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APPAREL PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL Assignment 1
Reetusri (roll no.22) DFT-VI
APPAREL PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL APPC Defined: Any manufacturing activity requires resource input in terms of men, materials, capital and machines. In any business that produces goods and services, production, activity must be related to market demands as indicated by the continuous stream of customers orders. For maximum effectiveness, this must be done keeping the customer satisfied and at the same time production activities are carried on in an economic manner.
1. Introduction to Apparel Production, Planning and Control 1.1.APPC Defined Any manufacturing activity requires resource input in terms of men, materials, capital and machines. In any business that products a product or service, production activity must be related to market demands as indicated by the continuous stream of customer's orders. For maximum effectiveness, this must be done in such a way that customer demands are satisfied, but at the same time production activities are carried on in an economic manner. The process of developing this kind of relationship between market demands and production capability is the function of production planning and control or sometimes referred to as production control. Production planning and control can be affected principally through the management of work flow, inventories and backlogs and changing levels of operation. The set of policies and procedures that are used to manage work flow, inventories backlogs and changes in the level of production rate comprise, what is called a production planning and control system. 1.2. Need for APPC India's developing economy needs APPC: The importance of APPC cannot be over emphasised, particularly under the present circumstances of India. We are undergoing an era of planning. The main intension behind industrial planning is to accelerate the productivity so that our goods may find a suitable market abroad. But the need for greater, better and cheaper goods is out of question without proper planning and adequate control. A successful production control programme minimises the idleness of the men and machines optimizes the number of setups required, keeps in process inventories at a satisfactory level, reduces material handling and storage costs and consequently permits quantity and quality at low unit costs. APPC is factory's nervous system. The functions of APPC in a factory can easily be compared with the nervous system in human organism. It serves to co-ordinate the activities of a plant just as the nervous system regulates muscular movements. When simple repetitive operations are performed, production control or accomplished more is less subconsciously in the same manner that the nervous system automatically regulates one's breathing. When less repetitive activity is involved, more conscious direction is necessary; both in the plant and in the human system.
Customer demands are likely to differ in quantities and delivery schedules and this will lead to large fluctuations in the production levels. So to meet any demand, it is desirable to have planning for production in future time periods for inventories of finished goods and meet part of market demands from such finished goods inventories. Furthermore, the lead times involved in procurement of manufacturing inputs warrant planning for production in advance. This is particularly so, in the Indian context, with specific reference to industrial raw materials. Also, requirements of skilled manpower necessitate such planning where time factor involved in training· personnel is rather large. Also the socio-political structure in India makes it quite difficult for an organisation to have varying manpower levels. This, again, necessitates production planning in order to smooth out the needs for manpower. Another reason why APPC is necessary is the need to meet changes in demands due to trend, cyclical and reasonable factors. Long-run changes in demand are taken care of by change in overall capacity by expansion and or new facilities. However, in short run, these will have to be taken care of by such factors as sub-contracting, using overtime and building up inventories. Needless to say, in planning production for these purposes, one should take into consideration the changes in production levels over future periods in order to economise the cost of production. This is an important factor which necessitates planning for production and exercising control. Moreover, production operations are subject to variety of uncertainties such as emergency order, breakdown, material shortages and various other contingencies. PPC provides a way to take these factors into considerations. 1.3.Effects Of APPC The effects of PPC can be grouped in two captions: a) Material factors-Under this following category are included: (i) Quality of the output. An improvement in volume of output within quality and safety limits laid down by management is most common objective of PPC. (ii) Plant utilisation. With ever increasing capital investment per producer in industry, making fuller use of plant is of growing importance. Experience and research has shown that in many types of plant the capital saving due to improved load factors are proving the most substantial of all. These improvements are also being achieved through better labour effectiveness. (iii) Use of services. Again economic in the use of steam, water, air and electricity may be paramount factors. (iv) Quality of product. It may be sometimes desirable for economic or other reasons, to improve the quality of product new or more consistent standard. (v) Process efficiency. An operator can have a far more significant effect on process efficiency than was previously envisaged. (vi) Standard of safety. In dealing with many products quite apart from the normal good standards a particularly high level of safety may be important, which is being achieved by it. (vii) Works cleanliness. It is another objective of management.
Human factors. Under this heading following may be included: (i) Effectiveness of work. The work should be such that it meets the ego and emotion of the worker and he feels the pride over it. In other words, the objective of management is to choose right man for right job at right place at right time on right wages and salaries. (ii) Interest in work. The worker should take interest in work and he will put the heart and hand in performing the task is another prime aim of good management. (iii) Waiting time. The waiting time should remain minimum for the want of material tools, equipment, supervision, inspection, delivery, etc. It can only be achieved when the worker on the work will help fully and take interest in it. (iv) Need for supervision. To make the worker expert and self-dependent in normal day to day work is the other aim of the management. The supervisory time should be reduced. The supervisors should be left to perform the task of planning, coordination, and motivation, control and feedback information only. (v) Ideas for new methods. Workers, working on the machine are said to be the best man for new idea and suggestions, as he knows the various aspect of work fully. (vi) To give encouragement to the worker for new ideas and new method the PPC is brought in picture. (vii) Team spirit. To develop the team spirit and feeling of brotherhood among workers is another aim. The workers should do the work as a team, and should do the work as a team, and should recognise their value and status in company as a group not individuals. (viii) Absenteeism. To minimise and regulate the absenteeism, PPC may be introduced. (ix) Labour turnover. It helps the turnover to its minimum.
