weaving capabilities include high-speed Airjet looms and Rapier looms. Their finishing capabilities include continuous bleaching and dying ranges, caustic mercerization, and machinery for various chemical and mechanical finishes. A sophisticated and supremely flexible package dying facility complete with vessels ranging from 1 Kg to 750 Kilograms and state of the art printing facilities are also in place. 

In addition to cotton they now work with a variety of fibers including Modal, Tencel, Excel, Viscose, Bemberg, Lycra, Silk, Linen, Polyester and Nylon.



They are host to India‘s first Ammonia Mercerization Plant.



They use patented technology to impart structural stability and superior hand-feel for the difficult-to-handle fibers like Modal, Tencel, Excel and Viscose.



Over the years, their in house R&D department has successfully developed and perfected a number of finishes adding value to our products and uniqueness to our range.



Other Chemical Finishes: Wrinkle free, Prepress, Everfresh, Easy to Iron, Stain Repellant, Nano Care, Anti-Bacterial, Permawhite etc.



Mechanical Finishes: Aero, Peach, Brush, Diamond Emery and Carbonium.

Their product range is certified by Oekotex, processes are certified by GOTS for producing Organic products. They are certified producers of Lycra and Teflon based varieties, while their laboratory is accredited by Marks and Spencers, Next, Gap Inc., Levi's, DuPont and INVISTA.

DENIMS The late 1980‘s saw Arvind pioneer the manufacture of denim in India. Today with an installed capacity of over 110 million meters per annum, Arvind is a leading producer of denim in the world. It has an export network of 70 countries worldwide. Design, Innovations and Sustainability have been their core competency and have played a key role in the success. The use of sophisticated ultramodern technology under the guidance of world-renowned designers has enabled Arvind to deliver many firsts in the international markets. All their products are designed and modeled on the basis of expert design inputs coming from our designers based out of India, Japan, Italy and the United States. All Arvind Denim products come with the hallmark of distinctiveness and quality. Some Examples:

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Shuttle looms for Selvedge denim



Name selvedge and Stretch selvedge



Unique Fibers like Excel, Jute, Silk, Linen



Natural Indigo and Vegetable dyes



Unique concept products like Indigo voiles & Handspun denim



Organic, BCI & Sustainable denim

The denim facility at Arvind is accredited with ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OEKOTEX 100, GOTS, and Organic exchange standard. Our labs are certified by NABL (ISO 17025 certification) and customers like Levi‘s, Lee, and Wrangler etc. As one of the largest denim producers in the world, Arvind caters to quality markets of Europe, US, West Asia, the Far East and the Asia Pacific.

KHAKI The many virtues of Arvind Khaki merit undivided attention: An annual capacity of 21 million meters which facilitates the launch of two new collections annually; and the distinction of being the only khakis division in South East Asia to do so. The division provides the finest fabrics in the variants of 100% Cotton, Cotton Rich Polyester Blend, Cotton Lycra, Cotton Tencel, Cotton Linen, etc to name a few. The division has an integrated plant with weaving and processing facilities. The most prominent products in this range include Chinos, Canvas, Ribstop, HBT, Tussore, Cavalry, Structures and Dobbies.

VOILES Arvind has been well poised as a leading manufacturer of super fine fabrics in India. An uncontested market-leader in the manufacture of voiles, Arvind still continues to manufacture the traditional fabric for both domestic and international markets. The legacy of Arvind transcends from the olden days into a golden future with a production capacity of 36 million meters per annum. Arvind‘s voiles are primarily used as blouse material and are sold in the domestic market through an impressive network of around 150 dealers, reaching over 5000 retail outlets throughout India. High quality Swiss voiles are exported to Switzerland, Sri Lanka and countries in the Middle East.

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Customers of Woven Fabrics: Banana Republic, Brooks Brothers, Ann Taylor, Hugo Boss, Calvin Klein, Polo Ralph, Eddie Bauer, Express, J Crew, Louis Phillip, Van Heusen, Arrow, Color Plus, Esprit, Paul Smith, Park Avenue

KNITS FABRICS Arvind‘s knits department has an annual knitting capacity of 5,000 tons. The knits vertical has a fabric dyeing capacity of 5000 tons per annum and yarn dyeing capacity of 1800 tons per annum. It has the ability to process both tubular and open-width fabrics and offers specialty finishes like mercerization, singeing and various forms of brushing and peaching. The department also boasts of a state-of- the art print shop equipped with fully automatic placement printing capabilities Basic knits: Jersey, Pique, Rib, and Interlock  Specialty knits: Yarn-dyed, Auto stripers, Jacquards, and Stretch fabric  Fibers: Cotton, Excel, Viscose, Modal, Polyester  Finishes: Mercerization, Brushing, Peaching, Aero-finish. Customers: Marks & Spencer – Eddie Bauer – Zara – Josepha Bank 

ADVANCED MATERIALS Arvind's Advanced Materials is a certified ISO 9001: 2008 manufacturing facility producing high performance industrial fabrics with world class technology and knowhow based on a strong foundation of knowledge, research and market needs. They are committed to offer textile solutions for rapidly growing sectors like General Industrial manufacturing and processing, infrastructure, transport, energy and personal protection.

OTHER DIVISIONS GARMENT EXPORTS A world without boundaries is a promise of a global marketplace. At Arvind, the range of fabrics is universal in appeal. They aim to inspire a diverse mix of customers enriching lifestyles globally. 

Bottoms: 7.2 million pieces of jeans per annum\



Formal & Casual tops: 6 million pieces per annum

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Knit tops: 3.6 million pieces per annum



Their specialized capabilities for adding value to our products include; • • • •

Automated Placement Printing Machinery India‘s largest washing facility with Tonello machines for wet processes Bohemian machines and Laser tech for unique and automated dry processes Skilled artisans for hand processes

BRANDS Arvind today manufactures fabric for the following brand names:In – house brands : Excalibur, Flying machine, Ruff and tuff, New Port university. Licensed Brands: Gant, U.S.A. 1949, Hart Shaffer Marx, USPA, Sansa Belt , Arrow Joint Ventured Brands: Tommy Hilfiger, Nautica, Lee, Wrangler, Riders

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ORGANIZATION CHART OF ARVIND MILLS-SHIRTING DIVISION Chairman & Managing Director (Mr. Sanjay S. Lalbhai)

Chief Executive Officer- Knits and Woven Fabrics (Mr. Susheel Kaul)

Production Spinning HR Department Weaving Material Stores Processing & Finishing Administration & Accounts Quality Control Exports and Domestic Testing Packaging

Engineering

Production Planning and Control

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PROCESSES / DEPARTMENTS OF ARVIND MILLS, SANTEJ PRODUCTION PROCESS FLOW CHART SPINNING

WEAVING PREPARATION

WEAVING

WET PROCESSING

DYEING/ PRINTING

FINISHING

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Raw Material Store Room

OBJECTIVE The Raw Materials Department is the department from where the work starts in the plant. The main objectives of raw material department are storing, issuing, and reconciliation of raw material intended for manufacturing. (Raw Materials were placed in the storage Room as per their sourcing places.)

SYSTEM AND PROCEDURE Work takes place in the following systematic order:1. The orders are placed in the Marketing Department, at the Head Office stationed at Arvind mills santej, Ahmedabad. The customer specifies its requirements in the order. 2. A sales order is then prepared giving a systematic description of the requirements by the Marketing Department, which is then sent to the factory. 3. The Sales Order is received at the Production Planning and Commitment Department (PPC). 4. The PPC Department then makes the production planning chart which includes all the characteristics of the yarn required. 5. The Production Program is then sent to the Raw Materials Department.

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ROLE OF RAW MATERIAL DEPARTMENT It receives the material, which is ordered by production department and issues the required material to the department. In case of rejection, it stores the rejected material and returns it to the seller end.

Types of cotton Arvind Mills use: 1. PAKISTAN COTTON

2. J34 SG It is a selection from non-descriptive hirustum mixtures. Re-selection from Bikaneri Narma. It is sown in the months of April/May and the crop is ready for picking by October/December.. J34RG and SG are grown in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan and total production per annum is around 2.6 million bales of each of 170 Kg.

3. SHANKAR-6 GUJARAT COTTON It is sown in the month of June-July and is ready for picking in November and may extend upto February. It is cultivated in an area of 4.4 million Acres in the state of Gujarat.

4. ORGANIC COTTON Organic cotton is being produced in-house by arvind mills, and also being procured from fully organic certified farms, as some environment conscious customers prefer to use it. b. Arvind’s organic cotton contract farming project is located in the cotton growing belt district of Maharashtra; Akola. ) .

MATERIAL PURCHASE In Raw Material, they source both long staple fibers and short staple fibers from Andra Pradesh, Rajasthan,Punjab,Gujarat and imports from Pakistan. Certain prerequisites are considered as to what kind of cotton fibers are required like Length, Strength, Fineness (micronium per inch), Uniformity Ratio. • Geeta cotton Co. Pvt. Ltd. (Andhra Pradesh) • Sai Venkata agro industries pvt.ltd(Andhra Pradesh) • Sri Ganganagar Pvt. Ltd. (Rajasthan) etc.

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Spinning Department

Figure 3: Layout Of Spinning Department

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SPINNING PROCESS

(http://www.toyota-industries.com/product/textile/textile/made.html)

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PROCESS FLOW 1. Bales of cotton of various grades are moved from the WAREHOUSE to the BALE OPENING room. 2. Selected bales are opened and placed in position beside the BREAKING and OPENING machine. This is actually a line of machines, working as a unit, that tear apart and partially clean matted, compressed, and baled cotton. The result is small loose bunches of cotton. 3. The cotton is then placed into the BLENDING MACHINE. This is a group of devices that are synchronized to proportion definite amounts of various grades of cotton which are to be blended together. 4. At this time, matted cotton and waste yarn salvaged from operations in the mill are placed into the WASTE MACHINE. This machine beats, pulls apart, and fluffs up waste cotton to prepare it for re-use. 5. Cotton from both the BLENDING MACHINE and the WASTE MACHINE is fed into the BREAKER PICKER. In this unit the raw cotton is partially cleaned by beating and fluffing and then fed into the FINISHER PICKER. 6. The FINISHER PICKER receives partially cleaned cotton in the form of LAP from the BREAKER PICKER and completes the cleaning and fluffing process. LAP is a general term used to designate wide sheets of loosely matted cotton. 7. The cotton is next processed by a CARDING MACHINE, where dirt and short fibers are removed, other fibers are laid parallel and formed into a ropelike strand called a SLIVER. The SLIVER is deposited in large cylindrical containers called CANS. 8. Subsequent processing depends on whether better grade (combed) yarn, or lower grade (carded) yarn is desired. For the lower grade, processig continues at the DRAWING FRAME (see step 12 below) 9. For better grade yarn, the SLIVER is first processed by the SLIVER LAPPING MACHINE, which draws and combines several strands of SLIVER into a sheet of LAP and winds it on a spool ready for RIBBON LAPPING or COMBING. 10. The LAP is processed by a RIBBON LAPPING MACHINE which draws and combines several rolls of LAP into one roll of RIBBON LAP, straightening the fibers slightly and making the lap more uniform in weight and texture, ready for feeding to a COMBING MACHINE. RIBBON LAP is a roll of closely matted cotton fibers, about 10 inches wide.

