API 653 Howard Training Course Page 1-200

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Rev. 04 Jan. 12, 06

Haward Technology Middle East

January 21-25, 2006 Abu Dhabi, UAE Course Instructor(s)

© 2006 Haward Technology Middle East This document is the property of the course instructor and/or Haward Technology Middle East. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Haward Technology Middle East. P.O.Box: 26608, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Tel: +971-2-6277881

Fax: +971-2-6277883

Email: [email protected]


To The Participant The Course notes are intended as an aid in following lectures and for review in conjunction with your own notes; however they are not intended to be a complete textbook. If you spot any inaccuracy, kindly report it by completing this form and dispatching it to the following address, so that we can take the necessary action to rectify the matter.

P. O. Box 26608 Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. Tel: +971 2 627 7881 Fax: +971 2 627 7883 Email: [email protected]







Course Title:


Course Date:


Course Location:


Description of Inaccuracy:


Disclaimer The information contained in these course notes has been complied from various sources and is believed to be reliable and to represent the best current knowledge and opinion relative to the subject. Haward Technology offers no warranty, guarantee, or representation as to it’s absolute correctness or sufficiency. Haward Technology has no responsibility in connection therewith; nor should it be assumed that all acceptable safety and regulatory measures are contained herein, or that other or additional information may be required under particular or exceptional circumstances.


Section 1

API 653 Summary

Section 2

API Standard 650 Summary

Section 3

API Recommended Practice 575 Summary

Section 4

API RP 651 Summary

Section 5

API RP 652 Summary

Section 6

API Recommended Practice 571 Summary

Section 7

API RP 577 Summary

Section 8

API 653 Nondestructive Examination Summary

Section 9

API 653 ASME Section IX Summary

Section 10

Welding Metallurgy

Section 11

Technical Report Writing

Haward Technology Middle East


API 653: Tank Inspection Code: Inspection, repair, alteration, and reconstruction of steel aboveground storage tanks used in the petrochemical industry (Training only) Course Title API 653: Tank Inspection Code: Inspection, repair, alteration, and reconstruction of steel aboveground storage tanks used in the petrochemical industry (Training only) Course Date / Venue

Course Reference IE400 Course Duration Five days (40 hours as per API regulations) Course Objectives In order to meet the needs of today's fast changing inspection industry, Haward Technology has developed the "Tank Inspection Course with API 653 Exam Prep.”. The course textbook includes notes and summaries on the tank inspection standards referenced in the API 653 Body of Knowledge. This comprehensive 40 hour course consists of five 8-hour teaching days. It is designed to accomplish a two-fold training agenda: (1) To train those individuals who are interested in obtaining the API 653 Tank Inspection Certification. (2) Train those who require a working knowledge of the intricacies encountered in the working environment. Additionally, quizzes are given at the end of each section; homework is handed out at the end of each class day, which consists of 25 questions per day and is reviewed at the beginning of the following day, and a “practice” exam is administered at the end of the course. Haward Technology is proud of the 90%+ pass rate attained by its students who have sat for the API 653 certification exam. IE400 IE400-01-06

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Who Should Attend The course is intended for Inspection Engineers who are seeking API-653 certification. Other engineers, managers or technical staffs who are dealing with Steel Aboveground Storage Tanks used in the Petrochemical Industry will also benefit. Course Instructor Mr. Ron VanArsdale, PE, USA, is the founder of Inspection Training and Consulting Company (ITAC). His duties include conducting training courses for Haward Technology and ITAC, creating new courses for inspection and other related activities, creating course material, as well as developing custom training programs, customized written practices and providing trouble-shooting consulting services. In the past, Mr. VanArsdale was employed by SGS Industrial Services as the Training Director and the American Welding Society (AWS) as the Curricula and Course Development Manager. In this position he developed various training courses dealing with the AWS Certified Welding Inspector program. He planned, organized, and developed all phases of educational activities for AWS. In addition to these functions, he is a member of the API 653 Questions Committee which devised the API 653 Tank Inspector Certification Examination; as well as a member of the API 570 Questions Committee which is charged with developing the API 570 Piping Inspector Certification Examination. Ron attended San Jacinto College and Texas A&M University, and has a Lifetime Teaching Certificate from the State of Texas. He is an AWS Certified Welding Inspector (CWI), ITAC Level III, an API Certified Aboveground Storage Tank Inspector, and API Certified Piping Inspector, an AWS Certified Welding Educator (CWE) and is an internationally recognized Presenter/Instructor. Additionally, he received the AWS Distinguished Member Award in March, 1989, the AWS CWI of the Year District Award in January, 1993, as well as the AWS District 18 Meritorious Award in September, 1993. He has thirty-three years experience in the erection, maintenance and inspection of buildings, petrochemical facilities, vessels, above-ground storage tanks, piping systems, in addition to teaching welding/inspection education courses. Mr. VanArsdale is professionally affiliated with the American Welding Society, American Society for Nondestructive Testing, American Petroleum Institute, Vocational Industrial Clubs of America, Haward Technology, American Inspection Society, the National Job Core and has been appointed a Kentucky Colonel by the Governor of Kentucky in recognition of his lifetime contribution to his fellow man. Course Fee US $2,750 per Delegate. This rate includes Participant’s Pack (Folder, Manual, Hand-outs, etc.), buffet lunch, coffee/tea on arrival, morning & afternoon of each day. Accommodation Accommodation is not included in course fees. However, any accommodation required can be arranged by Haward Technology at the time of booking. IE400 IE400-01-06

