Arvind Intership

August 2, 2017 | Author: Anurag Mosan | Category: Weaving, Loom, Textiles, Yarn, Spinning (Textiles)
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A REPORT ON THE

INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP WE BELIEVE In people and their unlimited potential. In content and focus in problem solving. In teams for effective performance. In intellect & its power. WE ENDEAVOUR To select, train and coach people to obtain higher responsibilities. To nurture talent to build leaders for tomorrow’s corporation. To reward, celebrate and activate all intellectual business contributions.

[ARVIND LIMITED] (23.05.2011 – 16.07.2011)

WE DREAM Of excellence in all endeavours. Of mutual benefit and prosperity.

SUBMITTED BY PRASHANT GUPTA TEXTILE DESIGN 2008-2012 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, NEW DELHI

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CONTENTS acknowledgement company profile organisational chart prodoctional capacities & capabilities product range and customers materials and manufacturing process design and developement quality assurance costing marketing and distribution csr small scale projects - brand studies - collections - research on checks & stripes

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Acknowledgement Any project requires the efforts of many people and this work was no different. I extend my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Subhanish Malhotra, H.R. Shirtings, Arvind Limited, Santej Plant, Gandhinagar and his colleagues Mr. Keyur Patel and Mr. Jimmy Devid for enlightening our mind towards specific process details regarding spinning, weaving and processing of shirting department at Arvind Limited with their valuable supervision. I would also like to thank to Mr. Amit of weaving department, Mr. Saikat of dyeing department, Mr. Shubhanjan of finishing section, Mr. Jigesh of bleaching section and Mr. Suresh of printing department for extending their arms to provide us the technical knowledge with full support and help. I am very much thankful to Mr. Vijay Mehta, Manager- Design & Development, an alumni of NIFT, Delhi and Mr. Sanjay Suman for his guardian like support without which it would be very difficult for me to adjust in an entirely different place and atmosphere. I cannot forget to extend my thanks to Ms. Neha Singh, the faculty in charge of the industrial visit for arranging such learning session and my colleague Arpita Jain for his support as well as the full co-ordination during the visit.

Prashant Gupta Textile Design 2008-2012 NIFT, New Delhi.

Shirtings business Division The Arvind Mills Limited Santej Road Near Khatrej Taluka Kalol Dist Gandhinagar - 382721 Gujarat India Tel: +91-2764-281100/22 Fax: +91-2764-281027 Industry Mentor – Mr. Vijay Mehta

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COMPANY PROFILE ARVIND LIMITED Arvind limited, the company which now holds a position globally was initiated by the three brothers Kasturbhai, Narottambhai and Chimanbhai in 1931, when India began boycotting fine and superfine fabrics made in Britain. The Lalbhai’s reasoned the demand for the need made of Indian fine and superfine fabrics and started Arvind limited with a share of Rs.2,525,000 shares, with 52,560 ring spindles, 2552 doubling spindles and 1122 looms it was one of the few companies in those days to start along with spinning and weaving facilities in addition to full-fledged facilities for dyeing, bleaching, finishing and mercerizing. The company outgrew all its competitors within a few years and today it is one of the largest companies, with a share of $500 million, it soon ventured into the following markets.

TEXTILE ANNUAL CAPACITY DENIMS 120 Million Meters SHIRTING 35 Million Meters KHAKI 21 Million Meters KNITS 10,000 Tonnes VOILES 33 Million Meters

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Arvind today manufactures fabric for the following brand names:In – house brands

Licensed Brands

Joint Ventured Brands

Excalibur Flying machine Ruff and tuff New Port university

Gant, U.S.A. 1949 Hart Shaffner Marx USPA Sansa Belt Pier Cardin Paris Arrow Cherokee

Tommy Hilfiger Nautica Lee Wrangler Wrangler Hero Riders

Now, Mr. Sanjay S.Lalbhai grandson of Late. Shri.Kasturbhai is the chairman and managing director of the company. Arvind has a worldwide network today, with offices in New York, London, Mauritius, Bangladesh, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Ahmedabad, Arvind has truly become global. The Arvind Mills was set up with the pioneering effort of the Lalbhai brothers in 1931. With the best of technology and business acumen, Arvind has become a true Indian multinational, having chosen to invest strategically, where demand has been high and quality required has been superlative. Today, The Arvind Mills Limited is the flagship company of Rs.20 billion (US$ 500 million) Lalbhai Group. Arvind Mills has set the pace for changing global customer demands for textiles and has focused its attention on select core products. Such a focus has enabled the company to play a dominant role in the global textile arena. With its presence across the textile value chain, the company endeavors to be a one-stop shop for leading garment brands. Forevision and Technology has brought Arvind to be one of the top three producers of Denim in the world, and on its way becoming the Global Textile Conglomerate. Arvind is already making its presence felt in Shirting’s, Knits and Khakhis fabrics apart from being all set to create ripples in the ready to wear Garments world over. Arvind has carved out an aggressive strategy to verticalize its current operations by setting up worldscale garmenting facilities and offering a one-stop shop service, of offering garment packages, to its international and domestic customers. With the Indian economy poised for rapid growth, Arvind brands with its international licenses of Lee, Wrangler, Arrow and Tommy Hilfiger and its own domestic brands of Flying Machine, Newport, Excalibur and Ruf & Tuf, is setting it’s vision on becoming the largest apparel brands company in India. Arvind Mills Ltd is one of India’s largest composite manufacturer of textiles, denims, shirting’s, knits and khakis. It has today acquired fame and position as one of the foremost denim and jeans manufacturer of the world

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Arvind Shirtings Arvind shirting is a composite unit with spinning, weaving, processing and finishing. The fibers processed here are cotton and blends of cotton and polyester, cotton and nylon, cotton and lycra. Top quality cotton is imported from various places:VARIETY Karo Gizza-76 Acala Pima

REGION West Africa Egypt Sudan Australia

QUALITY Long and Strong Extra Long and Strong Long and Strong Extra Long and Strong

SPINNING:- It’s the process of converting fibres into yarn, for this fibres have to go through a number of processes Blow Room Carding Pre Draw Frame Comber Post Draw Frame Fibres Speed Frame Ring Frame Winding TFO Singeing Rewinding.

Blow Room:- Here, the bales of cotton fibres are laid spread out and openend up. They are then fed into the machine by vaccum suction for cleaning and transported further by blowing air. Carding:- The individualization of fibre takes place, neps are removed and a long and uniform slive is obtained which is collected in drums. Pre Draw Frame:- Here 8 carded slivers are fed into the drawing machine where they are combined and drawn into a single sliver using some tension. Comber:-The laps are fed into where they are combed by rollers with tooth. Finely, smooth, parallely allinged slivers in which individual fibers can be pulled out easily are produced. Post Draw Frame:- 6-12 combed sliver are further combined, parallelized and the sliver quality is improved by drawing.

WINDING SINGEING

BLOW ROOM

RE-WINDING CARDIND

RING FRAME

Speed Frame:- Slivers are made into roving bobbins by imparting a slight twist and drawing under tension through roller pairs. Ring Frame:- Roving is spun into yarn of desired count by imparting twist, thus reducing the mass/length of the forming yarn. Winding:- Yarns from bobbins are transferred to bigger packages called cone on Simple cone winder or Machine winder or Autoconer. TFO:- The two for one twist machine is for twisting th plied yarns and producing bigger cones. Singeing:- The yarns are made to pass through flames at fixed temperature and pressure. This is done to remove lose fibers and short hair that cause disturbance in the smoothness of yarn. Rewinding:- The yarns are rewound again after they are singed, this results in the removal of black soot from the surface of the yarns. Rewinding:- The yarns are rewound again after they are singed, this results in the removal of black soot from the surface of the yarns.

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DYEING:-

Inspection:- Fabric inspection is examination of every yard of fabric as the fabric moves slowly across a lighted inspection table. Significant flaws are noted and the general condition of the fabric is determined and recorded. Inspection Grey Mending Finish Mending Rolling Batching.

Dyeing is imparting colour to the fibre or fabric. It can be of two types 1.Yarn Dyeing. 2. Package Dyeing. 1.For Yarn Winding the process is as follows

Weft Winding

Dyeing

Rewinding

Warping

Sizing

Drawing

Weaving

Warp Sec.Warping 2. Package Dyeing:- In this the yarn is dyed in “cheese” form. There are cylindrical stands onto which the packages are arranged and it is immersed in closed system. Sectional Warping:- The pattern for a fabric requires yarn of specific length, number, and color. These are wound on the warp beam in this section. Sizing:-The yarns from warp beam are passed through size solution, this makes the yarns coarse so that they can resist friction and abrasion during weaving and other processing. Drawing:-The free ends from the beam are pulled vertically and clamped on the brush beam. They are combed slightly and fitted on drawing in machine.

WARP SIZING

DENTING

DRAFTING

Weaving:- Weaving is the interlacing of warp(vertical) and weft(horizontal) yarns to make fabric. Two types of looms are used for weaving here are1.Air jet. 2. Rapier loom.