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11. COMBING is the process of extracting fibers below a predetermined length and removing any remaining dirt. Output of the COMBING MACHINE is deposited in CANS. 12. The cotton is next processed by the DRAWING FRAME. It is a machine in which several strands of SLIVER are combined into one strand and DRAWN OUT so that the combined strands approximate the weight and size of any one of the original strands. The term DRAWN OUT means to stretch a strand of cotton, usually by running the strand between several pairs of rollers, each pair turning faster than the pair before it. 13. The SLUBBING MACHINE then draws out strands of SLIVER and twists them together loosely in order to give the strands (now called ROVING) sufficient strength to withstand subsequent operations. 14. The ROVING is processed by the FLY FRAME. This machine progressively combines two strands of partially processed ROVING into one, draws out the combined strands until they are of prescribed weight, and twists them loosely in order to give them sufficient strength to withstand subsequent operations. (http://www.glencoenc.com/library/flow.html)

BLOW ROOM Blow room is the starting of the spinning operation where the fiber is opened, cleaned, mixed and evened. The whole machine is subject to suction and the dust is collected in special filters; the material, on the other hand, undergoing contemporaneously, the rotary action of the cylinder and suction along the operating width, effects a helical movement around the drum and exits from the side opposite to that on which it entered. It is then transferred by the delivery hopper into the transportation conduit.

OBJECTIVES OF BLOWROOM: 1. To open the compressed bales of fibers 2. Remove dirt and dust, broken leaf, seed particles or any other foreign impurities from the fibers 3. To transfer the opened and cleaned fibers into a sheet form of definite width uniform weight per unit length which is called lap.

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4. To roll the lap of predetermined length into a cylindrical shape around a lap pin. 5. To transfer the lap from the lap pin to a lap rod to a suitable and feed it to the subsequent m/c (carding).

Figure 4:Blow Room Line

(http://www.truetzschler-spinning.com/en/products/blow-room/technical-highlights-blow-room/)

BLOW ROOM LINE 1. Blendomat (bale opener and cotton plucker) 2. GBR(cotton opener) 3. AFC(Axi flow cleaner) 4. MPM(Multiplex mixer) 5. ASTA(heavy particle cleaner) 6. Dustex(Micro dust cleaner)

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BLENDING (BDT BLENDOMAT) Bale Specification 1 Bales :

165-170 kgs Table 3: Bale Specification

Blending: It is meant as the intermingling of different kinds of fibers or different grade of same fibers e.g. polyester & cotton, Viscose & cotton.   



Blending of fiber material is an essential preliminary in the production of a yarn. Fibers can be blended at various stages of the process. These possibilities should always be fully exploited, for example, by transverse doubling. However, the starting process is one of the most important stages for blending, since the components are still separate and therefore can be metered exactly and without dependence upon random effects. A well-assembled bale layout and even (and as far as possible, simultaneous) extraction of fibers from all bales is therefore of paramount importance.

Objectives of mixing or blending   

Economy Processing performance Functional properties

Place of Origin: Germany Brand Name Trutzschler Model Number: Blendomat BDT 019 Type BLENDOMAT Depth (Limit) 93-1789 Metres The machine takes up 50-60 cotton bales (approx.) in 8.5 hours. Each cotton bale weight 165 kg’s. Machine main supply : 3Ph/Ac, 415V, 50Hz. Control circuit : 1Ph/Ac, 24V, 50Hz Table 4: BLOW ROOM MACHINE SPECIFICATION (BLENDOMAT BDT019)

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GBR Here the cottons are fed for homogenous mixtures and for removing dirts.MPM-8 – it has got 8 chambers. Generally used for homogenous mixture of fibers like while harvesting some cotton are from matured plants and some are not. So that it will affect the fabric. So, after homogenous mixing all will be the same.

Opening Steps : • cottons are passes between feeder rolls to beater cylinder. The rapidly whirling beater blades take off small tufts of cotton, knock out trash, and loosen up the mass. • The two screen rolls are made of screen material and air is sucked out of them by fan. • This draws the cotton from beater and condenses it on the surface of the screen rolls from which it is taken and passed on by the small rolls. • Air suction through cotton takes out dirt and trash. Conveyor belt passes cotton to another type of beater. From beater the cotton passes to a conveyor and is carried to picker. 

GBR cotton opener- opens about 400 kg/hr.

Figure 5: BLOW ROOM GBR MACHINE(ARVIND ,SANTEJ UNIT)

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AXI FLOW CLEANER CLEANING     

Cotton contains up to 18% trash in most cases. To clean the material it is unavoidable to remove as much fiber as much waste. Therefore it is necessary to measure the amount of the waste removed and its composition. As it is of high importance also called cleaning efficiency. Cotton moves from GBR to Axiflow cleaner by suction and impurities fall below in a bin under the gravitational pull. Axiflow cleaner is fitted with beaters. Objective of AFC is separation of heavy parts (impurities) from cotton. The opened up mass of fiber rotates around two cleaning rollers (beaters) with cylinder steel pins which beat the fiber material, allowing the coarse particles to be separated.

Machine used in Arvind Mills ,santej unit : Machine make: Model: Pressure: Major parts: Speed range Of beaters :

Trutzschler (Germany) 052-2502 50-75 bar Two metallic perforated cylinders and waste collector 400-600 rpm Table 5: AXI FLOW CLEANER MACHINE SPECIFICATION

MPM MULTIPLE MIXERMixing . This sucks cotton from axi flow cleaner and pumps to ASTA meanwhile sorting the cotton fibers .Generally used for homogenous mixture of fibers. Fitted with eight beaters.

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Machine used for Mixing in Arvind Mills ,santej unit:

Machine: Model: Motor speed: Opening rolls speed: Number of chambers: Output: Pressure: Major parts:

Trutzschler 10236 1750 rpm 800-850 m/min 10 30-36% 350 bar This machine consists of material feed, reserve tank, reserve tank flaps, optical sensor delivery, rollers, and material suction funnel.

Table 6: MPM MULTIPLE MIXER MACHINE SPECIFICATION

ASTA: Objective of ASTA is Heavy trash separation from cotton. The air and material enters the separation tank in a stream via upper channel and hit baffle plates. Heavy particles are removed away from the lighter fibers by negative acceleration and the force of gravity. The lower channel generates air stream in the area of baffle plates, which guides the fibers to the outlet. Machine used in Arvind Mills ,santej unit:

Machine brand : Model no. Principle :

TRUTZSCHLER (GERMANY) ASTA 800 Principle of aerodynamics Table 7: ASTA MACHINE SPECIFICATION

DUSTEX:  

 

Dust removal is not an easy operation since the dust particles are completely enclosed in the flocks & hence are back during suction. The suction units remove 64% dust. Dust removal in the blow room happens by air suctioning only, either between the machines, e.g. by dust cages, dust extractors, etc., or within the machine by normal air separation. Every blow room machine must be capable of extracting dust, so that special dedusting machines should be needed. The efficiency depends not only on the devices but also on the size of the flocks. The smaller the flocks, the higher is the efficiency.

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Machine used in Arvind Mills ,santej unit:

Machine brand: Model no.: No. of machines: Cleaning efficiency:

TRUTZSCHLER(GERMANY) CVT-4 1600 3 64%

Table 8: DUSTEX MACHINE SPECIFICATION

CARDING Carding is the heart of the entire spinning process and as such requires utmost care. Next to blow room, carding is the only major stage for cleaning cotton.

Figure 6: D/F B/W CARDED AND UNCARDED YARNS Figure 7: CARDING PROCESS

OBJECTIVES OF CARDING:       



To open the tuft of fibers To make the fiber parallel & straight To remove remaining trash particles To remove short fibers To remove naps To produce a rove like fiber called sliver, which is uniform in per unit length. Carding is a mechanical process that breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and then aligns the individual fibres so that they are more or less parallel with each other. Carding can also be used to create blends of different fibres or different colours. Carding is the process of removing impurities from fibers and producing a carded sliver of parallelized and straightened fibers.

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  

Before the raw stock can be made into yarn, the remaining impurities must be removed, the fibers must be disentangles, and they must be straightened. The straightening process puts the fibers into somewhat parallel Carding. The work is done by carding machine.

MAIN ACTIONS OF CARDING MACHINE Action between fee roller & taker in 2. Action between taker in and cylinder 3. Action between cylinder and flat 4. Action between cylinder and doffer. 1.

Machine used in Arvind Mills ,santej unit:

Number of machines:

14

Machine brand:

Trutzschler (Germany)

Model:

DK 70

Cylinder speed: Doffer speed:

450-500 rpm 25-30 rpm

Cylinder diameter:

1290 mm

Doffer diameter:

500 mm

Can diameter:

24‖

Can height:

42‖

Temperature:

33.3 degree Celsius

Production: Rate of feed:

25 kg/hr. 500gm/min Table 9:CARDING MACHINE SPECIFICATION

DRAWING In the spinning process, the next important stage in the cotton process is draw frame. By carding the entangled mass of fibers is well opened so that every fiber becomes quite free. These individual fibers lie criss-cross in the web. These fibers require be straightening and parallelizing to the possible extent. OBJECTIVE OF DRAWING: • To straightened the fibers in the slivers. • To make them lie in a manner parallel to their neighbors and to the sliver axis.

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• To improve the uniformity or evenness of the slivers. Pre draw frame: 8 carded slivers are fed into the drawing machine where they are combined and drawn into a single sliver using some tension. The sliver is made more uniform in terms of mass per unit length, parallel and improved. A relative humidity of 51-53% and temperature of 33-35% are maintained on the floor. Breaker sliver is the output. Unilap: Here 24-26 breaker slivers are combined to form a single lap sheet. A single roll of lap weighs is 1 kg. Comber lap emerges out of this machine. Machine used in Arvind ,santej unit: RIETER UNILAP E 30. No. of machine: 2 Comber: The laps are fed into the system where they are combed by rollers with teeth. 8 laps are combined to form 1 combed sliver.

The following quality of fibers can only be obtained by combing     

Clean finer fiber Uniformity in length of fiber Absence of nap More parallel arrangement of fibers Straight fibers

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The sequence of operation in a comber is as follows: 1. Feeding of the lap by feed roller 2. The fed lap is gripped by the nipper 3. The gripped lap is combed by circular comb 4. The detaching roller grips the combed lap and moves forward 5. While the detaching roller delivers the material, top comb comes into action to further clean the lap. The short fibres are removed. 6. While going back, nipper opens and receives a new bit of lap. Thus, nipper holds the material while the comb moves to and fro. It pulls the material. There are brushes that clean the circular comb. Machine used in Arvind ,santej unit: RIETER E 60. No. of machine: 15 Post draw frame: 8 combed slivers are further combined, parallelized and the sliver quality is improved by drawing. The mass/ length is reduced. These are called finished sliver. Machine used in Arvind ,santej unit: RIETER RSB951 No. of machine: 7

ROVING

The main objective of roving frame is given below:  

Attenuation- Drafting the draw frame sliver into roving. Twisting-To inserts the twist into the roving. Winding-Winding the twisting roving on bobbin.

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SPEED FRAME Slivers are made into roving bobbins by imparting a slight twist and drawing under tension through roller pairs. The bobbins are placed one by one in rows and the armed flyer of the machine is lowered to the level of a black ring on it. 2 rounds of roving are wound to begin with, and the guide on the arm carries it all around the bobbin thus winding it parallely. A much finer thread of fibers are produced. Machine used in Arvind Mills ,santej unit:

Figure 8:Speed Frame LF1400A MACHINE IMAGE SOURCE: (ARVIND ,SANTEJ UNIT)

Machine brand: Model no. Speed up to: No of machines: Delivery speed up to: Number of spindles

Lakshmi Lakshmi LF1400A 1400rpm 13 40 mts/min 72-144 Table 10: SPEED FRAME MACHINE SPECIFICATION

RING FRAME: This is the process of formation of yarn. Roving is spun into the yarn of desired count by imparting twist. 4 pairs of rollers with and without groves play the drawing action thus reducing the mass/length and forming yarn. These are wound on smaller spindles. Machine used in Arvind Mills ,santej unit:

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Figure 9:Ring Frame LR60 IMAGE SOURCE: (ARVIND ,SANTEJ UNIT)

Machine brand: Model no. Speed up to: No of machines: Delivery speed up to: Number of spindles

Lakshmi Lakshmi LR60/AXL 1600rpm 14 30 mts/min 200-500 Table 11:RING FRAME MACHINE SPECIFICATION

RANDOM WINDING/ CONE WINDING: Yarns from the bobbin are transferred to bigger packages called cone on simple cone winder/ mach winder or Autoconer. Bobbins placed in magazine are moved through channels and detected for loose ends. Those with free end are transported further and attached to the loose end present in the cone continuing the winding process. Then they are just spliced with each other thus avoiding knotting to get better efficiency in weaving. The bobbins when empty are tracked back to be collected by vacuum suction and dropped into a bin.