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Haward Technology Middle East

Course Certificate Haward Technology certificate will be issued to all attendees completing minimum of 75% of the total tuition hours of the course. Required Codes and Standards: Listed below are the effective editions of the publications required for the


API Recommended Practice 575,

API Standard 650, API Recommended Practice 651, API Recommended Practice 652, API Standard 653, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 2004 edition with 2002 and 2003 Addenda. ASME Section V, ASME Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications(Section QW only)

IE400 IE400-01-06

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Course Program st

Introduction Students Take Initial Math Quiz Review Math Quiz Answers Overview of Course Outline Review of API 653 Body of Knowledge API 653 - Section 1 – Scope: API 653 - Section 2 – Referenced Publications API 653 - Section 3 – Definitions API 653 - Section 4 - Suitability For Service:


API 653 - Section 6 - Inspection

API 653 - Section 7 - Materials

IE400 IE400-01-06

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API 653 - Section 8 - Design Considerations for Reconstructed Tanks

API 653 - Section 9 - Tank Repair And Alteration

API 653 - Section 10 - Dismantling And Reconstruction API 653 - Section 11 - Welding API 653 - Section 12 - Examination And Testing API 653 - Section 13 - Marking And Recordkeeping API 653 – Appendices A – G API 650 - Section 1 - Scope API 650 - Section 2 - Materials API 650 - Section 3 - Design

API 650 - Section 4 - Fabrication API 650 - Section 5 - Erection


API 650 - Section 6 - Methods Of Inspecting Joints API 650 -

Section 7 - Welding Procedure & Welder Qualifications IE400 IE400-01-06

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API 650 - Section 8 - Marking API 650 - Appendices B - S Slide Show – “Don’t Let This Happen To Your Tank” Complete Slide Show -“Don’t Let This Happen To Your Tank” API RP 575 - Section 1 – Scope API RP 575 - Section 3 - Selected Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Methods API RP 575 - Section 4 - Types Of Storage Tanks

API RP 575 - Section 5 - Reasons For Inspection and Causes of Deterioration API RP 575 - Section 6 - Frequency Of Inspection API RP 575 - Section 7 - Methods Of Inspection And Inspection Scheduling

API RP 651 - Section 1 – Scope API RP 651 - Section 3 – Definitions API RP 651 - Section 4 - Corrosion of Aboveground Steel Storage Tanks API RP 651 - Section 5 - Determination of Need for Cathodic Protection API RP 651 - Section 6 - Methods of Cathodic Protection for Corrosion Control API RP 651 - Section 7 - Design Of Cathodic Protection Systems

API RP 651 - Section 8 - Criteria For Cathodic Protection API RP 651 - Section 9 - Installation Of Cathodic Protection Systems API RP 651 - Section 10 - Interference Currents API RP 651 - Section 11 - Operation and Maintenance of IE400 IE400-01-06

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Cathodic Protection Systems API RP 652 - Section 1 – Introduction API RP 652 - Section 3 – Definitions API RP 652 - Section 4 - Corrosion Mechanisms API RP 652 - Section 5 - Determination of The Need for Tank Bottom Lining API RP 652 - Section 6 - Tank Bottomlining Selection API RP 652 - Section 7 - Surface Preparation API RP 652 - Section 9 – Inspection API RP 652 - Section 10 - Repair Of Tank Bottom Linings API RP 652 - Section 11 - Safety API 2207 - Section 1 – Introduction API 2207 - Section 3 – Precautions API 2207 - Section 6 - Safe Work Procedures


API 2015 - Section 1 - General API 2015 - Section 2 - Administrative Controls API 2015 - Section 3 - Storage Tank Hazards API 2015 - Section 4 - Preparing the Tank for Entry and Cleaning API 2015 - Section 5 - Testing The Tank Atmosphere Break

API 2015 – Section 6 – Hazard Assessment for Entry Permits API 2015 - Section 8 - Entering And Working Inside The Tank API 2015 - Section 9 - Hot Work And Tank Repairs API 2015 – Appendices A – F IE400 IE400-01-06

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ASME Section V - Nondestructive Test Methods

ASME Section IX - WPS and PQR Requirements Review Procedure Exercise ASME Section IX - Welder Certification


Question and Answer Session API 653 Sample Exam Continue API 653 Sample Exam Review API 653 Exam Answers

Course Coordinator Ms. Maqsooda Ali Malvankari: Tel: +971-2-6277881, Fax: +971-2-6277883, Email: [email protected]

IE400 IE400-01-06

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Section 1 API 653 Summary


General 1.1.1 This standard covers carbon and low alloy steel tanks built to A PI-650 and 12C standards. These standard provide mi ni mum requirements for maintaining the integrity of w elded or riveted, non-refrigerated, atmospheric pressure, above ground storage tanks af ter they have been pl aced i n servi ce. 1.1.2 Scope coverage Foundation, bottom, shell, structure, roof, attached appurtenances and nozzles to the face of the first flange, first threaded joint or first w elded end connection. NOTES:

1. 2.

