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APPENDIX V GUIDELINES FOR RELAY SETTINGS AT TRACTION SUBSTATIONS AND SECTIONING POSTS

The following guidelines may be followed for calculating the settings of various protective relays at traction substat ions ions and sec tioning tioning posts: 1. Ohm Impedances

The following values of OHE impedances may be used for the purpose of calculating relay settings: i. Single trac k OHE without wit hout return c onducto onduc torr

0.41/ 70� Ohm/km Ohm/km

ii. Double t rac k OHE wit hout RC

0.24/ 70� Ohm/km

iii. Single t rack rac k OHE with wit h RC

0.70/ 70�Ohm/km 70�Ohm/km

iv. Double t rac k OHE wit h RC

0.43/ 70� Ohm/km

v. Add booster t ransformer impedance impedance at the rate of 0.15 Ohm per per booster booste r transformer, transformer, where t hese are a re provided. provided. 2. Feedin Fee ding g post: Feede r protection protection

2.1 Distance protection using 'Mho' relay. Type YCG 14. At present, electromechanical type 'Mho' relays are used for protection against catenary-to-earth faults. The maximum torque angle of this relay is 75�. Its impedance setting may be decided as follows: i. In the case of single-line sections, the impedance setting of the relay may correspond to 1.25 times the impedance of the OHE from the feeding post up to the adjoining feeding post. The factor 1.25 used here is to cater for errors in the relays, CT & PT. Following relations may be used for calculating the relay settings.

II. In the case of double line sections, the following procedure may be followed: a) Calculate the single line impedance of the OHE from the feeding post to the adjoining feeding post; say this is Z 1 . Calculate X from the following relat relations: ions:

b) Assuming single line operation from the feeding post (FP) up to the sectioning post (SP) & double-line operation from SP to the adjoining FP, calculate the OHE impedance; say this is Z 2Calculate Y from the following relation: 2

c) Assuming an overload of 50% of the traction transformer and that the entire current is fed through one feeder circuit breaker, c ritic al impedance setting of the relay (t o allow line operation at maximum loads) is c alculated from the following relation:

Say, critical impedance setting is Z. For the relay not to operate under the said overload conditions, the impedance setting of the relay must be lower than Z. d) The impedance setting of the Mho relay should be a minimum of Yand a maximum of X. The setting should also not exceed Z. In other words, when the value of Z lies between X & Y, the relay may be set to Z. If Z is higher than X, then the relay may be set to X. If Z is less than Y, then the relay should be set to Y and it should be understood that the assumed overload will not be permitted by the relay. Note that the values X, Y and Z are calculated along the maximum torque angle line of the relay. iii. The relay settings may be calculated by following the procedure given at (i) or (ii) above for the two sides of the feeding post separately. However, the distance protection relays of both the feeders should be set to higher of the two calculated values. This is to ensure that when one feeder breaker is taken out for maintenance, the relay shall be able to see the faults on either side of feeding post. 2.2 Instantaneous over current protection. This relay provides primary protection to the catenary on earth faults in the vicinity of the feeding post. The current setting of the relay may correspond to about 200% of the continuous current rating of the traction transformer. Assuming that a factor of 1.25 will account for the CT and relay errors and relay transient overreach, the relay will allow loads of about 200/1.25, i.e. 160% of t he rated load current. 2.3 Wrong phase coupling protection using off-set MHO type YCG-14 (English - Electric make). The impedance setting of the English -Electric make YCG-14 relay is given by K 1K2(K3+K4), where K1 & K2 are plug board settings and K3 & K4are potentiometer setting (Refer Relay Catalogue). The maximum torque angle of the relay is 125 and forward off-set is about 10% of K 1K2.The WPC relay at that substation where the 25 kV voltage is lagging with respect to the voltage at the sub-station, with which it has been wrongly coupled will operate: The impedance setting of the WPC relays at TSS-1 may be determined graphically following the procedure given below (refer Fig. A 5.01): a. Draw lines A'A, AB & BB' as shown. where, A is the origin of R-X diagram A'A = Source impedance at TSS-1 as seen on the 25 kV side. The impedance angle may be taken as 85� (This includes transformer and transmission line impedances). AB = Minimum OHE impedance between TSS-1 and TSS-2. The impedance angle may be taken as 70� .(For a double-line section, this corresponds to the double-line impedance of the section, whereas for a single line section this corresponds to the single-line impedance of the section). BB' = Source impedance at TSS- 2 as seen on t he 25 kV side. The impedance angle may be taken as 85�. (This includes transformer and transmission line impedances). b. Join A' with B'. Construct a right-angle bisector to A' B' and locate points P& Q on the bisector line such that the

