OBJECTIVES OF INTERNSHIP The main objectives of the project/internship were: 1. Understanding basic principles of production of textiles. 2. In depth study and understanding of all process involved in textile production and the machinery and equipment used. 3. Knowledge about the company. 4. Understanding the company’s process flow in production 5. Study the work environment and practices followed for textile production.
The project is based on two weeks (i.e., May 25, 2015 to June 6, 2015) internship in Arvind Mills- Shirting Division, Santej (Gandhinagar) unit. It covers the information and learning experiences related to manufacturing shirting fabrics and the the processes involved are:
Spinning Dyeing Weaving Finishing Testing Industry Mentor- MR. SUBHANISH MALHOTARA (Chief Manager HR)
OVERVIEW OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
The textile industry has been gradually relocated from the developed to the developing countries, over the last few decades. This phenomenon has increased the opportunity for developing countries to boost manufacturing and trade in textiles. It is highly competitive and its prospects are continuously increasing. The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the international textile economy. Its contribution to the Indian economy is manifested in terms of its contribution to the industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. It contributes 20 percent of industrial production, 9 percent of excise collections, 18 percent of employment in the industrial sector, nearly 20 percent to the country’s total export earning and 4 percent to the Gross Domestic Product. A strong raw material production base, a vast pool of skilled and unskilled personnel, cheap labour, good export potential and low import content are some of the salient features of the Indian textile industry. This is a traditional, robust, well established industry, enjoying considerable demand in the domestic as well as global markets.
India’s presence in the international market is significant in the areas of fabrics and yarn as:
India is the largest exporter of yarn in the international market and has a share of 25% in world cotton yarn exports.
India accounts for 12% of the world’s production of textile fibres and yarn.
In terms of spindleage, the Indian textile industry is ranked second, after China, and accounts for 23% of the world’s spindle capacity.
Around 6% of global rotor capacity is in India.
The country has the highest loom capacity, including handlooms, with a share of 61% in world loomage.
India has the potential to increase its textile and apparel share in the world trade from the current level of 4.5% to 8% and reach US $ 80 by 2020.
ABOUT THE COMPANY ARVIND LIMITED The Arvind Limited is one of the largest textile conglomerates in Asia. Its headquarters is in Ahmedabad (Gujarat). It manufactures a range of Shirting, Denims, Knits and Bottomweights (Khakis) fabrics. The company has a turnover of approximately $ 500 million and is a part of over 100 years old Lalbhai Group. Arvind ranks in top three largest Denim producers worldwide with an annual production of over 90 million meters of Denim Fabric and Exports to over 70 countries. It is also one of the largest producers in Asia of high value cotton shirting fabrics. It has a capacity of around 34 MMPA (million meters per annum) of yard dyed shirting and piece dyed shirting fabric including specialty Fine count Indigo yarn dyed and solid Shirting fabric. It produces approximately 20 MMPA of Piece Dyed Khaki's fabrics and around 16 TPD (tones per day) of Knits Fabrics which is vertically integrated into Knits Garments. Arvind started with a share capital of ₹ 2,525,000 ($55,000) in the year 1931. With the aim of manufacturing the highend superfine fabrics Arvind Limited invested in very sophisticated technology. With 52,560 ring spindles, 2552 doubling spindles and 1122 looms it was one of the few companies in those days to start along with spinning and weaving facilities in addition to fullfledged facilities for dyeing, bleaching, finishing and mercerizing. The sales in the year 1934, three years after establishment were ₹ 45.76 lakh and profits were ₹ 2.82 lakh. In the mid 1980’s the textile industry faced another major crisis. With the power loom churning out vast quantities of inexpensive fabric, many large composite mills lost their markets, and were on the verge of closure. Yet that period saw Arvind at its highest level of profitability. At this point of time Arvind’s management coined a new word for it new strategy – Reno Vision. It simply meant a new way of looking at issues, of seeing more than the obvious and that became the corporate philosophy.
The national focus paved way for international focus and Arvind’s markets shifted from domestic to global, a market that expected and accepted only quality goods. Cottons were the largest growing segments. But where conventional wisdom pointed to popular priced segments, Reno vision pointed to high quality premium niches. Thus in 198788 Arvind entered the export market for two sections: Denim for leisure & fashion wear and high quality fabric for cotton shirting and trousers. By 1991 Arvind reached 1600 million meters of Denim per year and it was the third largest producer of Denim in the world. In 1997 Arvind set up a stateoftheart shirting, gabardine and knits facility, the largest of its kind in India, at Santej, Gandhinagar (Gujarat). With Arvind’s concern for environment a most modern effluent treatment facility with zero effluent discharge capability was also established. Arvind entered into exports of garments setting up Shirt factories in Bangalore in 2001. This modest beginning has quickly grown to a capacity of around 4.50 Million Shirts per annum and the list of customers includes Gap, Dockers, Next, Esprit, FCUK, Osh Kosh and many others. Arvind's entry into Jeans/ Pants was delayed due to the tight quota situation in India. It entered into Jeans Garment exports with its first Jeans factory “The Arvind Overseas (Mauritius) Ltd., Mauritius, to offer full Garment package to its customers in USA and Europe. This factory which started in March 2002 was a good stepping stone/ pilot plant and did programs with customers which included Express, Next, M&S, Lee Cooper, Rocawear and others. With the world moving into a new Quota Free world, Arvind decided to move the Garment factory to Bangalore, India in September 2004, to offer its customers more flexibility and better cost effectiveness. Company's current Jeans capacity is around 10 Million Pieces per annum. Year 2005 was a watershed year for textiles. With the mulitifiber agreement getting phased out and the disbanding of quotas, international textile trade was poised for a quantum leap. In the domestic market too, the rationalizing of the cenvat chain and the growth of the organized retail industry was likely to make textiles and apparel see an explosive growth.
Arvind has carved out an aggressive strategy to verticalize its current operations by setting up worldscale garmenting facilities and offering a onestop shop services, by offering garment packages to its international and domestic customers. With Lee, Wrangler, Arrow and Tommy Hilfiger and its own domestic brands of Flying Machine, Newport, Excalibur and Ruf & Tuf, Arvind is setting its vision of becoming the largest apparel brands company in India. Arvind also runs a value retail chain, Megamart, which stocks company brands. Arvind feature is that its enterprises are equipped with highly advanced equipment of a full cycle from painting the fiber to the finished product. With the best of technology and business acumen, Arvind has become a true Indian multinational, having chosen to invest strategically, where demand has been high and quality requirement is being superlative. Arvind has set the pace for changing global customer demands of textiles and has focused its attention on selected core products. Such a focus has enabled the company to play a dominant role in the global textile arena. Today, The Arvind Limited is the flagship company of ₹ 30 billion Lalbhai Group.
Current Chairman and Managing Director – MR. SANJAY S. LALBHAI
Figure 1: journey of Arvind Limited
In 1930, the world suffered a traumatic depression. Companies across the globe began closing down. In UK and in India, the textile industry in particular, was in trouble. At about this time, Mahatma Gandhi championed the Swadeshi Movement and at his call, people from all India began boycotting fine and superfine fabrics, which had so far been imported from England. In the midst of this depression one family saw opportunity. The Lalbhais reasoned that the demand for fine and superfine fabrics still existed. And any Indian company that met this demand would surely prosper. The three brothers, Kasturbhai, Narottambhai and Chimanbhai decided to put up a mill to produce this superfine fabric and the Arvind Mills (Arvind Limited) was born. The best technology of that time was acquired at a most attractive price.
Arvind Limited is set up by three brothers Kasturbhai, Narottambhai and Chimanbhai Lalbhai with a share capital of ₹2,525,000 (US$55,000) backed by stateoftheart technology of England, with the aim to produce highend superfine fabric. Products manufactured are dhoties, sarees, mulls, dorias, crepes, shirtings, bra, panties, coatings, printed lawns & voiles cambrics, twills gaberdine etc.
With sales reaching ₹45.76 Lakhs, and a profit of almost ₹3 Lakhs, Arvind
Limited establishes itself amongst the foremost textile units in the country. Arvind Limited records highest levels of profitability. The new strategy – ‘Reno vision’, points at changing the business focus from local to global, towards a high
quality premium niche market. An uninterrupted record of not missing out on paying dividend to its shareholders.
First company to bring globally accepted fabrics Denim, yarn dyed shirting
fabrics and wrinkle free gabardines to India. Arvind enters the export market for Denims with a dual focus Denim for leisure and Denim for fashion wear.
An established leader in fine and superfine cotton fabrics in Indian markets. Arvind reached 100 million meters of denim per year. Arvind emerges as the third
largest manufacturer of denim in the world. The Company increased the production of denim cloth by 23,000 tonnes per day
by modernising the plant located at Khatraj of Ankur Textiles. The Company proposed to expand the denim manufacturing capacity by 85,00,000 metres per annum.
The Company also proposed to set up a new composite mill for producing annually 120 lakh meters of high quality shirting fabrics to be marketed in
the domestic as well as international markets. First Company to bring International Shirt brand ‘Arrow’ to India.
First company to start retail outlets for Arrow brand. The performance of textile division was significantly affected due to an unprecedented rise in cost of cotton.
Garment division launched ready to stitch jeans pack under the brand ‘Ruf
& Tuf’. India’s largest stateoftheart facility for shirting, gabardine and knits is set up at Santej, Gandhinagar (Gujarat).
The largest zero discharge green effluent treatment plant in India.
The marketing and distribution network of ‘Newport’ brand was strengthened and the relaunched ‘Flying Machine’ and ‘Ruggers’ brand
The Company reported a fire in the goods godown & folding packing department in Naroda Road unit of the company.
Arvind sets up the antipiracy cell for the first time in India to curb large scale counterfeiting of their highly successful brands Ruf & Tuf and Newport jeans.
Arvind Limited adopts the franchisee system for the manufacture and distribution of Ruf and Tuf jeans.
Arvind Fashions, doubles its capacity in the stateoftheart manufacturing facility in Bangalore to produce Lee jeans.
First Indian company to verticalize the cotton textile business from cotton fields to apparel retailing.
1997 was also the year when Arvind Limited started facing serious troubles
financially. First company to introduce ERP SAP business solutions in their new manufacturing unit in April 1998.
1999 2000 2001
Largest Denim and Shirting in South Asia. Arvind sets a twomonth deadline for hiving off its garments division into a
separate company and sale of its real estate in Delhi. CRISIL downgrades the debenture issues of Arvind Limited, indicating
that the instruments were in default. Arvind entered into exports of garments setting up Shirt factories in Bangalore in 2001.
Arvind defaults on a $125 million floating rate note issue and puts forward a debt restructuring proposal that could significantly reduce its debt burden and sharply improve its financial health.
Arvind Limited posts a net loss of ₹44.59 crore for the quarter ended
September 30, 2001. Arvind entered into Jeans Garment exports in March 2002 with its first Jeans factory ‘The Arvind Overseas (Mauritius) Ltd.’, Mauritius, to offer
full Garment package to its customers in USA and Europe. For the fourth quarter, Arvind witnesses 280% growth in the net profit.
Arvind Limited is assigned a `P1+` rating by CRISIL, which indicates a
very strong rating for their commercial paper. Company turns itself around showing remarkable improvement in financial performance.
Arvind decided to move the Denim Garment factory to Bangalore, India in
September 2004. Arvind creates a unique onestop shop service on a global scale, offering garment packages to reputed national and international customers.
For the fourth quarter in a row, Arvind has managed to post a profit growth in excess of 80 per cent.
Arvind Limited decides to buy entire stake in Arvind Brands
from ICICI Ventures Arvind expands its presence in the brands and retail segment by
establishing MegaMart – One of India’s largest value retail chains. Largest portfolio of International brands: Lee, Wrangler, Nautica, Jansport, Kipling, Tommy, Arrow, US Polo, Izod, Pierre Cardin, Palm Beach,
Cherokee etc. Arvind Limited launches ‘The Arvind Store’, a concept putting the company’s best fabrics, brands and bespoke styling and tailoring solutions under one roof.