2. Objectives of production planning and control: – 1. Effective utilization of resources Production planning results in effective utilization of resources, plant capacity and equipments. This results in low-cost and high returns for the organization. 2. Steady flow of production Production planning ensures a regular and steady flow of production. Here, all the machines are put to maximum use. This results in a regular production, which helps to give a routine supply to customers. 3. Estimate the resources Production planning helps to estimate the resources like men, materials, etc. The estimate is made based on sales forecast. So production is planned to meet sales requirements. 4. Ensures optimum inventory Production planning ensures optimum inventory. It prevents over-stocking and understocking. Necessary stocks are maintained. Stock of raw material is maintained at a proper
level in order to meet the production demands. Stock of finished goods is also maintained to meet regular demands from customers. 5. Co-ordinates activities of departments Production planning helps to co-ordinate the activities of different departments. For e.g. the marketing department co-ordinates with production department to sell the goods. This results in profit to the organization. 6. Minimize wastage of raw materials Production planning minimizes wastage of raw materials. It ensures proper inventory of raw materials and materials handling. This helps to minimize wastages of raw material. It also ensures production of quality goods. This results in a minimum rejects. So proper production planning and control results in minimum wastage. 7. Improves the labor productivity Production planning improves the labor productivity. Here, there is maximum utilization of manpower. Training is provided to the workers. The profits are shared with the workers in form of increased wages and other incentives. Workers are motivated to perform their best. This results in improved labor efficiency. 8. Helps to capture the market Production planning helps to give delivery of goods to customers in time. This is because of regular flow of quality production. So the company can face competition effectively, and it can capture the market. 9. Provides a better work environment Production planning provides a better work environment to the workers. Workers get improved working conditions, proper working hours, leave and holidays, increased wages and other incentives. This is because the company is working very efficiently. 10. Facilitates quality improvement Production planning facilitates quality improvement because the production is checked regularly. Quality consciousness is developed among the employees through training, suggestion schemes, quality circles, etc. 11. Results in consumer satisfaction Production planning helps to give a regular supply of goods and services to the consumers at far prices. It results in consumer satisfaction. 12. Reduces the production costs Production planning makes optimum utilization of resources, and it minimizes wastage. It also maintains optimum size of inventories. All this reduces the production costs. Other important objects of PPC are:-
To plan production facilities in the best possible manner along with the proper systematic planning of production activities. Providing men, machines, materials etc. of right quality, quantity and also providing them at the right time forms a very important factor. To inform, about the difficulties or the various awkward positions expected to crop up later, to the management beforehand.
3. Apparel Production planning and control is composed of four important activities that are:1. 2. 3. 4.
Analyzing Forecasting Planning and scheduling Controlling
ANALYZING 3.1.Analyzing is the process of determining the quality specifications of the product. The analysis provides specification for the following element of production: a. Raw materials b. Production equipments and tools c. Production personnel That will yield the durability, utility, and emotional appeal required for the garments. This presents the quality measuring scale for the product. The analysis also gives the basis of quantitative production capacity of each operation, job or process. This is one of the requirements for forecasting the anticipated load of production per unit time. Production analysis quality specifications The quality specifications for procuring a given garment or products are based on the analysis of one of the following: a. The finished garment for the consumer b. A muslin fitting c. A sketch of the garment It is usually possible to save a great deal of sample making and money by properly analyzing a sketch before the sample or even a fitting sis made. It is quite common in some plants to make samples before a production analysis and then discard them after the production analysis because the production analysis of the samples shows that the garment cannot be produced for the desired cost. The chances are that a good detailed production analysis made from a rough sketch of the garment would have shown the the garment could not be made for the desired cost. This would have saved the cost of making the useless samples. The steps for the qualitative production analysis of a garment are as follows: 1. Examine the sketch, fitting of the garment, and determine the style line of the garments with respect to fit, drape, and silhouette. 2. Determine all the possible pattern break downs of the garments which can yield the style specification. Sketch the patterns in miniature with detailed contour of each pattern and state the number of pieces for each pattern in the garment. Mark the grain lines on each pattern. 3. Fabric analysis: determine the yarns, construction, count, and finish of the fabric to be used. Evaluate its drape and work characteristics with respect to the specific style specifications determined in step 1 and the production processes to be used.(determine in step 5) 4. Trimmings and finding analysis-determine the specifications, properties, and work characteristics of the trimmings and the finding in the garment: a. Sewing thread and yarn (filament), twist, size, finish, tensile and loop strength, etc. b. Closures; buttons, buckles, elastics, hooks and eyes, lacings, snaps, zippers, cords, c. Padding. d. Re-enforcements: stripping, tape, bindings, piping, braids, cords, elastics.