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Figure 10: CONE WINDING IMAGE SOURCE: (ARVIND ,SANTEJ UNIT)

ASSEMBLY WINDING: Here, 2 cones are used to double the yarn. There is no twist, but only parallel winding of 2 or more yarns for ply and wound on cheese.

Figure 11: ASSEMBLY WINDING IMAGE SOURCE: (ARVIND ,SANTEJ UNIT)

TFO: The two for one twist machine is for twisting the plied yarn and produces bigger cones. To prevent sloughing off, here, a guide takes the yarn around the package forming a firm setting. A cone weighs up to 1.8 kg. Z/Z twist is given.

SINGEING: The yarns are made to pass through flames at fixed temperature, pressure and maintaining other specifications. This is done to remove loose fibers and short hairs that cause disturbance in the smoothness of the yarn. CNG is used as fuel and singed yarn is obtained as output.2 machines are currently being employed now to solve the working efficiency of the factory.

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List of testing instrument and their functions Instrument HVI (High Volume Instrument ) (USTER HVI 100)

AFIS PRO (USTER® AFIS PRO 2) MDTA(Micro Dust Trash Analyzer) UT5 ( Uster Tester – 5)

USER ZWEIGLE HL 400 TENSOJET CLASSIMAT 5

To check Length of raw material Strenght of raw material Elongation of raw material Color value of raw material Length of fiber from bale and sliver Short fiber content of bale and sliver Neps content of fibers from bale and sliver Trash content in raw material Mass variation of sliver,roving and yarn Imperfection of ring bobbin and cone Hairiness of ring bobbin and cone To check the number of hairs of yarn in different length zone Single yarn strenght of yarn Elongation of yarn To classify yarn faults of ring yarn and cone

(USTER® CLASSIMAT 5)

AUTOSORTER WARP BLOCK WARP REEL STRENGHT TESTER TPI TESTER

To check count of sliver ,roving and yarn To prepare sliver and roving for count checking To prepare yarn for count checking To check strenght of ring yarn and cone To check the TPI of single and double yarn

Table 12: TESTING INSTRUMENT AND THEIR FUNCTIONS(ARVINDS MILLS)

WEAVING DEPARTMENT

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Weaving is interlacement of warp with weft thread. In weaving, the warp thread and weft yarn are crossed over one another in a set method in order to weave the required type of fabric. A machine designed to accomplish this task is called a loom. First, the warp thread and weft yarn are prepared so that they can be set into the loom.

Source: (http://www.toyota-industries.com/product/textile/textile/made.html)

WEAVING PREPARATION Yarn is the basic building in weaving. Therefore, after yarn manufacturing, the next successive step should be to weave the yarn into a fabric. However, in practice, the condition of yarn produced on the spinning machine is not always good enough to be used directly for fabric formation. Package Size, yarn surface characteristics, and other factors make it necessary for both filling yarn and warp yarn to be further processed for efficient fabric formation. These preparatory processes are called weaving preparation. Warp and filling yarns are subjected to different conditions and requirements during weaving. Therefore, the preparation of warp and weft yarns is different. Warp yarn is subjected to higher stress which require extra preparation. Depending upon the weaving methods, the filling yarns may not be prepared at all, but, rather taken straight off the spinning process and transported to the weaving process. However, the ring- spun yarns have to go through a winding process for several reasons.  The processes used to prepare yarns for weaving depend on yarn type as well.  The warp yarn preparation is more demanding and complicated than the weft yarn preparation. Each spot in the warp yarn must undergo several thousand cycles of various stresses applied by the weaving machine. Weaving stresses include dynamic tension/contraction, rotation (twist/untwist) and clinging of hairs. Additionally, there are

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metal- to yarn and yarn-to yarn flexing and metal-to- yarn and yarn-to-yarn abrasion stresses. Output of the spinning machinery is spindles of short-length yarns. These spindles cannot be used in the next production process because they are very small lengths, because there is not enough yarn on the spindle and because its size is not suitable for weaving processes. Winding produces a yarn package that is suitable for further processing. Lycra is used to increase the elasticity of the fiber. Filament is used in the fiber which is exported to countries where the level of sweating is lower as compared to Indian condition where majorly cotton is used for the same reason. The weaving department has the distinction of being the largest at Arvind Mills and exports close to 95% of its manufactured fabric. Discussing the denim fabric, the core competence of AM, original denim is composed of 100% cotton but with a view to bring in variations to the material in consonance with the emerging trends in the market, various natural fibers like linen and synthetic fibers like filament, lycra, polyester are added to cotton. While weaving such mixed fabric, the core is made of the addend and original cotton is wound around it. Yarn woven vertically is called warp while that woven laterally is termed as weft. For weaving purposes a cotton count ranging from 5 to 20 is generally used.

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Weft Yarn Preparation

Warp Yarn Preparation

Winding

Winding

Warping

Slashing

Drawing-in or tying-in

Weaving

Figure 12 The flowchart of major preparation processes for filling the warp yarns

YARN DYEING SOFT WINDING

BATCHING

REWINDING

DRYER

YARN DYEING

HYDROEXTRACTOR

Figure 13 : process flow chart of yarn dyeing

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SOFT WINDING: Yarns are transferred from paper cones to plastic tubes or steel tubes (package dyeing) or beams (beam dyeing). BATCHING: Yarns are batched according to their count, lot, yarn type and others. A batch card is formed which contained the essential information of that batch. DYEING: The yarn for spinning room is in form of spinning bobbins. For dyeing purposes, it has to be packed in  Spring tubes (which can be compressed) or plastic tubes. These packages are named packages, which are then sent for dyeing  Beams are prepared which are then sent for yarn beam dyeing. SOFT PACKAGES The requirements that a yarn dye package has to meet can be split into 2 major aspects  Demands from dyeing.  Demands from downstream processes and quality control.

The Recipe includes: Pretreatment- Scouring 1. Sequestering/ Chelating agent 2. De-aerating cum wetting agent 3. Alkali-caustic/ soda ash Pretreatment- Bleaching 1. Hydrogen peroxide 2. Stabilizer for peroxide Acid for neutralization Dyeing- Reactive 1. Color (HE/ME) 2. Salt (for exhaustion) 3. Soda ash (for fiation) 4. Leveling agent Dyeing- Vat 1. Color 2. Sodium hydro sulphite (reducing agent) 3. Caustic (to make vat soluble in water) 4. H2O2 (oxidizing agent)

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Procedure 

BLEACHING: LS, SPLF, STCP and caustic are taken at room temperature and raised to 50 C. it is stirred for 5 min in mixing vessel and brought to the dyeing chamber. H2O2 is added at 95 C and stirred for 30 min. it is drained of chemicals.



WASHING: H2O2 and alkali are removed by treatment with hot water at 95 C for 10 minutes. It is washed in cold water for 2 minutes. The peroxide and alkali are neutralized with acetic acid and 10L.



DYEING: Fresh hot water is taken in the dyeing chamber, LSER and SPLF (wetting agent) are added to soften the water. This is stirred for 10 minutes and salt added. Again stirring happens. The color is added fially and boiled at 80 C for 30 minutes. The liquor is sent back to mixing vessel where soda ash is added for fiation. It is sent to the dyeing chamber and treated at 80 C for 45 minutes. The solution is drained and material is washed for 10 minutes at 80 C. IN OUT for reactive dyes and IN OUT and OUT IN for vat dyes.



SOAPING: ADW is added to wash off extra dyes. This also reduces the dyes thus fiing them permanently. Th procedure is for 20 minutes at 95C. Washing with fresh water at 80 C for 10 minutes is done. Cold wash is carried out after this followed by rinsing and drying. Shade matching: Once the yarn is dried it is sent for shade matching in computer. Drying: If the yarn matches, YL is added for lighter shade and Supra for darker shade are added for softening and fiing. Then the package goes to RF machine for drying which takes

DYEING RELATED REQUIREMENTS: These include the basic physical issues relating to the fundamental requirement of each and every fiber in the dye package to be exposed to an equal amount of dye liquor over an equal length of time, and, thus, we require:  Uniform liquor flow within a package  Uniform liquor between packages (within batch)  Uniform liquor flow between packages (batch-to-batch) In other words, each and every yarn dye package has to conform to a prescribed density and this density has to be uniform from inside to outside and from tip to toe of package. Similarly, packages of identical density and uniformity have to be produced on any spindle of a winding machine at any given time, meaning total reproducibility.

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The density of spun yarn dye packages recommend by leading dyeing vessel manufacturers is:  For Cotton: 420 g/l  For Cotton/ Polyester blend: 460 g/l Since such packages, as compared with those intended for use in warping creels or knitting creels, feel spongier, they are universally referred to as ―soft packages‖. Apart from yarn dyeing these packages must also conform to certain post-dyeing requirements, thus,  Optimum unwinding properties  Resistance of package to handling, are equally important aspects of soft package winding. After dyeing, the yarn will be used in either weaving or knitting, and, thus has to be unwound for further processing. Therefore, no tension variation or disturbed yarn layers must be present, as these defects are the major source of yarn hairiness or breakages.

In Arvind Mills    

There are 37 workers and the production per day is around 14 tons. Types of cones: - Paper Plastic Tube(PPT), use and throw(135-140 g) - Spring tube- stainless steel-reusable(165 g) Package Size: 1.2 kg. These soft packages are used for dyeing checks and stripes.

BEAMS FOR BEAM DYEING Besides the yarn being wound in the form of soft packages, it is also wound on beams for beam dyeing purpose. Beam dyeing is mainly carried out if we want one color in the warp direction of the fabric. Spinning bobbins are placed on creels, and the yarn from each bobbin is then collected and sent to the machine, where it is wound on cylinders.

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WORKING PRINCIPLE OF BEAM DYEING MACHINES The working principle is same as that of HTHP yarn dyeing machines. The process of beam dyeing is as follows, 1. The yarn in open width is rolled on to a perforated beam. 2. The beam then subsequently inserted into a dyeing vessel. 3. The machine is closed and pressurized. 4. The dye liquor is circulated in to out and out to in directions, under pressure and temperature is employed as per the process requirement. 5. The chemicals and auxiliary are injected as per requirement of the process.

In Arvind Mills

Machine Beam Dyeing Route

  



 

Specifications 85% efficiency 400-500 m/hr. speed 30 kg/ beam- max. capacity (1160 m.) Faller wire stop motion device Figure 14 Beam dyeing route machine specification

Per shift- 24 beams The packages were mounted on a creel. Each creel has about 700- grey packages. One and a half hours are required to change the creel. A creel has 700 cones. Yarn from each cone passes through a spring before passing through the drop wires. These springs are set to a particular tension which determines the speed and tension at which he cheese will unwind. Faller wire stop motion mechanism is as follows: Creel has drop wires (hook shaped), which drop as a yarn passing through it breaks. A sensor is attached to the Dyeing Beam stops the machine as soon as it senses a wire drop. An indicator attached to the side of the rod (to which drop wires are attached), is lighted, thereby indicating the point where yarn breakage occurs. There are 41 machines; it takes 6.5 hours in beam dyeing.