Arvind becomes one of India’s largest producers of fire protection fabrics.
They Believe In people and their unlimited potential; in content and in focus on problem solving; in teams for effective performance, in the power of the intellect.
They Endeavour To select, train and coach people to obtain higher responsibilities; to nurture talent, and to build leaders for the corporations of tomorrow; to reward, celebrate and activate all intellectual business contributions.
They Dream Of excellence in all endeavors; of mutual benefit and prosperity; of making the world a better place to live in.
Jayesh Shah Director & CFO
Aamir Akhtar CEO, Lifestyle Fabrics - Denim
Anang Lalbhai MD - Arvind Products
Susheel Kaul CEO, Knits & Woven Fabrics PD Chavda President, Voiles
Lifestyle Apparel Ashish Kumar CEO, Lifestyle Apparel - Jeans & Shirts
Brands & Retail J.Suresh Managing Director - Brands & Retail (Source: Company official website www.arvindmills.com)
DIVISIONS Woven Fabrics
SHIRTING AND BOTTOM WEIGHTS Arvind’s expertise in new age shirting fabric and bottom weights is unparalleled. Their shirting fabrics have consistently fetched a premium in the local and international markets. Prominent products within shirting category include fabrics with noniron properties, mechanical finishes, printed fabrics apart from the cotton and cotton blends in Linen, Lycra, Polyester, Modal, Silk etc. with varieties in yarn dyes and solids. The state of the art facility is capable of producing a total of 65 million meters per annum of Shirting (35 million meters) and bottom weight fabrics (30 million meters). It ensures that
stringent quality standards are met and products remain ecofriendly. This capacity is set to increase reaching a total of 84 million meters by the next financial year. Further, Arvind has a unique plant for manufacturing very light weight indigo dyed fabrics in yarn dyed and solids for top weights. Arvind Shirting has a liquid ammonia based fabric processing plant and a stateoftheart print house – a first for India and one of the few in Asia. They have a dedicated inhouse design team constantly working on product innovation and fashion forecasts for the domestic and international markets. They also boast of the largest yardage and sampling mill in India. Their spinning setup can produce a variety of counts for yarn types like compacts, slubs, signed yarn etc. The weaving capabilities include highspeed Airjet looms and Rapier looms. Their finishing capabilities include continuous bleaching and dying ranges, caustic mercerization, and machinery for various chemical and mechanical finishes. A sophisticated and supremely flexible package dying facility complete with vessels ranging from 1 Kg to 750 Kilograms and state of the art printing facilities are also in place. In addition to cotton they now work with a variety of fibers including Modal, Tencel, Excel, Viscose, Bemberg, Lycra, Silk, Linen, Polyester and Nylon. They are host to India’s first Ammonia Mercerization Plant. They use patented technology to impart structural stability and superior handfeel for the difficulttohandle fibers like Modal, Tencel, Excel and Viscose. Over the years, their in house R&D department has successfully developed and perfected a number of finishes adding value to our products and uniqueness to our range.
Other Chemical Finishes: Wrinkle free, Prepress, Everfresh, Easy to Iron, Stain
Repellant, Nano Care, AntiBacterial, Permawhite etc. Mechanical Finishes: Aero, Peach, Brush, Diamond Emery and Carbonium.
Their product range is certified by Oekotex, processes are certified by GOTS for producing Organic products. They are certified producers of Lycra and Teflon based varieties, while their laboratory is accredited by Marks and Spencers, Next, Gap Inc., Levi's, DuPont and INVISTA.
DENIMS The late 1980’s saw Arvind pioneer the manufacture of denim in India. Today with an installed capacity of over 110 million meters per annum, Arvind is a leading producer of denim in the world. It has an export network of 70 countries worldwide. Design, Innovations and Sustainability have been their core competency and have played a key role in the success. The use of sophisticated ultramodern technology under the guidance of worldrenowned designers has enabled Arvind to deliver many firsts in the international markets. All their products are designed and modeled on the basis of expert design inputs coming from our designers based out of India, Japan, Italy and the United States. All Arvind Denim products come with the hallmark of distinctiveness and quality. Some Examples:
Shuttle looms for Selvedge denim
Name selvedge and Stretch selvedge
Unique Fibers like Excel, Jute, Silk, Linen
Natural Indigo and Vegetable dyes
Unique concept products like Indigo voiles & Handspun denim
Organic, BCI & Sustainable denim
The denim facility at Arvind is accredited with ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OEKOTEX 100, GOTS, and Organic exchange standard. Our labs are certified by NABL (ISO 17025 certification) and customers like Levi’s, Lee, and Wrangler etc. As one of the largest denim producers in the
world, Arvind caters to quality markets of Europe, US, West Asia, the Far East and the Asia Pacific.
KHAKI The many virtues of Arvind Khaki merit undivided attention: An annual capacity of 21 million meters which facilitates the launch of two new collections annually; and the distinction of being the only khakis division in South East Asia to do so. The division provides the finest fabrics in the variants of 100% Cotton, Cotton Rich Polyester Blend, Cotton Lycra, Cotton Tencel, Cotton Linen, etc to name a few. The division has an integrated plant with weaving and processing facilities. The most prominent products in this range include Chinos, Canvas, Ribstop, HBT, Tussore, Cavalry, Structures and Dobbies.
VOILES Arvind has been well poised as a leading manufacturer of super fine fabrics in India. An uncontested marketleader in the manufacture of voiles, Arvind still continues to manufacture the traditional fabric for both domestic and international markets. The legacy of Arvind transcends from the olden days into a golden future with a production capacity of 36 million meters per annum. Arvind’s voiles are primarily used as blouse material and are sold in the domestic market through an impressive network of around 150 dealers, reaching over 5000 retail outlets throughout India. High quality Swiss voiles are exported to Switzerland, Sri Lanka and countries in the Middle East.
Customers of Woven Fabrics: Banana Republic, Brooks Brothers, Ann Taylor, Hugo Boss, Calvin Klein, Polo Ralph, Eddie Bauer, Express, J Crew, Louis Phillip, Van Heusen, Arrow, Color Plus, Esprit, Paul Smith, Park Avenue
KNITS FABRICS Arvind’s knits department has an annual knitting capacity of 5,000 tons. The knits vertical has a fabric dyeing capacity of 5000 tons per annum and yarn dyeing capacity of 1800 tons per annum. It has the ability to process both tubular and openwidth fabrics and offers specialty finishes like mercerization, singeing and various forms of brushing and peaching. The department also boasts of a stateof the art print shop equipped with fully automatic placement printing capabilities Basic knits:
Jersey, Pique, Rib, and Interlock
Specialty knits: Yarndyed, Auto stripers, Jacquards, and Stretch fabric
Fibers: Cotton, Excel, Viscose, Modal, Polyester
Finishes: Mercerization, Brushing, Peaching, Aerofinish.
Customers: Marks & Spencer – Eddie Bauer – Zara – Josepha Bank
ADVANCED MATERIALS Arvind's Advanced Materials is a certified ISO 9001: 2008 manufacturing facility producing high performance industrial fabrics with world class technology and knowhow based on a strong foundation of knowledge, research and market needs. They are committed to offer textile solutions for rapidly growing sectors like General Industrial manufacturing and processing, infrastructure, transport, energy and personal protection.
OTHER DIVISIONS GARMENT EXPORTS A world without boundaries is a promise of a global marketplace. At Arvind, the range of fabrics is universal in appeal. They aim to inspire a diverse mix of customers enriching lifestyles globally.
Bottoms: 7.2 million pieces of jeans per annum\
Formal & Casual tops: 6 million pieces per annum
Knit tops: 3.6 million pieces per annum
Their specialized capabilities for adding value to our products include;
• Automated Placement Printing Machinery • India’s largest washing facility with Tonello machines for wet processes • Bohemian machines and Laser tech for unique and automated dry processes • Skilled artisans for hand processes BRANDS OWN BRANDS: Mainstream, Excalibur Gant, Flying Machine LICENSED BRANDS: Bridge to Luxury, USA 1949, Energie PREMIUM BRANDS: Arrow, USPA, Izod, Lee, Wrangler, Ruf & Tuf, Cherokee, Mossimo, New Port University
ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES Arvind Limited commits itself to continually improve our environmental management. It strives to go beyond the requirements of the applicable environmental laws & other regulations through:
Optimizing usage of cotton, energy, chemicals & water.
Adopting preventive strategies to reduce the generation of effluents, waste & air emissions.
Maximizing the recycling of inevitable wastes.
Encouraging suppliers & buyers to become environmentally responsible
Maintaining a safe working environment.
Increasing the green cover.
Training employees on environmental issues. Effluent Treatment Facilities:
All the production / processing units are provided with adequate wastewater / water treatment facilities, to meet the requirements of regulating authorities as well as our reputed customers like Levis, Nike etc. Arvind Limited at Santej has one of the largest effluent recycle plants in Asia with recycling capacity 10,500 m3/day. The latest & best of the technologies available in water / wastewater treatments can be seen in operation in this plant. The Arvind International (division) has Effluent recycling facilities comprising Chemical, Biological & tertiary treatment and it is of 800m3/day capacity. The plant also has ISO 9000 & ISO 14000 certification. Arvind Limited at the main site at Naroda also possess chemical, biological treatment facilities to treat 10000 m3/day of effluents to meet the pollution control board norms. Ankur Mills (division) has Effluent treatment plant of 1600m3/day capacity with chemical & biological treatment facility to achieve the pollution board norms. Arvind Limited (Garment exports division) is setting up a new garment unit at Mysore road, Bangalore, along with Effluent treatment plant of 1450 m3 /day capacity. This plant also possesses chemical, biological & tertiary treatment facilities to achieve the State Pollution Control Board norms. The uniqueness of this plant is – all it’s process water requirements will be attained through recycled sewage water of Bangalore City. 2) Air pollution Control:
Arvind Limited has switched from liquid fuel to Natural gas for all their heating & steam requirements in order to avoid the air pollution.
3) Solid waste Management: All the units believe in waste minimization measures. All the ETP plants are provided with adequate sludge Dewatering facilities. Units at Santej, Naroda, Arvind International & the upcoming Bangalore unit are provided with Decanter Centrifuges for sludge dewatering. De watered sludge is dried in solar evaporation pans for further volume reduction. Waste oil generated in all the units is recycled. Polythene liners, Discarded containers are disposed off to the respective buyers. 4)
Afforestation & Rain water Harvesting:
Units at Khatrej & Santej have very good afforestation & green belts. The Santej unit has more than 1 lakh trees & other shrubbery. Plants like Jetropha (seeds used for Biodiesel generation) are grown extensively. ETP treated water is used for this plantation so as to minimize raw water consumption. Beautiful lawns with Fountains are part of the landscape. At the Santej unit ground water recharging facility is also developed where in yearly about 40 MLD rain water is recharged in to ground water table. Two recharge ponds with a capacity of about 4000 m3 are made & Rainwater during the monsoon is collected in theseponds & recharged in to Ground water table.