INSPECTION

GREY MENDING

Processing:- The batch of fabric is passed through a number of processes to enhance the properties of the fabric. Singeing:- It’s the process of passing fabrics through flame to produce an even surface by burning off projecting fibres, yarn ends and fuzz. De- sizing:- It is completely removing the size by the application of enzymes. The use of enzymes ensures complete removal of starch– based sizes and also eliminates the need to use aggressive chemicals. Mercerization:-This is a treatment with caustic soda given to cotton fabric and thread employed to give cotton a lustrous appearance. Drying:- The mercerized fabric is passed through a Vertical Drying Range where drying takes place. Bleaching:- Bleaching is a chemical process used to enhance the whiteness of the fabric. It works by the process of oxidation.

DE - SIZING

FABRIC SINGEING

DYED PACKAGES AIR JET LOOM

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MERCERIZATION www.arvindmills.com

Finishing:- Finishing process are the value addition treatments given to the fabric to make it more attractive and appealing. There are two types of finishes 1. Chemical 2. Mechanical. Stentering C.P.T. Trough Squeezing Straightening Drying Batching

ORGANISATIONAL CHART ARVIND LIMITED

Sanforising Stentering:- The fabric is made to pass through a solution of finishing chemicals thus wetting it. Then it is stretched and dried. While stretching the yarns are aligned parallel.

Managing Director (Sanjay Lalbhai)

HR Deptt.

Stores

FINISHING MACHINE

Chemical Finish

Exports & Quality domectics Assurance

STENTER

Sanforising:- Shrinking is carried out here to obtain pre- shrunk fabrics. The finish prevents any further shrinking of stretching of fabric. Some other commonly used chemical finishes are:Normal soft finish, ETI – Easy to iron finish, Mild Resin, Nano care finish, Nano pel finish, Liquid ammonia finish, Perfumed finish, Vitamin E finish, U-V protective finish, Moist cure finish, Arvi-silk finish, DPR – Durable press ready finish. Mechanical Finish Peach Finish:- It is done by passing the fabric on drums with emery rollers at high speed. The friction gives a smooth feel to the fabric. Airo Finish:- The fabric is rotated at a very high speed and air is blown to give a soft hand to the fabric. Inspection and Dispatch:- It is generally integrated with the finishing department, responsible for making up, final quality control and logistics.

Garment packages division

Spinning

Administration and Accounts Administration Accounts Banking

Weaving

processing

Engineering & Finishing Order Management & Documentation

Production Purchases Production

Order Management Sampling Documentation Invoicing

CALENDERING

DRYING

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PRODUCTION CAPACITIES AND CAPABILITIES Arvind Limited has reached 1600 million meters of Denim per year and it is the third largest producer of Denim in the world. High value cotton shirting fabric has been made at Arvind’s 450 acre Santej Textile Complex with a total capacity of 33 million meters per annum. The garmenting capacity of Arvind Knit’s is supported by a fabric production of 4992 tones per annum. With a capacity of 18 million metres per annum the green field venture of Arvind is a sincere effort towards achieving global dominance. Production capacity million yards/annum Yarn dyed 18.7 Solid dyed 5.5 Indigo 7.7 Jacquard 0.6 Total 33.0 A capital investment of USD 100 million in a greenfield project with a capacity of 33.5 million yards per annum and a turnover of USD 97 million per annum of 100% high value cotton shirtings has been made at Arvind’s 450-acre Santej textile complex near Ahmedabad. Technical Excellence has been achieved through: • Investments in state-of-the-art European Technology. • World class product & design innovation. • Assurance of quality and consistency. Flexible production has been made possible and is reflected through: • Lower minimums. • Reflection of product/fashion dynamics. • Consistency and quality. Delivery Adherence – on time every time. • Continuous product development – new fibres/yarns/finishes. • Strong emphasis on design creation/modification to suit specific customer needs.

The plant has an integrated manufacturing facility from yarn to finished fabrics under one roof. The Shirting division is committed to world class quality products, with the installation of the latest technology and continuous quality improvement program. It is equipped with state of the art technology right from spinning of the yarn to final processing and testing of the high quality fabric. It is equipped to spin compact yarn as well as slub yarns. The state of the art machinery includes Yarn-singeing machines, Computerized yarn-dyeing machines, automatic drawing-in machines, etc. The testing laboratories are equipped with the latest testing equipment, which can perform tests of international standards, and are accredited by Marks & Spencer, Next and Tommy Hilfiger. All products are Eco-friendly and Oekotex 100 certified

Activities •Cotton •Yarn •Fabric Denim Shirting Khakhi Knits •Apparel Denim Shirts Khakhi •Brands In-house Brands Intl licensees

Location Akola Ahmadabad, Santej Naroda, Santej Santej Santej Santej Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore

The division believes in the philosophy “On time and in full”, whether it is information, product quality or order quantity. The design studio attached to the pilot mill is fully equipped to reproduce customer design samples and also to make customized seasonal collections. The SAP R/3 module facilitates better and faster material management for our customers.

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Arvind Industrial Park • Location • Land area • Work Force • Technology • Vertical Integration

Santej 450 Acre 1227 From around the world Entire production facility is under one roof.

Wovens : Market Segment Region Volume/Annum (Million meters) • USA 24 • EUROPE 17 • FAB RETAIL 20 • BRANDS 12 • RMG 7 • TRADE 4 • TOTAL

84

Mini Mill dedicated for Design & Development.

Product Portfolio

Spinning • 58000 Spindles Yarn producing 100% cotton • 100% cotton and poly cotton blended yarn from 7 count to 170/2. • Products are within 25% of Uster world statistics : • Unit 1 : 33,000 Spindles Unit 2 : 25,000 Spindles

Products • Spinning • Fabrics Denim Shirting Khaki Knit • Voiles • Prints • Apparel Shirts Jeans

Capacity per annum 87.000 tons 100 mn meters 48 mn meters 18 mn meters 4200 tons 24 mn meters 5 mn meters

Yardages and blankets • 7+3 Suzuki Warpers • 4 Sectional Warpers • 24+19 looms • Capacity : 35+15 Yardages and Blankets / day. Handlooms • 11+4 small looms for Handlooms. • 5 Small sizing machines. • Capacity : 90+30 Handlooms/day • Color Library : 600 Reactive color shade : 200 VAT

SECTIONAL WARPER

4.5 mn units 6 mn units

Wovens Production Capacity Products • Yarn Dyeds • Non Yarn Dyeds Whites/Dyeds • Prints • Indigos

Capacity per annum (Million meters) 54 23 6 7

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PRODUCT RANGE AND BRANDS • COUNTS : 16s, 20s, 24s, 30s, 2/30s, 40s, 50s, 2/50s, 60s, 2/80s, 2/100s and 2/140s • WEAVES : Twill( mainly 3/1), LHT for single yarn, RHT for double/ triple yarn, Matt, Plain, Satin, Herringbone, Oxford ( plain & pinpoint). • BLENDS : 100% Cotton, Tencel, Linen, Modal, Polyester Cotton, Lycra, Silk, etc. • VARIETIES : Yarn-Dyed Stripes, Checks, Fil-a-fils, Chambrays and Solids in all possible weaves like twills, satins, dobbies and jacquards. • CHEMICAL FINISH : ETI, Stain Free, Odor Free, UV Cut, Arvi silk, Nano-Care, Nano-Pel, etc. •MECHANICAL FINISH : Peaching, Brushing, Biancalani, etc. •INDIGO/SULPHUR : Indigo and sulphur-dyed casual products - 3.25 oz. to 8.0 oz. in counts 24s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 2/80s and 2/100s.

Arvind has largest portfolio of International brands: Lee, Wrangler, Jansport. Kipling, Tommy, Arrow, US Polo, Izod, Pierre Cardin, Palm Beach, Cherokee, Hart Schaffner, Max and many more. Feeling the pulse of society Arvind is successfully launching its in-house brands like Excalibur, Flying Machine, Ruff & Tuff and New Port University

CUSTOMERS • USA – Gap, Tommy Hilfiger, Ann taylor, Banana Republic, DKNY, Perry Ellis, Eddie Bauer, Lane Bryant, Polo, JC Penny, kohls, A&F, Lands End, Liz Claiborne, Dockers, May Dept, Mervyns, Nauatica, Nordstrom, Old navy, Oxford ind, J- Jill, Talbots, Acolt, Express, Kohl’s, Oshkosh, Phat Farm, J Crew, Roccawear, Brooks Brothers, Massimo Dutti, Lords and Taylor.

Shirting (Dress) • Fibers • Yarns • Counts • Product • Finishes

: Cotton (Giza 45, Giza 76, Pima), Stretch (Lycra,XLA), Viscose, Linen : Compact, Singed, Two-Ply, Three-Ply, Four-Ply etc. : 16’S, 50s/1 to 100/1, 80/2 to 170/2s. : Dobby Structures, Satin, Poplins, Twills, Oxfords, Herringbones, Jacquard. : Prepress, Everfresh,Silk Touch, Anti-stain, Perma-White

Shirting (Casual) • Fibers • Categories • Counts • Product • Finishes

: Cotton, Organic, Linen, Mélange, Grindle, Stretch, Tencel, Modal etc : Yarn dyed , Solid dyed, Prints, Light weight Denim : 16’s - 80’s/2 : Poplins, Twills, Oxfords, Herringbones, Structures : Aero Finish, Carbonium Peach, Diamond Energizing and Brushing

• EUROPE - Marks & Spsencer, Next, Espirit, Cortefiel, FC UK, Tom Tailor, Mavi Jeans, Speedo, Spring Field, Mastai Ferrati, Nicole Ferrati, Kenzo, Carrefour, Pull and Bear, Peter Werth, Burberry, Facconable, Emidio Tucci, Ahlers, Ben Sherman, Benetton, Farhi, Marc o polo, Devenhams, French Connection.