M any A PI-650 requirements apply that will satisfy this new code. In case of conflict (for in-service tanks) betw een A PI12C; 650; and 653, thi s l atest Code governs.

1.1.6 A PI 653 now recognizes API RP 579, Recommended Practice for Fitnessfor-Service. Under API 653 , the ow ner may use fitness-for-service criteria. 1.2

Compl i ance The ow ner/ operator has ultimate responsibility for complying w ith A PI 653 provisions.


Juri sdi cti on Statutory Regulation (i.e., local, state or federal) shall govern, unl ess the requirements of this standard are more stri ngent than Statutory Regulation.


Saf e Worki ng Practi ces Safety procedures according to guidelines given in API publications 2015, 2016, and 2217A are suggested for potential hazards involved when conducting internal inspections, making repairs or dismantling tanks. NOTE:

Procedures must comply w ith any state or federal safety regulation involving "confined space" entry.

Page 1 of 58 API 653

Summary , 2005

SECTI ON 3 - D EFIN I TION S 3.1 al terati on: A ny w ork on a tank involving cutting, burning, w elding or heating operation that changes the physical dimensions and/ or configuration of a tank. Typical examples of alterations include: a. The addition of manw ays and nozzles greater than 12-inch (NPS). b. A n increase or decrease in tank shell height. 3.2 appl i cabl e standard: The original standard of construction, such as API standards or specifications or Underw riter Laboratories (UL) standards, unless the original standard of construction has been superseded or withdraw n from publication; in this event, applicable standard means the current edition of the appropriate standard. See A ppendix A for background on editions of A PI w elded storage tank standards. 3.3 atmospheric pressure: Used to describe tanks designed to withstand an internal pressure up to but not exceeding 2.5 lbs./ sq. in. gauge. 3.4 authori zed i nspecti on agency: One of the follow ing organizations that employ an A boveground Storage Tank Inspector certified by API. a. The inspection organization of the jurisdiction in which the aboveground storage tank is operated. b. The inspection organization of an insurance company w hich is

Page 2 of 58 API 653

licensed or registered to and does w rite aboveground storage tank insurance. c. A n ow ner or operator of one or more aboveground storage tank(s) w ho maintains an inspection organization for activities relating only to its equipment, and not for aboveground storage tanks intended for sale or resale. d. A n independent organization or individual under contract to and under the direction of an ow ner or operator and recognized or otherwise not prohibited by the jurisdiction in w hich the aboveground storage tank is operated. The ow ner or operator s inspection program shall provide the controls necessary for use by A uthorized Inspectors contracted to inspect above ground storage tanks. 3.5 authori zed i nspector: An employee of an authorized inspection agency and is certified as an A boveground Storage Tank Inspector per Appendix D of this standard. 3.6 breakover poi nt: The area on a tank bottom w here settlement begins. 3.7 change i n servi ce: A change from previous operating condition involving different properties of the stored product such as specific gravity or corrositivity and/ or different service conditions of temperature and/ or pressure. 3.8 corrosi on rate The total metal loss divided by the period of time over w hich the metal loss occurred. Summary , 2005

3.9 cri ti cal zone: The portion of the bottom or annular plate w ithin 3 inches of the inside edge of the shell, measured radially inward. 3.10 hot tap: Identifies a procedure for installing a nozzle in the shell of a tank that is in service. 3.11 i nspector: A representative of an organization s mechanical integrity department w ho is responsible for various quality control, and assurance functions, such as w elding, contract execution, etc.

NOTE: A lteration/ Repair items may be closely related and could even be a matter of personal description (See also Section 12). 3.16 repai r organi zati on: A n organization that meets any of the follow ing: a. A n ow ner/ operator of aboveground storage tanks who repairs or alters its ow n equipment in accordance with this standard.

3.12 owner/operator: The legal entity having both control of and/ or responsibility for the operation and maintenance of an existing storage tank.

b. A contractor w hose qualifications are acceptable to the ow ner/ operator of aboveground storage tanks and who makes repairs or alterations in accordance with this standard.

3.13 reconstructi on: A ny w ork necessary to reassemble a tank that has been dismantled and relocated to a new site.

c. One who is authorized by, acceptable to, or otherw ise not prohibited by the jurisdiction, and who makes repairs in accordance with this standard.

3.14 reconstructi on organi zati on: The organization having assigned responsibility by the ow ner/ operator to design and/ or reconstruct a tank.

3.17 storage tank engi neer: One or more persons or organizations acceptable to the ow ner/ operator w ho are know ledgeable and experienced in the engineering disciplines associated with evaluating mechanical and material characteristics that affect the integrity and reliability of aboveground storage tanks. The storage tank engineer, by consulting with appropriate specialists, should be regarded as a composite of all entities needed to properly assess the technical requirements.