ORGANIC COTTON PROJECT Objectives:
To develop and promote a business model that is environmentally sustainable
To improve farm productivity and farmer incomes
To enhance biodiversity of the rural landscape
To develop a lasting social infrastructure and support system in the region
Organic Cotton Project was born from a need to create value through innovation across the supply chain particularly in the area of raw material – cotton. Arvind is a leading cotton textile manufacturer based in India with a significant global presence. With its dominance across the textile value chain, the company endeavors to be a onestop shop for leading apparel brands. In order to complete the supply chain, Arvind has forayed into organic cotton production through contract farming model in order to source organic cotton that is of high quality; and a socio environmental need – to sustain cotton farming production in a socially fair manner that promotes the rural economy and creates a healthy ecosystem. Arvind is working closely with the farmers of the Vidarbha region in Akola to grow organic cotton. This initiative has helped to improve the livelihood of the farmers by dramatically increasing their peracre income. All the organic cotton produced at these organic farms is certified by the Control Union Certification, Netherlands. With a focus on securing more and more sustainable cotton sources, they have closely involved their selves with the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI), a Swiss association working to reduce environmental and social impacts of cotton growing. The concept is to grow cotton with very carefully controlled application of water, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, dramatically reducing the environmental footprint of cotton farming. These techniques work well in fertile and irrigated regions where organic farming is not economically viable. The project covers over 10,000 acres of farmlands and involves working closely with nearly 1200 farmers.
CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETY
Arvind prides its participation in works that contribute to the betterment of society. Arvind’s CSR philosophy is based on the notion that society and the corporation are inextricably linked, and that a company can improve its own functioning by influencing the environment in which it operates. It is this philosophy that transcends through all of Arvind’s CSR initiatives.
Education Through SHARDA Trust, the company’s CSR vehicle, Arvind is committed to upgrading the standards of municipal schools in Ahmedabad and work towards building a pool of bright and employable youth. Today, over 900 students each year from five municipal schools benefit from the supplemental English, Mathematics and Computer education provided at their three learning centers that are equipped with state of the art facilities. It copioneered the world renowned Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA), and helped set up the Ahmedabad Textile Industry Research Association (ATIRA), and The Kasturbhai Lalbhai Textile Training Center to develop and enhance the skills of textile workers. The NarottambhaiLalbhai Rural Development Fund and The Lalbhai Group Rural Development Fund where founded to undertake special programs for the economically deprived.
Urban infrastructure Development of C G road – Ahmedabad’s most popular street – in a manner offers the urban dweller and visitor a clean, organized and enjoyable recreational experience. Upgrading slums Arvind in a partnership with the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation developed a model to upgrade the slums of Ahmedabad. These slums house about 30% of the cities population that live in the most disadvantaged circumstances. In a highly documented and successful initiative a
dwelling of over 181 hutments, housing 1200 people, was provided with improved surroundings and access to clean drinking water and proper sanitation facilities in individual houses.
Vocational Training We initiated vocational training programmes to enhance and develop the skill of unemployed youth and help them take up Garment Operative jobs within Arvind and other garmentmanufacturing firms in Ahmedabad. In another initiative, Arvind has organized Programmes in English and Computer Application equip students with relevant knowledge and skills and find suitable job openings for them. This enables the students to seek better employment and function effectively in their respective organizational roles.
ORGANIZATION CHART OF ARVIND MILLSSHIRTING DIVISION
Chairman & Managing Director (Mr. Sanjay S. Lalbhai)
Chief Executive Officer- Knits and Woven Fabrics (Mr. Susheel Kaul)
Production Spinning HR Department Weaving Material Stores Processing & Finishing Administration & Accounts Quality Control Exports and Domestic Testing Packaging
Production Planning and Control
PROCESSES / DEPARTMENTS OF ARVIND MILLS, SANTEJ
PRODUCTION PROCESS FLOW CHART
LAYOUT OF SPINNING DEPARTMENT
SLEEVE ROOM BLENDOMET MACHINE
CARDING DEPARTMENT DRAWFRAMES
The cotton fibre grows in the seedpod or boll, of the cotton plant. Each fiber is a single elongated cell that is flat, twisted, and ribbon like with a wide inner hollow (lumen).It is composed of about 90 percent cellulose and about 6 percent moisture; the remainder consists of natural impurities. The outer surface of the fibre is covered with a protective wax like coating which gives the fiber a somewhat adhesive quality. Bale of about 165170 kg comes into spinning mill
Types of cotton Arvind Mills use:
1. Pima(American): It is a very strong and extra long cotton fibre. The average size of this variety of fiber is 36mm. 2. Pima(Australian): It is considered as one of the best variety of cotton by Arvind mill. It has a very low percentage of waste it in, mainly consisting of dust, seed and metal. It average size is 32mm. 3. Pakistan Cotton 4. J34 SG: It is a selection from non descriptive hirustum mixtures. Reselection from Bikaneri Narma. It is sown in the months of April/May and the crop is ready for picking by October/December..J34RG and SG are grown in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan and total production per annum is around 2.6 million bales of each of 170 Kg.) 5. Shankar6 Gujarat cotton: It is sown in the month of JuneJuly and is ready for picking in November and may extend upto February. It is cultivated in an area of 4.4 million Acres in the state of Gujarat. 6. Organic cotton a. (Organic cotton is being produced inhouse by arvind mills, and also being procured from fully organic certified farms, as some environment conscious customers prefer to use it.
b. Arvind’s organic cotton contract farming project is located in the cotton growing belt district of Maharashtra; Akola. ) 5. Egyptian Cotton: Seaisland cotton having silky, strong fibers, grown chiefly in N Africa. BLOW ROOM Blow room is the first step in the spinning process. The basic function of this process is to open the fiber first and then clean and mix and even it. In the blow room process, the machine used is filled with the fibers. The drum containing the fibers thus moves in a rotator motion creating a helical effect in the fiber and along with it the suction part in the machine keep on removing the dust. The material is thus clean in this way and then it is transferred by the delivery hopper into the transportation conduit. OBJECTIVES OF BLOWROOM: 1. To open the compressed bales of fibers 2. Remove dirt and dust, broken leaf, seed particles or any other foreign impurities from the fibers 3. To transfer the opened and cleaned fibers into a sheet form of definite width uniform weight per unit length which is called lap. 4. To roll the lap of predetermined length into a cylindrical shape around a lap pin. 5. To transfer the lap from the lap pin to a lap rod to a suitable and feed it to the subsequent m/c (carding).
PROCESS FLOW OF BLOW ROOM 1. OPENING
3. DUST REMOVAL
Opening is the first operation within the blow room in the fibers are opened and separated from each other. This operation mainly focuses on every single fiber to attain the highest degree of openness as to separate in small tufts. As there is opening of fibers, cleaning also simultaneously takes place. The fibers are handled gently so minimum loss of fibers takes place
Machine: GBR cotton opener opens about 400 kg/hr
Cleaning is the second step in the blow room.
While carrying out this process it should always be kept in mind that impurities can be removed from surface of tufts only. So after a short while, new surfaces are made to clean the fibers properly.
Cotton contains up to 18% trash in most cases. To clean the material it is unavoidable to remove as much fiber as much waste.
The fiber quality (short fibers, neps) as well as fiber loss is always negatively affected by maximum trash removal.
Therefore it is necessary to measure the amount of the waste removed and its composition. As it is of high importance also called cleaning efficiency.
Machine used in Arvind Mills: Machine manufacturer: Trutzschler (Germany)
Model: 0522502 Pressure: 5075 bar Major parts: Two metallic perforated cylinders and waste collector
3.Dust removal To extract the contamination in the cotton such as leaf, stone, iron particles, jute, poly propylene, colored fibers, feather and other foreign material from cotton by opening and beating. o An often underestimated task of the blow room line is the removal of dust. However, it is as important as the removal of impurities. o Dedusting in the blow room happens by air suctioning only, either between the machines, e.g. by dust cages, dust extractors, etc., or within the machine by normal air separation. o Every blow room machine must be capable of extracting dust, so that special dedusting machines should be needed. o The efficiency depends not only on the devices but also on the size of the flocks. The smaller the flocks, the higher is the efficiency.
No. of machines:
Mixing: It is generally meant as the intermingling of different classes of fibers of the same grade e.g. USA Pima grade2, CIS Machine for Mixing in Arvind Mills: Machine: Model: Motor speed: Opening rolls speed: Number of chambers: Output: Pressure: Major parts:
Trutzschler 10236 1750 rpm 800850 m/min 10 3036% 350 bar This machine consists of material feed, reserve
tank, reserve tank flaps, optical sensor delivery, rollers, and material suction funnel.
Blending: It is meant as the intermingling of different kinds of fibers or different grade of same fibers e.g. polyester & cotton, Viscose & cotton. o Blending of fiber material is an essential preliminary in the production of a yarn. o Fibers can be blended at various stages of the process. These possibilities should always be fully exploited, for example, by transverse doubling. o However, the starting process is one of the most important stages for blending, since the components are still separate and therefore can be metered exactly and without dependence upon random effects.
o A wellassembled bale layout and even (and as far as possible, simultaneous) extraction of fibers from all bales is therefore of paramount importance. Objectives of mixing or blending
Machine for blending: Machine: Blendomat machine by Truetzschler
Model no. :
Both sides (2 rows)
Number of bales:
Weight of bales:
Mode of bale laying:
Material in process:
Cotton with seeds and impurities
Even feed of material to card To uniform feeding to the next stage such as carding machine.
Recycling the waste material
OBJECTIVES OF CARDING: • To open the tuft of fibers • To make the fiber parallel & straight • To remove remaining trash particles • To remove short fibers • To remove naps • To produce a rove like fiber called sliver, which is uniform in per unit length. o Carding is a mechanical process that breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and then aligns the individual fibres so that they are more or less parallel with each other. Carding can also be used to create blends of different fibres or different colours. o Carding is the process of removing impurities from fibers and producing a carded sliver of parallelized and straightened fibers.
o Before the raw stock can be made into yarn, the remaining impurities must be removed, the fibers must be disentangles, and they must be straightened. o The straightening process puts the fibers into somewhat parallel Carding. o The work is done by carding machine. o The lap is passed through a beater section and drawn on rapidly revolving cylinder covered with very fine hooks or wire brushes slowly moves concentrically above this cylinder. o As the cylinder rotates, the cotton is pulled by the cylinder through the small gap under the brushes; the teasing action removes the remaining trashes, disentangles the fibers , and arranges them in a relatively parallel manner in form of a thin web. o This web is drawn through a funnel shaped device that molds it into a round rope like mass called card sliver. o Card sliver produces carded yarns or carded cottons that are serviceable to produce denim fabrics. MACHINES IN ARVIND MILLS: Number of machines:
33.3 degree Celsius
Card cleaning efficiency:
Front Delivery speed:
210240 meters per minute
MAIN ACTIONS OF CARDING MACHINE
• Action between fee roller & taker in • Action between taker in and cylinder • Action between cylinder and flat • Action between cylinder and doffer.
Drawing is the process where the fibres are blended, straightened and the number of fibers in the sliver increased in order to achieve the desired linear density in the spinning process. The drawing process also improves the uniformity or evenness of the sliver. The number of drawing passages utilised depends on the spinning system used and the end products. Carded Slivers are fed into the DrawFrame and are stretched/ Straightened and made in to a single sliver. Also fibre blending can be done at this stage. The cans that contain the sliver are placed along the drawframe feeder rack, usually including eight pairs of cylinders (each pair is above the space occupied by a can),the lower cylinder is commanded positively, while the upper one rests on the lower one in order to ensure movement of the relative sliver that runs between the two. Tasks of Draw frame: • Drafting • Equalizing • Parallelizing • Blending • Dust removal. Drafting: The reduction of weight / yard of sliver and increase in length is called drafting. Or Attenuation of sliver without breaking is called draft.
Break draft: Draft b/w the 2nd and 3rd rollers is called break draft. Main draft: Draft b/w the 2nd and front rollers is called main draft. In Arvind, sliver is drawn through the draw frame twice. Drawframe used: Padmatex , No. of Drawframes: 12
COMBING Combing is an operation in which dirt and short fibers are removed from sliver lap by following ways.
In a specially designed jaws, a narrow lap of fiber is firmly gripped across its width
Closely spaced needles are passed through the fiber projecting from jaws.