Khakhi’s • Fibers • Categories • Count • Product • Finish

: Cotton, Stretch (Lycra, XLA), Linen, Viscose, Bamboo, Polyester etc : Solid Dyed (Reactive , Pigment and Sulphur), Yarn dyed, Prints. : 7/1 to 80/2, 4/120s : Canvas, Twills, Herringbones, Structured weaves, Satin : Aero Finish, Carbonium Peach, Diamond Energizing, Super Soft, Everfresh, Prepress.

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• INDIA- Allen Solly, Color Plus, Indian Terrain, Park Avenue, Louis Philippe, Manzoni, Van Huesen, Pantaloon, Blackberry, Peter England, Barc Leisure, Anna Belle, ITC Wills, Indus League, Scullers, Urbana, Megamart.

MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING PROCESS The industry integrates weaving, dying and finishing and is well equipped to weave and process 100% cotton as well as blends. Microprocessor controlled equipment with robotic storage system allow quick response to trends. The labs are accredited by Marks & Spenser. The PPC department is functioning well with ERP(Enterprise resource planning) by using software like SAP and DATATEX

Tencel and blends

ARVIND BRANDS • Own Brands- Flying Machine, Newport, Ruggers, Ruf & Tuf, Excalibur. • Licenced Brands- Arrow, Lee, Wrangler, Tommy Hilfiger, Gant, Sansabelt, Izod, Cherokee.

100% tencel Tencel – cotton/linen/wool/ nylon/poly Tencel Lycra Indigo tencel Modal and blends 100% modal Modal -cotton/linen /poly Silk and blends 100% silk Silk –cotton/linen Tactel blends Tactel – cotton Other blends

COMPETITORS •

Madure Garments, Raymonds, Levi’s, Bombay Dyeing, Indus League, Provogue, Zodiac.

Cool max- cotton Cotton – poly Lycra Cotton – nylon Lycra Cotton – poly micro filament Cotton – core spun Cotton - viscose

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finishes

Process Specific :-

Nano - pel Nano- care Teflon sr and terlon ht Anti microbial Mosquito repellent Scented Moisture management Arvi silk Arvi platinum finish

Processing Mechanical stretch Core filament cotton for higher DP rating Micro fiber with aero finish Easy to iron with extra softness Fiber blends

Quality Management The 5s working definitions are applied which carries the quality management: 1- Sort. 2- Set in order. 3- Shine 4- Standardize and 5- Sustain. It also reduces the waste and promotes the quality.

TYPES OF COTTON FIBERS USED IN ARVIND Name and place Quality NHH-44 from India Long and strong cotton Ethel from brazil Long and strong cotton USI –1/8” from America Long and strong cotton Shankar-6 (super) from India Long and strong cotton Bunny Brahma from India Long and strong cotton MCU-5 from India Extra long –very short cotton Karo from west Africa Long strong cotton Juli (mali) Long strong cotton Bola – s burkina faso Extra long and extra strong cotton Gizza –76 from Egypt Extra long extra strong cotton Gizza – 45 from Egypt Extra long and strong cotton Acala cotton from Sudan Long strong cotton Raw cotton from Australia Long strong cotton SJV Acala up laud from America Long and very strong cotton Pima from Australia Extra long and very srong cotton Pima from Israel Extra long and very strong cotton Pima from America Extra long and very strong cotton CISELS from Turkmenistan Extra long and very strong cotton Barakrt from Sudan Extra long and very strong cotton DCH-32 super from India Extra long and very strong cotton MCU – 5 from India Extra long and very strong cotton ELS 1- 7/16 from china Extra long and very strong cotton

SpinningArvind Limited is committed “to produce quality yarn for world class shirting with optimum cost within stipulated time frame through continuous improvement.” Spinning: is a process of converting fibers into yarns. Fibers have to undergo certain processes from blowing to winding to take the shape of yarn. Blow room Carding Predrawfame Unilap Comber Post draw frame Speed frame Ring frame Random winding Assembly winding TFO Singeing Page no. - 21

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Blow room: Here, the bales of cotton fibers sourced from various ginning mills are laid, spread out and opened up. The blending happens with the help of Blendomat, a machine that moves with toothed rollers running along then bales thus opening and blending them in layers. These are then fed into a machine by vacuum suction for cleaning and transported further by blowing air. They move through chambers where the dust and other impurities embedded in the fibers are separated out. Clean fiber tufts are sent to the carding section through overhead channels. There are 3 blowers of TRUTZSCHER BO 046 and 1 blendomat of TRUTZSCHER VDT 019. The rpm of blower is 72-140. There is facility to do three different mixing fiber types simultaneously.

Drawing: Pre draw frame: 8 carded slivers are fed into the drawing machine where they are combined and drawn into a single sliver using some tension. The sliver is made more uniform in terms of mass per unit length, parallel and improved. A relative humidity of 51-53% and temperature of 33-35% are maintained on the floor. Breaker sliver is the output. Unilap: Here 24-26 breaker slivers are combined to form a single lap sheet. A single roll of lap weighs is 1 kg. Comber lap emerges out of this machine. Comber: The laps are fed into the system where they are combed by rollers with teeth. Short fibers are pulled out.Finely smooth, parallely aligned slivers in which individual fibers can be pulled out easily are produced after combing. 8 laps are combined to form 1 combed sliver. Post draw frame: 6 combed slivers are further combined, paralellised and the sliver quality is improved by drawing. The mass/ length is reduced. These are called finished sliver.

Carding: Individualization of fibers takes place. Neps are removed. A uniform and long sliver is formed which is collected in drums. They are called carded sliver that is of continuous length and collected in one drum at once. The TRUTZSCHER machines DK 760, KHC 891 and FDK 533 are employed here. The are 14 machines in one row and 7 in another. The drums were marked with colored rubber ribbons according to the count of yarn to be spun from that sliver.

Speedframe: Slivers are made into roving bobbins by imparting a slight twist and drawing under tension through roller pairs. The bobbins are placed one by one in rows and the armed flyer of the machine is lowered to the level of a black ring on it. 2 rounds of roving are wound to begin with, and the guide on the arm carries it all around the bobbin thus winding it parallely. A much finer thread of fibers are produced.

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Ring frame: This is the process of formation of yarn. Roving is spun into the yarn of desired count by imparting twist. 4 pairs of rollers with and without groves play the drawing action thus reducing the mass/length and forming yarn. These are wound on smaller spindles.

Assembly winding: Here, 2 cones are used to double the yarn. There is no twist, but only parallel winding of 2 or more yarns for ply and wound on cheese.

TFO: Random winding/ cone winding: Yarns from the bobbin are transferred to bigger packages called cone on simple cone winder/ mach winder or Autoconer. Bobbins placed in magazine are moved through channels and detected for loose ends. Those with free end are transported further and attached to the loose end present in the cone continuing the winding process. Then they are just spliced with each other thus avoiding knotting to get better efficiency in weaving. The bobbins when empty are tracked back to be collected by vacuum suction and dropped into a bin.

The two for one twist machine is for twisting the plied yarn and produces bigger cones. To prevent sloughing off, here, a guide takes the yarn around the package forming a firm setting. A cone weighs app 1.8 kg. Z/Z twist is given.

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Singeing: The yarns are made to pass through flames at fixed temperature, pressure and maintaining other specifications. This is done to remove loose fibers and short hairs that cause disturbance in the smoothness of the yarn. CNG is used as fuel and singed yarn is obtained as output.2 machines are currently being employed now to solve the working efficiency of the factory.

Rewinding The yarns are again rewound after they are singed. This results in the removal of the black soot from the surface of the yarns. The yarns are now kept packed under some cover ready to go for dyeing. The package is called a pallet, which consists of 315 cones in each. Each cone weighs 1 - 1.5 kg. The no. Of rewinding machines are 2 under the singeing shed area and are known by the name main pilot motor.

Spinning is a process of converting fibers into yarns. Fibers have to undergo certain processes from blow room to winding room to take the shape of yarn. In blow room the bales of cotton are laid, spread out and opened up with the help of blendomat and the cotton contamination controller. In Arvind the Chute feed system works for further process. Then the individualization of fibers take place called Carding. 21 TRUTZSCHLER carding machines are their. Then slivers are fed into a drawing machine where they are combined and drawn. 12 draw frames are employed here out of which 6 for pre-draw frame and 6 for post-draw frame. The laps are fed into the system where they are combed by rollers with tooth. Slivers are made into roving bobbins by imparting a slight twist & drawing under tension through roller pairs. There are 34 Lakshmi Ring Frames in which 1008 bobbins can get filled in a single machine. Roving is spun into the yarn of desired count by imparting twist. Hence the process of formation of yarns completed. Yarns from the bobbin are transferred to bigger packages called cone by the process called Winding. Soft package winding is done for dying. Then it goes to yarn singeing and/or to yarn dyeing as per requirements. There are two types of yarn dyeing frames – spring frame and P.P. tube.