e. Edge finishes- outer lining, laces, bindings, piping, cords, elastics, yarns. f. Decorations- appliqués Note that the trimmings and findings breakdown and the ensuing analysis are based on the function of the item and not the physical description of the item itself. For example, the concept for using a cord will differ with whether the cord is to be used for a closure, padding, reinforcement, an edge finish, or a decoration. 5. Process analysis with respect to quality standards: a. Determine and evaluate the sewing operations. State the specification and its accompanying tolerance limits. i. Stitching operations- stitch type, tension, line specification, required drape specifications. ii. Seaming operations- seam type, seam size, stitch size, tension, and line and drape specifications: operation sequence. b. Determine and evaluate the preparation operations are the “prime” operations, since those are evident. i. Cutting- set the quality specifications for; ii. Folding- set the quality specifications for; iii. Fusing- set the quality specifications for; iv. Marketing- set the quality specifications for; v. Positioning- set the quality specifications for; vi. Under passing- set the quality specifications for; vii. Turning- set the quality specifications for; c. Determine and evaluate the completion (finishing) operations. i. Cleaning(threads,etc) ii. Final pressing iii. Final inspection iv. Packaging or package Production analysis quantitative production After the qualitative analysis has presented the list of quality specifications, the quantity production analysis should be made to determine: 1. The production machine and equipment and the utility requirements needed for the operations: preparation, sewing operation, and completion operations. 2. Work station layout: a. The proper arrangement of materials, operators, machine and/or equipment or tools, b. The proper work cycle for the job of the work station. 3. Transportation to the next work station: a. The method used b. The equipment used 4. The flow process grid: the sequence of operation with respect to: a. Spatial relationship b. Time relationship
5. The production control plan: the production schedule. Before it is possible to make some decisions on production equipments, work station layouts, and transportation methods, it is necessary to know the amount of production required per unit time. A type of production equipment that would be economical for one given volume production may very well be uneconomical for another volume of production. Such decisions cannot be mad without information based on sales forecasts. These forecasts often require information regarding price of raw material and labor before they can be made properly. It is therefore necessary to examine the scope and structure of the apparel and allied manufacturing equipment in order to determine their elements and their relationship to apparel manufacturing.
FORECASTING 3.2. Forecasting is the process of estimating the future volume of sales, the rate of sales, and the rate of delivery. Forecasting plays a crucial role in the development of plans for the future. It is essential for the organisation to know for what level of activities one is planning before investments in inputs i.e., men, machines & materials are made. In modern production activity, the activities are more complex technologically and the basic inputs are becoming expensive and therefore there are lot of restrictions. Thus planning is very essential for any production activity and is a fundamental activity of management. Forecasting forms the basis of planning and enables the organisation to respond more quickly and accurately to market changes. Forecasting demand is a crucial issue for driving efficient operations management plans. This is especially the case in the fashion industry, where demand uncertainty, lack of historical data and seasonal trends usually coexist. Many approaches to this issue have been proposed in the literature over the past few decades. Demand forecasting plays an important role in basic Operations Management as an input for planning activities. Poor forecasting effects are stock outs or high inventory, obsolescence, low service level, rush orders, inefficient resource utilization and bullwhip propagating through the upstream supply chain. As such, demand forecasting is a popular research topic and many models for forecasting fashion products have been proposed in the literature over the past few decades. Typically, high performance companies focus on robust demand forecasting approaches; however, the challenge of demand forecasting varies greatly according to company and industry. In the fashion industry, products are usually characterized by long replenishment lead times, short selling seasons and nearly unpredictable demand and therefore, inaccurate forecasts . All these features make the issue of forecasting demand particularly challenging. Companies in the fashion industry have been trying to manage the demand for many years, which has brought about the development of a number of specific forecasting methods and techniques. Much of this earlier work was intended to create insights and tools for improving the demand forecasting of fashion products. However, the reality that is now gradually being accepted both by those who work in the industry and those who research forecasting is that the demand for fashion products cannot be forecast. Instead, we need to recognize that fashion markets are complex open systems that frequently demonstrate high levels of chaoses. In such conditions, managerial efforts may be better expended on devising strategies and structures that enable products to be created, manufactured and delivered on the basis of ‘real‐time’ demand. Need for Demand Forecasting:1. Majority of activities of the industries depend upon future sales. 2. To assist decision making with respect to the investment. 3. To schedule production activity to optimise the utilisation of plant’s capacity. 4. To prepare material planning to make materials available at right quantity and right time.
5. Gives a future trend which is essential for product design and development. Thus in the changing and uncertain techno-economic and marketing scenario, forecasting helps to predict the future with accuracy.
Long Term Forecasting Forecasts which cover the period over one year (5 year or 10 years) future are termed as long term forecasts. (In some text the period more than 5 years.) E.g.:- Capacity planning and investment planning.
Short Term Forecasting Forecasts which cover the periods less than one year is termed as short term forecasting (In some text b/w 1-5year) E.g.:-purpose of materials control, scheduling, loading.
Methods of forecasting
Forecasting Methods 1. Forecasting for new Products a. Direct survey method b. Indirect survey method c. Comparing with established d. Limited market trial 2. Forecasting for established products a. b. c. d.
Projection method Related information method Market research Sales force composite method
Indirect survey method The attitude and behaviour of the consumers is predicated through salesman, intermediate selling agent, wholesalers, retailers etc.
Comparing with Established Products Product is compared with an existing product, so sales figures can be compared.
Limited Market Trial To predict the acceptance of the product by potential customers, some ties, and limited selling technique is also adopted.