3.15 repai r: A ny w ork necessary to maintain or restore a tank to a condition suitable for safe operation. Typical examples of repairs includes: a. Removal and replacement of material (such as roof, shell, or bottom material, including weld metal) to maintain tank integrity. b. Re-leveling and/ or jacking of a tank shell, bottom, or roof. c. Addition of reinforcing plates to existing shell penetrations. d. Repair of flaw s, such as tears or gouges, by grinding and/ or gouging follow ed by welding. Page 3 of 58 API 653

Summary , 2005

3.18 external i nspecti on: A formal visual inspection, as supervised by an authorized inspector, to assess all aspects of the tank as possible w ithout suspending operations or requiring tank shutdown (see 6.4.1).

3.19 i nternal i nspecti on: A formal, complete inspection, as supervised by an authorized inspector of all accessible internal tank surfaces (see6.4.1).

Page 4 of 58 API 653

3.20 f i tness f or servi ce assessment: A methodology whereby flaw s contained w ithin a structure are assessed in order to determine the adequacy of the flawed structure for continued service w ithout imminent failure.

Summary , 2005


General 4.1.1 When inspection indicates a change from original physical condition, evaluate to determine suitability for continued service. 4.1.2 Thi s secti on covers: a. b.

Evaluation for continued service. Decisions relative to repairs, alterations, dismantling, relocating, or reconstruction.

4.1.3 Factors f or consi derati on: (plus engineering analysis and judgment) a. b. c. d.

Internal corrosion (products or water bottom). External corrosion (environmental exposure). A llow able stress levels. Stored product properties (i.e., Specific Gravity, temperature, corrositivity). M etal design temperatures (at service location). External roof live load, wind and seismic loading. Foundation, soil and settlement conditions. Chemical analysis/ mechanical properties (construction. material). Existing tank distortions. Operating conditions (i.e., filling/ emptying rates and frequency).

e. f. g. h. i. j. 4.2

Tank Roof Eval uati on (General )

Roof plates corroded to an average "t" of less than 0.09" (in any 100 sq. in) Repai r or Repl ace.

4.2.2 Fi xed Roof s Determine condition of roof support system (i.e., rafters, girders, columns, bases and out of plumb columns). Corrosion and/ or damaged members - Evaluate for repair or renew al. NOTE:

Pipe columns require special attention. Severe internal corrosion may not be evidenced by external visual inspection.

4.2.3 Fl oati ng Roof s

Cracks/ punctures - Repair or replace.

Pitting/ corrosion - Evaluate for potential penetration before the next scheduled internal inspection.

Roof support system, perimeter seals, drain system, venting, other appurtenances. Evaluate.

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Summary , 2005

See API-650 (A ppendix C and H ) for evaluation guidance. NOTE:

Upgrading - N ot mandatory to meet those guidelines on floating roofs.

4.2.4 Change of Servi ce


Internal pressure: Refer to A PI-650 (Appendix F) w hen evaluating/ modifying roof or roof-to-shell junction.

External pressure: Roof support structure and roof-to-shell junction. Evaluate for effect of design partial vacuum. Refer to A PI-620.

A ll requirements of A PI-650 (Appendix M ) shall apply before a change of service to operation at temperature above 200°F is considered.

See A PI-650 (or applicable standard) if operation is to be at lower temperature than original design.

Evaluate if change of service will effect normal or emergency venting.

Tank Shel l Eval uati on

Flaws, deterioration, (greater than CA) must be evaluated for continued use suitability.

The shell condition, analysis and evaluation shall take into consideration the anticipated loading conditions and combinations including: a. b. c. d. e.

Pressure due to fluid static head. Internal and external pressure. Wind and seismic loads. Roof live loads. Nozzle, settlement and attachment loads.

Shell corrosion occurs in many forms and varying degrees of severity resulting in a generally uniform loss of metal over a large surface area or in localized areas. Pitting may also occur, but does not normally represent a significant threat to overall structural integrity unless present in a severe form w ith pits in close proximity to one another.

M ethods for determining the minimum shell "t" suitable for continued operation are given in 4.3.2, 4.3.3, and 4.3.4. (see page 1-8 below for minimum shell t formula.)

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Summary , 2005

4.3.2 Actual Thickness Determinati on This section deals w ith the averaging of corroded areas. This is not an exact science and should be used only when an area is questionable for repair. For exam purposes, you will be supplied w ith 't2" and the diameter of the tank.

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Summary , 2005

M i ni mum Thi ckness Cal cul ati on f or Wel ded Tank Shel l (A PI 653 Secti on t min = 2.6 (H -1)DG SE t min = the minimum acceptable thickness, in inches, for each course as calculated from the above formula; how ever, t min shall not be less than 0.1 inch for any tank course. D=

nominal diameter of tank, in feet.

H = height from the bottom of the shell course under consideration to the maximum liquid level w hen evaluating an entire shell course, in ft; or height, from the bottom of the length L (see from the lowest point of the bottom of L of the locally thinned area to the maximum liquid level, in ft; or height from the low est point within any location of interest to the maximum liquid level, in ft. G=

Highest specific gravity of the contents.


M aximum allowable stress in pounds per square inch; use the smaller of 0.80Y or 0.429T for bottom and second course; use the smaller of 0.88Y or 0.472T for all other courses. A llowable shell stresses are show n in Table 4-1 for materials listed in the current and previous editions of A PI Std. 12C and Std. 650. N ote: For reconstructed tanks, S shall be per the current applicable standard.