angles subtended at these points by A'B' are 120� and 60� respectively. P & Q are the WPC points for Case-I( refer Fig. A 5.01). c. Draw lines AC & CC', where AC = Maximum OHE impedance between TSS-land TSS-3. The impedance angle may be taken as 70� . (This corresponds to the single-line OHE impedance between TSS-1 and TSS-3 irrespective of single-line /double line section). CC = Source impedance at TSS-3 as seen on the 25kV side. The impedance angle may be taken 85�. (This includes transformer and transmission line impedances). d. Join A' with C'. Construct a right-angle bisector to the line A'C'. Locate points R & S the right-angle bisector such that the angles subtended by A'C are 120� and 60� respectively. R and S are the WPC points for Case-II (refer Fig. A 5.01). e. Draw line AO at an angle of 125� with the R axis. This line is the maximum torque angle line for the relay. f. Draw a circle with centre on the maximum torque angle line such that the points P,Q,R & S are just enclosed by the circle. The circle cuts the maximum torque angle line at D and E. The off-set 'AE' will be equal to 0.1 x K 1 x K2 x PT ratio/CT ratio. As K1 and K2 are not known exactly, guess may be made initially. Step (f) may be repeated after going through step (g). . g. Measure AD, say it is 'Z 1 '. Now, the desired impedance setting of the relay at TSS-1, say Z 2

The factor 1.25 used here is to cater for errors in the CT, PT & relay. Values of K 1, K2 , K3 , & K4 may be suitably selected to get the impedance setting Z . Forward off-set AE may be checked to be around 0.1 x K 1 x K2 x PT ratio/CT ratio. If the off-set is different, the circle drawn at (f) may be re-drawn to satisfy this requirement.

DETERMINATION OF THE SETTING OF WRONG PHASE COUPLING RELAY FIG. A 5.01

h. The impedance settings of wrong phase coupling relay for two sides of the TSS-1 may be calculated individually following the above procedure. The higher of the two values may be adopted for both the WPC relays at TSS-1. 3. Traction sub-station: Transformer protection: Low Voltage side (25 kV side)

I. Restricted earth fault relay The current setting of this relay may correspond to 10% of the rated current of traction power transformer. II. IDMT over c urrent relay. The funct ion of t his relay is to ac t as back-up protec tion to t he feeder protec tion relays. T he reach of t he relay should be as much as possible. However, to permit overloading of the traction power transformer of the traction substation, the current setting of the relay may be selected to correspond to 150% of the rated current of the trac tion power transformer. The time-multiplier setting of the IDMT relay may be selected such that the relay operation time is 0.4 to 0.5 sec. for an earth fault on the 25 kV bus. 3.2 High Voltage side (220kv/132kV/110kV/66kV side) i. Restricted earth fault relay The current setting of the relay may correspond to 10% of the rated current of traction power transformer. ii. IDMT over c urrent relay wit h instant aneous over c urrent element The instantaneous element may be set to correspond to a current of 1.25 times the fault current, for an earth fault on the 25 kV bus at the traction substation. The purpose of such setting is to avoid operation of this relay for 25 kV bus faults at the t raction substat ion. The current setting of the IDMT relay may be such that it has maximum reach but permits overloading of traction transformer. The setting may, therefore, be selected to correspond to 150% of the rated current of traction power transformer. To have time grading with the IDMT relay on the 25 kV side, t he t ime multiplier setting may be selected such that the relay operating time is 0.8 to 0.9 sec. for earth fault on the 25 kV bus at the traction substation. iii. Biased differential relay (type DDT) The three settings of the relay may be selected as follows: a) The percentage bias setting should be so chosen that the relay remains inoperative on differential currents resulting from (1) tap c hanging on tract ion transformer, (2) mismatc h in CT ratios and (3) difference in CT saturation levels under through-fault conditions. Percentage mismatch resulting from factors (1) and (2) may be calculated from actual data and an allowance of 7.5 to 15% may be made for factor (3). b) The operating current setting may be taken as 40%. If mal-operations of the relay are observed on through faults and magnetising inrush (switching in of power transformer), a higher setting may be considered.

c T e t me mu t p er sett ng may e ta en as 1. I ma -operat ons o t e re ay are note on magnet s ng n rus not on through faults, then t he time multiplier sett ing may be increased.

ut

4. Sectioning posts

4.1 Under-voltage protection . in case of extended feed, the bridging interrupter at the SP is in closed condition. An under voltage relay is provided to open this interrupter when the OHE voltage falls below a satisfactory operating value. The under-voltage relay may be set to operate between 19 and 20 kV depending on local conditions. SAMPLE C ALCULATIONS FOR RELAY SETTINGS EXAMPLE-1