Weaving For Weaving, the mission is “to achieve ‘zero weaving defects’ with continuous improvement in process control parameters & training of people.” The yarn is transferred from single packages of yarn to an even sheet of yarn representing a number of sectioned bands of color wound onto a warp beam. Before applying onto the loom shed Sizing of warp is necessary, it is the application of starch on the warp yarns to overcome tension levels in warp and to overcome the effects of abrasion and friction. Four Sucker Muller (Hacoba) machine is applied for the sizing. After that denting and drafting is done and then interlacing of warp and weft yarns is done to produce the fabric. The shed holds 170 looms which includes 98 Air-jet looms and 72 Rapier looms. The Omni air-jet and Gamma rapier looms are of PICANOL. The speed of Air-jet loom is 720 rpm and 270300 mts fabric are woven per loom per day whereas the speed of Rapier loom is 520 rpm and the production is around 200 mts/loom/ day. After the weaving the inspection is required i.e. the examination of every yard of fabric as the fabric moves slowly across a lighted inspection table. The significant flaws are noted and defects get corrected by gray mending and finish mending. There are 21 grey inspection tables. Then again the fabric rolls are made and batching is done by combining similar kind of rolls in huge batches for further processes. Here two batching machines are working with an average speed of 2000mts/hr.

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WEAVING PREPARATORY

RE-WINDINGThe final cones from spinning are used to rewind the yarns on perforated bobbins to form soft cheeses that will be sent for winding. According to number of packages required for sectional warping. The Murata rewinding machines have a capacity of 50 spindles and they are 10 in total. 2-3 Local Mahavir machines can hold 120 spindles at once. A constant length of yarn is wound on all packages.

SECTIONAL WARPINGThe pattern for a fabric requires yarn of specific length, number and color. These are wound on the warp beam in this section. A creel of capacity 720 cones holds the yarns. These are drawn through a leasing reed and warping reed and the emerging pattern wound on warping drum and finally on warping beam. There are 8 rows on the creel, which holds the yarns according to the warp pattern. For shirting, the pattern is placed alternately, i.e. 13572468 upwards. Each row is used as layer for leasing. 7 lease are introduced in the beginning of every section and a 50% lease towards the end. The 7 lease help in sizing to separate layers in order prevent sticking together. 50% leasing helps in drawing.

RE-WINDING

SIZINGA Sucker Muller (hacoba) make machine is employed for sizing. The yarns from warp beam are passed through size solution, which includes modified starch, binders and softeners. 12 rollers dry the sized yarns. All ends on the warp beam are taped on both sides twice along the length to prevent slipping. At the rear end, 7 lease rods separate the layers and yarns pass through a zigzag reed with even dents to ensure uniformity. They get wound on a beam called weavers beam. The first 7-8 metres of warp are cut and removed, as these would not have received proper sizing. For double colored patterns, the yarns directly from beam dyeing are brought and the combination takes place during the sizing and drying and the total yarns for warp emerges and winds on weavers beam. After sizing they are coded, codes fed on computer and stored on shelves with pulleys. As and when required it is possible to give the code and obtain the beam.

SIZING

LOOM SHED After warping and drafting the weavers beam along with the drop wire heald shaft and reed are loaded on the frame of the loom. The loom shed has a capacity of 170 looms all together.

SECTIONAL WARPING

LOOM SHED

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There are two different types of machines present in the loom shed: 1. Airjet 2. Rapier

There are 98 Airjet looms for weaving plain fabrics and operates at a speed of 720 rpm. It works on the principle of cam shedding. The production capacity of these machines is 270 to 300 meters of fabric per loom per day. Maximum of six colors can be used as weft. Most of these looms can weave designs using 4 shafts, while some of the looms have 8 shafts to make slightly complicated designs. The rapier looms are 72 in number and are used for weaving fancy fabrics through dobby. About 200 meters of fabric are produced by one loom in a day. Up to 8 colors can be inserted as weft. 16 to 20 shafts are used to make woven designs.

AIR JET LOOM

Processing For Processing, the mission is “ To add significant value to yarn and fabric at every processing stage, with continuous improvement in quality & customer service.” Fabric singeing is done to remove the hairiness of the fabric by passing it through flame at a very high speed then it goes for de-sizing in which the starch is removed that was applied during the sizing process onto the yarns. One OSTHOF m/c is employed for singeing and de-sizing both. The target production for one shift is around 35,000 mts. After de-sizing the rotation of the batch is required for 8 hrs to avoid accumulation of chemicals at one place. Then washing is done which includes one steaming and two fresh water wash. The Mercerization process comes to give the fabric- luster and an affinity to dye by Kyoto machine. The speed of production is 25-50 mts/min. Most of the fabrics require the Bleaching process in which the whiteness of the fabric is increased by oxidation. A batch of 5000-6000 mts is bleached at any given time. Fabric dyeing is done only when the fabric has to be dyed in a single flat color. PDPS m/c is used for reactive and vat dyes; other m/cs are Jigger and Jet-dye machine. BENNINGER m/cs are employed for continuous bleaching, dyeing and mercerization. There are three methods of fabric Printing that is done here- Table printing, Rotary printing and Digital printing. Separate screen for separate color design is used. Speed of production in Rotary m/c is 50-80 mts/min. There is one DuPond Artistri 2020 machine of OUPONT is used for digital printing which has a production speed of 11mts/hr. After printing is done the color fixation is required which is performed by the processes Ageing and Curing for reactive and pigment printing respectively. In ageing the fabric is passed through steam at 150˚C for 7 minute whereas in Curing the fabric is passed through steam of 102˚C for 5 minutes

AUTO DRAWING IN MACHINE (STAUBY DELTA 200) The sized beam with 50% lease is attached to a weaving assembly truck. Th free ends are pulled vertically and clamped on the brush beam. They are combed slightly and fitted on drawing in machine. Then the heald frames are inserted. Drop wires and heald wires are filled in magazines that will be used during drawing. Rapier action draws in yarns by breaking them and pulling though heald, drop wire and dent, which forms a straight line. The reed moves as the denting proceeds to occupy the position to catch the yarn. All specifications as drafting order, denting order are stored in computer. Constant monitoring is required to avoid errors

RAPIER LOOM

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YARN DYEING The swatches sent by the customer to be reproduced are considered as standard on which the yarn color depends. The swatches could be in the form of fabric, yarn or paper cuttings. The count of yarn required, the light source to be tested under, process following dyeing before matching, any special remarks, the required quantity are all mentioned in a specification sheet and received from the design and development department. Then they refer to their library where almost one lakh shades and their recipes have been recorded. The shade that is closest to the given swatch is chosen and recipe is modified till the perfect shade is achieved. The recipes of different trial are recorded in the work sheet.

Yarn is dyed in package form in closed system. HTHP machines are used and the capacity varies from 100 to 700 kg. The weight of the package is 12kgs to 78kgs. The quantity of yarn to be dyed in a particular shade will be specified by the PPC department. Usually reactive and vat dyes are used for dyeing. Generally reactive HE dyes are dyed at 80 C since these are hot brand dyes. The dye bath is ready at 70 C and gradually increased. For vat dyes it depends on dye-class. The pressure exercised is 3kg/cm3. It takes about 8 1 / 2 hours to complete the entire process that includes pretreatment and dyeing of the yarn. Cold brand dyes are not used since they have lower fastness and not suitable for mercerization process. Hence never used in shirting. HEXL and vat dyes are used for mercerization.

AUTOLAB- [email protected] DISPENSERThere is a stock of primary dye solutions that can be mixed in specific proportions to get any shade. This is a computerized process and requires little intervention manually.

To check the uniformity of dyeing, yarn from 4 different layers of a package is wound on a card and compared. This is referred to as the ‘within package leveling report’. The Recipe includes:

SOLUTION MAKERTo prepare dye solutions of accurate and specific concentration, this is helpful. A beaker is placed in which some quantity of water is filled. The range of dye that can be added is shown on the screen. Then it is taken and agitated for homogenous mixing. The beaker is replaced and desired concentration entered in the system. Water is filled to achieve that concentration. Yarn is weighed and tagged to be put into the solution for dyeing. Then the yarn or the fabric swatch is treated with dye for required amount of temperature and time. The machines which are used are: 1. turbomat: its capacity is minimum 70gms. 2. Spectra dye: its capacity is 7. 5gms 3. Infrared colour: its capacity is 20gms

Pretreatment- Scouring 1. Sequestering/ Chelating agent 2. De-aerating cum wetting agent 3. Alkali-caustic/ soda ash Pretreatment- Bleaching 1. Hydrogen peroxide 2. Stabilizer for peroxide Acid for neutralization Dyeing- Reactive 1. Color (HE/ME) 2. Salt (for exhaustion) 3. Soda ash (for fixation) 4. Leveling agent

TURBOMAT

SPETRA DYE

INFRARED COLOUR

Dyeing- Vat 1. Color 2. Sodium hydro sulphite (reducing agent) 3. Caustic (to make vat soluble in water) 4. H2O2 (oxidizing agent)

Then the samples are washed in open bath beaker mechanically. The ratio of chemicals and temperature depends upon the shade of the dye. Then the sample is dried in the dryer. The dried yarn is then wound on to a card The yarn card is placed before Page no. - 33

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Procedure Bleaching: LS, SPLF, STCP and caustic are taken at room temperature and raised to 50 C. it is stirred for 5 min in mixing vessel and brought to the dyeing chamber. H2O2 is added at 95 C and stirred for 30 min. it is drained of chemicals.