HYDROEXTRACTOR AND DRYER: Excess water of the dyed yarn is removed. Hydroextracting without deformation of bobbins and cones provides better results in drying and rewinding. Therefore the overall system hydro-extracting – drying – rewinding system increases efficiency and quality.

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WINDING Yarn packages come from the dyeing unit in the form of packages winded in spring or PP tube. They can‘t be directly used for warping or for weft yarn on the looms. So the weaving department is equipped with winding machines and autoconers. These machines are also used to recycle the left over cone packages. Packages that have been used for warping or as weft on the looms, (and are left with some yarn on them) are collected and converted to bigger packages so they can be used again. In the process, the yarn from a number of ring frame bobbins or hanks is put in a long continuous length on to bigger packages such as Warper‘s bobbin, cone or cheese. During this process, the objectionable faults are removed from yarn. For the use of dyed yarn, ring frame bobbins may be taken to reeling process to obtain hanks. These hanks are dyed & then sent to winding. The yarn is dyed in cone/cheese form also. Thus, winding packages (warpers‘ bobbin, corn or cheese) are taken to next process of warping i.e. Direct Warping or Sectional Warping. There are 80 workers in this department.

OBJECTIVES OF WINDING: 

Scanning and faults removing: Electric Scanners (uster) are used for checking and elimination of yarn faults during winding process. This process is called Usterization of yarn. Such faults are called scan-cuts.



Splicing of broken or cut yarn: Auto splicing is done for broken yarn pieces to eliminate yarn knots and bad piecing.



Bigger and quality package: Conversion of yarn from small ring bobbins to bigger yarn cones of different international standard or as per requirement of customer. During achieving above objectives or making of winding cones some faults are created during the process. These faults need to be controlled through monitoring and continuous study. Most of the winding faults are very dangerous for the next subsequent process which can be warping or knitting or doubling. We can face complains from customer of breakage of yarn during unwinding process.

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HOW QUALITY IS MAINTAINED IN ARVIND MILLS? Following point are considered from quality point of view:         

Winding speed should be 1200 meter per minute for getting good quality. For getting good quality, yarn fault clearers device setting should be as close as possible in order to eliminate the disturbing yarn faults. In order to get good quality of yarn count channel setting should be less than 7%. Cone which we prepare for weaving purpose should have minimum fault for getting good quality, especially in the long thin places and long thick places. For getting good quality yarn, splice strength must be 75% more than of the yarn strength. Splice appearance should be good. Splice device should be checked twice in a week. To get better efficiency, cone weight should be 1.8 to 2.4. Yarn winding tension must not be high during winding. If we will keep it high then tensile properties will be affected such as elongation and tenacity. If waxing attachment is below the clearers, the clearers should be clean at least once in a day.

Properly formed packages of defect-free spun- yarn are an even more critical factor. Package consideration include condition of the passage core, the proper provision of yarn transfer tails; properly formed splices or knots; elimination of internal defects such as slubs, sloughs, tangles, wild yarn, scuffs, etc.; and elimination of external defects such as cobwebs, abrasion, poor package shape or build, proper density (hardness) and unwind stability.

PRECISION WINDING: By precision winding successive coils of yarn are laid close together in a parallel or near parallel manner. By this process it is possible to produce very dense package with maximum amount of yarn stored in a given volume.

Features:     

Package are wound with a reciprocating traverse Patterning and rubbing causes damage of packages Package contains more yarn Package is less stable The package is hard and compact

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  

The package is dense Rate of unwinding of package is low and the process of unwinding is hard The unwound coil is arranged in a parallel or near parallel manner.

NON PRECISION WINDING By this type of winding the package is formed by a single thread which is laid on the package at appreciable helix angle so that the layers cross one another and give stability to the package. The packages formed by this type of winding are less dense but is more stable. Features:         

Only one coil is used to make this packages Cross winding technique is used The package density is low Minimum number of yarn is wound The package formed is soft and less compact The stability is high Flanges are not required The rate of unwinding is high and the process is easy The packages formed have low density

FOR WINDING Make of the Machine

No. Of heads

No. Of Machines

Muratec Machconer No.7 VSS

60

4

Schlafhorst Autoconer 238

50

5

Muratec Machconer No.7

50

12

Oerlikon Schlafhorst Autoconer X5

60

8

Table 13: Machines for winding

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Figure 15: Winding Data Sheet

WARPING Warping is transferring many yarns from creel of single-end package forming parallel sheet of yarn wound on to be a beam or section beam. Warping machines can process all type of materials including coarse and fine filament and staple yarns, monofilament, textured and smooth yarns, silk and other synthetic yarn such as glass. A warp beam that is installed on weaving machine is known as weaver beam. A weaver beam contain thousand of ends, but in denim production a beam obtain from warping is known as section beam because denim is made from dyed yarn that‘s why first section beam can be obtained and then these section beam are combined on the stage dyeing and sizing to get required number of ends for weaving process. In denim production initially the yarns are first dyed and then weaving process is carried out . QUALITY OF A GOOD WARP

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The essential features of a good warp are as follows:         

Sufficiently and uniformly strong. Uniform in cross section. Uniform warp tension. Uniformly sized. Less hairy and clean. Minimum no. of knots. Proper or standard size and types of knots. Free from naps, slubs and loose fibers. Parallel arrangement of warp yarn in the weavers beam.

(DIRECT WARPING OR BEAM WARPING) The objective of warping is to collect a predetermined number of single end packages (winding package from which a single thread comes out on unwinding) & convert it into sheet form with ends uniformly spaced & wind a specified length on to warper‘s beam. Thus at the end of process, we get a multi end package (package which on unwinding give no. of ends) i.e. warper‘s beam wound with a sheet of uniformly spaced (hundreds of) ends of specified length. To have a sheet, the warper‘s beam is subjective to dyeing to get dyed warp.

Figure 16: Diagram showing direct warping machine

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COMPONENTS OF WARPING MACHINE: Creel:  Cone Holder

 Hold the cone or arrange the cone in the creel

 Yarn Guide

 To guide the yarn

 Tension Rod

 Maintain yarn tension by upper & lower disc tensioner.

 Ceramic guide disc

 To guide the yarn from creel to warping machine

 Auto Stop Sensor

 To sense the breakage yarn

 Creel Panel Board

 Display where the yarn breaks

Head Stock:  Guide Reed

 Uniformly spread the yarnover the warp width

 Adjustable V-Reed

 Guides the yarn to follow the fixed path

 Speed Controller

 Control the speed,crawl speed or full speed

 Pressure Roller

 Exert required pressure to the warp yarn

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 Measuring Device

 Measures the length of the yarn

 Beam Bracket

 Holds the warp beam

 Emergency Stop Device

 For emergency stop

 Automatic Knock off

 Stops the machine at achieving required yarn length or if the yarn breaks

 Electrical Panel Board

 To give the automatic controlled function

Table 14: Components of a warping machine

(SECTIONAL WRAPING AND BEAMING) Sectional wraping consists of winding of wraping of number of sections, each wound with a (narrow) sheet of uniformly spaced, predetermined number of ends of equal length side by side. on collecting ends from all sections, we get required number of ends required for weaving. Beaming consists of winding sheet, obtained by collecting ends from al sections, on weaver‘s beam. Thus, at the end of the process, we get weaver‘s beam which may be sent to loom or for drawing-in.

Features of sectional warping • To produce fancy fabric of different colors. • Hand weaving used in sectional warping. • To produce weavers beam from small amount of warp yarn. • To produce weavers beam from twisted yarn. • To produce weavers beam from which do not required any sizing material to be applied before weaving. • Weavers beam can be formed immediately after.

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• Production is less, so it is costly process. • Yarn tension cannot be kept uniform. • A tapered beam or drum is used. Make of the Machine

Warping Speed

Beam Transfer Speed

No. of Machines

Benninger Ergotronic

550 m/min

100 m/min

3

Vamatex VM 108

610 m/min

100 m/min

13

Prashant Gamatex

550 m/min

110 m/min

1

Karl Mayer

650 m/min

130m/min

1

Table 15: Sectional warping machines

Figure 17: Diagram showing sectional warping machine

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Figure 18: Head Stock Of Sectional Warpping Machine

Causes of yarn breakage in warping:          

Weak yarn. Sloughing off. Over lapping. Knots/ bad splice. Slubs. Loose yarn. Pig tail. Cut yarn. Bad tip cone. Short cone

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Figure 19: Difference b/w direct warping & sectional warping

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WARPING MACHINES IN SHIRTING DIVISION OF ARVIND

Figure 20: Warping machine

BENNINGER’S WARPING MACHINE MODEL Maximum creel capacity Minimum creel capacity Speed Tensioner Type Pressure Manufacturing Country Number of Machines

AGCH 9240 640 (V-Creel used) 334 20/ min. to 1200/ min. Electronic 200 daN to 600 daN Germany 8

Table 16: Benninger's warping machine

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VAMATEX WARPING MACHINE Maximum creel capacity Minimum creel capacity Speed Tensioner Type Pressure Manufacturing Country Number of Machines

600 (V-Creel used) 250 20/ min. to 800/ min. Semi Automatic 200 daN to 600 daN India 5

Table 17: Vamatex warping machine

SIZING Sizing is a complementary operation which is carried out on warps formed by spun yarns with insufficient tenacity or by continuous filament yarns with zero twist. In general, when sizing is necessary, the yarn is beam warped, therefore all beams corresponding to the beams are fed, as soon as warping is completed, to the sizing machine where they are assembled. Sizing consists of impregnating the yarn with particular substances which form on the yarn surface a film with the aim of improving yarn smoothness and tenacity during the subsequent weaving stage. It improves yarn tenacity and elasticity, so that the yarn can stand without problems the tensions and the rubbing caused by weaving. In the sizing process, a coating of a starch-based adhesive is applied to the sheet of yarn to improve its weavability. It increases yarn strength; it also reduces hairiness, which minimizes the abrasion that occurs between the warp threads and the various parts of loom, and between threads that are adjacent to each other.  Arvind generally source sizing chemicals (Seycofilm, Seycobond etc.) from Refnol Resins & Chemicals, Ahmedabad (Gujarat).

Properties of Size Ingredients: 

It should be easily removed during wet processing process.



It should not do any harm to the fibre or yarn.



Adhesive substances should be more adhesive.



It should give good fabric characteristics.

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It should have ability to dry instantly after sizing.



It should not change the color of colored yarn or shed.



It should be cheap and available.

The Important Features to be remembered During Sizing:      

If the hairiness of the yarn is high then the concentration of the size would be high. If the twist is high in the yarn then the concentration of the size would be high. If the yarn (finer) count is high then the concentration of the size would be high. If the yarn (coarser) count is high then the concentration of the size would be low. If the temperature of the bath is high then the viscosity of the size would be less and vice versa. If the cooking time is more than the viscosity would be less.

Effects of Sizing on Yarn: The amount of size add-on depends on yarn structure, sizing recipe, squeezing roller pressure, m/c speed. As the size add-on is increased—       

The yarn becomes stiffer. The yarn becomes less extensible. The yarn becomes more difficult to weave. If a low add-on— The yarn becomes hairy. The yarn suffers from lack of strength. The yarn becomes more difficult to weave.

Sizing Ingredients1. Starch. 2. Binder. 3. Softener. 4. Anti-septic agent. 5. Anti-static agent. 6. Weighting agent.