Specified minimum yield strength of the plate; use 30,000 psi if not know n.


The smaller of the specified minimum tensile strength of the plate or 80,000 psi; use 55,000 psi if not know n.


Original joint efficiency for the tank. Use Tabl e 4-2 if original E is unknow n. E=1.0 when evaluating the retirement thickness in a corroded plate, when away from w elds or joints by at least the greater of one inch or twice the plate thickness.

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Summary , 2005

FOR UNK NOWN M A TERIA L M axi mum A ll owabl e Stress (in PSI)


Use the smal l er of :

Fi rst or Second Course

Ot her Courses

(Yield) .80Y = .80 X 30,000 = 24,000 or (Tensile) .429T = .429 X 55,000 = 23,595

(Yield) .88Y = .88 X 30,000 = 26,400 or (Tensile) .472T = .472 X 55,000 = 25,960

The Third Edition of A PI 653 has added a new table, Table 4-1, M aximum A llow able Shell Stresses (not for use for reconstructed tanks). This w ill make stress calculations much easier.

Sampl e probl em f or mi ni mum thickness of a w el ded tank shel l . A n inspection of a welded, 138 foot diameter tank, 50 feet tall, 48 feet fill height shows some scattered pitting in the first course. What is the minimum shell thickness required for this tank, if the specific gravity of the product is 0.9? t min = 2.6 (H-1) DG SE t min = ? D = 138' H = 48' G = .9 S = 23,600 (from Table 4-1) E= 1 t min = 2.6 (48-1)((138)(.9) 23,600(1) 15,177.24 23,600 t min = .643"

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Summary , 2005

Practi ce Probl em t min = 2.6 (H-1) DG SE A 190' diameter tank has a pit that measures 5/ 16" deep in the first course, w hat is the min t, if the fill is 42 feet and the specific gravity is 0.6? (The pit is not in a weld seam or H A Z.) The material is unknow n. S=

M aximum allowable stress in pounds per square inch; use the smaller of 0.80Y or 0.429T for bottom and second course; use the smaller of 0.88Y or 0.472T for all other courses.


Specified minimum yield strength of the plate; use 30,000 psi if not know n.


The smaller of the specified minimum tensile strength of the plate or 80,000 psi; use 55,000 psi if not known.


Original joint efficiency for the tank. Use Tabl e 4-2 if original E is unknown. E = 1.0 w hen evaluating the retirement thickness in a corroded plate, w hen aw ay from w elds or joints by at least the greater of one inch or tw ice the plate thickness.

Expl anati on of Practi ce Probl em t min = 2.6 (H-1) DG SE

t min = ?

D = 190 S = 23,600

H = 42 E= 1 t min =

G = .6

2.6 (42-1) (190) (.6) 23,600(1) t min =

12,152.4 23,600

t min = .515 inches

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Summary , 2005

The Exam recognizes a variation of the minimum thickness formula, even though the formula does not appear directly in the A PI 653 Standard. The calculation is for M aximum A llow able Fill H eight based on a minimum thickness and can be found in the A PI 653 Body of Know ledge.

M aximum A l low abl e Fi l l Height Calcul ati on (A PI 653 Body of Know l edge) H=

S x E x t min 2.6 x D x G

tmin = The minimum acceptable thickness, in inches, as calculated from the above formula; how ever, tmin shall not be less than 0.1 inch for any tank course. D=

Nominal diameter of tank, in feet.


H eight, in feet, from the bottom of the length L for the most severely corroded area in each shell course to the maximum design liquid level.


Highest specific gravity of the contents.


M aximum allowable stress in pounds per square inch; use the smaller of 0.80Y or 0.429T for bottom and second course; use the smaller of 0.88Y or 0.472T for all other courses. Note: For reconstructed tanks, S shall be per the current applicable standard.


Specified minimum yield strength of the plate; use 30,000 psi if not know n.


The smaller of the specified minimum tensile strength of the plate or 80,000 psi; use 55,000 psi if not known.


Original joint efficiency for the tank. Use Table 4-2 if original E is unknown. E=1.0 when evaluating the retirement thickness in a corroded plate, w hen aw ay from w elds or joints by at least the greater of one inch or tw ice the plate thickness.

Not e: The + 1 was removed from this formula because of a change in the base formula in API 653, Second Edition, Second Addenda. The API Body of Knowledge has not yet made the correction.

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Summary , 2005

Sampl e probl em f or maximum al l owabl e f i l l hei ght of a w el ded tank shel l . A n inspection of a w elded, 138 foot diameter tank, 55 feet tall, shows some scattered pitting in the first course, minimum remaining thickness is .72 . The product specific gravity is 0.9 What is the maximum fill height required for this tank? H=

S x E x t min 2.6 x D x G

H=? S = 23,600 E= 1 t min = .72 D = 138' G = .9 H=

23,600(1)x.72 2.6(138)(.9)


16,992.0 322.92

H = 52.620 or 52 6

Sampl e probl em f or maximum al l owabl e f i l l hei ght of a w el ded tank shel l . H=

S x E x t min 2.6xDxG

What is the fill height of a w elded tank 112 diameter, that has a minimum thickness of .115 inches? The specific gravity of the product is .5 H=

23,600 x .115 2.6 x 112 x .5


2,714.0 145.6

H = 18.640 or 18 6-3/ 8

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Summary , 2005

The 3rd Edition of A PI 653 takes a two step approach for hydrostatic testing height H, H t. STEP A : Controlling Thickness H t = StEt min 2.6D + 1 STEP B: Locally Thinned A reas H t = StEt min 2.6D

If the "t" requirements cannot be satisfied, the corroded or damaged areas shall be: a. b. c.