Process of Sales Forecasting/Steps in sales forecasting The steps involved in forecasting may vary from company to company because the nature of the business and of the product is not similar for each enterprise. Market conditions also very from company to company and from product to product. However, the following steps are generally followed by most of the industries in ordinary circumstances. The following are the main steps in demand forecasting: 1. Determining the objective of forecast: Certain points in this respect should be very clear before taking up the forecasting test such as period of forecasting (short term, long
term): area of sales forecasting. Unit of sales forecasting (i.e. in quantities or values) the time, labour and money to be employed on forecasting. All these points are determined taking into account the objectives of sales forecasting. Sub-divide the task of forecasting: Sub-divide the forecasting programme into homogeneous groups according to product, area, activities or customers. The total sales forecast of the company will be the sum total of all the groups. Determine the relative importance of factors: So that due weight age may be given to different factors affecting forecast. Select the method to be used for forecasting: The method is to be selected by the appropriate authority taking into account all the relevant situations, purpose of forecasting and the degree of accuracy required. Collect and analyse the data: By applying method, the necessary data for forecast are collected, tabulated and cross-checked. The data are interpreted by using statistical techniques. It may be called as the preliminary sales forecast which forms the basis for final sales forecast. Study the correlation between sales forecast and sales promoting plans: Marketing the forecast reliable, the sales promotion plans such as advertising policy, personal selling and other policies should be reviewed with reference to the preliminary sales forecast. Study of competitor’s activities: Volume of sales of a company is largely affected by the activities of competitions and, therefore, it is essential to study the competitor’s activities, policies, programmes and strategies and also their effects on the market and adjust the forecasting accordingly. Prepare final sales forecasts: The preliminary sales forecast results are converted into final sales forecast relating to the products and territories involved. The aggregate of sales forecasts of different products, or territories or customers or activities may form the sales forecasts of the enterprise. Evaluation and adjustments: The actual sales performance in the coming period should be reviewed and evaluated from time to time. The evaluation may be made monthly, quarterly, half yearly or yearly. The forecast figures may be revised in the light of difficulties experienced during the course of actual operations. On the expiry of forecasts period the actual sales and forecast sales and forecast sales should be compared and causes of variation found out which may help to improve the next period sales forecasts.
Advantages and Limitations of sales forecasting Advantages of forecasting: (i) Helps in Effective planning. Forecasting helps in effective planning by providing a scientific and reliable basis for anticipating future operations such as sales, production, inventory, supply of capital etc. (ii) Helps in removing the weaknesses of organisation structure. Since it leads to rationalisation of various procedures for the achievement of organisational objectives. (iii) Helps in Better Co-ordination. It helps in better co-ordination of various resources which leads to better utilization of resources and reduction in waste and inefficiencies.
(iv) Achieves Co-operation in the Enterprises. Various executives at different levels participate in the process of forecasting. This creates a sense of a sense of belongingness among them. (v) Provides a Basis for Effective Control. Forecasting provides a basis for effective control by providing information where higher degree of control is to be exercised. The manager’s car predicts the weaknesses of their departments through forecasting. (vi) Important at the national level. Economic forecasts of various factors at the national level help in planning for economic development. Limitations of Forecasting: Forecasts are only estimates of future condition. They can never be actual position. They can only give a best estimate of future courses of events, but they can never be hundred percent accurate and reliable. The following are some of the limitations of sales forecast: (i) Forecasting is based on postulations and assumptions and assumptions and hence it is subject to some guess work and possibility of error. (ii) Forecasting is usually based on past data but future may not be a copy of the past. (iii) Changes in consumer’s need, taste fashion; style etc. many causes inaccuracy in forecast. (iv) There may be lack of history in case of a new product. (v) Development of new products, materials methods may introduce error in the sales forecast of a particular product. (vi) There may be lack of efficient and experienced sales force. (vii) Lack of sales history in case of a new product makes the forecast difficult. (viii) Short term forecasting is more accurate than long term forecasting and hence its usefulness is limited to short-term purposes. (ix) Forecasts are not full proof and condition proof and if there are changes in the general economy of the country; they may not materialise.
Factors Affecting Forecasting (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix)
General Business Conditions Conditions Within the Industry Conditions Within the Company Factors Affecting Export Trade Political Stability Govt. Restrictions Fiscal and Monetary Policy Price Level and Trend Technological Research and Development
General Business Conditions. While making sales forecast the marketer should take into consideration the general conditions of the economy, growth of population, distribution of wealth and income, general cons toms, fashion and seasonal fluctuations etc., during the future period.
Conditions within the Industry. While making sales forecast the changes going on all the time in the total demand of the product, technological developments should be taken into consideration. The number of other units engaged in the industry and their sales, research, potentials and product development, etc., have to be carefully considered. Conditions within the Company. Internal changes within the company in the coming future also affect future sales. Such changes may be in price structure, distribution channel, sales promotion measures, product or other marketing policies of the company, future expansion plans, plans for product development etc. It is therefore essential to anticipate the extent to which such measures may affect the future sales. There are the internal factors which are well within the control of the company. Factors Affecting Export Trade. If the company is engaged in the export trade, the marketing manager must also consider the various factors in forecasting the export sales. Such factors include export and import controls impressed by the government, export conditions, export import policy, export finance, new agreements etc. Political Stability. If the nation is practically stable, the business flourishes. Things outside the business remain static and stable. Generalisations come true and so the forecasts. Government Restrictions. Today Governments. All over the world are interfering more and more in business activities through various restrictions and control. If these are announced on a long term basis forecasting becomes easy and if they are for a short period forecasting is rendered difficult. Fiscal and Monetary Policy. The frequencies of changes in the fiscal and monetary policy do affect the forecasting. From forecasting point of view a flexible but less frequency changing fiscal and monetary policy is regarded as good. Price Level and Trend. Frequent and wild changes in price levels do adversely affect the forecasting. On the contrary stable price trends helps in achieving the objectives of forecasting. Technological research and development.