PIECE DYEING The swatch obtained from the customer is measured for the color by computer. A close shade is predicted and recipe obtained. This is a computerized color matching system.

Washing: H2O2 and alkali are removed by treatment with hot water at 95 C for 10 minutes. It is washed in cold water for 2 minutes. The peroxide and alkali are neutralized with acetic acid and 10L.

Dyeing takes place in stages following procedures according to the type of dye. These are: 1. Vat pigment- Caladon(pad-dry-cure) 2. Vat- (pad-dry- pad- steam) 3. Reactive- (cold- pad- batch-wash)

Dyeing: Fresh hot water is taken in the dyeing chamber, LSER and SPLF (wetting agent) are added to soften the water. This is stirred for 10 minutes and salt added. Again stirring happens. The color is added finally and boiled at 80 C for 30 minutes. The liquor is sent back to mixing vessel where soda ash is added for fixation. It is sent to the dyeing chamber and treated at 80 C for 45 minutes. The solution is drained and material is washed for 10 minutes at 80 C. IN OUT for reactive dyes and IN OUT and OUT IN for vat dyes.

MATHIS PADDING MANGLE: a continuous process of dyeing, the sample is inserted into the solution and taken out between two rollers.

Soaping: ADW is added to wash off extra dyes. This also reduces the dyes thus fixing them permanently. Th procedure is for 20 minutes at 95C. Washing with fresh water at 80 C for 10 minutes is done. Cold wash is carried out after this followed by rinsing and drying. Shade matching: Once the yarn is dried it is sent for shade matching in computer. Drying: If the yarn matches, YL is added for lighter shade and Supra for darker shade are added for softening and fixing. Then the package goes to RF machine for drying which takes 1- 1.5 hrs.

MATHIS DRIER: the time is set and fabric inserted. Drying and curing take place here. A maximum of 250 C can be achieved.

MATHIS PADDING MANGLE

SPECTRA LIGHT

MATHIS PAD STEAM RANGE: fabric is fed from one side and moves along rollers while being treated with caustic+ hydrose, steam, H2O2 , soap + soda, hot water and cold water. VERIVIDE and SPECTRA LIGHT are light boxes used for color matching visually. The different lights UV, TC 84, D65 (daylight), F-11 Filament, Cold white, incandescent, U30, Horizon etc are used according to specification of the customer. Matching is done in unprocessed stage or after bleaching, mercerization, optical brightening or their combination. Codes are allotted to each shade according to the type of dye used, quantity and basic color. These codes are useful for reference.

MATHIS DRIER

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Finishing

Finishing is the combined process of value addition of the fabric as per the requirements. The fabric is treated in Stenter where it is made to pass through a solution of finishing chemical with Polyethylene emulsion and squeezed. After that in Straightening Unit the weft yarns are aligned parallel with the help of photo-sensered cameras. Sanforising prevents any further stretching or shrinking of fabrics while being used by consumer. We pass the fabric between rubber beds and over hot rollers shrinks it to desired width. For Sanforising and Stentering Machines of MONFORTS are employed. Then the fabric goes for specific kind of finishes like Arvi-silk finish, Soft finish, ETI, Mild resin, Nano care finish, Liquid ammonia, Micro scent, Anti-microbal, Vitamin-E, U-V protective, Moistcure etc. There are some mechanical finishes which don’t need any chemical or water. Calendar finish, peach finish and Airo finish come in this category. Calendar finish increases the shinning whereas peach adds toughness to the fabric. Two LAFER machines are employed for mechanical finish

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

• The division has an in-house Design Studio with a team of qualified professional designers. The design Studio is fully equipped with latest technologies. It gets continuous design inputs on latest international trends from designers based in Italy and UK. Great emphasis on Design and Product Development. • 23 in house designers, qualified from Internationally reputed institutes. Italian and Spanish designers on board. • Our designers constantly predict market trends offering our customers a wide range of products. • Each season we design, collections in fresh colors expressing our deep knowledge of fabrics.

Range Collections: Season-wise collections for S/S and A/W. Customized collections for key customers(based on their concepts/inputs). Stock Service through the Classic Line Collection.

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Facilities: Computer Aided Designing A mini mill dedicated to design & development Sample sizing & warping for desk loom samples & road samples Independent weaving for sample making Small package dyeing machine for new shades Comprehensive shade library to enable quick responses.

We are a one stop shop of Fabrics and Apparel. Showrooms • Ahmedabad • New York • Hong Kong • Dhaka

Mini Mill dedicated for Design & Development. Yardages and blankets • 7+3 Suzuki Warpers • 4 Sectional Warpers • 24+19 looms • Capacity : 35+15 Yardages and Blankets / day. Handlooms • 11+4 small looms for Handlooms. • 5 Small sizing machines. • Capacity : 90+30 Handlooms/day • Color Library : 600 Reactive color shade : 200 VAT SANTEJ SHOWROOM The design house is divided into 2 sections the DDC department and the design studio. The recent developments and the new ones are generated here with the help of cad system .tex cad is the software which is brought into use by the well skilled designers here. When the cads are approved then the sampling is one through the ddc department. The total sampling is done here. First the handlooms are generated and then it sent to the clients for approval. when the approvals are done then the running yardages of 20 – 60 meters are developed here to see how the fabrics look in the running stage .once the approvals is done from the client side then the final bulk production takes place. Apart from this the major portion of the DDC dealing is analysis of the samples from outside clients and developments done on the basis of the analysis. The samples come in the form of small pieces, may be fabric imitations, paper designs copying, cutting from the magazines or other sources. Once the sample is analyzed then it is sent for desk loom development.

NEW YORK SHOWROOM

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QUALITY ASSURANCE • QA Lab is accredited by • Marks & Spencers • Levi’s • L L Bean • Next • Gap Inc • Invista (For Lycra Testing) • Liz Claiborne (Under Process) • We are Oekotex-100 certified. • Arvind is certified to Eco Sustainable textiles standards and Organic Exchange 100 • We are committed to Fair Trade and our product meets the Fair trade principles. Vigilant On-Line and Off-Line QA at all stages of Production to sustain consistent Product. There are certain quality tests that the yarns have to undergo at each stage to ensure total quality assurance. The testing starts at its infancy i.e. in the fiber stage only there are certain relevant tests, which a fiber has to undergo before it is sent further.

1.HVI SPECTRUM (High Volume Instrument) – ZELLWEGER USTER This is a prime instrument, which fulfills all the requirements and measures the different parameters for cotton to be used in production.the different criteria, which it detects, are as follows: 1.length of the fiber 2.uniformity in the length 3.strength of the fiber 4.elongation or elastic behavior of the fiber 5.short fiber length (no. of fibers lesser than ½”) 6.Rd: the color i.e. the degree of yellowness or whiteness of the fibers. 7.the percentage of coarseness and fineness of the fiber i.e. the micronaire measurement. Around 150-200 gms of fibers are taken for testing.

2. FIBRO SAMPLER- HVI 900

Variety of cotton Assam comila Bengal deshi Kalagin Wagad Jaydhar G 12 G 11/Digvijay V 797 J 34 F 414 H 777 Agetti DHY 286 AHH 486 NHH 44 LRA 5166 MCH 1/11 JKHY 1 MECH 1 H 4/ H 6 S 6 S 4 MCU 5 DCH 32 SUVIN AK 277 G 6 Y 1 AKHG CJ 73 A 51/9 1007 Varalakshmi

Region of procurement Span length mm Assam Below 15 Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan 16-18 Gujarat 19-21 Gujarat 21-22 Karnataka 21-22 Gujarat 21-23 Gujarat, Rajasthan 21-23 Gujarat 24-26 Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana 23-26 Punjab 26-28 Haryana 24-26 Rajasthan 24-26 Maharashtra 24-26 Maharashtra 24-28 Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu 25-27 Maharashtra 24-28 Maharashtra 25-27 Andhra Pradesh 26-28 Madhya Pradesh 26-28 Maharashtra, AP, MP 27-29 Gujarat 27-30 Rajasthan, Gujarat 28-30 AP, TN 30-35 MP, Maharashtra, AP, TN, Karnataka 33-38 AP, TN 36-39 Maharashtra AP MP, Maharashtra Maharashtra Gujarat MP AP, MP, Maharashtra Maharashtra

This is a semi-operated machine and measures all parameters except color. A comb is used to take out ‘fiber beard’, which is used to feed the machine.