Repaired, or Allow able liquid level reduced, or Tank retired.


The maximum design liquid level shall not be exceeded.

4.3.2 A ctual "t" Determi nati on: a. b.

See Inspection of Corrosion A reas (Fig. 4-1, Page 4-2). The controlling thickness in each shel l course, where corroded areas of considerable size occur, must be determined. Wi del y scattered pi ts may be i gnored i f : a.


N o pit results in the remaining shell "t" being less than one-half (1/ 2) of the minimum acceptabl e tank shell "t" (exclusive of the CA ); And The sum (total) of their dimensions along any vertical line does not exceed two inches (2") in an eight inch (8") length. (See Fig. 4-2). EXAM PLE: Three (3) pits in close proximity. Dimension (measure) vertically - each pit. A dd the sum (total dimensions) together. * d 1 + d 2 + d3 --- 2" N OTE:

If the pit dimension totals (measured vertically) exceed 2" in an 8" length, then these pits must be considered as strength factors. 3

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Summary , 2005

Speci al N ote: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Ol d method of evaluating pit problem.

Draw or imagine an 8" diameter circle. Within the circle, measure all of the pit surface areas, individually. A dd all of the pit values together. * Uni t of M easure = Sq. I n. I f the sum total of all the pit surface areas exceed 7 sq. in. w ithin that 8" diameter circle, then the pits must be considered as strength factors.

4.3.4 M i ni mum "t" cal cul ati on f or Ri veted Tank Shel l

Use the same formula as, except that the following allowable stress criteria and joint efficiency shall be used: a. b.

S = 21,000 lbs./ sq./ in. E - 1.0 for shell plate 6" or more away from rivets.


See Table 4-3 for joint efficiencies for locations within 6" of rivets.

Evaluate to w hat extent, if any, riveted joints have been affected by corrosion. Relate "bulging" condition between internal butt-straps and shell plates w ith stress placed on rivets.

I N TERNA L CORROSI ON - OBSERV A TIONS/COM M EN TS Based on experience and personal observations onl y, the follow ing is presented for field data survey and evaluation. A.

Tank Bottoms 1.

2. 3.

For tanks with potential sour water present, check closely for accelerated corrosive attack around outer periphery. This is usually found at the low est point and at the w ater collection point. A lso applies to lower 4" - 6" of internal shell. Some product services specifically attack w eld seams and the adjacent HAZ N ot I nternal , but related, corrosion often occurs to the underside of tank bottoms. If bottom leak is suspected as a result of underside corrosion, be prepared for a slow, long duration, expensive operation to verify and/ or locate problem areas. * Later reference under Bottom Evaluation.

Page 14 of 58 API 653

Summary , 2005


Tank Shel l s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


See prior comment on lower shell area w ith potential for sour w ater attack. * Sour Crude tanks very susceptible to this type corrosion. The theory that the hot side (i.e., west side thermal input) is more corrosive has not been justified or verified. Preferential attack on w eld seams, H AZ, scaffold lug removal areas, etc., is not uncommon. Extreme upper, non-w etted shell area often experiences accelerated corrosion. This is a very real possibility in sour crude or No. 6 fuel oils due to high sulfur content in the vapor phase. Watch for accelerated metal loss (usually smooth, perhaps even grooved) at the normal product high liquid level in w eak acid service.

Tank Roof s/Support Structure Should corrosion be found in the upper shell, the potential for a like loss should be suspected on the internal roof plates, the rafter/ structural members and the roof support columns. These specific areas are exposed to the same environment as the upper, non-w etted shell surface. If only the tw o (2) lower shell rings show accelerated corrosion, closely check the roof support columns. Problems to the same degree and elevation may be present. 4.3.5 Di storti ons

Includes out-of-roundness, buckled areas, flat spots, peaking and banding at w elded joints.

Potential causes: a. b. c. d. e.

Foundation settlement Over or under-pressuring H igh winds Poor shell fabrication/ erection Repair Techniques

4.3.6 Fl aw s crack s and l aminati ons a.

Examine/ evaluate to determine need, nature or extent of repair. If repair is required, develop procedure (w ith sketch as necessary). Evaluate all issues on a case-by-case basis.


Cracks in the shell-to-bottom (corner) w eld are critical. Removal , not w eld-over, is required.

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4.3.9 Shel l Penetrati ons Consideration details include: a. b. c. d. e. 4.4

Type and extent of reinforcement. Weld spacing. Proximity of reinforcement to shell w eld seams. Thickness of component parts. Deterioration (internal/ external).