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Sizing Material & Chemical Used: Starch: Starch is the main sizing ingredients. They coat the warp yarn with a film & impart smoothness by binding the projecting fibres to the yarn surface. The viscosity of the size solution is controlled by the amount of starch, the recipe, degree of mechanical mixing, temperature & time of boiling.e.g. Potato, CMS(Carboxy Methylated Starch),PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) Binder: These materials penetrate into the yarn & contribute in increasing yarn strength. These materials can be used as an independent gum & substitute of starch products. e.g. Polyacrylamide, Polyacrylonetrile etc. Softener: The hard fragile film is softened by addition of softener. They increase flexibility of yarn after sizing; e.g. Tallow, Soap, Japanese wax, Modified wax, Artificial wax. Anti-septic agent: The size recipe consist starch which the protein substances in the favorable medium for the development of the micro-organism (Fungi, Mouldetc). The sized warp or grey cloth is stored for long time; the anti-septic agent is used to prevent the growth of micro- organism in the grey cloth. Weighting agent: These agents are used to increase the weight of the fabric. The fabrics are to be sold at grey stage or require the special type of finishing to get fuller appearance are sized with the weighting agent.

Typical sizing recipeIn 500 Liter Water •Starch : 10-20%of water. •Binder : 2-4% of water. •Softener : 0.5-1% of water. 

Arvind generally source sizing chemicals (Seycofilm, Seycobond etc.) from Refnol Resins & Chemicals, Ahmedabad (Gujarat).

The four main parts of Sizing machines are: 

CREEL- This houses the warper‘s beams and should ensure that there is a uniformity of tension throughout the ends on the weaver‘s beam by strict controlling the tension applied to the sheet of yarn from each back beam.



THE SIZE BOX- The sheet of yarn from the back beams is guided into the size liquor where an immersion roller ensures that there is adequate facility for the yarn to be

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thoroughly saturated. Squeeze roller ensures that there is adequate penetration and excess is removed. 

DRYING- Cylinders are preferred because they are more efficient when use in multiples, although when compared with hot-air systems, they do tend to flatten the yarn and require more softener in the size mix in order to ensure an acceptable level of pliability.



HEADSTOCK- The headstock comprises a number of different parts that, in sequence, can be used for waxing, moisture regain measurement, sheet splittin, measuring and marking, beam drives and stretch control. Make of the Machine

No. of Machines

Ukil

3

Sucker Muller SD-C (hacoba)

13

Karl Mayer

1 Table 18: Sizing machines

Figure 21:Sizing machine

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Figure 22: Beams used for sizing

DRAWING-IN (REEDING) The one-by-one threading of the warp yarns through the spaces between the dents of the reed is an operation which is referred to as ― drawing-in‖ or ―reeding‖. The process of passing warp threads through heald eyes and reed dents according to the desired design is called drawing or denting.

PROCEDURE:      

Beam released from warping is brought in this section. Warp ends are drawn through heald eyes of frames as instructed in the draft by Design department. Ends are simultaneously drawn through reed dents also. Ends are taken over serrated bars and drop pins are put on each individual end. The yarns ends are tied together to avid entangling and removal from healed eyes. The whole assembly (of beam, serrated bars with drop pins, heald frames and reed) is put on a trolley and taken to looms by beam getters for gaiting by jobbers.

In Arvind drawing in is done in two ways:  

Manual drawing in Automatic drawing in

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MACHINE Staubli delta 110 Manual drawing in

NO. OF M/C 5 7

TIME 1 ½ hrs.- 1 beam 12 hrs.-1 beam

Table 19:Machines used for drawing in

FOR REMOVAL OF DEFECTS FROM WARP MACHINE Staubli delta 200 Manual drawing in

NO. OF M/C 2 1

TIME 1 ½ hrs.- 1 beam 12hrs.-1 beam(Six manforce)

Table 20: Mchines used for removing warping defects

WEAVING MECHANISM PRIMARY MOTION There are three primary motions of loom in a weaving cycle.  Shedding- It involves rising and (or) descending of warp yarns to create a space amongst the warp yarns for weft direction.  Picking- Picking refers to weft insertion. It is means by which the weft is projected through the shed.  Beating- It is pushing of newly inserted pick to fell of cloth.

TYPE OF LOOM AIRJET

RAPIER

SHEDDING Positive electronic STAUBLI dobby type. Positive electronic STAUBLI dobby type

PICKING BEATING High speed Straight reed mounted compressed air. on sley. Double rapier system.

Straight reed mounted on sley.

Table 21: Types of looms & their respective motions

Shedding-Positive Electronic Dobby    

Dobby systems normally control a maximum of 6 to 32 heald shaft. It uses computers into which desired lifting plan is fed. This is then entered onto a disc that is subsequently fed to the dobby, where the pattern is read and memorized by an electronic system. This system eliminates the possibility of miss-lifts resulting from broken pegs and torn pattern sheets.

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As a disc can be removed from the dobby after the pattern has been memorized, it can be used for a number of looms so removing the need to make duplicate patterns.

Picking-Air-Jet Insertion     

High speed compressed air is used. It could run at higher speeds of around 400 picks per minute. No width restrictions. Weft insertion rates of 1500+ meters per minute. Includes weft patterning as well as dobby and jacquard shedding.

Picking- Double Rapier System       

Working width of 3000 nm. Speed – 800 meters per minute. Weft patterning is achieved, more easily. Popular for fancy weaving, especially when pattern changes are frequent. Two rapiers are used. One carries the weft to the centre of the loom where it meets the other and transfers the grip-hold on the tip of the yarn. The second rapier then completes the pick insertion as the rapiers are withdrawn.

Beating- Up 

The reciprocating red is responsible for pushing the pick into theb fell of the cloth for beat-up.

SECONDARY MOTION There are three secondary motions in weaving.  Let-off: The sheet of the warp yarn is controlled by keeping it under tension.  Take-up: The cloth take-up motion withdraws cloth from the fell and then stores it at the front of the loom.  Weft Selection: A weft selection or patterning mechanism is only necessary when it is desired to vary the weft being inserted.

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Let-Off 



The amount of tension applied to the warp affects the end breakage rate, the warp and weft crimp ratios and thereby the width and length of the fabric, the general appearance of the fabric and selvedge. Mechanisms to emnsure that the warp is under the correct tension wll restrict the rotation of the beam either by (i) applying a braking force (negative let-off) or (ii) by driving the beam through a mechanism (automatic let-off)

Take-Up There are three aspects of controlling the cloth once it leaves the fell;  The temple (a cloth control guide, one at either side of the loom) is essential in holding the cloth correctly just in front of the fell.  The pick density is determined by the speed of rotation of the take up roller.  The cloth must then be stored at the loom until the desired length as been woven.

Weft Selection or Patterning  

In rapier weaving, the weft is picked up bu a guidre which moves the yarn across the path of the rapier head just outside the selvedge on the supply side of the loom. In air-jet weaving, upto four jet pointing are used at the entry point of the shed. Selection determines which of the jets will operate and so which weft will be inserted on each pick.

ANCILLARY MOTION The ancillary motion includes:  Warp Stop Motion: It halt the loom when a drop wire falls as the result of an end break.  Weft Stop Motion: It halt the loom in the event of a break in the weft yarn. 

In Arvind, piezo element is used. It creates vibration which generates a pulse in an electronic unit. If this unit fails to receive a signal when the weft is being inserted, it will act thorough the electronic unit to stop the loom before beat-up can occur.

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Make of the machine Toyota JAT 810 eurotech (airjet looms)

No. of machines 150

STAUBLI Delta 110 (for drawing in)

5

PICANOL RAPIER LOOMS TYPE GAM MAX-4-R-360

75

Table 22: Machines used for weaving

PROCESSING SINGEING: The direct, very intensive flame, the short contact time between flame and fabric, the ignition flame temperature necessary for the vaporization of polyester and the various singeing positions represent the decisive advantages of the osthoff-senge singeing system.

DESIZING Desizing is done in order to remove the size from the warp yarns of the woven fabrics. Warp yarns are coated with sizing agents prior to weaving in order to reduce their frictional properties, decrease yarn breakages on the loom and improve weaving productivity by increasing weft insertion speeds. The sizing material present on the warp yarns can act as a resist towards dyes and chemicals in textile wet processing. It must, therefore, be removed before any subsequent wet processing of the fabric. If the fabric is woven from sized yarn, desizing is essential before subjecting it to other treatments. For this, the fabric must be soaked in 0.5% aqueous solution of amylase enzyme for 8 hours ensuring that it is completely immersed in the solution. After the size has been removed, the fabric is subjected to a hot and cold water wash.

THE FACTORS, ON WHICH THE EFFICIENCY OF SIZE REMOVAL DEPENDS, ARE AS FOLLOWS:    

Type and amount of size applied Viscosity of the size in solution Ease of dissolution of the size film on the yarn Nature and the amount of the plasticizers

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 

Fabric construction Method of desizing,

DIFFERENT METHODS OF DESIZING:       

Enzymatic desizing Oxidative desizing Acid steeping Rot steeping Desizing with hot caustic soda treatment, and Hot washing with detergents The most commonly used methods for cotton are enzymatic desizing and oxidative desizing. Acid steeping is a risky process and may result in the degradation of cotton cellulose while rot steeping, hot caustic soda treatment and hot washing with detergents are less efficient for the removal of the starch sizes.

1. ENZYMATIC DESIZING Enzymatic desizing consists of three main steps: 1. application of the enzyme 2. digestion of the starch and 3. Removal of the digestion products.

The common components of an enzymatic desizing bath are as follows:      

Amylase enzyme pH stabilizer Chelating agent Salt Surfactant, and Optical brightener

Advantages of Enzymatic desizing    

No damage to the fibre No usage of aggressive chemicals Wide variety of application processes, and High biodegradability

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Disadvantages:   

Lower additional cleaning effect towards other impurities, no effect on certain starches (e.g. tapioca starch) and possible loss of effectiveness through enzyme poisons.

2.OXIDATIVE DESIZING Oxidative desizing can be effected by hydrogen peroxide, chlorites, hypochlorite, bromites, perborates or persulphates.

Two important oxidative desizing processes are:  

the cold pad-batch process based on hydrogen peroxide with or without the addition of persulphate; and the oxidative pad-steam alkaline cracking process with hydrogen peroxide or persulphate.

The advantages offered by oxidative desizing are    

Supplementary cleaning effect Effectiveness for tapioca starches No loss in effectiveness due to enzyme poisons. Some disadvantages of oxidative desizing include possibility of fibre attack, use of aggressive chemicals and less variety of application methods.

SCOURING The term ‗scouring‘ applies to the removal of impurities such as oils, was, gums, soluble impurities and sold dirt commonly found in textile material and produce a hydrophilic and clean cloth.

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OBJECTIVES OF SCOURING: 1. To remove natural as well as added impurities of essentially hydrophobic character as completely as possible 2. To increase absorbency of textile material 3. To leave the fabric in a highly hydrophilic condition without undergoing chemical or physical damage significantly.

SCOURING PROCESS DEPENDS ON: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The type of cotton The color of cotton The cleanliness of cotton The twist and count of the yarn The construction of the fabric.

DESCRIPTION AND WORKING PRINCIPLE OF SCOURING PROCESS: Kier boiler is a long mild steel or cast iron cylindrical vessel provided with two perforated tube sheets (disc with a number of holes). One is placed at the bottom and another is top. These discs are connected by a number of tunes which carry the liquor from the bottom compartment to the upper one. In the middle compartment steam is passed. Thus the tubes carrying the liquor are surrounded by steam which heats them. The hot liquor from the multi tubular heater is sprayed over the cloth, packed in the kier, through a hollow perforated ring. The liquid passes slowly over the packed cloth, collects below the false bottom, from where it is pumped into the auxiliary heater by a centrifugal pump and the cycle repeats.

PRECAUTION: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Kier boiler should be cleaned. Material should be packed evenly. Complete immersion of the fabric need. After boiling the liquor should be removed in absence of water. Before starting all the joining parts should be checked. Fabric should always keep under scouring solution.