Short fiber which we remove is called comber noil. The comber noil can be recycled in the production of carded yarn. Yarn which is get from comber sliver is called comber yarn. Carded sliver are combine into comber lap in a single continuous process stage. Flat sheet of fiber which is get from comber lap is fed into the comber in an intermediate. Objectives of Combing: 1. To remove
Necessity of Combing: The following quality of fibers can only be obtained by combing
Clean finer fiber
Uniformity in length of fiber
Absence of nap
More parallel arrangement of fibers
The sequence of operation in a comber is as follows: 1. Feeding of the lap by feed roller 2. The fed lap is gripped by the nipper 3. The gripped lap is combed by circular comb 4. The detaching roller grips the combed lap and moves forward 5. While the detaching roller delivers the material, top comb comes into action to further clean the lap. The short fibres are removed. 6. While going back, nipper opens and receives a new bit of lap. Thus, nipper holds the material while the comb moves to and fro. It pulls the material. There are brushes that clean the circular comb. Fibres must be presented to the comber so that leading hooks predominate in the feedstock. This influences not only the opening out of the hooks themselves, but also the cleanliness of the web. If the sheet is fed to the comber in the wrong direction, the number of neps rises markedly.
Machine: Lakshmi LK 54 Comber No. of Machines: 10 Input: Ribbon lap/ Super lap Output: Combed Sliver
In preparation for ring spinning, the sliver needs to be condensed into a finer strand known as a roving before it can be spun into a yarn. The roving frame draws out the sliver to a thickness of a few millimetres and inserts a small amount of twist to keep the fibres together. The drafted twisted strand is wound onto a bobbin which is then transported to the ring frame and used as the feed package for spinning yarn. It is an intermediate process in which fibers are converted into low twist lea called roving. The sliver which is taken from draw frame is thicker so it is not suitable for manufacturing of yarn. Its purpose is to prepare input package for next process. This package is to prepare on a small compact package called bobbins. Roving machine is complicated, liable to fault, causes defect adds to the production costs and deliver the product. In this winding operation that makes us roving frame complex. There are two main basic reasons for using roving frame
The roving sliver is thick and untwisted. Because of it hairiness and fly is created. So draft is needed to reduce the linear density of sliver. The ring drafting arrangement is not capable that it may process the roving sliver to make the yarn.
Draw frame can represent the worst conceivable mode of transport and presentation of feed material to the ring spinning frame.
The main objective of roving frame are given below:
Attenuation Drafting the draw frame sliver into roving.
TwistingTo insert the twist into the roving.
WindingWinding the twisting roving on bobbin.
The first step in the manufacturing of all kinds of fabric i.e. spinning of bales of raw cotton into yarns of various kinds suited for producing varieties of fabric. Trivia about Arvind Mills: ‘Voile’ fabric is mainly used for knitting purposes and for making saris too, but is mostly exported to the middle east. In addition to collaborations with multinational apparel giants, Arvind Mills runs its own brands of clothing e.g. Excalibur Gant, Flying Machine, Mainstream etc. Cotton is procured from a host of countries including farflung ones like Egypt, America and Germany. Recently, Arvind Mills has come up with its unique product, Ready To Stitch (RTS) kits. Cost of fabric accounts for ~65% of the cost of raw material. 4500 tonnes of yarn is spun every month, an exercise that contributes 450 crores towards costing. There are primarily two kinds of technologies that are in popular usage visavis spinning of yarn namely open end technology, also called rotor spinning owing to its being the key component in the machines involved, and ring spinning technology. At Santej unit of Arvind, ring technology is used, which generally results in production of 70 tonnes of yarn a day. Rest of the yarn is required for fabric production. In Arvind, the cotton spinning is done using these technologies: 1. Ring spinning 2. Open end spinning Open End Spinning: In this type of spinning, twist is introduced into the yarn without the need for package rotation. Allowing for higher twisting speeds with a relatively low power cost. In rotor spinning a continuous supply of fibres is delivered from delivery rollers off a drafting system or from an opening unit. The fibres are sucked down a delivery tube and deposited in the groove of the rotor as a continuous ring of fibre. The fibre layer is stripped off the rotor groove and the resultant yarn
wound onto a package. The twist in the yarn being determined by the ratio of the rotational speed of the rotor and the linear speed of the yarn. Sliver is fed into the machine and combed and individualized by the opening roller. The fibres are then deposited into the rotor where air current and centrifugal force deposits them along the groove of the rotor where they are evenly distributed. The fibres are twisted together by the spinning action of the rotor, and the yarn is continuously drawn from the centre of the rotor. The resultant yarn is cleared of any defects and wound onto packages.
Roving bobbins are creeled in appopriate holders
Guide rods leave the roving into the drafting arrangements
Drafting arrangements attenuate the roving to the final count
The drafting arangenments is inclined at an angle of 45 degrees to 60 degrees.
Upon leaving the front rollers the fibre strand is twisted to impart strength
Each rotation of th e spindle imparts one twist to the strand
The twist is generated by the spindle which is rotating at high speed
The directions of the twist is either "S" or "Z"
This completes the spinning of the yarn
The amount of twist inserted in the yarn is controlled by the front roll or the delivery speed and traveler rational speed
In practice, spindle speed(n spindle) is used instead of traveler speed in the above equation, the spindle speed is slightly higher than traveler speed
Yarn Winding is performed simulatenously with Twisting
The difference in the speed beween traveler and spindle causes the yarn to wind on the package
The size of the yarn pckage is limited by the ring diameter, which has to be small to increase the spindle rotation at the same traveler speed.
WEAVING PROCESS The weaving department has 203 weaving machines en Toto, of the make ZAX and 209i, the latter being an older version. The machines are of the company TSUDAKOMA, a Japanese concern as opposed to the spinning department where the machines were of German companies. The ZAX machines work at 750 rpm whereas 209i model machines work at 650 rpm. Together they churn out a lac m2 of cloth a day. In total the department has 159 ZAX machines and 44 209i. There happen to be 261 labourers working in 4 shifts in the department with 20 staff members i.e. 5 in each shift, out of whom there is one supervisor for each shift. A beam card keeps all the records of what is being put on the machine and under whom it is supervised. Inputs used for the weaving departments can vary from: 1. OE open end 2. ER even ring 3. UR uneven ring Lycra is used to increase the elasticity of the fiber. Filament is used in the fiber which is exported to countries where the level of sweating is lower as compared to Indian condition where majorly cotton is used for the same reason. The weaving department has the distinction of being the largest at Arvind Mills and exports close to 95% of its manufactured fabric. Discussing the denim fabric, the core competence of AM, original denim is composed of 100% cotton but with a view to bring in variations to the material in consonance with the emerging trends in the market, various natural fibers like linen and synthetic fibers like filament, lycra, polyester are added to cotton. While weaving such mixed fabric, the core is made of the addend and original cotton is wound around it. Yarn woven vertically is called warp while that woven laterally is termed as weft. For weaving purposes a cotton count ranging from 5 to 20 is generally used.
WEAVING Weaving is interlacement of warp with weft thread.
Figure 2 : The flow chart shows various stages in manufacturing of woven fabric:
WEAVING PREPARATION RING FRAME Yarn is the basic building in weaving. Therefore, after yarn manufacturing, the next successive WINDING step should be to weave the yarn into a fabric. However, in practice, the condition of yarn produced on the spinning machine is not always good enough to be used directly for fabric formation. Package Size, yarn surface characteristics, and other factors make it necessary for WARP WEFT both filling yarn and warp yarn to be further processed for efficient fabric formation. These preparatory processes are called weaving preparation. DYEING Warp and filling yarns are subjected to different conditions and requirements during weaving. Therefore, the preparation of warp and weft yarns is different. Warp yarn is subjected to higher stress which require extra preparation. Depending upon the weaving methods, the filling yarns REWINDING may not be prepared at all, but, rather taken straight off the spinning process and transported to the weaving process. However, the ring spun yarns have to go through a winding process for several reasons.
WARPING The processes used to prepare yarns for weaving depend on yarn type as well. SECTIONAL WARPING The warp yarn preparation is more demanding and complicated than the weft yarn preparation. Each spot in the warp yarn must undergo several thousand cycles of various SIZING stresses applied by the weaving machine. Weaving stresses include dynamic tension/contraction, rotation (twist/untwist) and clinging of hairs. Additionally, there are metal to yarn and yarnto yarn flexing and metalto yarn and yarntoyarn abrasion DRAWING IN stresses.
WEAVING The output of the spinning machinery is spindles of shortlength yarns. These spindles cannot be used in the next production process because they are very small lengths, because there is not enough yarn on the spindle and because its size is not suitable for weaving processes. Winding produces a yarn package that is suitable for further processing.
Figure 3:The flowchart shows the major preparation processes for filling the warp yarns
Weft Yarn Preparation
Warp Yarn Preparation
Drawing-in or tying-in
YARN DYEING SOFT WINDING
Figure 4 : process flow chart of yarn dyeing
SOFT WINDING: Yarns are transferred from paper cones to plastic tubes or steel tubes (package dyeing) or beams (beam dyeing).
BATCHING: Yar000000e batched according to their count, lot, yarn type and others. A batch card is formed which contained the essential information of that batch. DYEING: The yarn for spinning room is in form of spinning bobbins. For dyeing purposes, it has to be packed in
Spring tubes (which can be compressed) or plastic tubes. These packages are named packages, which are then sent for dyeing
Beams are prepared which are then sent for yarn beam dyeing.
Soft Packages The requirements that a yarn dye package has to meet can be split into 2 major aspects -
Demands from dyeing.
Demands from downstream processes and quality control.
Dyeing related requirements: These include the basic physical issues relating to the fundamental requirement of each and every fiber in the dye package to be exposed to an equal amount of dye liquor over an equal length of time, and, thus, we require:
Uniform liquor flow within a package
Uniform liquor between packages (within batch)
Uniform liquor flow between packages (batchtobatch)
In other words, each and every yarn dye package has to conform to a prescribed density and this density has to be uniform from inside to outside and from tip to toe of package. Similarly, packages of identical density and uniformity have to be produced on any spindle of a winding machine at any given time, meaning total reproducibility. The density of spun yarn dye packages recommend by leading dyeing vessel manufacturers is:
For Cotton: 420 g/l
For Cotton/ Polyester blend: 460 g/l
Since such packages, as compared with those intended for use in warping creels or knitting creels, feel spongier, they are universally referred to as “soft packages”. Apart from yarn dyeing these packages must also conform to certain postdyeing requirements, thus,
Optimum unwinding properties
Resistance of package to handling, are equally important aspects of soft package winding.
After dyeing, the yarn will be used in either weaving or knitting, and, thus has to be unwound for further processing. Therefore, no tension variation or disturbed yarn layers must be present, as these defects are the major source of yarn hairiness or breakages. In Arvind Mills Machine SSM 51
Specifications 85% efficiency 60 spindles Speed: 10001100 m/min.
Machine Used: 4 machines
Types of cones: Paper Plastic Tube(PPT), use and throw(135140 g)
Spring tube stainless steelreusable(165 g)
Package Size: 1.2 kg.
These soft packages are used for dyeing checks and stripes.
Beams for Beam dyeing Besides the yarn being wound in the form of soft packages, it is also wound on beams for beam dyeing purpose. Beam dyeing is mainly carried out if we want one color in the warp direction of the fabric. Spinning bobbins are placed on creels, and the yarn from each bobbin is then collected and sent to the machine, where it is wound on cylinders.
In Arvind Mills Machine Beam Dyeing Route
Specifications 85% efficiency 400500 m/hr. speed 30 kg/ beam max. capacity (1160 m.) Faller wire stop motion device
Per shift 24 beams
The packages were mounted on a creel. Each creel has about 700 grey packages. One and a half hours are required to change the creel.
A creel has 700 cones. Yarn from each cone passes through a spring before passing through the drop wires. These springs are set to a particular tension which determines the speed and tension at which he cheese will unwind.