Market Potential Market potential is the total possible sales by all the firms selling the product in a given market. It gives an indication of the ultimate potential for that product and industry as a whole, assuming that the ideal marketing effort is made. Company potential refers a part of the market potential, which an individual firm can achieve at the maximum in a given market, under ideal conditions and on the assumption that the ideal marketing effort is made. The term Market demand and company demand refers to those portions of market, market potential and company potential that are achievable under existing conditions. Market forecast and company forecast refer to what the industry and the firm respectively will sell in actual practice during the period of the forecast. Thus company potential is a part of market potential, company demand is a part of market demand and company forecast is just a part of market forecast.
PLANNING 3.3. Planning is activity of organizing the sequence of communications and material processing. Every production must be initiated or curtailed by some communication. Without such governing devices there could be no precision scheduling. Scheduling is the second half of the planning activity; it adds the “when” to organizing “what” and “where”. Planning means preparing the scheme in advance before the actual work is started. It may also be defined as the pre-determination of future achievement to meet the desired objectives. Planning begins with an analysis of the given data, on the basis of which a scheme for the utilization of the firm's resources can be outlined so that the desired target may be most efficiently attained. Planning in fact sets up the standards performance. Before starting the production, it is necessary to decide in advance what to produce, how much to produce, where to produce and where to sell. Therefore production planning is the pre-determination of future achievements in type of product, volume of production, quality, time, price in manufacture and the resources required. It analyses all the problems likely to arise in manufacture and decides in advance how these difficulties can be overcome. Planning implies that a course of action is established in advance. The whole activity must be planned and exists on paper before the ver. first action takes place. (1) Fore-casting (Estimation of future work): Fore-casting is defined as the estimation of future activities i.e. the estimation of type, quantity and quality of future work. These estimates provide the basis for establishing the future requirement for men, materials, machines, time and money. (2) Order writing (Preparation of work authorisation): If the work is to be controlled. It must begin with specified documents authorising it. So it means giving the authority to one or more persons to do a particular job. (3) Product design (preparation of specifications): After the work authorisation has been prepared the next step is to collect the information necessary to describe the work in details. This includes blue prints or drawings, a list of specification, a bill of material and so on. Action Planning: In any type of work activity the following steps are necessary for planning details of the work to be done: (1) Process planning: The determination of most economical method of performing an activity, all factors being considered. Routing. The arrangement of work stations is determined by the route. (2) Material control: Determination of material requirements and control of material (inventory control). (3) Tool control: Tool control may be subdivided into two categories: (a) Design and procurement of new tools. (b) Control storage and maintenance of tools after procurement.
(4) Loading: Determination and control of equipment and manpower requirements. Loading may be defined as the assignment of work to the facility. The facility may be equipment, manpower or both. (5) Scheduling: Determination when the work is to be done. Scheduling consists of time phasing of loading (workload) i.e. setting both, starting and ending time for the work to be done. The common practice dictates that routing, loading and scheduling be performed simultaneously. Action Phase: The work is started in the action phase. There is only one production planning activity in action phase i.e. dispatching. Dispatching is the transition form the planning phase to action phase. It consists of actual release of detailed work authorisation to the work centres. Follow up or Control Phase: Once the work is started in an activity it is necessary to evaluate continuously the progress in terms of plan so that deviations can be detected and corrected as quickly as possible. The control phase accordingly consists of two parts: (1) Progress reporting: (Data collection). The first step in progress reporting is to collect data for what is actually happening in the activity (Progress of work). (2) Data interpretation. After the data has been collected then it is nece. It is interpret by comparing the actual performance against the plan. Corrective Action: (1) Expediting. If the data collected from the production unit indicates that there is significant deviation from the plan and the plan cannot be changed. Then some action must be taken to get back on plan. (2) Re-planning. It should be emphasised that the plan is not to be changed but to be followed. However, if after expediting to correct deviation it is found that, it is impossible to perform according to plan. It would be necessary to re-plan the whole affair. It may also be found that there were errors made while developing the original plan. In all such cases replanning is necessary.
SCHEDULING Scheduling may be defined as the assignment of work to the facility with the specification of times, and the sequence in which the work is to be done. Scheduling is actually time phasing of loading. The facility may be man power, machine or both. Scheduling deals with orders and machines, it determines which order will be taken up on which machine in which department, at what time and by which operator. Scheduling may also be defined as the fitting of specific jobs into a general time-table so that orders may be manufactured In accordance with the contractual liability. Or, in mass production, so that each component may arise at and enter into assembly in the order and at the time required. According to Sprigel and Lansburg, "scheduling involves establishing the amount of work to be done and the time when each element of the work will start: In the words of Kimball and Kimball, "The determination of time that is required to perform each operation and also the time required to perform the entire series as routed is scheduling.
