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 UNDERGROUND COAL MONITORING: Characteristics: 1. Structure aware self adaptive(SASA) WSN structure has been adopted for monitoring underground coal mines. 2. It is based on regulating the mesh network deployment and formulating a collaborating mechanism using regular beacon strategy thereby detecting structure variations caused by underground collapses. Design objectives: To rapidly detect the collapse area and report to the sink node To maintain the system integrity when the sensor network structure is altered. Provide a sound and robust mechanism for efficiently handling queries over the sensor network under unstable circumstances. Implementation: Adopts a hole-detection algorithm to monitor the inner surface of tunnels by utilizing the radio signals among sensor nodes to model the structure of the sensor network. Adopts a multi-path routing scheme for data collection and by signature-file-based data aggregation SASA is able to accurately and efficiently route back information even under the influence of collapse holes. Accurately report locations of collapses, to detect and to reconfigure displaced nodes, thus maintaining the system integrity with an appropriate arrangement of sensor nodes and a collaborative mechanism.  Structural health monitoring: Objectives: To inspect the structures of machines for any abnormal variation. To replace the fault structures whenever there is variation instead of scheduled maintenance. Characteristics: It allow assets to be inspected when the sensors indicate that there may be a problem. It reduces the cost of maintenance and preventing catastrophic failure in the event that damage is detected It reduces the initial deployment costs, as the cost of installing long cable runs is often expensive.
Implementation: Sensors can be mounted on continuously rotating parts , within concrete and composite materials , and within medical implants AREA MONITORING AND INTEGRATED VEHICLE HEALTH MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS Objectives: One or more sensors for measuring the environment . Processing capability in order to process sensor data into high value information and to accomplish local control, A radio to communicate information to/from neighboring nodes and to external users. Characteristics: It employs cooperative processing and uses low power communication protocols. It is done by positioning the sensors close to the areas of interest in high densities. Close spacing permits low-power sensing and short-range radio links. The nodes can be precisely located or dispersed in random configurations with spatial knowledge incorporated in the signal processing and communication algorithms Implementation: Monitor/Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL): The HAL provides routines for initialization, external communication, program loading and debugging, and interrupt processing. Run-time environment. This real-time kernel on each node provides the low-level distributed network structure User interface applications hosted on PCs that allow users to perform various tasks and to interact with the sensor network. An interface for communicating with the network through a gateway is supported as well as display and logging of network information. ISLAND HABITAT MONITORING Objectives: Usage pattern of nesting burrows over the 24–72-hour cycle when one or both members of a breeding pair may alternate incubation duties with feeding at sea Changes observed in the burrow and surface environmental
parameters during the course of the approximately 7-month breeding season. Differences in the microenvironments with and without large numbers of nesting petrels. Characteristics: Internet access: The sensor networks at Island must be accessible via the internet. An essential aspect of habitat monitoring applications is the ability to support remote interactions with in-situ networks. Hierarchical network: The field station at Island needs sufficient resources to host Internet connectivity and database systems.However, the habitats of scientific interest are located up to several kilometers farther away Inconspicuous operation: Habitat monitoring infrastructure must be inconspicuous. It should not disrupt the natural processes or behaviors under study. In-situ interactions: Although the majority of interactions with the sensor networks are expected to be via the Internet, local interactions are required during initial deployment and during maintenance tasks, as well as during on-site visits. PDAs serve an important role in assisting with these tasks. They may directly query a sensor, adjust operational parameters, or simply assist in locating devices. Data archiving: Archiving sensor readings for off-line data mining and analysis is essential. The reliable off-loading of sensor logs to databases in the wired, powered infrastructure is an essential capability. SMART BUILDINGS: Objective: Building management systems which monitor heating, lighting and ventilation. Software packages which automatically switch off devices such as computers and monitors when offices are empty. Characteristics: Different types of sensors for smart buildings include: Temperature sensors and heat detectors Light level detectors Movement and occupancy sensors Smoke and gas detectors Status sensors (e.g. air quality, open windows)
Glass break sensor  INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Objective: Process control Control of (physical) properties during the production process, and Equipment management and control Characteristics: In the field of process control, sensor and sensor networks deliver real-time data on the production process and are able to detect in situ variations in the process. Control can thus be moved from the finished product after the completed production run to the production process itself . Faults can be minimised reducing the percentage of deficient and reprocessed goods. A continuous monitoring of processes allows for efficient use of energy during production processes. An application example in the field of process control is an on line laser-ultrasonic thickness gauge which measures the thickness of steel tube walls under harsh conditions in mills. Product consistency can be improved and material saved while reducing the time and energy used during production. AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL TRACKING: Objective: sensor networks can be used for: plant/crop monitoring soil monitoring, climate monitoring insect-disease-weed monitoring. Characteristics: wireless sensors have been developed to gather, for example, data on leaf temperature, chlorophyll content and plant water status. Based on these data, farmers are able to detect problems at an early stage and implement real-time solutions. Sensors contribute to real-time monitoring of variables such as soil fertility, soil water availability and soil compaction. Further, sensor nodes which communicate with radio or mobile network weather stations provide climate and micro-climate data. sensors are further used for precision irrigation, and systems developed for remotely controlled, automatic irrigation
Our proposed application: EARLY FLOOD DETECTION Objective: To design a low-cost, wireless flood detection system that meets the needs of communities with limited resources and initial communications infrastructure.