Faller wire stop motion mechanism is as follows: Creel has drop wires (hook shaped), which drop as a yarn passing through it breaks. A sensor attached to the Dyeing Beam stops the machine as soon as it senses a wire drop.
An indicator attached to the side of the rod (to which drop wires are attached), is lighted, thereby indicating the point where yarn breakage occurs.
HYDROEXTRACTOR AND DRYER: Excess water of the dyed yarn is removed.
Yarn packages come from the dyeing unit in the form of packages winded in spring or PP tube. They can’t be directly used for warping or for weft yarn on the looms. So the weaving department is equipped with winding machines and autoconers. These machines are also used to recycle the left over cone packages. Packages that have been used for warping or as weft on the looms, (and are left with some yarn on them) are collected and converted to bigger packages so they can be used again.
Winding is basically transferring a yarn from one type of package to another. It is an important and necessary process that performs the following functions especially for ring spun yarns.
Winding produces a yarn package that is suitable for further processing. Ring spinning produces small packages of yarn (called spinner’s package) or bobbins) which would be depleted relatively during filling insertion or warping. Therefore, the amount of yarn on several small packages is combined by splicing or knotting onto a single package.
The winding process provides an opportunity to clear yarn defects. Thin and hick places, slubs, neps or loose fibers on the yarn are cleared during winding, and, thus, the overall quality of yarn is improved. Staple yarns require this clearing operation most because they have these kinds of faults most often.
OBJECTIVES OF WINDING: • Scanning and faults removing: Electric Scanners (uster) are used for checking and elimination of yarn faults during winding process. This process is called Usterization of yarn. Such faults are called scancuts. • Splicing of broken or cut yarn: Auto splicing is done for broken yarn pieces to eliminate yarn knots and bad piecing. • Bigger and quality package: Conversion of yarn from small ring bobbins to bigger yarn cones of different international standard or as per requirement of customer. During achieving above objectives or making of winding cones some faults are created during the process. These faults need to be controlled through monitoring and continuous study. Most of the winding faults are very dangerous for the next subsequent process which can be warping or knitting or doubling. We can face complains from customer of breakage of yarn during unwinding process.
In order to avoid any complaints from customers of Arvind Mills, faulty winding cones are separated during inspection by inspectors. Following three decisions are taken at this stage.
Use as it is: When the fault is of some minor category, and there is no risk of next process failure during unwinding. Decision is only taken by some senior person of quality.
Rewind: Some faults can be removed after rewinding. But rewinding itself is costly affair and quality of cones also detritus after reprocessing.
Degraded as B grade: If fault is of such nature that rewinding can’t remove that fault and there is doubt for customers to complains then such cones are downgraded to lower grade. Degrading cones in to lower grade is again financial loss to the company.
How quality is maintained in Arvind Mills? Following point are considered from quality point of view
Winding speed should be 1200 meter per minute for getting good quality.
For getting good quality, yarn fault clearers device setting should be as close as possible in order to eliminate the disturbing yarn faults.
In order to get good quality of yarn count channel setting should be less than 7%.
Cone which we prepare for weaving purpose should have minimum fault for getting good quality, especially in the long thin places and long thick places.
For getting good quality yarn, splice strength must be 75% more than of the yarn strength.
Splice appearance should be good. Splice device should be checked twice in a week.
To get better efficiency, cone weight should be 1.8 to 2.4.
Yarn winding tension must not be high during winding. If we will keep it high then tensile properties will be affected such as elongation and tenacity.
If waxing attachment is below the clearers, the clearers should be clean at least once in a day.
Wax roller should rotate properly
Properly formed packages of defectfree spun yarn are an even more critical factor. Package consideration include condition of the passage core, the proper provision of yarn transfer tails; properly formed splices or knots; elimination of internal defects such as slubs, sloughs, tangles, wild yarn, scuffs, etc.; and elimination of external defects such as cobwebs, abrasion, poor package shape or build, proper density (hardness) and unwind stability. PRECISION WINDING: By precision winding successive coils of yarn are laid close together in a parallel or near parallel manner. By this process it is possible to produce very dense package with maximum amount of yarn stored in a given volume. Features: • Package are wound with a reciprocating traverse • Patterning and rubbing causes damage of packages • Package contains more yarn • Package is less stable • The package is hard and compact • The package is dense • Rate of unwinding of package is low and the process of unwinding is hard • The unwound coil is arranged in a parallel or near parallel manner. Non Precision Winding: By this type of winding the package is formed by a single thread which is laid on the package at appreciable helix angle so that the layers cross one another and give stability to the package. The packages formed by this type of winding are less dense but is more stable. Features:
Only one coil is used to make this packages
Cross winding technique is used
The package density is low
Minimum number of yarn is wound
The package formed is soft and less compact
The stability is high
Flanges are not required
The rate of unwinding is high and the process is easy
The packages formed have low density
FOR WINDING MACHINE Smew
NO. OF M/C 3
Muratec (Mach Coner) Muratec (Mach
FEATURES Hand Knotting
OUTPUT 50 Cones 50
packages 50 Cones 50
packages 50 Cones 50
REWINDING OF LEFT OVERS MACHINE Muratec (mach mini)
NO. OF M/C 2
FEATURE 15 cones from 1 package and 15 packages can be made in 11/2 hrs.
WARPING Warping is transferring many yarns from creel of singleend package forming parallel sheet of yarn wound on to be a beam or section beam. Warping machines can process all type
of materials including coarse and fine filament and staple yarns, monofilament, textured and smooth yarns, silk and other synthetic yarn such as glass. A warp beam that is installed on weaving machine is known as weaver beam. A weaver beam contain thousand of ends, but in denim production a beam obtain from warping is known as section beam because denim is made from dyed yarn that’s why first section beam can be obtained and then these section beam are combined on the stage dyeing and sizing to get required number of ends for weaving process. In denim production initially the yarns are first dyed and then weaving process is carried out . WARPING MACHINES IN SHIRTING DIVISION OF ARVIND
BENNINGER’S WARPING MACHINE MODEL
Maximum creel capacity
640 (VCreel used)
Minimum creel capacity
20/ min. to 1200/ min.
200 daN to 600 daN
Number of Machines
VAMATEX WARPING MACHINE Maximum creel capacity
600 (VCreel used)
Minimum creel capacity
20/ min. to 800/ min.
200 daN to 600 daN
Number of Machines
UKIL’S WARPING MACHINE Maximum creel capacity
700 (VCreel used)
Minimum creel capacity
15/ min. to 1400/ min.
200 daN to 600 daN
Number of Machines
SIZING Sizing is a complementary operation which is carried out on warps formed by spun yarns with insufficient tenacity or by continuous filament yarns with zero twist. In general, when sizing is necessary, the yarn is beam warped, therefore all beams corresponding to the beams are fed, as soon as warping is completed, to the sizing machine where they are assembled. Sizing consists of impregnating the yarn with particular substances which form on the yarn surface a film with the aim of improving yarn smoothness and tenacity during the subsequent weaving stage. It improves yarn tenacity and elasticity, so that the yarn can stand without problems the tensions and the rubbing caused by weaving. In the sizing process, a coating of a starchbased adhesive is applied to the sheet of yarn to improve its weavability. It increases yarn strength; it also reduces hairiness, which minimizes the abrasion that occurs between the warp threads and the various parts of loom, and between threads that are adjacent to each other. Arvind generally source sizing chemicals (Seycofilm, Seycobond etc.) from Refnol Resins & Chemicals, Ahmedabad (Gujarat). The four main parts of Sizing machines are:
CREEL This houses the warper’s beams and should ensure that there is a uniformity of tension throughout the ends on the weaver’s beam by strict controlling the tension applied to the sheet of yarn from each back beam.
THE SIZE BOX The sheet of yarn from the back beams is guided into the size liquor where an immersion roller ensures that there is adequate facility for the yarn to be thoroughly saturated. Squeeze roller ensures that there is adequate penetration and excess is removed.
DRYING Cylinders are preferred because they are more efficient when use in multiples, although when compared with hotair systems, they do tend to flatten the yarn and require more softener in the size mix in order to ensure an acceptable level of pliability.
HEADSTOCK The headstock comprises a number of different parts that, in sequence, can be used for waxing, moisture regain measurement, sheet splittin, measuring and marking, beam drives and stretch control.
MACHINE Hacoba’s sucker muller
NO. OF M/C 4
TIME 1 beam1 1/2 hrs.
MACHINE Benninger Germany 1996
NO. OF M/C 3
TIME 1 beam50 minutes
The onebyone threading of the warp yarns through the spaces between the dents of the reed is an operation which is referred to as “ drawingin” or “reeding”. The process of passing warp threads through heald eyes and reed dents according to the desired design is called drawing or denting.
Beam released from warping is brought in this section.
Warp ends are drawn through heald eyes of frames as instructed in the draft by Design department.
Ends are simultaneously drawn through reed dents also.
Ends are taken over serrated bars and drop pins are put on each individual end.
The yarns ends are tied together to avid entangling and removal from healed eyes.
The whole assembly (of beam, serrated bars with drop pins, heald frames and reed) is put on a trolley and taken to looms by beam getters for gaiting by jobbers.
In Arvind drawng in is done in two ways:
Manual drawing in Automatic drawing in
MACHINE Staubli delta 200 Manual drawin in
NO. OF M/C 2 7
TIME 1 ½ hrs. 1 beam 12 hrs.1 beam
PRIMARY MOTION There are three primary motions of loom in a weaving cycle. Shedding It involves rising and (or) descending of warp yarns to create a space amongst the warp yarns for weft direction. Picking Picking refers to weft insertion. It is means by which the weft is projected through the shed. Beating It is pushing of newly inserted pick to fell of cloth. TYPE OF LOOM AIRJET
SHEDDING Positive electronic
PICKING High speed
BEATING Straight reed mounted
type. Positive electronic
Double rapier system.
Straight reed mounted
STAUBLI dobby type
SHEDDINGPOSITIVE ELECTRONIC DOBBY Dobby systems normally control a maximum of 6 to 32 heald shaft. It uses computers into which desired lifting plan is fed. This is then entered onto a disc that is subsequently fed to the dobby, where the pattern is read and memorized by an electronic system. This system eliminates the possibility of misslifts resulting from broken pegs and torn pattern sheets. As a disc can be removed from the dobby after the pattern has been memorized, it can be used for a number of looms so removing the need to make duplicate patterns. PICKINGAIRJET INSERTION
High speed compressed air is used. It could run at higher speeds of around 400 picks per minute. No width restrictions. Weft insertion rates of 1500+ meters per minute. Includes weft patterning as well as dobby and jacquard shedding. PICKING DOUBLE RAPIER SYSTEM Working width of 3000 nm. Speed – 800 meters per minute. Weft patterning is achieved ,more easily. Popular for fancy weaving, especially when pattern changes are frequent. Two rapiers are used. One carries the weft to the centre of the loom where it meets the other and transfers the griphold on the tip of the yarn. The second rapier then completes the pick insertion as the rapiers are withdrawn. BEATING UP The reciprocating red is responsible for pushing the pick into theb fell of the cloth for beatup.
SECONDARY MOTION There are three secondary motions in weaving. Letoff: The sheet of the warp yarn is controlled by keeping it under tension. Takeup: The cloth takeup motion withdraws cloth from the fell and then stores it at the front of the loom. Weft Selection: A weft selection or patterning mechanism is only necessary when it is desired to vary the weft being inserted. LETOFF
The amount of tension applied to the warp affects the end breakage rate, the warp and weft crimp ratios and thereby the width and length of the fabric, the general appearance of the fabric and selvedge. Mechanisms to emnsure that the warp is under the correct tension wll restrict the rotation of the beam either by (i) applying a braking force (negative letoff) or (ii) by driving the beam through a mechanism (automatic letoff) TAKEUP There are three aspects of controlling the cloth once it leaves the fell; The temple (a cloth control guide, one at either side of the loom) is essential in holding the cloth correctly just in front of the fell. The pick density is determined by the speed of rotation of the take up roller. The cloth must then be stored at the loom until the desired length as been woven. WEFT SELECTION OR PATTERNING In rapier weaving, the weft is picked up bu a guidre which moves the yarn across the path of the rapier head just outside the selvedge on the supply side of the loom. In airjet weaving, upto four jet pointing are used at the entry point of the shed. Selection determines which of the jets will operate and so which weft will be inserted on each pick.