3. USTER MDTA 3 This is used to test impurities in cotton. 10-100 g of fiber is taken and the output includes clean cotton, micro dust and major impurities. The clean cotton serves as a standard for testing efficiency of carded sliver. Page no. - 41

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Yarn fault-testing Types of cotton fibers used in Arvind Name and place NHH-44 from India Ethel from brazil USI –1/8” from America Shankar-6 (super) from India Bunny Brahma from India MCU-5 from India Karo from west Africa Juli (mali) Bola – s burkina faso Gizza –76 from Egypt Gizza – 45 from Egypt Acala cotton from Sudan Raw cotton from Australia SJV Acala up laud from America Pima from Australia Pima from Israel Pima from America CISELS from Turkmenistan Barakrt from Sudan DCH-32 super from India MCU – 5 from India ELS 1- 7/16 from china

quality Long and strong cotton Long and strong cotton Long and strong cotton Long and strong cotton Long and strong cotton Extra long –very short cotton Long strong cotton Long strong cotton Extra long and extra strong cotton Extra long extra strong cotton Extra long and strong cotton Long strong cotton Long strong cotton Long and very strong cotton Extra long and very srong cotton Extra long and very strong cotton Extra long and very strong cotton Extra long and very strong cotton Extra long and very strong cotton Extra long and very strong cotton Extra long and very strong cotton Extra long and very strong cotton

CLASSIMATThis instrument tests faults in the yarn. 100 km of yarn can be tested at once. The thick and thin, long and short areas of the yarn are detected and categorized according to the severity. In a graph, A1, B1, C1…denotes the length of the fault, while A1, A2, A3…denotes the mass of the yarn which in turn is a measure of thickness. If the resultant value falls under E, it is a long and thick area. F and G of the graph show thin and long areas.

USTER TENSOJETThis is a single yarn strength-testing instrument. It runs at a speed of 400 m per min. 500 readings are taken each out of 10 packages of one sample. It gives the values in unit of force/ count = g/tex. Elongation of the yarn is also measured.

USTER UNEVENESS TESTERThis tests and reads thick places (+50%), thin places (-50%) and neps (200%). At a speed of 400m/min, yarn from 10 packages is tested. The Uneveness % and hairiness as a sum of total hair lengths are obtained At stages of ring winding, roving, cone winding etc tests are conducted many times a week to ensure consistency. This is inprocess checking

TWIST TESTERAccording to the required specifications twist of the yarn is measured in this which involves different methods for single, doubled and open end yarn.

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AFIS (ADVANCED FIBER INFORMATION SYSTEM)An in process testing system for detecting neps, length, micronaire till roving stage.

WRAP BLOCKIt is used to measure the hank of the feeding material to decide the setting for the next process

COSTING Costing is decided as per several stages from Picking up the fiber to the finishing of the fabric. These stages summed up together add-on to the final cost of the fabric. The end usage of the fabric manufactured by Arvind is garments and the buyer of the fabric is basically a garment manufacturer. Different apparel manufacturing companies have different types of requirement as per the weight of the fabric (GSM), weave, count, construction (EPI and PPI), percentage of colour usage, finish of the fabric etc. the entire cost of the fabric depends on all of the above mentioned parameters. So accordingly after considering all these factors including the production cost, overheads and the Profit margins, the Price of the fabric is quoted to the apparel manufacturer.

YARN BOARD WINDERIs done when required. Here, the yarn is wound on black or white board according to its own color and analyzed subjectively for slubs.

ELECTRONIC LEA STRENGTH TESTERThe lea is subjected to pulling force by means of clamps and breaking strength is tested. The value obtained is CSP (count strength product). HAIRINESS TESTEROn the basis of optical principle, the hairiness is measured as the number of hairs per unit length for 24 mm.

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MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Marketing Capability Factors Marketing capability factors could be segregated into three basics categories: • Product • Promotion • Price

Product • Unisex leisure/fashion fabric both for international and domestic market • High quality fabric for men’s formal shirts and bottom both for international and domestic market • Fashion fabric for women primarily for domestic women • Readymade garments for men-shirts and jeans • Wide range of textile products and brands

Promotion • Creating awareness : An initial challenge • Creating customer orientation • Focused on encouraging awareness of denim and high premium garments • Goal of developing long term trusting relationship with patients

Price • lower prices in comparison to the competitors due to the availability of low cost domestic cotton and labour

EMERGING SHIFT OF INTERNATIONALGARMENT BUSINESS

DOMESTIC MARKET ENVIRONMENT CONSUMER DEMAND • The consumer in the household sector demanded better quality fabric.‡ TRADE CHANNELS • The trade channel comprised of agents and wholesalers which were very slow to change and continued to demand conventional products. • These trade channels held a very powerful position in the textile distribution

Retail DivisionMainly for domestic market and management process. It is market sensitive. The department mainly has to see what the final outcome of the product is: • always in touch with internal+ external customers • need to know when to produce what • fashion cycle+ high international margin/ international customers behave in a different way In export Arvind basically sells through buying offices like impulse, li and fung etc or directly and even through RMGs (Ready Made Garments) like Ranger and brfl (Bombay rayon fashions limited) etc. In domestic brands Arvind targets the customer directly like Louis Philippe, Colorplus, and Indian terrain etc. In retail market too Arvind has direct links with middleman or agents or direct fabric selling retailers. RMGs are ready made garment converters for export brands. They always buy fabric and then make shirts, trousers, jackets etc. and sell it to export brands. In Arvind like Ranger is supplying to GANT, SCOTCH AND SODA and REPALY. The same thing is done in Arvind export division Bangalore. They take fabrics from Arvind Ahmedabad and then convert it into ready to wear garments for many brands like GAP, BROOKS, ESPRIT, MEXX, LUCKY JEANS etc.

Reason • Low cost of domestically produced cotton. • Low cost of labor • Weak currency

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SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY small scale projects brand studies Abercrombie & Fitch

Holding the corporate social responsibility(CSR) Arvind runs vocational programs for rural poor of the Khedbrahma taluka of Gujarat’s Sabarkantha district. In 1995 Arvind owned the SHARDA (Strategic help alliance for relief to distressed areas) trust to improve physical environment and living conditions of rural areas. • At Arvind, they place the social and environmental responsibilities at the center of our management philosophy and our business. • Arvind has made comprehensive efforts to identify, monitor, minimize and continually reduce the environmental footprint of its operations and offer good working conditions. • Arvind continuously explore ways to foster environmental consciousness and awareness at all levels of the organization, in the communities where they carry on business, and among the farmers, suppliers and other stakeholders with whom we deal.

is a American fashion retailer, headed by chairman and CEO Michael S. Jeffries. The A&F brand itself focuses on casualwear and accessories for a target consumer ages of 18 through 22. With over 300 locations in the United States, the brand has embarked on international expansion throughout various world markets. The company also operates three off-shoot brands: Abercrombie, Hollister Co., Ruehl and Gilly Hicks (targeting consumers between the ages of 12 to 30). Founded in 1892 in Manhattan by David T. Abercrombie, A&F had been an elite outfitter of sporting and excursion goods. It struggled financially from the late 1960s until it was purchased by The Limited in 1988 and repositioned, under the management of Mike Jeffries, as the aspirational “Casual Luxury” lifestyle brand in present form.

Arvind - Education & Social Endeavors • Arvind runs 6 schools, 12 colleges and 5 other institutions in Ahmedabad. • Arvind family is associated with formation of premier management institute of country the Indian Institute of Management (IIM Ahmedabad). • Arvind has established a Blind Men’s Association. • The family is also engaged in Rural Development. • It is also a founding trustee of a Cancer hospital.

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Banana Republic Banana Republic is an American clothing brand founded by Mel and Patricia Ziegler in 1978 as a travel-themed clothing company. It was bought by Gap in 1983. The company has over 500 stores located internationally The first Banana Republic storefront was located in Mill Valley, California. In conjunction with the storefront, the Zieglers also started a mail-order catalogue that became an instant success. The catalogue featured clothing from striking locales and had narrative stories throughout. The catalogue’s success allowed the Zieglers to open a second storefront a year later. Today the Banana Republic has over 400 retail stores and generates 2.4 billion in annual revenue.

Eddie Bauer Eddie Bauer is an outdoor brand that offers signature outerwear; men’s and women’s clothing, gear and accessories; and world-class mountaineering gear. All built to one standard—to be the best. Bauer continued to design and experiment with sporting equipment and outerwear. In 1942, at the request of the United States Army, he developed the B-9 Flight Parka, which became known as the “Bomber Jacket” since it was worn by thousands of World War II (193945) pilots. The company also provided the military with flight suits, sleeping bags, packs, snowshoes, and clothing as well. Approximately four hundred employees worked round-theclock shifts to keep up with the demand.

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Esprit Esprit is an international youthful lifestyle brand offering smart, affordable luxury and bringing newness and style to life. The Group operates more than 800 directly managed retail stores worldwide and distributes its products via more than 14,000 wholesale locations internationally, occupying total selling space of over 1.1 million square metres in more than 40 countries.

Gap Inc Gap Inc. is a leading international specialty retailer offering clothing, accessories and personal care products for men, women, children and babies under the Gap, Banana Republic, Old Navy, Piperlime and Athleta brand names. Gap brand includes Gap, GapKids, babyGap and gapbody. The company also operates Gap Outlet and Banana Republic Factory Outlet stores

Esprit licenses its logo to third-party licensees that offer products bearing the same Esprit quality and essence to consumers. Esprit also operates the Red Earth cosmetic brand which includes cosmetics, skin care and body care products.

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H&M

J. Crew

H&M clothing (H and M standing for Hennes & Mauritz AB), is a Swedish company, known for their quality, inexpensive and very fashionable products. Officially, H&M was established in Västerås, Sweden, in 1947 by Erling Persson, though at the time the store only sold women’s clothing and was called Hennes, Swedish for “hers.” In 1968, Persson acquired the premises and inventory of a Stockholm hunting equipment store named Mauritz Widforss. Included in the inventory was a supply of men’s apparel, prompting Persson to expand into menswear. Accordingly, he renamed the store Hennes & Mauritz, later abbreviated to H&M.