Objectives of Scheduling: I. Scheduling aims to achieve the required rate of output with a minimum of delay, and disruption in processing. 2. To provide quantities of goods necessary to maintain finished inventories at levels predetermined to meet delivery commitments. 3. The aim of loading and scheduling is to have maximum utilization of men, machines and materials by maintaining a free flow of materials along the production line. 4. To prevent unbalanced allocation of time among production departments or work centres with a view to eliminate idle capacity. 5. To keep the production cost minimum. Since sales forecasts and customer's orders provide the information for scheduling, close co-operation should exist between planning department and the sales department. For example, the planning department should, when necessary, make special provisions to fill "rush" orders and thus aid in giving new business, and the sales department should endeavour to forecast sales sufficiently far in advance to enable the ppc department to plan steady production, employment, and procurement. Factors affecting Scheduling. The following factors govern the scheduling and arc to be considered before establishing scheduling plan: (a) External factors. The external factors are the factors which are not within the control of the management. They are dictated by the outside forces to which the management tries to adjust. The important external factors are as under: (1) Customer's demand. (2) Customer's delivery dates (3) Stock of goods already lying with dealers and retailers. (b) Internal factors. These are the factors which are within the control of the management. These factors should be manipulated in such a way that objectives of the production function can be achieved most efficiently and economically. Some important internal factors are as under: (1) Stock of finished goods (2) Time interval to process finished goods from raw material. (3) Availability of equipments and machines. (4) Availability of man power. (5) Availability of materials. (6) Additional manufacturing facilities if required and (7) Feasibility of economic production runs.
Master Scheduling: Let us consider a computer centre, from the past experience it is known that the maximum number of hours that the equipment can be operated in a five days week is 100 hrs. The remaining time must be available for routine maintenance and repair work. Assume that the minimum number of hours will be eight hrs per day to run it economically. For a control purpose it is necessary to plan the working of the computer centre. As each job arrives at the centre the person maintaining the master schedule estimates the number of hours the job will
require. The number of hours in the weekly column of the master schedule indicates the number of hours for the various jobs already assigned to the computer centre. Assume that a new job arrives at the centre which requires completion during the second week. If the number of hours required by the job does not exceed 27 hrs, it can be assigned directly to second week's work schedule. If the number of hours required is less than 40 and more than 27 hrs. It can be assigned to both the first and second weeks' work schedule and still it can be completed before the due time.
Production Scheduling Production scheduling involves setting the time of performance for the detailed operations of manufacture i.e., establishing the order of work at each machine or stage of process in fabrication of parts and in the assembly of products. The objectives of production schedules are: (1) To meet the output goals of the master schedule and to fulfil delivery promises. (2) To keep constant supply of work ahead of each machine; and (3) To put out manufacturing orders in the shortest possible time consistent with economical operation. The schedules must, however, afford sufficient flexibility to accommodate the normal irregularities and interruptions that occur in manufacturing. Data required for production scheduling. In order to achieve the objectives, a production schedule must be formulated on the basis of accurate information. Blue prints and bill of materials, master schedules, route sheets, inventory records, and machine-load charts provides this basis. 1. The blue prints and bill of materials show the kind of items required and the detailed work to be carried out. 2. Master schedule indicates the priority and the quantity of finished products to be completed within a given period and the amount of raw material required. 3. Route sheet stipulates the operations and machines to be scheduled and the processing times. 4. Inventory records show the availability of materials and tools and the time required for the procurement of items not in stock. 5. Machine-load charts show the quantity of work already scheduled to various machines equipments and the amount of spare capacity available for use.
Preparation of production schedules. On the basis of available machine capacities, materials, and labour the master schedule. The individual production schedule is prepared. The dates for the beginning and completion of the work on various processes and operations are recorded on production schedules. These dates are then entered on route sheets and load charts to show machine allocation times. The planners therefore, prepare the detailed production schedule from the master schedule as given below:
Production schedule for a repetitive manufacturing firm
The production schedule when approved by the management becomes the blanket manufacturing order that authorizes production. The schedule, breakdown by component parts and production departments, tells the foreman the number of units they are required to put out in the next period. The schedule should be released sufficiently in advance to enable the foreman to recruit required labour and to prepare machines formerly idle and enable purchasing agent to purchase needed supplies. The schedule also can serve as the purchase requisition for the required materials and parts to meet the stipulated rate of output. The quantities required to cover the needs of the production period can be computed from the schedule. Purchased orders can then be placed for consecutive deliveries, timed to maintain the rate of output.
CONTROLLING 3.4. Production control is one of the most important and fundamental functions of an enterprise. It ensures the desired output of specified quality at the prescribed time in the most economical manner to meet the sales requirements. The production control directs and regulates all the activities of a production process. It verifies whether the activities are going in accordance with production plan or not. Control is some management process which constrains events to follow plans. It is some sort of dynamic activity controlling the production cycle to ensure that facilities and the personnel are economically utilised and that the products are manufactured within minimum possible time and economically. Production control provides the foundation on which most of the other industrial controls are based. It is the hall mark of production efficiency. It is the pivot around which the success of production revolves. It is a necessity and not luxury; a profitable investment and not an expense.
Definition of Production Control According to Mary Cushing Niles, "control is maintaining a balance in activities towards a goal or set of goals evolved during production planning". Planning only outlines some course of action whereas control is an execution process involving standardization, evaluation and corrective actions. According to Fayol, "control consists in verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the adopted plan and established principles. The objective of control is to point out weakness or shortcomings if any, in order to rectify ~hem and prevent recurrence. It operates on everything viz., material, equipment, men, operations etc. For control to be effective it must be applied within reasonable time and be followed-up sanctions." Thus production control is some scientific procedure to regulate an orderly flow of material and coordinate various production operations to accomplish the objective of producing the required quantity of the desired product, of the required quality, at the required time by using the best and cheapest method i.e. to attain highest efficiency in production. Alternately, production control is the function of management which plans, directs and controls the material supply and processing activities of an enterprise; so that specified products are produced by specified methods to meet an approved sales programme. It ensures that the activities are carried in such a way that the available labour and capital are used in the best possible way. The control of production is necessary to ensure that the production schedules are· being met and the job will be delivered as per the pre-decided plans to satisfy the requirements of the customers. Production control involves an information feedback mechanism and a system of corrective action. Production control follows up the scheduled plans, compares the actual output with the planned one, and points out deviations, if any, so that the same can be corrected through the adjustments of men, materials and machines. In brief, a production control system: . (i) receives work progress reports, (i) compares them with the scheduled plans,
(iii) Removes causes of delays in production, (iv) Modifies the schedules or plant capacities, and (v) expedites the work.