ANCILLARY MOTION The ancillary motion includes: Warp Stop Motion: It halt the loom when a drop wire falls as the result of an end break. Weft Stop Motion: It halt the loom in the event of a break in the weft yarn. In Arvind, piezo element is used. It creates vibration which generates a pulse in an electronic unit. If this unit fails to receive a signal when the weft is being inserted, it will act thorough the electronic unit to stop the loom before beatup can occur.
MACHINE PICANOL Air jet
NO. OF M/C
Working width 3400
weaving loom type
mm, 6 colours,
positive electronic STAUBLI dobby type 2861, upto 16 shafts, 380 V 50Hz, 1
reed Working width 3600
looms type Gam Max
mm, 4 colours,
positive electronic STAUBLI dobby type 2861 with pre equipped for batching motion but without the batcher
Singeing : The direct, very intensive flame, the short contact time between flame and fabric, the ignition flame temperature necessary for the vaporization of polyester and the various singeing positions represent the decisive advantages of the osthoffsenge singeing system.
ONTO FREE GUIDED FABRIC Flame meets rightangle onto dense woven fabric freely guided between 2 rollers, recommended for natural fibres and blends weighing more than 125g/m²
ONTO WATER COOLED ROLLER Flame meets rightangle onto the fabric bended over a water cooled roller. Recommended for fabrics of temperature sensitive fibres, those of openweave, blended ones weighing less than 125g/m
TANGENTIAL SINGEING Flame passes tangentially over the fabric bended over a water cooled roller recommendable for fabrics which cannot tolerate direct exposure to flame and for repair of filamentation
FLAME SHEARING Flame passes tangentially over the fabric bended over a singeing sword, with minimized contact time, singeing effect on fibre tip only
No. of machines:
Fabric speed 125m/min Working width: 340cm Rubber belt section face width 2170mm Water cooling rollers 2
Desizing Desizing is done in order to remove the size from the warp yarns of the woven fabrics. Warp yarns are coated with sizing agents prior to weaving in order to reduce their frictional properties, decrease yarn breakages on the loom and improve weaving productivity by increasing weft insertion speeds. The sizing material present on the warp yarns can act as a resist towards dyes and chemicals in textile wet processing. It must, therefore, be removed before any subsequent wet processing of the fabric. If the fabric is woven from sized yarn, desizing is essential before subjecting it to other treatments. For this, the fabric must be soaked in 0.5% aqueous solution of amylase enzyme for 8 hours ensuring that it is completely immersed in the solution. After the size has been removed, the fabric is subjected to a hot and cold water wash.
The factors, on which the efficiency of size removal depends, are as follows: Type and amount of size applied Viscosity of the size in solution Ease of dissolution of the size film on the yarn Nature and the amount of the plasticizers Fabric construction Method of desizing, and Different methods of Desizing: Enzymatic desizing Oxidative desizing Acid steeping Rot steeping Desizing with hot caustic soda treatment, and Hot washing with detergents The most commonly used methods for cotton are enzymatic desizing and oxidative desizing. Acid steeping is a risky process and may result in the degradation of cotton cellulose while rot steeping, hot caustic soda treatment and hot washing with detergents are less efficient for the removal of the starch sizes. 1.Enzymatic desizing Enzymatic desizing consists of three main steps: application of the enzyme, digestion of the starch and removal of the digestion products. The common components of an enzymatic desizing bath are as follows: Amylase enzyme pH stabilizer Chelating agent Salt Surfactant, and Optical brightener Advantages Of Enzymatic desizing No damage to the fibre No usage of aggressive chemicals Wide variety of application processes, and High biodegradability Disadvantages: Lower additional cleaning effect towards other impurities, no effect on certain starches (e.g. tapioca starch) and possible loss of effectiveness through enzyme poisons.
2.Oxidative desizing Oxidative desizing can be effectede by hydrogen peroxide, chlorites, hypochlorites, bromites, perborates or persulphates. Two important oxidative desizing processes are: the cold padbatch process based on hydrogen peroxide with or without the addition of persulphate; and the oxidative padsteam alkaline cracking process with hydrogen peroxide or persulphate. The advantages offered by oxidative desizing are Supplementary cleaning effect Effectiveness for tapioca starches No loss in effectiveness due to enzyme poisons. Some disadvantages of oxidative desizing include possibility of fibre attack, use of aggressive chemicals and less variety of application methods.
The term ‘scouring’ applies to the removal of impurities such as oils, was, gums, soluble impurities and sold dirt commonly found in textile material and produce a hydrophilic and clean cloth. Objectives of Scouring: 1. To remove natural as well as added impurities of essentially hydrophobic character as completely as possible 2. To increase absorbency of textile material 3. To leave the fabric in a highly hydrophilic condition without undergoing chemical or physical damage significantly. Scouring process depends on: 1. The type of cotton 2. The color of cotton 3. The cleanliness of cotton 4. The twist and count of the yarn
5. The construction of the fabric.
Kier boiler is a long mild steel or cast iron cylindrical vessel provided with two perforated tube sheets (disc with a number of holes). One is placed at the bottom and another is top. These discs are connected by a number of tunes which carry the liquor from the bottom compartment to the upper one. In the middle compartment steam is passed. Thus the tubes carrying the liquor are surrounded
The hot liquor from the multitublar heater is sprayed over the cloth, packed in the kier, through a hollow perforated ring. The liquid passes slowly over the packed cloth, collects below the false bottom, from where it is pumped into the auxiliary heater by a centrifugal pump and the cycle repeats. Precaution: 1. Kier boiler should be cleaned. 2. Material should be packed evenly. 3. Complete immersion of the fabric need. 4. After boiling the liquor should be removed in absence of water. 5. Before starting all the joining parts should be checked. 6. Fabric should always keep under scouring solution.
Bleaching is chemical treatment employed for the removal of natural coloring matter from the substrate. The source of natural color is organic compounds with conjugated double bonds , by doing chemical bleaching the discoloration takes place by the breaking the chromophore , most likely destroying the one or more double bonds with in this conjugated system. The material appears whiter after the bleaching
DYEING AND PRINTING
BENNINGER PAD DRY CONTINUOUS DYEING MACHINE Brand Benninger Width 180 cm. Year 2002 Model SIMATIC OP 27 Speed 3060 meters/ min.
BASTIAN COLD PAD BATCH DYEING MACHINE Mangle Pressure (L M R): 1.5, 1.3, 1.45 Cold Pad Batch: 20-24 hrs. Threading Length: 10 m
Dye absorption: When fibre is immersed in dye liquor, an electrolyte is added to assist the exhaustion of dye. Here NaCl is used as the electrolyte. This electrolyte neutralize absorption. So when the textile material is introduces to dye liquor the dye is exhausted on to the fibre. Fixation: Fixation of dye means the reaction of reactive group of dye with terminal –OH orNH2 group of fibre and thus forming strong covalent bond with the fibre and thus forming strong covalent bond with the fibre. This is an important phase, which is controlled by maintaining proper pH by adding alkali. The alkali used for this create proper pH in dye bath and do as the dyefixing agent. The reaction takes place in this stage is shown below: 1. DSO2CH2CH2OSO3Na + OHCell = DSO2CH2CH2OCell + NaHSO3 2. DSO2CH2CH2OSO3Na + OHWool = DSO2CH2CH2OWool + NaHSO3 3. Washoff: As the dyeing is completed, a good wash must be applied to the material to remove extra and unfixed dyes from material surface. This is necessary for level dyeing and good washfastness. It
is done by a series of hot wash, cold wash and soap solution wash. Application method: These are 3 application procedures available: 1. Discontinuous method Conventional method Exhaust or constant temperature method High temperature method Hot critical method. 2. Cotinuous method Padsteam method Pad dry method Pad thermofix method 3. Semi continuous method
Pad roll method Pad jig method
ZIMMER AUSTRALIA ROLLER PRINTING MACHINE NUMBER OF ROLLERS 12 CAPACITY 10000 meters SPEED 40 meters/ min. TYPE TRCompact HC YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION 2013
ICHINOSE ROLLER SCREEN PRINTING MACHINE
Manufacturer : Japan
No. of Rollers: 12
No. of Machines: 3
Year of Construction: 2006
LAXMI SCREEN PRINTING MACHINE
Speed: 30-35 m./min.
Length: 18 meters
No. of heads: 12
No. of Machines: 2
DYE WASHING MACHINE STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR YAMUNA WASHING MACHINE Reactive
Speed 30 m./
Tank 1 Cold
Tank 2 Temp.:
Tank 3 Temp.:
Tank 4 Temp.:
Tank 5 Temp.:
Tank 6A Cold
Tank 6B Cold
3 to 5
G/L Temp.: 80 85°C Deskol
Temp. up to dry fabric
Dosing: 0.1 to 1
FINISHING PROCESS The department churns out 300000 meters of finished denim cloth a day. What happens to the fabric that has come off loom is called surface finishing that entails softening of fabric, thus making it fit to wear. Further, de sizing is done in order to reduce tension in the knit yarn, to ensure that it doesn’t break out of undue tension.to accomplish the process, there are three basic mechanisms involved namely desized finishing, desized mercerized finishing and desized mercerized tint finishing. In yesteryears, there existed a demand for long lasting colors in denim apparel, which is no longer present. Consumers are becoming more inclined towards denim that loses color in a few washes. For such emerging needs and choices, double dyeing concept has been adopted that renders denim fabric various effects after subsequent washes. The process is as follows Singeing is done and the hairiness of the fabric is burned by flames. Desizing removes the sizer put on by the suker muller in the dyeing department to increase the strength of the fabric (a mixture of desizing agent, alcozyme and acetic acid is used for the same). Mercerizing is the process of caustic wash and the unit studies is gpl (gram per liter). Stenter is used to settle the width shrinkage and to adjust the elasticity by killing the elastic properties of lycra in the fabric which is to the tune of 30 to 40% earlier and can be dropped down to 3 to 8% as per customer requirement. Finishing techniques used in arvind mills are: Glaze finishing Padding Curing Montfort finishing Foam finishing In addition there is an intervening singeing and washing process that brings in more softness in the fabric. The product is washed off water soluble chemical remnants, steam dried and then causted that lead to swelling of the material. Earlier foam technology was used for this purpose, which has now been replaced by wet technology that gives more softness and binding to fabric.
This is the followed by moving the fabric through centering machines that kill extra percentage of inbuilt lycra to peg elasticity at the desired level as demanded by the customers. Temporizing is the next process to be carried out with the help of rubber and leads to permanent shrinkage of the fabric.
Softening finish : This machine produces soft & smooth/ silky feel to the fabric. Machine name :biancalani's airo® 24 Number of machine 1
Company name: Model: No. of machines:
biancalani airo® 24 1
Airo 24, from the masters of the air power, the new revolution in the fabric finishing sector after Airo, air flow drying softening and finishing machine for fabric in continuous and open width form.
The fabric moves under 2 or more rollers with fine emery paper on first roller to more abrasive paper in each successive roller.
Abrades the surface causing fibrils to split from the fibres.
Abrasion generate heat may cause harshness on synthetic fabric.