J. Crew sells men’s, women’s and children’s apparel and accessories through North American retail locations as well as catalogs and its website. The company produces products with a traditional preppy aesthetic similar to that of Polo Ralph Lauren (RL). J. Crew had total revenues of $1.4B in 2008[1], with net income of $54 million. The company is in direct competition with Jones Apparel Group (JNY) and Liz Claiborne (LIZ), both of which own and produce other brands in addition to their namesake lines

H&M has more than 2000 stores in 35 different countries and has more than 73,000 employees. Stefan Persson, Erling’s son, became CEO in 1990 and Chairman of the Board in 1998. The Church of Sweden is a major shareholder in the H&M chain. In September 2008 H&M opened its first store in Japan, it was in Ginza followed by another opening in Harajuku in November 2008, the third one in the Shibuya shopping district in September, 2009. H&M has signed an agreement to open its first store in Myungdong in Seoul, South Korea to open during the spring of 2010. The first Russian presence was launched in “Metropolis” center in Moscow on march 13th. The second one in march 2009 in “MEGA” mall followed by the October opening in Belaya Dacha “MEGA” mall. Europe’s biggest shopping center “Golden Babylon” opened its H&M location in October 2009.

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J. Jill

Talbots

J. Jill is a multi-channel specialty retailer of women’s apparel and accessories. A wholly-owned subsidiary of The Talbots, Inc., J. Jill is based in Quincy, Massachusetts. Its Distribution Center and Call Center are located in Tilton, New Hampshire, and its international liaison office is located in New Delhi, India. At the end of fiscal 2007, J. Jill operated 271 stores in 39 states, including nine outlet stores. Additionally, J. Jill distributed 25 separate catalogs with an annual circulation of approximately 78 million. J. Jill serves the 35+ woman. This customer or guest as J. Jill sees her is well educated, active, concerned about her community and ageless in her approach to life and style. She approaches fashion with an eye for natural beauty and adaptable function that reflects her confidence and diverse needs. She prefers clothes that are comfortable yet stylish, versatile and open to self expression.

Talbots is a leading specialty retailer and direct marketer of women’s classic clothing, shoes and accessories. Established in 1947, the company is known for legacy items like the perfect blazer, trustworthy trench, versatile white shirt, ballet flats and pearls, as well as its fine workmanship, gracious service and welcoming red doors. With a nod to tradition infused with modern flair, Talbots offers an array of timeless wardrobe options to flatter women of all shapes and sizes. The Company currently operates stores in 580 locations in 46 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada

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Tommy Bahama

Zara

Tommy Bahama is a Seattle-based manufacturer and licenser of high-end tropicalthemed wear and other clothing and household goods. The company is owned by Georgia-based Oxford Industries. The company sells apparel through its own chain of retail outlets in Canada and the United States, and through other retailers. The company operates restaurants attached to some stores that serve tropical themed food as well. It recently opened a new bar at Yankee Stadium

Zara clothing is a brand under the Inditex Group, which is owned by Spanish businessman Amancio Ortega. Started in 1975, they’ve been able to spread around the world quickly because of their special approach to clothing manufacturing. Unlike a lot of other online fashion companies, this brand is able to get new products to consumers in about five weeks. If they’re just changing an existing style, it can take as little as two weeks. This quick turnaround is the big reason they’ve been able to grow so fast since they began.

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sport collections

sports casuals formals

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Memories – clean , pure ,delicate and hazy, sporty , simplicity , reserved Memories respond to invitations, Electing in their interests to attend. Moments of remembrance moor sensations, On shadows shifting gently in the wind.Remember to remember, then, those passed, In whom we vested hope in days of strife,Again among the trenches, dropping fast , Lost now to love as once they were to life.

Key concept – clear ,puristic, simplified lines and structure, colorless and faded images and walls, porcelain, plaster, genuine, old photographs, unforgettable moments, time spent together. Colors – chalky pastels, faded tan and black, ochre. Client – “zara women swear” Target customer –niche client Market – Indian domestic Technical specification Fiber content – 100% cotton Warp count – 50s Weft count – 80s comp. Construction – on loom ( 156/88) , off loom (180/90) Weave – plain . No. of harnesses – 4 Constraints – classic sporty stripes , 80% of base has to be colored, weft white Page no. - 63

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Old school – classic but sporty, uniform, emotive, discipline

Graduation is a time, When our thoughts turn naturally To vandalism, sex, and crime, Now that we at last are free. ,Our teachers think we’re well prepared To make decisions on our own; So just like birds out of a cage, Or slaves set free from toil and pain, We aim to try to act our age And be for now a bit sane. Key concept – uniform , school going look, classic which conveys certain commitment and discipline, old universities, libraries , school going bags and ties , tie belt ,young and sporty. Colors – blue , grey , black, white as the ground, use of some accent colors as yellows, turquoise, tan Client – “A MAHADEVIA” Target customer – upper middle class and niche client Market – Indian domestic Technical specification Fiber content – 100% cotton Warp count – 2/121 Weft count – 2/121 Construction – on loom ( 80/88) , off loom (180/90), reed 80/4 , reed space – 67 Weave – plain , satin and twill used on certain places. No. of harnesses – minimum of 4 and maximum 10 Constraints – classic sporty stripes , 80% of base has to be white, use of navy and cobalt blue must. weft color has to be white only.

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Nautica – regimental, sea life, fresh and clean Win or lose, what’s at stake is grace., One pits oneself against one’s wildest dreams, Relying, more than anything, on will., Life is far more lustful than it seems, Demanding more of one than an embrace, Come witness, then, the love that life redeems Upon a field of lovers, dreamers all, Playing with more passion in our place. Key concept – think nautical, think light houses in highly visible red, black or blue, beach huts smartly painted in sea blue and sandy creams, sailors ,ships, naval force. Colors –from soft aqua to deep ultra marine, navy blue, cobalt blue, all the nautical shades , off-white ,white as the base, red as the ascent tone. grays and black. Client – “united colors of Benetton” Target customer –niche client Market – u.s.a Technical specification Fiber content – 100% cotton Warp count – 50s Weft count – 50s Construction – on loom ( 80/88) , off loom (180/90), reed 80/4 , reed space – 67 Weave – plain , satin and twill used on certain places as dobbies. No. of harnesses – minimum of 4 and maximum 10 Constraints – regimental sporty stripes , 50% of base has to be white, use of navy and red as must for ascent color. Page no. - 67

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Riviera – playful, exotic, fun, sporty ,retro Holidays are little more than meals, Of course the details differ, but not much.Long histories have merged into a sea, In which the flavors blend quite favorably,Destined for nouvelle cuisine. Yet such, A mixture has its own distinct appeals.Years together are not spent in vain., Some losses, though severe, are worth the gain

Key concept – inspired by the 1950s and the first holidays abroad, capturing the tourist spirit of the early resorts such as Riviera. Hot on the heels of the summer ,beach side look, merry and fun making. Colors – fruity and playful colors, mango yellows, blue red and black are of utmost importance. Client – “zara women’s wear” Target customer – niche client Market – Europe Technical specification Fiber content – 100% cotton Warp count – 50s Weft count – 80s comp. Construction – on loom ( 156/88) , off loom (180/90) Weave – plain No. of harnesses – 4 Constraints – classic sporty stripes , 60% of base has to be colored, white weft. Page no. - 69

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Monaco – heraldic , heritage, past glory, rank and regimental , medieval “The story takes its inspiration from the past era, the heritage buildings ,the footprints of the past which reflects a lot of folkloric and heraldic deeds. the mood in the old forts and buildings of the Monaco chants the stories of the bygone era.”

Key concept – art and architecture of Monaco, ancient ,heritage buildings, heraldic, bravery, regimental and disciplined. clean , status symbol, merit and rank, Colors – all dark and mid tones of tan and rust, muted and saturated earthy tones and off white. grays and black with red as the ascent. Client – “united color of Benetton” Target customer – very niche client. Market – U.S.A. Technical specification Fiber content – 100% cotton Warp count – 50s Weft count – 50s Construction –on loom ( 120/78) , of loom (138/80), reed 120/3 , reed space – 64.5 for dobbies - on loom ( 80/78) , of loom (138/80), reed 80/3/4 , reed space – 64.5 Weave – plain and dobbies No. of harnesses – minimum of 4 and maximum 10 Constraints – sporty stripes, muted and subdued summer tones,maximum of 4 colors in weft. Page no. - 71

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casuals

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Active relaxatation – lively, eye catching, youthful and dynamic, cheerful mood, celebration mood, summer garden party or holiday trip

Key concept – memories of childhood vacations spent by the seaside, conjure up myriad multicolored stripes in bright primaries, holiday mood, soft pastels, deck chairs, helter shelter, candy rocks, wind breakers, swim shorts. Colors – multi colored, mango blue, parrot greens, red, bright primaries, greys and even lilacs and browns. Client – “A MAHADEVIA” Target customer – middle class Market – Indian domestic Technical specification Fiber content – 100% cotton Warp count – 40s Weft count – 40s Construction – on loom ( 120/74) , of loom (132/76), reed 80/3 , red space – 64.5 Weave – plain , satin and twill used on certain places. No. of harnesses – minimum of 4 and maximum 10 Constraints – uneven pattern to get the casual appearance, bright and fruity ascent ,more or white surface.