Objectives of Production Control Production control provides the foundation on which most of the other industrial controls are based. Production control is the hall mark of production efficiency. It is the pivot around which the success of production revolves. Thus, the success of an enterprise greatly depends on the performance of its production control department. The production control department generally has to perform the following functions: (i) To organise production schedule in conformity with the demand forecast. (ii) To have optimum utilization of resources in such a way that the cost of production is minimised and delivery date is maintained. (iii) Determination of economic production runs with a view to reduce setup costs. (iv) Proper co-ordination of the operations of various sections/departments responsible for production. (v) To ensure regular and timely supply of raw material at the desired place and of prescribed quality and quantity to avoid delays in production. (vi) Perform inspection of semi-finished and finished goods and use quality control techniques to ascertain that the produced items are of required quality. Thus the fundamental objective of production control is to regulate and control the various operations of production process in such a way that the items are produced of right quality in right quantity at the right time with minimum effort and cost.
Follow-up or control phase: Follow up is a most important step of production control. As already described, once the work has been started in the activity, it is necessary to evaluate continuously the progress in terms of the plan so that deviations can be detected and corrected as quickly as possible. The follow-up phase accordingly consists of: I. Progress reporting (a) Data collection b) Data interpretation 2. Corrective action.
1. Progress Reporting This part of the follow-up phase is primarily a matter of communications. One of the principles of sound production control system is that it must furnish timely, adequate and accurate information about the actual progress of the work, delays, interruptions, bottlenecks and under or overloading. It is a function by which one can give an early warning when actual production deviates from planned production and thus makes it possible to take corrective action. It discovers causes of delay which may be uneconomical lot sizes, schedule beyond the capacity of the machines, underestimation of material, tools and manpower, errors in processing and inspection. Collecting Data (Recording actual production). The first step in progress reporting is to collect data for what is actually happen 109 in the activity. This is a problem of communication with production and requires a sound design of the means (media) by which
data will be gathered and transmitted. The progress report (collected data) should contain the following information in order to evaluate actual performance against the anticipated plan and then to lake corrective action. (i) Job identification. It includes order number and operation number. (ii) Time of report, and (iii) Work completed. The data is collected and reported (i) At fixed intervals of time, i.e., weekly, monthly, or yearly depending upon the project duration; (ii) After the work has been completed, or after each stage of the work is completed, it depends upon the size of the work. (iii) By using the principle of "Management by Exception", according to which, one reports only those things and at that time when they require an action by the planning group. It is assumed that un-reported events arc going as per schedule. Transmission of Report: - The collected data may be transmitted by employing anyone of the following systems: (i) Written system. (ii) Oral system (Telephone, Radio etc.). (iii) Electronic system (Teletype equipment etc.) Interpreting the data (Data processing):- After the data has been collected, then it is necessary to interpret It by comparing the actual performance against the plan. The system must be designed to report progress in a simplified manner. The important point to remember in the design of progress reports is that they must almost automatically evaluate the situation for management. Management should not be required to interpret the raw data in order to come up with the evaluation.
2. Corrective Action After expediting it may be found that there is a significant deviation between the planned work and the actual progress of the work. Since the plan is not being changed but to be followed, some action must be taken to get back on plan. The deviation caused may be due to production delays. The follow up man learns of the delays through investigation and analysis of the production reports and also through the personnel observations. He must not only take corrective action after the delay occurred but also anticipate and prevent It before It actually develops. (1) Lack of materials, tools etc. Shortage of materials, tools may arise because of: (a) Delivery failure. (b) Poor inventory control. (c) Inaccurate estimate of future requirements of materials, tools etc. This can be prevented by closer follow up by the purchasing department after the order for the material is placed and by proper inventory control.
(2) Equipment Breakdown. Equipment breakdown also causes delays in production. Equipment breakdown can be m1lllmised by preventive maintenance. Sometimes it may be advisable to provide a stand by equipment, to prevent such production delays. (3) Excessive rejections. Material scrapped at any point in the process in excess of the scrap factor allowed subsequently causes a shortage in the finished item. (4) Accumulation or in process inventories. This may be caused because of (i) improper or inefficient material handling system, or (ii) capacity imbalance. (5) Errors in planning. These are essentially errors of production management whereby equipment is' scheduled with work beyond its capacity to produce and the set ups are excessive. The follow up man by his close association with plant conditions is often able to discover such errors and have them rectified before serious trouble is caused.
(6) Other factors: a) Labour turnover or mass absenteeism. b) Lack of necessary instructions and instruction materials. c) Late starting of work. d) Unexpected rush orders. e) Change in priority of orders due to the arrival of some new orders or due to cancellation of a few previous orders.
Advantages or better production planning and control: (1) Benefits to customer: (a) Increased output can provide adequate product distribution. (b) The customers can get the products at reasonable prices. (c) Deliveries of goods would be as per schedules (better service to customers).