Decrease the strength by 60%. Company name:
Water repellent finish Water
depends on surface
No. of machines:
Machine type : Diomand emmerizing carbosent
tension & fabric
Fabric width 1800mm
Roller width 2000mm
It is different from the waterproof finishes, as those finishes are impermeable to air also Fabric resist wetting but air/ moisture can penetrate. It is achieved by combination of fabric structure & finish. Commonly used chemicals are: paraffin wax, paraffin wax with Al or Cr salt, pyridinum salt, reactive silicon resins, fluoro carbon emulsion. These chemicals fill the gaps b/w yarns in fabric. Company name: Model: No. of machines:
brückner and pleva stenter frame 1(amd)
Highest drying performance due to the wellengineered and patented splitflow® air circulation system
Up to 35% energy saving thanks to economical heat recovery and energy saving concepts
Absolutely homogeneous distribution of air flow and temperature due to the alternating air flow in the thermo zones (every 1.5 m)
The flexible splitflow® air circulation system allows a process control which is fine tuned to the particular finishing requirements of all kinds of fabric
Optimum straightening results due to an innovative, integrated straightener with shortest possible fabric path to the pinon point
Extremely robust and lowmaintenance chains, chain rails as well as pin bar carriers and clips
Exactly reproducible finishing results thanks to full automation and the recipe administration of the line
Calendering finish Compression of the fabric b/w 2 heavy rolls to give flattened, smooth appearance of the fabric by the action of heat & pressure. Surface of the roller can be either smooth or engraved. One roll is usually metal and the other is usually covered with paper or fabric. Moisture in the form of water or steam may be used to achieve a desired luster. Resins required to be used to make calendaring durable on cellulosic fabrics. Without the resin the effect lasts only one laundering
Company name: Model:
ramisch guarneri Nipco® i calender
No. of machines:
Fabric speed 70m/min Type : 3 roll system with 2 cotton rolls and one steel roll Temperature 70C Pressure 70N/mm
This machine is a typical example of an unusually flexible and efficient calender solution.its advantages lie in its diverse range of applications, particularly whenspecial effects are required, e.g. Smoothness, lustre, high glaze and air permeability.an innovative development with significant efficient benefits, the hydro pneumatic width adjustment, which can be reset in a flying change when operating pressure or fabric widths change.
This reduces nonproductive times, makes production even more flexible and increases efficiency.
Flame Lamination finish Flamelaminatingmachines are used to join thermoplastic materials like foam made of polyester, polyether, polyethylen or various adhesive foils and textile, pvcfoils, artificial leather, nonwovens, papers or other materials. Depending on the machine construction, single or sandwich laminations can be made. The materials are taken from bales or plates (flatbaselaminatingmachine). A linegas burner which is installed across the whole working width, is melting the foam, resulting in an adhesive film. Inside the calander, the foam and the top fabric, resp. The backlining are permanently joined together when running through the laminating gap.
No. of machines:
Fabric speed 60m/min Working width: up to 2000 mm
Shrinkage control finish It is preshrinking finishing Impart shrinkage to the fabric and improve luster of the fabric. Maximum shrinkage is first calculated. Fabric dampened and passed through continuous thick rubber belt where preshrinking takes place which is further set by woolen/ felt blanket.
monforts monfortex sanforiser
No. of machines:
Fabric speed 50m/min Working width: 2000mm Rubber belt section face width 2170mm Water cooling rollers 2
Chemical padding: The denim fabric is then padded to apply finish to the fabric. Here thefabric passes into a full immersion pad and finish is added at high wet pick up. The finish isnecessary to properly lubricate fabric for the subsequent skewing operation.
Desizing (dhall): Continuous desizing ranges are suitable for eliminating the size material from denim fabricwith the help of rapid enzymes in the impregnator tank. It is then developed in the steamerfor suitable time. It is then subjected to intensive washing, and followed by cylinder drier.the inlet is into scray
Skewing: After chemical padding, the fabric is stretched by passing through two pullingdevices and then passes through a skewing unit, where it is skewed.now, skewing being an important issue shall be dealt with more details. Skewness in twill fabric :the skewness in denim fabric, particularly in twill weave creates a serious problem insubsequent garment manufacturing and its washing. Leg twist is a major problem in denimmanufacturing. Due to this problem the leg is rotated in the opposite direction of the twill of thefabric after laundering. Leg twist is assumed to be happen due to the directional yarn stresses.these are inherent in regular twill weave fabrics and developed during weaving. During washing the yarn stresses is relaxed which change the regular position of interlacement between warp and filling yarns. Due to this reason the legs are twisted. Normally leg twist not shown on garment stage. It only observed after laundering of the garment. Although leg twist appears after first laundering and it increases progressively with repeated launderings .ideally warp and weft should be at right angle to each other in normal fabric. Skew in the fabric occurs when the warp are displaced from their vertical position or when the weft are displacedfrom their horizontal position. Woven fabric skewness The degree of skew movement depends upon yarn characteristics, weaving tensions, and the fabric structures
The fabric is then passes through drying cylinders for partial drying of the fabric. Here 7585% moisture are removed. The steam cylinders drive moisture in to the core of the yarns and reducing it to the 1517% which is required for optimal sanforizing.
Compressive shrinking: Subsequently, the denim fabric passes through a compressive shrinking unit where the denim fabric is preshrunk according to the grey potential shrinkage of the fabric, so that the residual shrinkage should be under tolerance limit.100% cotton denim may require about 14% moisture for effective pre shrinkage. Moisture should be uniform thorough out the length, width, and depth of fabric for effective shrinking.the compressive shrinkage unit consists of a heated and polished stainless steel cylinder, tension roller, pressure roller and guide rollers. Both the tension roller and the pressure can be adjusted as per requirement. A rubber belt cooling device is fitted with a water spraying arrangement on both faces of the rubber belt. Rubber belt unit is equipped wit hbelt grinding roller and a suction device for dust removal from the belt grinding device. Palmer cylinder: After the compressive shrinkage unit, the fabric is passes through a palmer unit, where the fabric is dried and iron. The functions of the palmer cylinder is:to dry the denim fabric to a level of about 4% relative humidity and set shrinkage, adjust the shrinkage, to compare incoming and outgoing fabric tension and determine fabric shrinkage, It helps in precise adjustment of fabric shrinkage. It pulls the fabric and precisely contro ltensionon the fabric.it gives a pressing and calendaring effect on the preshrunk fabric
Stain resistance finish Arvind mills is one of the very few mills in the world to have achieved such superior stain resistant finishes with high degree of post garment wash performance. Though the scotchgard tm range of chemicals have been in the market for over 40 years, very few companies have been able to achieve such outstanding stainresistant properties on cotton fabrics.
Cooling unit At the exit of the palmer there is a cooling can. The unit consists of one, two or threestainless steel jacketed cylinders equipped with chilled water circulation to cool the hot fabric as it comes out of the palmer unit.
The delivery unit consists of big batching arrangement and a plaiting device. A stainlesssteel scray can be equipped for continuous operation.
Technical advancements in finishing Arvind Ltd has diversified into the Advanced Textiles Business and has envisioned world leadership in the field of advanced materials offering hightech textile solutions for critical and composite applications.
To service this emerging market Arvind has set up a stateofthe art manufacturing facility at Santej for manufacturing highend Industrial Fabrics. This facility can make produce fabrics from high performance Multifilaments, Monofilaments and Spun Yarns. Typical application will be in SolidLiquid Filtration, Industrial Belting, Coating Substrates, Outdoor and other Industrial application. It has further diversified into manufacturing of AntiBallistic fabrics, for use in Bullet Proof Vests and Helmets. Arvind offers range of Nylon fabrics for the defence applications.
Arvind's new facility (Joint Venture with PD Group, Germany) to manufacture Glass, Carbon and Aramid fabrics is under commissioning. These fabrics will be woven and Multiaxial as per customer specifications, which will be solutions to various industrial and advances composite applications like wind mill blades, automotive, aerospace, infrastructure etc.
About PRO1 Pro1 range of branded fabrics and composite textiles includes solutions for growing industrial sectors like Personal Protection, Industrial Filtration, Wind Energy, Defense, Auto Components, Transportation, and Housing & Infrastructure.
For the first time in India Arvind introduces Proban fabrics which come with reliability assurance from Rhodia, UK. Proban meets International Fire Safety Standards such as EN 533/ISO 14116:2008, EN 531/ISO 11612:2008, NFPA 70E, NFPA 2112. Proban has
proven performance for more than 50 years now. Arvind Limited is the only licensed manufacturer of this product for sale in select 17 countries in Asia Pacific, North America, South America, Canada & South Africa.
In a short span of time, Arvind has established itself as the largest Fire Protection Fabric producer in India. Apart from PROBAN Arvind range of Fire Resistant Fabrics consists of PYROVATEX, MetaAramid (NOMEX from DuPont), Modacrylics, FR Viscose and its blends.
PRO1 Range Fire Protection Solution
Chemically Treated Flame Retardant Fabrics
PROBAN® Arvind has been licensed by Rhodia, Novecare to manufacture and sell PROBAN® treated fabrics and garments in 17 countries of Asia pacific, North America, South America, Canada and South Africa. PROBAN gives cotton and cotton rich fabrics durable flame retardant properties that meet European fire safety regulations and offer protection for the lifetime of the articles. There is no chemical reaction within the fibre hence the fabric remains unaffected. Every lot of PROBAN treated fabric of Arvind is tested and certified by Rhodia's UKAS & ISO 17025 accredited facilities in the UK and meets the stringent requirement of the latest standards of ISO 11612.
PYROVATEX® PYROVATEX Treated Fabrics offers protection against flame. These fabrics are available in combination of cotton, cotton/Nylon blend. Arvind is expertise in treating cotton fabrics ensures that PYROVATEX Fabrics maintain their original softness and comfort to wearer. PYROVATEX Treated Fabrics assures long lasting FR properties. Arvind offers PYROVATEX Fabrics in combination with antistatic, water and oil repellent functionality permitting creation of multi functional fabrics.
Inherent Fire Resistant Fabrics
NOMEX® Arvind has been licensed to manufacture and market Nomex branded fire resistant fabrics and garments by E.I.Dupont for consumption within Indian sub continent. These fabrics have excellent FR performance for the lifetime of the article with good color fastness. It has very good resistance to chemical and excellent thermal insulation properties. Nomex meets the stringent requirements of fire safety standards such as ISO 11612, ISO 14116, NFPA 70E and NFPA 2112.
PROTEX® Arvind uses inherently flameretardant PROTEX Modacrylic Fiber from Kaneka Corporation, Japan. It exhibits a high LOI value and is designed to blend perfectly with natural or manmade fibres to produce high quality textiles with superb handle, drape and appearance. It does not melt or drip when ignited. Protex blended fabric will selfextinguish and char barrier will form that works as a shield to minimize fire damage. It is also available in hivisibility colours certified as per EN471 standard.
PRO1 Range HighTech Fabrics Filtration Fabric Arvind specializes in manufacturing woven fabrics for solidliquid separation. These are made of multi filaments, monofilaments, spun yarns and in combinations. Latest generation manufacturing technology helps in monitoring the consistent permeability in the fabrics for these critical applications. Arvind's filtration fabrics have reputation of uniform distribution of pore size, dimensional stability better strength and durability.
Anti Ballistic Fabric Arvind's antiballistic fabrics are made from world famous TWARON® Paraaramid filaments supplied by Teijin Aramid, Netherlands. Arvind makes 1100 dtex and 3300 dtex plainwoven fabrics. These are used for manufacturing Bullet Proof Vests and Bullet Proof Helmets for defence applications.
Nylon and Other Industrial Fabrics Arvind manufactures fabrics made of high tenacity Nylon 6/Nylon 6.6 filaments. These fabrics are sometimes coated or laminated as per specific requirements in defence, outerwear and high altitude clothing.
Arvind also offers fabrics for other industrial applications like Belting, Coating Substrates, Outdoor etc.