The following traction sub-station details are assumed here: 1.1 Trac tion Power Transformer:

2. Feeding post : Feeder protection:

2.1 Distance protection using Mho, relay, YCC-14. The OHE sec tion det ails assumed here are given in Fig. A 5.02.

FIG. A5.02

The calculations given below are for the setting of CB-1. The values of Z 1 X, Z 2, Y, Z given in the guidelines are calculated as:

A BT spacing of 2.66 km is assumed above, giving 6 BTs in each line. The impedance angle of the BT is assumed here the same as the OHE, I.e. 70�

Since the value of Z lies between X & Y. the calculated setting for CB-1 = 17.18 Ohm. Similarly, calculate the setting for CB-2. and . say the setting calculated for CB-2 should be = 18.0 Ohm. Now following the guidelines given in para 2.1 (iii). both the Mho' relay of CB-1 and CB-2 should be set at 18.0 Ohms. 2.2 Instantaneous over current protections. The current setting has to correspond to 200% of the continuous current rating of the traction transformer, i.e. 1000 Amps, on the primary side and 10 Amps, on the secondary side of CT. Hence the relay has to be set to 10 Amps. If the rated current of the relay is 5 Amps., this corresponds to 200% setting of the relay. 2.3 Wrong phase coupling protection using off set MHO Relay type YCG-14 (F ig.A5.03)

Assumption made in the sa mple calculation;

i) 3ph.Fault level of TSS-1 & TSS-2 is 1000MVA and TSS -3 is 1500MVA. ii) Traction transformer impedance is 12% at 13.5 MVA, 27 kV Base. iii) Double line sect ion without B.T.& R.C. iv) Distance between TSS-1 & TSS-2 Is 60 km.

v) Distance between TSS-2 & TSS-3 is 60 km. vi) OHE impedance angle = 70� vii) Source impedance (Transmission line & Traction Transformer) angle is 85 viii) Max. T orque Angle of t he Y CG-14 WPC relay: 125 . ix) C.T. Ratio = 500 A/5A x) P.T. Ratio = 25000V/110V. 3Phase Fault level of TSS-1 & TSS-2 on 132 kV side. = 1000MVA

Hence, AE = 2.7 / 125� Ohm. Draw the circle diagram as per the guidelines as shown in Fig. A 5.04.

FIG. A5.04

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The following guidelines may be followed for calculating the settings of various protective relays at traction substat ions ions and sec tioning tioning posts: 1. Ohm Impedances

The following values of OHE impedances may be used for the purpose of calculating relay settings: i. Single trac k OHE without wit hout return c onducto onduc torr

0.41/ 70� Ohm/km Ohm/km

ii. Double t rac k OHE wit hout RC

0.24/ 70� Ohm/km

iii. Single t rack rac k OHE with wit h RC

0.70/ 70�Ohm/km 70�Ohm/km

iv. Double t rac k OHE wit h RC

0.43/ 70� Ohm/km

v. Add booster t ransformer impedance impedance at the rate of 0.15 Ohm per per booster booste r transformer, transformer, where t hese are a re provided. provided. 2. Feedin Fee ding g post: Feede r protection protection

2.1 Distance protection using 'Mho' relay. Type YCG 14. At present, electromechanical type 'Mho' relays are used for protection against catenary-to-earth faults. The maximum torque angle of this relay is 75�. Its impedance setting may be decided as follows: i. In the case of single-line sections, the impedance setting of the relay may correspond to 1.25 times the impedance of the OHE from the feeding post up to the adjoining feeding post. The factor 1.25 used here is to cater for errors in the relays, CT & PT. Following relations may be used for calculating the relay settings.

II. In the case of double line sections, the following procedure may be followed: a) Calculate the single line impedance of the OHE from the feeding post to the adjoining feeding post; say this is Z 1 . Calculate X from the following relat relations: ions:

b) Assuming single line operation from the feeding post (FP) up to the sectioning post (SP) & double-line operation from SP to the adjoining FP, calculate the OHE impedance; say this is Z 2Calculate Y from the following relation: 2

c) Assuming an overload of 50% of the traction transformer and that the entire current is fed through one feeder circuit breaker, c ritic al impedance setting of the relay (t o allow line operation at maximum loads) is c alculated from the following relation:

Say, critical impedance setting is Z. For the relay not to operate under the said overload conditions, the impedance setting of the relay must be lower than Z. d) The impedance setting of the Mho relay should be a minimum of Yand a maximum of X. The setting should also not exceed Z. In other words, when the value of Z lies between X & Y, the relay may be set to Z. If Z is higher than X, then the relay may be set to X. If Z is less than Y, then the relay should be set to Y and it should be understood that the assumed overload will not be permitted by the relay. Note that the values X, Y and Z are calculated along the maximum torque angle line of the relay. iii. The relay settings may be calculated by following the procedure given at (i) or (ii) above for the two sides of the feeding post separately. However, the distance protection relays of both the feeders should be set to higher of the two calculated values. This is to ensure that when one feeder breaker is taken out for maintenance, the relay shall be able to see the faults on either side of feeding post. 2.2 Instantaneous over current protection. This relay provides primary protection to the catenary on earth faults in the vicinity of the feeding post. The current setting of the relay may correspond to about 200% of the continuous current rating of the traction transformer. Assuming that a factor of 1.25 will account for the CT and relay errors and relay transient overreach, the relay will allow loads of about 200/1.25, i.e. 160% of t he rated load current. 2.3 Wrong phase coupling protection using off-set MHO type YCG-14 (English - Electric make). The impedance setting of the English -Electric make YCG-14 relay is given by K 1K2(K3+K4), where K1 & K2 are plug board settings and K3 & K4are potentiometer setting (Refer Relay Catalogue). The maximum torque angle of the relay is 125 and forward off-set is about 10% of K 1K2.The WPC relay at that substation where the 25 kV voltage is lagging with respect to the voltage at the sub-station, with which it has been wrongly coupled will operate: The impedance setting of the WPC relays at TSS-1 may be determined graphically following the procedure given below (refer Fig. A 5.01): a. Draw lines A'A, AB & BB' as shown. where, A is the origin of R-X diagram A'A = Source impedance at TSS-1 as seen on the 25 kV side. The impedance angle may be taken as 85� (This includes transformer and transmission line impedances). AB = Minimum OHE impedance between TSS-1 and TSS-2. The impedance angle may be taken as 70� .(For a double-line section, this corresponds to the double-line impedance of the section, whereas for a single line section this corresponds to the single-line impedance of the section). BB' = Source impedance at TSS- 2 as seen on t he 25 kV side. The impedance angle may be taken as 85�. (This includes transformer and transmission line impedances). b. Join A' with B'. Construct a right-angle bisector to A' B' and locate points P& Q on the bisector line such that the

angles subtended at these points by A'B' are 120� and 60� respectively. P & Q are the WPC points for Case-I( refer Fig. A 5.01). c. Draw lines AC & CC', where AC = Maximum OHE impedance between TSS-land TSS-3. The impedance angle may be taken as 70� . (This corresponds to the single-line OHE impedance between TSS-1 and TSS-3 irrespective of single-line /double line section). CC = Source impedance at TSS-3 as seen on the 25kV side. The impedance angle may be taken 85�. (This includes transformer and transmission line impedances). d. Join A' with C'. Construct a right-angle bisector to the line A'C'. Locate points R & S the right-angle bisector such that the angles subtended by A'C are 120� and 60� respectively. R and S are the WPC points for Case-II (refer Fig. A 5.01). e. Draw line AO at an angle of 125� with the R axis. This line is the maximum torque angle line for the relay. f. Draw a circle with centre on the maximum torque angle line such that the points P,Q,R & S are just enclosed by the circle. The circle cuts the maximum torque angle line at D and E. The off-set 'AE' will be equal to 0.1 x K 1 x K2 x PT ratio/CT ratio. As K1 and K2 are not known exactly, guess may be made initially. Step (f) may be repeated after going through step (g). . g. Measure AD, say it is 'Z 1 '. Now, the desired impedance setting of the relay at TSS-1, say Z 2

The factor 1.25 used here is to cater for errors in the CT, PT & relay. Values of K 1, K2 , K3 , & K4 may be suitably selected to get the impedance setting Z . Forward off-set AE may be checked to be around 0.1 x K 1 x K2 x PT ratio/CT ratio. If the off-set is different, the circle drawn at (f) may be re-drawn to satisfy this requirement.