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BLEACHING Bleaching is chemical treatment employed for the removal of natural coloring matter from the substrate. The source of natural color is organic compounds with conjugated double bonds , by doing chemical bleaching the discoloration takes place by the breaking the chromophore , most likely destroying the one or more double bonds with in this conjugated system. The material appears whiter after the bleaching

DYEING AND PRINTING

Figure 23: Benninger's dyeing machine

BENNINGER PAD DRY CONTINUOUS DYEING MACHINE Brand Benninger Width 180 cm. Year 2002 Model SIMATIC OP 27 Speed 30-60 meters/ min. Table 23: Benninger pad dry dyeing machine

DYE ABSORPTION: When fibre is immersed in dye liquor, an electrolyte is added to assist the exhaustion of dye. Here NaCl is used as the electrolyte. This electrolyte neutralize absorption. So when the textile material is introduces to dye liquor the dye is exhausted on to the fibre.

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FIXATION: Fixation of dye means the reaction of reactive group of dye with terminal –OH or-NH2 group of fibre and thus forming strong covalent bond with the fibre and thus forming strong covalent bond with the fibre. This is an important phase, which is controlled by maintaining proper pH by adding alkali. The alkali is used for this create proper pH in dye bath and do as the dye-fixing agent. The reaction takes place in this stage is shown below: 1. D-SO2-CH2-CH2-OSO3Na + OH-Cell = D-SO2-CH2-CH2-O-Cell + NaHSO3 2. D-SO2-CH2-CH2-OSO3Na + OH-Wool = D-SO2-CH2-CH2-O-Wool + NaHSO3 3. Wash-off: As the dyeing is completed, a good wash must be applied to the material to remove extra and unfixed dyes from material surface. This is necessary for level dyeing and good wash-fastness. It is done by a series of hot wash, cold wash and soap solution wash.

APPLICATION METHOD: These are 3 application procedures available:

1. Discontinuous method   

Conventional method Exhaust or constant temperature method High temperature method Hot critical method.

2. Cotinuous method     

Pad-steam method Pad dry method Pad thermofix method Semi continuous methodPad roll method Pad jig method

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PRINTING ROTARY-SCREEN PRINTING Rotary screen printing is so named because it uses a cylindrical screen that rotates in a fixed position rather than a flat screen that is raised and lowered over the same print location. Rotary presses place the squeegee within the screen. These machines are designed for roll-toroll printing on fabric ranging from narrow to wide-format textiles. In rotary printing, the fabric travels at a consistent speed between the screen and a steel or rubber impression roller immediately below the screen. (The impression roller serves the same function as the press bed on a flatbed press.) As the fabric passes through the rotary unit, the screen spins at a rate that identically matches the speed of substrate movement. The squeegee on a rotary press is in a fixed position with its edge making contact with the inside surface of the screen precisely at the point where the screen, substrate, and impression roller come together. Ink is automatically fed into the center of the screen and collects in a wedgeshaped ―well‖ formed by the leading side of the squeegee and the screen‘s interior surface. The motion of the screen causes this bead of ink to roll, which forces ink into stencil openings, essentially flooding the screen without requiring a flood bar. The squeegee then shears the ink as the stencil and substrate come into contact, allowing the ink to transfer cleanly to the material. There are 5 basic steps in printing a fabric: 1.

Preparation of the print paste.

2.

Printing the fabric.

3.

Drying the printed fabric.

4.

Fixation of the printed dye or pigment.

5.

After washing.

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Figure 24: Mechanism of rotary screen printing machine

Figure 25: Zimmer austria roller printing machine

ZIMMER AUSTRALIA ROLLER PRINTING MACHINE NUMBER OF ROLLERS 12 CAPACITY 10000 meters SPEED 40 meters/ min. TYPE TR-Compact HC YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION 2013 Table 24: Zimmer austria roller printing machine

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DYE WASHING MACHINE STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR YAMUNA WASHING MACHINE Reactive Washing

Speed 30 m./ min.

Tank 1 Cold Wash Overflow

Discharge Washing

Disperse Washing

30 m./min.

25 m./min.

Tank 2 Temp.:

-

85°C Overflow

Tank 4 Temp.: -

Tank 5 Temp.: -

95°C Overflow

95°C Deskol dosing: 3 to 5 G/L Temp.:80-

85°C Overflow

Cold Wash

Temp: 60°C

80- 85°C

Overflow

Peroxide:25 g/l.

Overflow

Cold Wash

Temp.: 80°C

-

Tank 3 Temp.: -

-

Temp.:-

Temp.:- 70 to

85°C Deskol Dosing: 0.1 to 1 G/L Temp.:-70 to

Tank 6A Cold Wash

Tank 6B Cold Wash

Acetic Acid Dosing

Overflow

80- 85°C

Cold Wash

Cold Wash

Overflow

Overflow

Overflow

Temp.: -

Cold Wash

Cold Wash

Temp.:-

90 °C

80°C 80°C Caustic: Caustic: Overflow Acetic 3g/l 3g/l Acid Hydro: Hydro: Dosing 3g/l 3g/l Table 25: Standard operating procedures for Yamuna washing machine Overflow

Overflow

Overflow

Drying Temp. up to dry fabric

Temp. up to dry fabric

Temp. up to dry fabric

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FINISHING PROCESS The fabric that has come off loom is called surface finishing that entails softening of fabric, thus making it fit to wear. Further, de sizing is done in order to reduce tension in the knit yarn, to ensure that it doesn’t break out of undue tension.to accomplish the process, there are three basic mechanisms involved namely desized finishing, desized mercerized finishing and desized mercerized tint finishing. In yesteryears, there existed a demand for long lasting colors in apparel, which is no longer present. Consumers are becoming more inclined towards denim that loses color in a few washes. For such emerging needs and choices, double dyeing concept has been adopted that renders fabric various effects after subsequent washes.

The process is as follows: 

Singeing is done and the hairiness of the fabric is burned by flames.



Desizing removes the sizer put on by the suker muller in the dyeing department to increase the strength of the fabric (a mixture of desizing agent, alcozyme and acetic acid is used for the same).



Mercerizing is the process of caustic wash and the unit studies is gpl (gram per liter).



Stenter is used to settle the width shrinkage and to adjust the elasticity by killing the elastic properties of lycra in the fabric which is to the tune of 30 to 40% earlier and can be dropped down to 3 to 8% as per customer requirement.

Finishing techniques used in Arvind mills are: 

Micro Sanding



Sanforising



Merserization



Calendering



Stentering



Softening Airo Finish

In addition there is an intervening singeing and washing process that brings in more softness in the fabric. The product is washed off water soluble chemical remnants, steam dried and then causted that lead to swelling of the

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material. Earlier foam technology was used for this purpose, which has now been replaced by wet technology that gives more softness and binding to fabric. This is the followed by moving the fabric through centering machines that kill extra percentage of inbuilt lycra to peg elasticity at the desired level as demanded by the customers. Temporizing is the next process to be carried out with the help of rubber and leads to permanent shrinkage of the fabric.

MICROSANDING FINISH 

The fabric moves under 2 or more rollers with fine emery paper on first roller to more abrasive paper in each successive roller.



Abrades the surface causing fibrils to split from the fibres.



Abrasion generate heat may cause harshness on synthetic fabric.



Decrease the strength by 60%.

Figure 26: Microsanding machine

Company name:

laffer(Italy)

Model:

laffer2

No. of machines:

1

Machine type :

Diomand emmerizing carbosent

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Fabric width

1800mm

Roller width

2000mm

F IGURE 27: LAFFER MICROSANDING MACHINE

SANFORIZING: SHRINKAGE CONTROL FINISH 

It is pre-shrinking finishing



Impart shrinkage to the fabric and improve luster of the fabric.



Maximum shrinkage is first calculated.



Fabric dampened and passed through continuous thick rubber belt where preshrinking takes place which is further set by woolen/ felt blanket.

Figure 28 :Monforts monfortex sanforiser machine bed

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Figure 29:Monforts monfortex sanforiser machine

Company name: No. of machines:

Monforts Monfortex Sanforiser 3

Fabric speed

50m/min

Working width:

2000mm

Rubber belt section face width Water cooling rollers

2170mm 2

Table 26: Monforts monfortex sanforiser machine

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Figure 30: Mechanism of sanforisation

MERCERIZING

Mercerization is a finishing treatment of cotton with a strong caustic alkaline solution in order to improve the luster, hard and other properties was names after its discoverer, John Mercer, and has been in use for some time. It has been seeing an increase in application recently. During mercerization, singeing or desized material is used. The mercerization unit has a total of 7 rollers which move at a speed of 42 rpm. The tank has a capacity of 3 tonnes. Caustic soda is used during this process and full pressure is applied to remove traces of extra caustic soda. This process has a brusher unit as well and reisky padders.

Effect of Mercerization • Improve Luster. • Increase ability to absorb dye. • Improve reaction with a verity of chemicals.

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• Improve stability of form • Improve strength/elongation. • Improve smoothness. • It has been shown that the increase in the luster occurs because of an effect. • The cotton fiber do convoluted. • The cross-sectional shape changes.

CALENDERING FINISH 

Compression of the fabric b/w 2 heavy rolls to give flattened smooth appearance of the fabric by the action of heat & pressure.



Surface of the roller can be either smooth or engraved.



One roll is usually metal and the other is usually covered with paper or fabric.



Moisture in the form of water or steam may be used to achieve a desired luster.



Resins required to be used to make calendaring durable on cellulosic fabrics. Without the resin the effect lasts only one laundering

Figure 31: Ramisch guarneri calendering machine

Company name:

ramisch guarneri

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Model:

Nipco® i - calender

No. of machines:

1

Fabric speed Type : roll Temperature Pressure

70m/min 3 roll system with 2 cotton rolls and one steel 70C 70N/mm

Table 27: Ramisch guarneri calendering machine

This machine is a typical example of an unusually flexible and efficient calendar solution .its advantages lie in its diverse range of applications, particularly when special effects are required, e.g. Smoothness, luster, high glaze and air permeability.an innovative development with significant efficient benefits, the hydro pneumatic width adjustment, which can be reset in a flying change when operating pressure or fabric widths change. This reduces non-productive times, makes production even more flexible and increases efficiency.

STENTERING FINISH

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Figure 32:Stentering machine

Stenter is a finishing machine which dries up the cloth and removes the dimensional instability that occurs during the processing. The final finishing of fabric is always done on a Stenter. The Stenters are normally provided with a padder, a bow and a weft straightener device. The cloth to be finished passes through the padder, where finishing chemicals are added and goes through bow and weft correction device before entering the drying chamber. It can be either pad or dip stenter. The pair chains hold the cloth horizontally. The process is pad-dry and drying is achieved by blowing hot air in the stenter chamber. The stenter is the most important machine in the finishing for stretching or stentering fabrics. The purpose of the stenter machine is to bringing the length and width to pre determine dimensions and also for heat setting and it is used for applying finishing chemicals and also shade variation is adjusted. The main function of the stenter is to stretch the fabric width-wise and to recover the uniform width. Sometimes wetting agent for example a mixture of surface active compound are used as chemical for the heat setting and stretching process.



Drying



Heat setting



Width control



Curing

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Finishing chemical application



Selvedge printing



Uniform moisture control for pad batch dyeing



Loop control



Weft straitening



Pigment dye application



Any thermo fixation



Padding mangle



Here finishing dry-cross finish, moist cross finish, wrinkle free finish, easy care finish can be done along with width and shrinkage control.

SOFTENING AIRO FINISH This machine produces soft & smooth/ silky feel to the fabric. Machine name :biancalani's airo® 24 Number of machine -1

Company name:

biancalani

Model:

airo® 24

No. of machines:

1

Table 28: Softening AIRO finishing machine



Airo 24, from the masters of the air power, the new revolution in the fabric finishing sector after Airo, air flow drying softening and finishing machine for fabric in continuous and open width form.

TECHNICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN FINISHING Arvind Ltd has diversified into the Advanced Textiles Business and has envisioned world leadership in the field of advanced materials offering high-tech textile solutions for critical and

84

composite applications. Arvind Holds exclusive license for manufacturing PROBAN and NOMEX fabrics and Garments in India, Arvind Pro1 Range of fire retardant fabrics and Garments can come with high visibility –EN471 certification and antistatic properties and a verity

of

other

functional

finishes.

Each Product at Arvind development centre goes through a complete cycle of pattern engineering methodology and risk analysis, fit reviews and critical path. High Skilled technical team has the capabilities of devolving concepts, through to the final Product. Customer can have total confidence that their specification and individual requirements will be met.

To service this emerging market Arvind has set up a state-of-the art manufacturing facility at Santej for manufacturing high-end Industrial Fabrics. This facility can make produce fabrics from high performance Multi-filaments, Mono-filaments and Spun Yarns. Typical application will be in Solid-Liquid Filtration, Industrial Belting, Coating Substrates, Outdoor and other Industrial application. It has further diversified into manufacturing of Anti-Ballistic fabrics, for use in Bullet Proof Vests and Helmets. Arvind offers range of Nylon fabrics for the defence applications.

Arvind's new facility (Joint Venture with PD Group, Germany) to manufacture Glass, Carbon and Aramid fabrics is under commissioning. These fabrics will be woven and Multi-axial as per customer specifications, which will be solutions to various industrial and advances composite applications like wind mill blades, automotive, aerospace, infrastructure etc.

ABOUT PRO1  Pro1 range of branded fabrics and composite textiles includes solutions for growing industrial sectors like Personal Protection, Industrial Filtration, Wind Energy, Defense, Auto Components, Transportation, and Housing & Infrastructure.

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 For the first time in India Arvind introduces Proban fabrics which come with reliability assurance from Rhodia, UK. Proban meets International Fire Safety Standards such as EN 533/ISO 14116:2008, EN 531/ISO 11612:2008, NFPA 70E, NFPA 2112. Proban has proven performance for more than 50 years now. Arvind Limited is the only licensed manufacturer of this product for sale in select 17 countries in Asia Pacific, North America, South America, Canada & South Africa.

 In a short span of time, Arvind has established itself as the largest Fire Protection Fabric producer in India. Apart from PROBAN Arvind range of Fire Resistant Fabrics consists of PYROVATEX, Meta-Aramid (NOMEX from DuPont), Modacrylics, FR Viscose and its blends.

PRO1 RANGE FIRE PROTECTION SOLUTION

Chemically Treated Flame Retardant Fabrics

PROBAN® Arvind has been licensed by Rhodia, Novecare to manufacture and sell PROBAN® treated fabrics and garments in 17 countries of Asia pacific, North America, South America, Canada and South Africa. PROBAN gives cotton and cotton rich fabrics durable flame retardant properties that meet European fire safety regulations and offer protection for the lifetime of the articles. There is no chemical reaction within the fibre hence the fabric remains unaffected. Every lot of PROBAN treated fabric of Arvind is tested and certified by Rhodia's UKAS & ISO 17025 accredited facilities in the UK and meets the stringent requirement of the latest standards of ISO 11612.

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Benefits of PROBAN® Comfortable – All PROBAN® fabrics are cotton and cotton – based fabrics which have all the comforts of cotton. Reliable – All PROBAN® fabrics are tested at Rhodia`s UKAS, ISO 17025 accredited facilities to ensure they meet fire safety regulation. Durable – All PROBAN® fabrics are manufactured not only to protect the wearer from fire , but also to ensure they offer protection for the lifetime of the article. Only fabrics or garments that display genuine PROBAN® labels can guarantee protections against fire hazards.

PYROVATEX® PYROVATEX Treated Fabrics offers protection against flame. These fabrics are available in combination of cotton, cotton/Nylon blend. Arvind is expertise in treating cotton fabrics ensures that PYROVATEX Fabrics maintain their original softness and comfort to wearer. PYROVATEX Treated Fabrics assures long lasting FR properties. Arvind offers PYROVATEX Fabrics in combination with antistatic, water and oil repellent functionality permitting creation of multi functional fabrics.



Inherent Fire Resistant Fabrics

NOMEX® Arvind has been licensed to manufacture and market Nomex branded fire resistant fabrics and garments by E.I.Dupont for consumption within Indian sub continent. These fabrics have excellent FR performance for the lifetime of the article with good color fastness. It has very good resistance to chemical and excellent thermal insulation properties. Nomex meets the stringent

87

requirements of fire safety standards such as ISO 11612, ISO 14116, NFPA 70E and NFPA 2112.

PROTEX® Arvind uses inherently flame-retardant PROTEX Modacrylic Fiber from Kaneka Corporation, Japan. It exhibits a high LOI value and is designed to blend perfectly with natural or manmade fibres to produce high quality textiles with superb handle, drape and appearance. It does not melt or drip when ignited. Protex blended fabric will self-extinguish and char barrier will form that works as a shield to minimize fire damage. It is also available in hi-visibility colours certified as per EN471 standard.

PRO1 RANGE HIGH -TECH FABRICS

Filtration Fabric Arvind specializes in manufacturing woven fabrics for solid-liquid separation. These are made of multi filaments, monofilaments, spun yarns and in combinations. Latest generation manufacturing technology helps in monitoring the consistent permeability in the fabrics for these critical applications. Arvind's filtration fabrics have reputation of uniform distribution of pore size, dimensional stability better strength and durability.

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Anti Ballistic Fabric Arvind's anti-ballistic fabrics are made from world famous TWARON® Para-aramid filaments supplied by Teijin Aramid, Netherlands. Arvind makes 1100 dtex and 3300 dtex plain-woven fabrics. These are used for manufacturing Bullet Proof Vests and Bullet Proof Helmets for defence applications.

Nylon and Other Industrial Fabrics Arvind manufactures fabrics made of high tenacity Nylon 6/Nylon 6.6 filaments. These fabrics are sometimes coated or laminated as per specific requirements in defence, outerwear and high altitude clothing.

Arvind also offers fabrics for other industrial applications like Belting, Coating Substrates, Outdoor etc.

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Carbon, Glass & Aramid Fabrics Arvind's new facility (JV Company with PD Group Germany) offers woven and multi-axial fabric solutions made of Glass, Carbon and Aramid. This facility provides textile solutions to various industrial and advanced composite applications like wind mills blades, automotive, aerospace, infrastructure etc.

Coating substrates : Arvind manufacture fabrics upto 350cm using High Tenacity, Low Shrinkage and Super Low Shrinkage Polyester filaments.

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Glass wovenrovings : These are composed of direct Rovings woven into a fabric. The input Rovings have excellent wet-out and laminate properties. A variety of constructions give bidirectional reinforcement and the strength of continuous filaments. Woven Rovings from Arvind PD Composites is ideal for hand and machine production of boats, containers, automotive parts, sports equipment, corrosion resistant tanks, etc,. The range includes width upto 3.6m from a variety of Rovings of different tex.

Multiaxial fabric: Sometimes known as Non-Crimp Fabrics produced using a technology wherein production allows fabric construction with up to five layers of fibres oriented in different directions and stitched together by an interlocking system to form a single reinforcement. These can be a combination of non-woven fabrics, chopped strand mats or other fabrics giving an unlimited combination of various individual fibres. This product range allows distribution of strength depending on the orientation of fibres. This product is also finding big applications in automotive, aerospace, transportation, sports & leisure, construction, medical and marine industry.

Heat and cut resistant fabrics: Heat & Cut protection fabrics are manufactured using Kevlar® para- aramid staple fiber from DuPont. Arvind is the exclusive licensee for manufacturing Kevlar® fabrics for Heat & Cut protection applications like hand gloves, aprons, safety shoes, garment reinforcements etc. These fabrics are available in both Woven (330 gsm, 450 gsm, 600 gsm and 750 gsm) and Knits (210 gsm Rib, 270 gsm double knit with cotton) forms. These fabrics are tested as per EN 388 (Cut resistance) and EN 407 (contact heat) standards.

91

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL DEPARTMENT The production Planning and Control department is the one that materializes the production flow and monitors it. The main objective of the production planning department is to execute mass production. The department plans each and every step of the production process, and it is its responsibility to deliver high quality products at the promised time.

Figure 33: Responsibilities of PPC department

Sometimes the buyer selects the designs that he wants to get mass produced from the fabric database of over 8000 design collection developed by the research and Development department of Arvind Mills. The specifications and procedures for such designs are already listed in the database and now the work of the PPC department is to efficiently carry out those procedures. Other times the customer sends samples and requires the mass production for it. In such cases, the Research and Development department develops the procedures involved for production of that sample by reverse engineering.

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The PPC department then allots the machinery and time required for fulfillment of each procedure accordingly. The lead time is also decided by PPC on the based of order size, machine availability, profits involved and the urgency as per the consumer. In case of orders of lower quantities, the PPC has to strategies the execution of the order and plan whether or not to accept it, since dyeing machines of slasher and rope dye have limitations as to the minimum amount of dyeing, for best results and avoidance of wastage. The PPC department also plans separately for orders of export and domestic market as the demand vary from region to region. The bottle neck operation that determines the lead time for the production is the weaving procedure. The loom capacity depends on the following factors: 

Construction of fabric



Loom Speed



Efficiency

The production planning team needs to coherently work on deciding whether the capacity of the plant is enough to fulfill the order in the given lead time. Usually the lead time for any particular order is 50 to 55 days, including all quality checks inspection etc. The calculation of lead time: 

Pre- spinning procedures: 3 days



Spinning: 15-20 days



Warping and dyeing- 3 days



For every weaving cycle- 3 to 4 days(weaving cycles depend on the order quantity and above mentioned factors)



Usually for one order about 8 to 10 weaving cycles required



Finishing processes- 1 day for each process, if not covered in the integrated finish processing machine



Inspection 2 to 3 days



Washing 2 to 3 days

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COSTING 

Spinning :

Rs 1.10/kg/count



Weaving :

Rs 0.21 / pick



Dyeing :

Rs 4/mtr



Finishing :

Rs 0.04/mtr



Coating :

Rs 4/mtr



Power :

Rs 2.25/unit



Labor wage : Rs 6000 to 8,500/month



Inspection:

(avg. weight 650gram/mtr)

Rs 0.65/mtr

QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT In the modern day quality assurance has a wider scope and it includes activities like process ownership and calibration where in the department ownership is given to a person and it becomes his/her duty to deal with it in the most efficient manner. Quality assurance at Arvind mills has the following labs. : 1. Cotton laboratory 2. Physical testing laboratory 3. Chemical testing laboratory 4. Calibration laboratory 5. Colour quest laboratory 6. Clearance department

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Essentially there are 2 major parts of quality assurance:

Figure 34: Types of quality assurance

METAL DETECTOR 

Arvind KBD has a Hashima Metal Detector Machine.



100% inspection of pieces for non-conformities is conducted, both at the cut part stage as well as at the final assembled stage.

COTTON LABORTARY: Cotton is held for the 70% cost of the fabric cost only and hence becomes a major factor which if controlled will add maximum contribution to the strength of Arvind mills. The coefficient of variance is calculated for the width, diameter and hairiness of the fibre. The machine used for this purpose is USTER TESTER 5.the fibre is passed at a speed of 400m/min and the variance is hence calculated. The variance is calculated against international or the preset Arvind standards.

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The length, weight and the exact count of the fibre is also calculated and the CASCADE machine is used for this purpose which ensured the right thing at the right time as per customer demands.