(2) Benefits to producer: (a) Industries can earn more profit and can pay better wages to employees and better dividends to shareholders. (b) The system can provide uninterrupted employment to the individuals; therefore, better employer employee relations are possible. (c) More effective use of material and human resources. (d) Improves the competitive position of the firm. (e) Right quality of products is produced in right quantity at right time. (Improves the efficiency of production system)
4. PRODUCTION GRID 4.1.
Flow process grids and charts
Most production managers, engineers, and manufacturers are familiar with the use of the flow process charts as a tool for designing production systems and plant layouts. These flow process charts are inadequate because they are diagrams without any time or space scales. If a flow process chart is to be an efficient planning instrument, it must be constructed with mathematical graphs concepts using the grid formation of a y axis, the coordinate, and an x axis, the abscissa. The time line, y axis measures and depicts time relationships that exists among the work and temporary storage stations in the production flow. The y axis also depicts the longitudinal space relationships. The x axis depicts the lateral space relationship among the work and temporary storage stations. Such a flow process grid with a graph grid structure containing ordinate and abscissa value, will referred as flow process grid. Let us sum up the differences between a flow chart grid and flow process chart. The flow process grid is a dimensional graph entire production sequence of a product which measures and shows the definite time and space relationships of all factors in the production scheme (process stations, inspection stations, temporary storage stations, and transport activities), necessary to yield a given amount of products in a calculated time and space. The process chart is merely a diagram of production sequence without regard to the time and space relationships in the sequence. The format of the flow process grid must portray the following factors: 1. The spatial relationship necessary between work stations for the best plant layout. 2. The time relationships required among work stations necessary to yield minimum total production time. In order to depict these relationships clearly, it is advisable that the grid contain a phrase, word, or symbol for every process, inspection station, transportation and temporary storage stations in the production sequence. Symbols are used on many flow process charts to prefix statements identifying each phase of the production system. This enables one to classify quickly the category of each phase of the production. If flow process charts were constructed on the grid concept, one could easily detect high ratios of transportation and storage in relation to processing. This would enable one to evaluate a production system quickly. It would also highlight the measures necessary to change the system in order to improve the production efficiency. The special committees of the American society of mechanical engineers suggest the following symbols for the process charts: -Operation - -Delay -Transportation -Storage
-Inspection -An activity outside the scope of investigation. 4.2.Basic flow process grid construction Since the largest percentage of production labours in apparel manufacturing is most often engaged in sewing department and since this department usually has the greatest all over production problems of coordinating production between the work stations, the principles of a making a flow process grid will be developed by making FPG for sewing production sample garment a man’s T shirt. Step1: List all the sewing operations necessary to produce a garment. Step 2: Group the operations in levels according to the numerical order in which these operations may be performed to give the quality specification for the garment. For example assume a t-shirt in fig 10-9 is going to be produced and the quality specification for the seam sequence for the sewing operations in this particular T shirt are those in table101. From these quality specifications, we see that the side seams and under arms seams may be combined into one operation if this is quantitatively better than making it as listed, two separate operations. This permits us to list the operations on the following possible levels of operational sequence: 1. Side seams, shoulder seams, collar seams, under arm seams 2. Neck seam, sleeve hem, hip hem 3. Covering stitch 4. Armhole seam On evaluation of the factors it shows that it is best to place the armhole on the fourth level, the final level sequence for T-shirt should be as follows: Level listing 1: 1. Shoulder seam, collar seam 2. Neck seam 3. Covering stitch 4. Armhole seam 5. Side-under arm seam 6. Sleeve hems 7. Hip hems Level listing 2: 1. Shoulder seam, collar seam 2. Neck seam 3. Covering stitch 4. Side seams, sleeve seams 5. Hip hem, sleeve hem 6. Armhole seam
Level listing such as 1 and 2 in fig.10-9 show one to what extent a garment may be produced on subassembly basis, if volume, labor, equipment, and space conditions permit one to use the subassembly system, this is system one should arm to formulate.
4.3. Flow process grid for production control An FGP constructed for complete production control must not only list all operations of the garment with a minimum level construction, it must also list the following: 1. Total processing time per garment (including inspection). 2. Total processing time per bundle. 3. Inventory in process time per bundle, without temporary storage time allowed between the total of successive levels. 4. The amount of machines of each type, needed to produce the required hourly amount. 5. The amount of operators needed in the production line to produce the required daily amount. 6. The temporary storage allowed totally, between successive levels, including a safety factor tolerance to prevent bottlenecks due to machine breakdowns or changes in the production line. 7. Total scheduled inventory in-process time; the time it takes to bundle to pass through the entire production line after the bundle enters the first level temporary storage. Fig.10-11 is a complete FGP which lists the above data. It contains columns for the following, for the main assembly line and each assembly line on the grid: 1. Operation title, including the symbols. 2. Time per unit of each operation in the line. 3. Time per maximum (or average) bundle amount, for each operation. 4. Amount of operators (and machines) needed to produce the required daily amount.
5. BIBLIOGRAPHY:1. Book Reference: Apparel Manufacturing Handbook Part-II by Jacob Solinger 2. Articles: International Journal of Engineering Business Management Special Issue on Innovations in Fashion Industry -Demand Forecasting in the Fashion Industry: A Review Robust Production Planning in Fashion Apparel Industry under Demand Uncertainty via Conditional Value at Risk