Carbon, Glass & Aramid Fabrics Arvind's new facility (JV Company with PD Group Germany) offers woven and multiaxial fabric solutions made of Glass, Carbon and Aramid. This facility provides textile solutions to various industrial and advanced composite applications like wind mills blades, automotive, aerospace, infrastructure etc.
Coating substrates : Arvind manufacture fabrics upto 350cm using High Tenacity, Low Shrinkage and Super Low Shrinkage Polyester filaments.
Glass wovenrovings : These are composed of direct Rovings woven into a fabric. The input Rovings have excellent wetout and laminate properties. A variety of constructions give bidirectional reinforcement and the strength of continuous filaments. Woven Rovings from Arvind PD Composites is ideal for hand and machine production of boats, containers, automotive parts, sports equipment, corrosion resistant tanks, etc,. The range includes width upto 3.6m from a variety of Rovings of different tex.
Multiaxial fabric: Sometimes known as NonCrimp Fabrics produced using a technology wherein production allows fabric construction with up to five layers of fibres oriented in different directions and stitched together by an interlocking system to form a single reinforcement. These can be a combination of nonwoven fabrics, chopped strand mats or other fabrics giving an unlimited combination of various individual fibres. This product range allows distribution of strength depending on the orientation of fibres. This product is also finding big applications in automotive, aerospace, transportation, sports & leisure, construction, medical and marine industry.
Heat and cut resistant fabrics: Heat & Cut protection fabrics are manufactured using Kevlar® para aramid staple fiber from DuPont. Arvind is the exclusive licensee for manufacturing Kevlar® fabrics for Heat & Cut protection applications like hand gloves, aprons, safety shoes, garment reinforcements etc. These fabrics are available in both Woven (330 gsm, 450 gsm, 600 gsm and 750 gsm) and Knits (210 gsm Rib, 270 gsm double knit with cotton) forms. These fabrics are tested as per EN 388 (Cut resistance) and EN 407 (contact heat) standards.
PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL DEPARTMENT The production Planning and Control department is the one that materializes the production flow and monitors it. The main objective of the production planning department is to execute mass production. The department plans each and every step of the production process, and it is its responsibility to deliver high quality products at the promised time.
Sometimes the buyer selects the designs that he wants to get mass produced from the fabric database of over 8000 design collection developed by the research and Development department of Arvind Mills. The specifications and procedures for such designs are already listed in the database and now the work of the PPC department is to efficiently carry out those procedures. Other times the customer sends samples and requires the mass production for it. In such cases, the Research and Development department develops the procedures involved for production of that sample by reverse engineering. The PPC department then allots the machinery and time required for fulfillment of each procedure accordingly. The lead time is also decided by PPC on the based of order size, machine availability, profits involved and the urgency as per the consumer. In case of orders of lower quantities, the PPC has to strategise the execution of the order and plan whether or not to accept it, since dyeing machines of slasher and rope dye have limitations as to the minimum amount of dyeing, for best results and avoidance of wastage.
The PPC department also plans separately for orders of export and domestic market as the demand vary from region to region. The bottle neck operation that determines the lead time for the production is the weaving procedure. The loom capacity depends on the following factors:
Construction of fabric Loom Speed Efficiency
The production planning team needs to coherently work on deciding whether the capacity of the plant is enough to fulfill the order in the given lead time. Usually the lead time for any particular order is 50 to 55 days, including all quality checks inspection etc. The thumb rule for calculation of lead time:
Pre spinning procedures: 3 days Spinning: 1520 days Warping and dyeing 3 days For every weaving cycle 3 to 4 days(weaving cycles depend on the order quantity
and above mentioned factors) Usually for one order about 8 to 10 weaving cycles required Finishing processes 1 day for each process, if not covered in the integrated finish
processing machine Inspection 2 to 3 days Washing 2 to 3 days
Spinning : Rs 1.10/kg/count (avg. weight 650gram/mtr) Weaving : Rs 0.21 / pick Dyeing : Rs 4/mtr Finishing : Rs 0.04/mtr Coating : Rs 4/mtr Power : Rs 2.25/unit Labor wage : Rs 6000 to 8,500/month
Inspection: Rs 0.65/mtr
RAW MATERIAL :
Cotton 100 kilo cotton = 88 kilo of yarn(for combed yarn) (75% yarn realisation) Loss : 1 % sizing, 2.3 to 2.5 % weaving,1% warping (total 4 to 4.5%)
The production planning process for shirting in Arvind is done on excel. Though an attempt was made previously to employ an ERP system, the project failed causing major loss of capital because an ERP system does not work for such a huge company with such diversification in the process. Process control is not possible as each order has a different requirement and hence a different set of processes to be executed. Moreover, the lead time and cost calculations, that are supposed to be taken care of by the ERP system, cannot take into account of all the possible factors at a plant as huge as Arvind Shirting unit.
QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT In the modern day quality assurance has a wider scope and it includes activities like process ownership and calibration where in the department ownership is given to a person and it becomes his/her duty to deal with it in the most efficient manner. Quality assurance at Arvind mills has the following labs. : 1. Cotton laboratory 2. Physical testing laboratory
3. 4. 5. 6.
Chemical testing laboratory Callibaration laboratory Colour quest laboratory Clearance department
COTTON LABORTARY: Cotton is held for the 70% cost of the fabric cost only and hence becomes a major factor which if controlled will add maximum contribution to the strength of Arvind mills. The coefficient of variance is calculated for the width, diameter and hairiness of the fibre. The machine used for this purpose is USTER TESTER 5.the fibre is passed at a speed of 400m/min and the variance is hence calculated. The variance is calculated against international or the preset Arvind standards The length, weight and the exact count of the fibre is also calculated and the CASCADE machine is used for this purpose which ensured the right thing at the right time as per customer demands. PHYSICAL TESTING LABORTARY This testing happens at the yarn manufacturing stage and the yarn is tested for its 1. Length 2. Elongation 3. Elasticity etc The yarn should be tested in a way so as to know whether the yarn can take all the loadings or not and if yes to what extent can it take. This helps in deciding what processes the yarn can face and what effects cab be deduced. Single yarn strength and its elongations is measured using the USTER TENSORPAID 3 machine which is the most trusted name in the field and comes from Switzerland. INSTRON 4465 is used to check the tensile strength of the fibre and the tear strength is also calculated in grams. For all the above written testing’s the standard lab conditions are made at a temperature of 60+/ 2 f and the humidity level is maintained at 65%+/2% Factors like stretchablilty skew and shrinkage are tested after marking is done followed by three washings of the fabric; the fabric is tonned to the environment after keeping it in the standard environment.
CHEMICAL TESTING LABORTARY: In the chemical laboratory they check all the fuels, dyes, and all the chemicals that are used in the production process. They even check the denim if it is washed with bleach how much it fades the colour. They try different process like how the denim would react in different conditions like in case of perspiration, salt water, normal water, in extreme temperature. COLOUR QUEST LABORTARY: In the colour quest they try to find out the different shades and they see to it that after the washing and drying process does the shade match the requirement of the customer or not. CALIBRATION LABORATORY: Definition: Calibration is a specialized measurement process where in one compares test and measuring instruments/equipments of unknown status to well defined standards of greater accuracy in order to detect /eliminate error by adjustments & report any variation in accuracy capability. CALIBRATION ACTIVITY Calibration through in –house facility Calibration throughoutside agencies
CALIBRATION FACILITY AT CALIBRATION LABORATORY PARAMETERS
INSTRUMENT & FUNCTIONS
Mercury thermometer, temperature indicator & controllers, temperature switches, temperature gauges, temperature transmitters.
Pressure gauge, vacuum gauge, pressure transmitter, pressure switch.
Analytical weighing balance
AC/OC voltage, AC/DC current, single phase power, frequency, resistance capacitance, conductance, logic pulses, logic levels. Digital & analogue amateur, multimeters, panel meters, frequency meters.
Measure tape, steel scale, verniar capture, micro meter, dial gauge.
Gas lab instruments
Lab instruments used for quality conformance tests & physical testing lab & chemical testing lab.
CHECK POINTS IN GREY FABRIC INSPECTION (ARVIND SHIRTING): Loom Stop Mark More Pick Double Pick Tight Warp Package Change Slough Off Broken Pick Temperature Crack Multi Break Black/ Oil Stain
PROFORMA OF FABRIC INSPECTION REPORT ( ARVIND SHIRTING)
ARVIND LIMITED QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPT. ARVIND SHIRTING P.O. Khatraj, Tal. Kalol, Dist. Gandhinagar, Pincode 382721, Gujarat, India
FABRIC TEST RESULTS S.O. NO. I.B. NO. COUNT CUSTOMER
SHADE FINISH DESCRIPTION MTRS.
PHYSICAL TESTS Test
Weft Fabric Weight Overall Width Usable Width Tensile Strength
G/m² Cm. Cm. Kg. Warp
Weft g Warp
Weft Kg Warp
Weft % Warp
Tear Strength Seam Slippage
COLOR FASTNESS TESTS Colour Fastness Washing @ 49 °C [email protected]
37 ° C Dry Rub Wet Rub HeatDry pressed Acid perspiration
AATCC612A AATCC107 AATCC8 AATCC8 AATCC133 AATCC15
4C, 3S 4C,3S 4S 3S 5C 4C, 3S
OTHER REQUIREMENTS Crease
Warp FF BB Weft FF BB
DP Rating Bow/ Skew
Pass/Fail: Tested By: HEAD OF DEPARTMENT Date:
MACHINES USED FOR QUALITY TESTING
Specimens are tumbled in the test chamber by aluminum impellers rotating at a constant speed of approximately 1200 rpm for periods of up to 60 minutes. After each test period the specimen is removed, lightly cleaned and subjectively evaluated. Susceptible fabrics will develop lint pills typical of everyday wear. Users have also found high quantitative Correlation for surface appearance, changes in appearance, scuffing, fuzzing and loss of color.
SPECIFICATIONS Four Chamber (PT-4)
Dimensions: 47 cm x 68 cm x 39 cm (18.5” W x 26.8 H x 15.5” D)
Weight: 57 kg (125 lbs )
Electrical: 120 V/60 Hz, 10A 230 V/50 Hz, 5A
Air: 1.9 L/s @ 21 kPa
(4 cfm @ 3 psi) Iso 9001:2000By bvqi (india) pvt. Ltd., mumbaiindia, for manufacture andsupply of denim fabrics.the Iso 9000 Family of standards is related to quality management systems anddesigned to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders While meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related To the product. Iso 9001:2000 version sought to make a radical change in thinking by actuallyplacing the concept of process management front and center ("processmanagement" was the monitoring and optimisation of a company's tasks andactivities, instead of just inspection of the final product). Is0 14000:
Provides environment management standards to help organisations minimize theirnegative impact on the environment environment management system (ems) mandatorycertification carried out by third partyfocuses on process as in case of iso 9000 Oekotex standard 100 By shirley technologies ltd., uk, for black and indigodyed denim fabrics, black / indigo printed denim fabric Including stretch denims.the oekotex® standard 100 is a globally uniform testing and certification systemfor textile raw materials, intermediate and end products at all stages of production.thetests for harmful substancescomprise substances which are prohibited orregulated by law, chemicals which are known to be harmful to health, andparameters which are included as a precautionary measure to safeguard health. By controlunion certifications, the netherlands, for processing of organic cotton. “global organic textile standards”, control union certifications, the netherlands,For processing of fibres from certified organic agriculture. National accreditation board for laboratories, delhi, india,for chemical & mechanical disciplines of testing.Premier accreditation scheme by marks & spencer, Test methods and conditions set forth, laboratory, shirting division business, the arvind mills ltd. Liz claiborne int’l ltd., testing audit performance, laboratory, shirting businessDivision, the arvind mills ltd. Labs certified by dupont