Tank Bottom Eval uati on 4.4.1 General RBI is now a basis of this paragraph. All aspects of corrosion phenomena, all potential leak or failure mechanisms must be examined. A ssessment period shal l be l ess than or equal to the appropriate internal inspection interval. NOTE:

Excessive foundation settlement can have a serious impact on the integrity of shell and bottoms. Refer to A ppendix "B" for tank bottom settlement techniques.

4.4.2 Causes of Bottom Leaks Consider cause/ effect/ repair: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k.

Internal pitting. Corrosion of w eld seams and HA Z Weld joint cracking. Stresses (roof support loads and settlement). Underside corrosion (i.e., normally pitting). Inadequate drainage. Lack of an annular plate ring, w hen required. Uneven settlement (w ith resultant high stress). Roof support columns (or other supports) w elded to bottom w ithout allowance for adequate movement. Rock or gravel foundation pads. Non-homogeneous fill under bottom (i.e., shell, rock, clay, w ood stakes, etc.). l. Inadequately supported sumps.

4.4.6 Bottom M easurements M ethods (Appendix G may apply) a. b. c. d. e. f.

Spot U. T. measurement. Visual, internal survey w ith hammer test. UT "B" scan. M FE or M FLT Section removal (i.e., coupon). Abrasive blast (scan for capillary wicking).

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4.4.7 M i ni mum "t" for Tank Bottom Pl ate Two (2) M ethods: a. b.

Determi ni sti c (See - A long, draw n out formula/ data process. N ot normally used. Probabi l i sti c (See - Normal process. Statistical analysis based on thickness data resulting from visual, mechanical or UT survey.

If the minimum bottom "t", at the end of the in-service period of operation, are calculated to be less than the bottom renew al thickness given in Table 6-1 (page 6-3), the bottom shall be repaired as follow s: Lined, repaired, replaced or the interval to the next internal inspection shortened. Unless an RBI program is in place.

Critical zone thickness is redefined in this paragraph. Note the plate thickness in the critical zone shall be the smaller of 1/ 2 the original bottom plate thickness or 50% of tmin of the lower shell course, but not less than 0.1 inch.

The bottom extension shall be no less than 0.1 inch thick and must extend beyond the outside toe of the shell-to-bottom weld at least 3/ 8 inch.

4.4.8 M i ni mum "t" - A nnul ar Pl ate Rings 1. 2.

See Visual Aide of Table 4-4 (page 4 - 9). With product SG l ess than 1.0 that require annular plates for other than seismic loading consideration -- Also see Table 4-4. SG greater than 1.0: Refer to Table 3-1 of the A PI-650 standard.

3. 4.5

Tank Foundati on Eval uati on 4.5.1 General - (causes of f oundati on deteri orati on): a. b. c.

Settlement Erosion Cracking of concrete (i.e., calcining, underground w ater, frost, alkalies and acids).

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4.5.2 and 4.5.3

D escri ption - concrete deteri oration mechani sms. a.

Calcining - (loss of water of hydration). N ormally occurs w hen concrete has been exposed to high temperature for a period of time. During intermediate cooling periods, the concrete absorbs moisture, swells, loses its strength and cracks.


Chemical attack: cyclic changes in temperature and by freezing moisture.


Expansion in porous concrete caused by freezing moisture - Spalling or serious structural cracks.


Concrete bond deterioration - A ttack by sulfate-type alkalies or even chlorides.


Temperature cracks (hairline w ith uniform w idth). N ot N ormal l y serious.* Potential moisture entry points w ith resulting corrosion of the reinforcing steel.

General a. b. c.

For repair or renewal (See 10.5.6). Prevent w ater entry. Distortion of anchor bolts and excessive cracking of the concrete structure in w hich they are embedded may indicate: (i) (ii)

Serious foundation settlement. Tank over pressure uplift condition.

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General Provides a procedure to assess the risk of failure due to brittle fracture, plus establishes general guidance for avoiding this type failure.


Basi c Consi derati ons See Fig. 5-1 "Decision Tree" as the assessment procedure to determine failure potential. Prior incident data whereby brittle fracture has occurred either shortly after erection during hydrostatic testing or on the first filling in cold w eather, after a change to low er temperature service, or after a repair/ alteration. This failure has primarily occurred in w elded tanks. 5.2.1 Reported conditions involving failures (primarily involving welded tanks): a. b. c. d.

Hydro test at initial erection. First filling in cold w eather. A fter a change to low er temperature service. A fter a repair-alteration.

5.2.2 A ny change in service must be evaluated to determine if it increases the risk of failure due to brittle fracture. For example, the change to a more severe service involving one of the follow ing: a. b.

Low er operating temperature (especially below 60°F). Product w ith a higher specific gravity. * Consider need for hydrostati c test when any repair or alteration does not meet al l requirements of the 653 standard or deterioration of the tank has occurred since the original hydrostatic test.

General Comments: 1.

Fracture assessment w ould most likely be conducted by a metallurgist or design specialist.


Several options exist based on the most severe combination of temperature and liquid level experienced by the tank during its life, w hereby an i ncreased potential for brittle fracture failure exists: a. b. c. d.