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Heat and dust – rustic ,casual, Sicilians hot ,travelers vogue Inspiration – I remember the peculiar fine dust, like talcum, that arrived on a cool wind and dyed the air a dirty gray. The Saharan summer wind, had been blowing from the northeast since march, hard enough to fill the sky with dust but not strongly enough to carry sand.still in my fatigue I carried on carried on and on……………………………………….

Key concept – hot and windy , sand and desert, hot breeze , desert landscape , travelers, tan and grey, scratching and etching, sweat and dust ,and Sicilian heat, road side landscape, umbrellas, camel safari, Colors – all dark and mid tones of red, orange as the ascent color, muted and saturated tones of yellow and off white. Client – “A MAHADEVIA” Target customer – middle class Market – Indian domestic Technical specification Fiber content – 100% cotton Warp count – 40s Weft count – 40s Construction – on loom ( 120/74) , of loom (132/76), reed 80/3 , red space – 64.5 Weave – plain , satin and twill used on certain places. No. of harnesses – minimum of 4 and maximum 10 Constraints – uneven pattern to get the casual appearance, muted and saturated look.

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Highland fling - Scottish, tweed and herringbones, kilts, patterned and tex-

tured.

Key concept – British heritage, plaid and Scottish checks, tweed and herringbones, kilts, patterned and textured. Colors – all dark and mid tones of blues, dirty orange as the ascent color, muted and saturated tones of blue and off white. indigo blue as the major base area. Client – “A.E.G. ( turkey)” Target customer – niche client Market – turkey Technical specification Fiber content – 100% cotton Warp count – 30s Weft count – 30s Construction – on loom ( 96/68) , off loom (106/72), reed 96/2 , reed space – 68 Weave – plain , 2/2 twill overall. No. of harnesses –4 Constraints – bright checks and the base has to be darker. use of indigo on the place of navy blue color.

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formals

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manor born – classic style, superior ,elegant, business and finance, smart ,responsible Inspiration - ”To the manner born” is an idiom meaning “from birth accustomed to the behavior expected and therefore able to meet the standards easily,” and To the manor born is an idiom meaning “accustomed as from birth to the ways and demands of being landed gentry.” Manner appears to have the stronger literary section.

Key concept – official stripes, pin or regency stripes, sober reliable stripes, smart ,respectable, elegant, shows degree of responsibility, world of business and finance. Colors – all dark and mid tones of blue ,ink blue white and grays Client – “Louis Philippe” Target customer – rich class and niche client Market – Indian domestic brand Technical specification Fiber content – 100% cotton Warp count – 2/121 Weft count – 2/121 Construction – on loom ( 80/88) , off loom (180/90), reed 80/4 , reed space – 67 Weave – plain , satin and twill used on certain places. No. of harnesses – minimum of 4 and maximum 10 Constraints – classic formal stripes , 60% of base has to be blue, very sober and even symmetrical stripes.

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Sensual - sensuous, sensual, luxurious, voluptuous , club and parties Inspiration The story Sensual applies to the physical senses or appetites, particularly those associated with sexual pleasure: Luxurious suggests a surrender to physical comfort leading to a delightful feeling of well-being: stayed in a luxurious, flower-filled suite with a crystal chandelier and thick oriental rugs. Voluptuous approach of oneself to pleasures, especially sensual pleasures:

Key concept – club, wine ,night music, dazzling light, enigmatic, mysterious, romantic, seductive, sensuous, flashy and showy, extravagant. Colors – all dark and mid tones of purple and violets and magenta , black, chocolate browns and navy blue. off-white and lighter tones of purple as ascent. Client – “Louis Philippe” Target customer – rich class and niche client Market – Indian domestic Technical specification Fiber content – 100% cotton Warp count – 2/121 Weft count – 2/121 Construction – on loom ( 80/88) , off loom (180/90), reed 80/4 , reed space – 67 Weave – plain , satin and twill , dobbies. No. of harnesses – minimum of 4 and maximum 14 Constraints – club wear

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TYPES OF STRIPES AND CHECKS Types of Stpires:-

Bretton stripes:- This is horizontal bicolor stripe.

Pencil stripes:- A stripe pattern produced by lines that are as thick as once drawn by pencil. Narrower than a Bengal stripe but wider than a pin stripe.

Pin stripes:- A pattern of very thin stripes running in parallel found in cloths.

Crime and Punishment stripes:- Stripes which are woven for the clothes used for the crime and punishment purpose.

National Ideentity stripes:- It is found on national flags of countries, which has certain meaning to it.

Hairline stripes:- About one or two yarns thickness stripe. This is the thinnest stripes

Fun stripes:- These stripes are combination of stripes, with playful arrangement of different widths Classic stripes:- Stripe which are made with a wide combinations of thinner to thicker lines arranged together.

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Awning stripes:- A pattern of relatively wide, even, usually vertical stripes of solid color on a lighter ground. These are broader than Bengal stripes

Regimental stripes:- A stripe pattern with colors originating from British regiments. Most often used in neckwear.

Ticking stripes:- A strong, tightly woven fabric of catton or linen used to make pillow and mattress coverings, which generally have consequent lines along with same bold lines in between.

Barcode stripes:- A stripe pattern consisting of lines of varying width as in a barcode

Legacy stripes:- Stripes are of equal width and all different colors. Size comes in between Awning and Bengal stripes.

Bengal stripes:- Stripes of apparently the same width and alternating light and dark colors. Bengal stripes are usually wider Awning stripes.than candy stripes, but narrower than Awning stripes.

Neapolitan stripes:- The multicolored and multi-width stripes

Roman stripes:- Bright multicolored contrasting vertical stripes.

Candy stripes:- Vertical and even stripes that are wider than Pencil stripes but thinner than Bengal stripes. Candy stripes are usually about 1/8” in width and are characterized by solid. Bold stripes on white.

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Types of Checks:Balanced stripes:- A symmetrical layout, in which coloured bands are arranged around a center. It repeats the same pattern on both the right and left of the dominant stripe.

Buffalo Checks:- A bold check pattern with blocks of 2 to 3 contrasting colors often red and black in a twill weave.

Bayadere stripes:- Brightly coloured stripes of various width laid out horizontly. The color effects usually range from lively to startling to bizarre. The name is derived from the bayadere dancing girls of India, dedicated to a dancing life from birth.

Chevron stripes:- A traditional, woven or printed design of zigzags in a stripe layout, also herringbone

Gingham Checks:- Fabrics woven in a block or check effect. An allover pattern of solid color squares made by overlapping stripes of same width

Windowpane Checks:- A widely spaced check pattern resembling panes in a window. Commonly used on suits, shirtings and accessories.

Tattersall Checks:- A relatively small scale check pattern ( smaller than windowpane ) produced by regularly spaced, evenly coloured thin lines on a usually light ground.

Unbalanced stripes:- Unbalanced stripes do not have a center and are asymmetrical stripes.

Ombre stripes:- A woven fabric in which the color is graduated from light to dark and often into stripes of varying shades

Graph Checks:- Thin stripes running both warp and weft directions

Pin Checks:- A check pattern produced by intersecting pin sized stripes that are one or two yarns thick

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TYPES OF DISTRICT CHECKS Mini Checks:- Sizes are somewhere between the pin check and the gingham check. It usually consist of one color with white and often resembles the gingham check except that it’s a lot smaller. This pattern is more casual than stripes, dressier than larger checks.

Hound’s tooth:- It is a duotone textile pattern, characterized by broken checks or abstract four-pointed shapes, often in black & white, although others colors are used.

Tartans:- A subset of plaid, associated with Scotland. A tartan plaid is made of perfect squares, it looks the same rotated 90 degree, 180 degree etc. Different tartans are not associated with different Scottish clans, but with all kinds of places, institution and events. Madras Checks:- Refers to the lightweight yarn dyed woven cotton fabric from Chennai ( formerly madras ) , India. A design of brightly colored stripes, plaids, uneven checks or other design element, usually on a plain coloured background

Princes of Wales:- It is a duotone textile pattern, characterized by broken checks or abstract four-pointed shapes with alternating blocks of 2-on-2 and 4-on-4 colouring

Shepherd’s:- A pattern of small black and white even checks mainly woven in twill weave

Burberry Checks:- It has defined pattern as 3 horizontal and 3+1 vertical line in check, it can have different sizes of checks.

Ombre Checks:- It gives the effect of ombre i.e. shaded type of effects are created

District Checks:- A check pattern that originates from uniforms identifying specific Scottish estates. Famous district check patterns inclide the Glen checks, the Shepherd, the Dupplin, the Benmore, the Hound;s Tooth, Princes of Wales, the Dog’s tooth and others.

Dog’s Tooth:- A pattern of small broken or jagged checks created by four pointed stars same as hound’s tooth.

Glen:- A popular Scottish district check made of elements of hound’s tooth often with a fine line overplaid in a contrasting color. It is woven in a twill pattern of broken checks

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PRASHANT GUPTA TEXTILE DESIGN SEMESTER - 7

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NEW DELHI

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