PHYSICAL TESTING LABORTARY This testing happens at the yarn manufacturing stage and the yarn is tested for its 1. Length 2. Elongation 3. Elasticity etc The yarn should be tested in a way so as to know whether the yarn can take all the loadings or not and if yes to what extent can it take. This helps in deciding what processes the yarn can face and what effects cab be deduced. Single yarn strength and its elongations is measured using the USTER TENSORPAID 3 machine which is the most trusted name in the field and comes from Switzerland. INSTRON 4465 is used to check the tensile strength of the fibre and the tear strength is also calculated in grams. For all the above written testing‘s the standard lab conditions are made at a temperature of 60+/2 f and the humidity level is maintained at 65%+/-2%. Factors like stretch ability skew and shrinkage are tested after marking is done followed by three washings of the fabric.

CHEMICAL TESTING LABORTARY: In the chemical laboratory they check all the fuels, dyes, and all the chemicals that are used in the production process. They even check the denim if it is washed with bleach how much it fades the colour. They try different process like how the denim would react in different conditions like in case of perspiration, salt water, normal water, in extreme temperature.

COLOUR QUEST LABORTARY: In the colour quest they try to find out the different shades and they see to it that after the washing and drying process does the shade match the requirement of the customer or not.

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CALIBRATION LABORATORY: Calibration is a specialized measurement process where in one compares test and measuring instruments/equipments of unknown status to well defined standards of greater accuracy in order to detect /eliminate error by adjustments & report any variation in accuracy capability.

PARAMETERS

INSTRUMENT & FUNCTIONS

Temperature

Mercury thermometer, temperature indicator & controllers, temperature switches, temperature gauges, temperature transmitters.

Pressure

Pressure gauge, vacuum gauge, pressure transmitter, pressure switch.

Mass

Analytical weighing balance

Electrical

AC/OC voltage, AC/DC current, single phase power, frequency, resistance capacitance, conductance, logic pulses, logic levels. Digital & analogue amateur, millimeters‘, panel meters, frequency meters.

Dimensional

Measure tape, steel scale, verniar capture, micro meter, dial gauge.

Gas lab instruments

Lab instruments used for quality conformance tests & physical testing lab & chemical testing lab.

Table 29: Calibration facility at calibration laboratory

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CHECK POINTS IN GREY FABRIC INSPECTION (ARVIND SHIRTING): 

Loom Stop Mark



More Pick



Double Pick



Tight Warp



Package Change



Slough Off



Broken Pick



Temperature Crack



Multi Break



Black/ Oil Stain

PROFORMA OF FABRIC INSPECTION REPORT ( ARVIND SHIRTING)

ARVIND LIMITED QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPT. ARVIND SHIRTING

98

P.O. Khatraj, Tal. Kalol, Dist. Gandhinagar, Pincode- 382721, Gujarat, India

FABRIC TEST RESULTS S.O. NO.

SHADE

I.B. NO.

FINISH

COUNT

DESCRIPTION

CUSTOMER

MTRS.

PHYSICAL TESTS Test

Method

Std.

Warp

Unit

Result

Notes

Threads/Inch

Weft Fabric Weight

ASTM-D-3776

G/m²

Overall Width

Cm.

Usable Width

Cm.

Tensile Strength

ASTM-D-5034

Kg. Warp Weft

Tear Strength

ASTM-D-1424

g Warp Weft

Seam Slippage

ASTM-D-434

Kg Warp Weft

Dimensional

AATCC-135

% Warp

Stbility Martindale

Weft ASTM-D-4996

Revs.

Abrasion

COLOR FASTNESS TESTS Colour Fastness Washing @ 49 °C

AATCC-61-2A

4C, 3S

[email protected] 37 ° C

AATCC-107

4C,3S

99

Dry Rub

AATCC-8

4S

Wet Rub

AATCC-8

3S

Heat-Dry pressed

AATCC-133

5C

Acid perspiration

AATCC-15

4C, 3S

OTHER REQUIREMENTS Crease

AATCC-66

Recovery

Warp FF BB Weft FF BB

DP Rating

AATCC-124

Bow/ Skew

Pass/Fail: HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

%

Tested By: Date:

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION DEPARTMENT:

• The division has an in-house Design Studio with a team of qualified professional designers. The design Studio is fully equipped with latest technologies. It gets continuous design inputs on latest international trends from designers based in Italy and UK. Great emphasis on Design and Product Development.

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• 23 in house designers, qualified from internationally reputed institutes. Italian and Spanish designers on board. • Arvind’s designers constantly predict market trends offering our customers a wide range of products.

Range Collections: Season-wise collections for S/S and A/W. Customized collections for key customers (based on their concepts/inputs).

facilities: Computer Aided Designing A mini mill dedicated to design & development . Independent weaving for sample making Small package dyeing machine for new shades Comprehensive shade library to enable quick responses. Apparel. Showrooms are at: 

Ahmedabad



New York



Hong Kong



Dhaka

The design house is divided into 2 sections the DDC department and the design studio. The recent developments and the new ones are generated here with the help of cad system .tex cad is the software which is brought into use by the well skilled designers here. When the cads are approved then the sampling is one through the ddc department. The total sampling is done here. First the handlooms are generated and then it sent to the clients for ap proval. when the approvals are done then the running yardages of 20 – 60 meters are developed ,there to see how the fabrics look in the running stage .once the approvals is done from the client side then the final bulk production takes place. Apart from this the major portion of the DDC dealing is

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analysis of the samples from outside clients and developments done on the basis of the analysis. The samples come in the form of small pieces, may be fabric imitations, paper designs copying, cutting from the magazines or other sources. Once the sample is analyzed then it is sent for desk loom development.

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Holding the corporate social responsibility (CSR) Arvind runs vocational programs for rural poor of the Khedbrahma taluka of Gujarat’s Sabarkantha district. In 1995 Arvind owned the SHARDA (Strategic help alliance for relief to distressed areas) trust to improve physical environment and living conditions of rural areas. • At Arvind, they place the social and environmental responsibilities at the center of our management philosophy and our business. • Arvind has made comprehensive efforts to identify, monitor, minimize and continually reduce the environmental footprint of its operations and offer good working conditions. • Arvind continuously explore ways to foster environmental consciousness and awareness at all levels of the organization, in the communities where they carry on business, and among the farmers, suppliers and other stakeholders with whom we deal. . Arvind - Education & Social Endeavors • Arvind runs 6 schools, 12 colleges and 5 other institutions in Ahmedabad. • Arvind family is associated with formation of premier management institute of country the Indian Institute of Management (IIM Ahmedabad). • Arvind has established a Blind Men’s Association. • The family is also engaged in Rural Development. • It is also a founding trustee of a Cancer hospital. Urban infrastructure Development of C G road – Ahmedabad‘s most popular street – in a manner offers the urban dweller and visitor a clean, organized and enjoyable recreational experience. Upgrading slums Arvind in a partnership with the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation developed a model to upgrade the slums of Ahmedabad. These slums house about 30% of the cities population that live

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in the most disadvantaged circumstances. In a highly documented and successful initiative a dwelling of over 181 hutments, housing 1200 people, was provided with improved surroundings and access to clean drinking water and proper sanitation facilities in individual houses.

Vocational Training We initiated vocational training programmes to enhance and develop the skill of unemployed youth and help them take up Garment Operative jobs within Arvind and other garment manufacturing firms in Ahmedabad. In another initiative, Arvind has organized Programmes in English and Computer Application equip students with relevant knowledge and skills and find suitable job openings for them. This enables the students to seek better employment and function effectively in their respective organizational roles.

ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES Arvind Limited commits itself to continually improve our environmental management. It strives to go beyond the requirements of the applicable environmental laws & other regulations through: 

Optimizing usage of cotton, energy, chemicals & water.



Adopting preventive strategies to reduce the generation of effluents, waste & air emissions.

1)



Maximizing the recycling of inevitable wastes.



Encouraging suppliers & buyers to become environmentally responsible



Maintaining a safe working environment.



Increasing the green cover.



Training employees on environmental issues. Effluent Treatment Facilities:

All the production / processing units are provided with adequate wastewater / water treatment facilities, to meet the requirements of regulating authorities as well as our reputed customers like Levis, Nike etc.

103

Arvind Limited at Santej has one of the largest effluent recycle plants in Asia with recycling capacity 10,500 m3/day. The latest & best of the technologies available in water / wastewater treatments can be seen in operation in this plant. The Arvind International (division) has Effluent recycling facilities comprising Chemical, Biological & tertiary treatment and it is of 800-m3/day capacity. The plant also has ISO 9000 & ISO 14000 certification. Arvind Limited at the main site at Naroda also possess chemical, biological treatment facilities to treat 10000 m3/day of effluents to meet the pollution control board norms. Ankur Mills (division) has Effluent treatment plant of 1600-m3/day capacity with chemical & biological treatment facility to achieve the pollution board norms. Arvind Limited (Garment exports division) is setting up a new garment unit at Mysore road, Bangalore, along with Effluent treatment plant of 1450 m3 /day capacity. This plant also possesses chemical, biological & tertiary treatment facilities to achieve the State Pollution Control Board norms. The uniqueness of this plant is – all it‘s process water requirements will be attained through recycled sewage water of Bangalore City. 2)

Air pollution Control:

Arvind Limited has switched from liquid fuel to Natural gas for all their heating & steam requirements in order to avoid the air pollution. 3)

Solid waste Management:

All the units believe in waste minimization measures. All the ETP plants are provided with adequate sludge Dewatering facilities. Units at Santej, Naroda, Arvind International & the upcoming Bangalore unit are provided with Decanter Centrifuges for sludge de-watering. Dewatered sludge is dried in solar evaporation pans for further volume reduction. Waste oil generated in all the units is recycled. Polythene liners, Discarded containers are disposed off to the respective buyers. 4)

Afforestation & Rain water Harvesting:

Units at Khatrej & Santej have very good afforestation & green belts. The Santej unit has more than 1 lakh trees & other shrubbery. Plants like Jetropha (seeds used for Biodiesel generation)

104

are grown extensively. ETP treated water is used for this plantation so as to minimize raw water consumption. Beautiful lawns with Fountains are part of the landscape. At the Santej unit ground water recharging facility is also developed where in yearly about 40 MLD rain water is recharged in to ground water table. Two recharge ponds with a capacity of about 4000 m3 are made & Rainwater during the monsoon is collected in theseponds & recharged in to Ground water table.

ORGANIC COTTON PROJECT

Objectives: 

To develop and promote a business model that is environmentally sustainable



To improve farm productivity and farmer incomes



To enhance biodiversity of the rural landscape



To develop a lasting social infrastructure and support system in the region

105

Organic Cotton Project was born from a need to create value through innovation across the supply chain particularly in the area of raw material – cotton. Arvind is a leading cotton textile manufacturer based in India with a significant global presence. With its dominance across the textile value chain, the company endeavors to be a one-stop shop for leading apparel brands. In order to complete the supply chain, Arvind has forayed into organic cotton production through contract farming model in order to source organic cotton that is of high quality; and a socioenvironmental need – to sustain cotton farming production in a socially fair manner that promotes the rural economy and creates a healthy ecosystem. Arvind is working closely with the farmers of the Vidarbha region in Akola to grow organic cotton. This initiative has helped to improve the livelihood of the farmers by dramatically increasing their per-acre income. All the organic cotton produced at these organic farms is certified by the Control Union Certification, Netherlands.

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Bibliography (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.toyota-industries.com/product/textile/textile/made.html. (n.d.). Retrieved 08 15, 2015, from http://www.glencoenc.com/library/flow.html. (n.d.). Retrieved from (http://www.truetzschler-spinning.com/en/products/blow-room/technicalhighlights-blow-room/). ARVIND MILLS,SANTEJ. (n.d.). http://www.toyota-industries.com/product/textile/textile/made.html. (n.d.). http://www.toyota-industries.com/product/textile/textile/made.html. (n.d.). Books Referred Fabric Science(J.Pizzuto)

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