DETERMINATION OF THE SETTING OF WRONG PHASE COUPLING RELAY FIG. A 5.01

h. The impedance settings of wrong phase coupling relay for two sides of the TSS-1 may be calculated individually following the above procedure. The higher of the two values may be adopted for both the WPC relays at TSS-1. 3. Traction sub-station: Transformer protection: Low Voltage side (25 kV side)

I. Restricted earth fault relay The current setting of this relay may correspond to 10% of the rated current of traction power transformer. II. IDMT over c urrent relay. The funct ion of t his relay is to ac t as back-up protec tion to t he feeder protec tion relays. T he reach of t he relay should be as much as possible. However, to permit overloading of the traction power transformer of the traction substation, the current setting of the relay may be selected to correspond to 150% of the rated current of the trac tion power transformer. The time-multiplier setting of the IDMT relay may be selected such that the relay operation time is 0.4 to 0.5 sec. for an earth fault on the 25 kV bus. 3.2 High Voltage side (220kv/132kV/110kV/66kV side) i. Restricted earth fault relay The current setting of the relay may correspond to 10% of the rated current of traction power transformer. ii. IDMT over c urrent relay wit h instant aneous over c urrent element The instantaneous element may be set to correspond to a current of 1.25 times the fault current, for an earth fault on the 25 kV bus at the traction substation. The purpose of such setting is to avoid operation of this relay for 25 kV bus faults at the t raction substat ion. The current setting of the IDMT relay may be such that it has maximum reach but permits overloading of traction transformer. The setting may, therefore, be selected to correspond to 150% of the rated current of traction power transformer. To have time grading with the IDMT relay on the 25 kV side, t he t ime multiplier setting may be selected such that the relay operating time is 0.8 to 0.9 sec. for earth fault on the 25 kV bus at the traction substation. iii. Biased differential relay (type DDT) The three settings of the relay may be selected as follows: a) The percentage bias setting should be so chosen that the relay remains inoperative on differential currents resulting from (1) tap c hanging on tract ion transformer, (2) mismatc h in CT ratios and (3) difference in CT saturation levels under through-fault conditions. Percentage mismatch resulting from factors (1) and (2) may be calculated from actual data and an allowance of 7.5 to 15% may be made for factor (3). b) The operating current setting may be taken as 40%. If mal-operations of the relay are observed on through faults and magnetising inrush (switching in of power transformer), a higher setting may be considered.

c T e t me mu t p er sett ng may e ta en as 1. I ma -operat ons o t e re ay are note on magnet s ng n rus not on through faults, then t he time multiplier sett ing may be increased.

ut

4. Sectioning posts

4.1 Under-voltage protection . in case of extended feed, the bridging interrupter at the SP is in closed condition. An under voltage relay is provided to open this interrupter when the OHE voltage falls below a satisfactory operating value. The under-voltage relay may be set to operate between 19 and 20 kV depending on local conditions. SAMPLE C ALCULATIONS FOR RELAY SETTINGS EXAMPLE-1

The following traction sub-station details are assumed here: 1.1 Trac tion Power Transformer:

2. Feeding post : Feeder protection:

2.1 Distance protection using Mho, relay, YCC-14. The OHE sec tion det ails assumed here are given in Fig. A 5.02.

FIG. A5.02

The calculations given below are for the setting of CB-1. The values of Z 1 X, Z 2, Y, Z given in the guidelines are calculated as:

A BT spacing of 2.66 km is assumed above, giving 6 BTs in each line. The impedance angle of the BT is assumed here the same as the OHE, I.e. 70�

Since the value of Z lies between X & Y. the calculated setting for CB-1 = 17.18 Ohm. Similarly, calculate the setting for CB-2. and . say the setting calculated for CB-2 should be = 18.0 Ohm. Now following the guidelines given in para 2.1 (iii). both the Mho' relay of CB-1 and CB-2 should be set at 18.0 Ohms. 2.2 Instantaneous over current protections. The current setting has to correspond to 200% of the continuous current rating of the traction transformer, i.e. 1000 Amps, on the primary side and 10 Amps, on the secondary side of CT. Hence the relay has to be set to 10 Amps. If the rated current of the relay is 5 Amps., this corresponds to 200% setting of the relay. 2.3 Wrong phase coupling protection using off set MHO Relay type YCG-14 (F ig.A5.03)

Assumption made in the sa mple calculation;

i) 3ph.Fault level of TSS-1 & TSS-2 is 1000MVA and TSS -3 is 1500MVA. ii) Traction transformer impedance is 12% at 13.5 MVA, 27 kV Base. iii) Double line sect ion without B.T.& R.C. iv) Distance between TSS-1 & TSS-2 Is 60 km.

v) Distance between TSS-2 & TSS-3 is 60 km. vi) OHE impedance angle = 70� vii) Source impedance (Transmission line & Traction Transformer) angle is 85 viii) Max. T orque Angle of t he Y CG-14 WPC relay: 125 . ix) C.T. Ratio = 500 A/5A x) P.T. Ratio = 25000V/110V. 3Phase Fault level of TSS-1 & TSS-2 on 132 kV side. = 1000MVA

Hence, AE = 2.7 / 125� Ohm. Draw the circle diagram as per the guidelines as shown in Fig. A 5.04.

FIG. A5.04

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