Restrict the liquid level. Restrict the minimum metal temperature Change service to a lower Specific Gravity. product. A combination of the three areas listed above.

Remember: Reducing the storage temperature,- Increases the potential for failure. Shell stresses are increased and potential for failure is greater w ith a stored product change to a higher specific gravity. Page 19 of 58 API 653

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General - I n-servi ce I nspecti on of Tank s


Inspecti on Frequency Consi derati ons 6.2.1 Some factors determining inspection frequency: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m.

Nature of stored product. Visual inspection/ maintenance results. Corrosion rates and/ or allow ances. Corrosion prevention systems. Previous inspection results. M ethods-materials of construction or repair. Tank location (i.e., isolated, grouped, high risk areas). Potential for air, water or soil pollution. Leak detection systems. Change in operating mode. Jurisdictional requirements. Changes in service (including water bottoms). The existence of a double bottom or a release prevention barrier.

6.2.2 The interval betw een inspections (internal/ external) is most influenced by its service history, unless special reasons indicate an earlier inspection is required. 6.2.3 Local jurisdictional regulations (i.e., vapor loss values, seal condition, leakage, proper diking and repair procedures) should be known by inspection personnel in their own locality, or should be f urni shed by owner-user to inspectors w ho function at remote locations. 6.3

External I nspecti on (Routi ne I n-Servi ce Type) through Routine external in-service inspection may be done by owner-user operator personnel. Routine requirements include: a. b. c.

Visual inspection from the ground. Intervals shall not exceed one month. External check for leaks, distortion, settlement, corrosion, foundation, paint, insulation, etc.

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6.3.2 Schedul ed Inspecti ons (A l l tanks)

Formal visual external inspection at least every five (5) years or RCA / 4N years (w here RCA is the difference betw een the measured shell thickness and the minimum required thickness in mills, and N is the shell corrosion rate in mills per year), w hichever is less, by an A uthorized Inspector. Tank may be in operation.

Remove insulation to extent necessary to determine condition of roof and shell.

Tank grounding system components, shunts, cable connection, etc., shall be visually checked.

Visually check tank grounding components.

6.3.3 In-service UT "t" measurement of shell.

Extent of UT survey - Determined by ow ner-user.

When UT is used as inspection method, intervals shall not exceed the following: a. b. c.

Five (5) years from commissioning new tank. A t five year intervals (existing tanks w here corrosion rate is not know n. When the corrosion rate IS know n, the maximum interval shall be the smal l er of RCA / 2N years (w here RCA is the difference betw een the measured shell thickness and the minimum required thickness in mils, and N is the shell corrosion rate in mils per year) or fifteen (15) years.

Internal tank shell inspection (out-of-service condition) can be substituted for a program of external UT measurements made during in-service condition.

Cathodic Protection System -- Survey in accordance w ith API RP 651.

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I nternal I nspecti on 6.4.1 General Internal inspection is primarily designed to: a. b.

Determine that bottom is not severely corroded or leaking. Gather data necessary to determine minimum "t" of shell and bottom for proper evaluation. NOTE:


Prior in-service UT data may be used as criteria in the assessment process.

Identify/ evaluate any tank bottom settlement. New item. The A uthorized Inspector w ho is responsible for evaluation of a tank must visually examine each tank and review the NDE results.

6.4.2 Inspection Intervals

Internal inspection intervals are determined by: a. b.

Corrosion rates established during prior surveys. A nticipated corrosion rates based on experience with tanks in similar service.


1. 2. 3.

N ormally, bottom corrosion rates will control. Set interval so that bottom plate minimum "t"(at the next inspecti on) are not less than the values listed in Tbl 6-1. In No case, shall the internal inspection interval exceed tw enty (20) years.

If corrosion rates are not k now n and similar service data is not available (to determine bottom plate "t" at next inspection), the actual bottom "t" shall be determined by inspection(s), interval shall not exceed ten (10) years of operation to establish corrosion rates.

6.4.3 A lternative Internal Inspection Interval For unique combinations of service, environment and construction, the owner/ operator may establish the interval using an alternative procedure. This method includes: a. b. c. d.

Determining bottom plate "t". Consideration of environmental risk. Consideration of inspection quality. A nalysis of corrosion measurements. Page 22 of 58 API 653

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A s an alternative an RBI program may be used. N OTE: M ust be documented and made part of permanent record. 6.5

A l ternati ve to I nternal I nspecti on to Determi ne Bottom "t" In cases w here construction, size or other aspects allow external access to bottom, an external inspection (in lieu of internal) is allow ed to meet requirements of Table 6-1. Documentation also required.


I nspecti on Checkl i sts A ppendix "C" provides sample checklists of items for consideration for in or outof-service inspections. A similar checklist also exists in A PI RP 575. NOTES:


1. 2. 3. 4.

Would be very expensive and time consuming. Would require support personnel/ equipment. Plant personnel could check a number of items. All are not necessary, unless special condition exists.

Records 6.8.1 General a. b.

Records form the basis of any scheduled inspection/ maintenance program. If no records exist, judgment may be based on tanks in similar service. Ow ner/ operator must maintain a complete record file on each tank consisting of three (3) types: i. ii. iii.

Construction Records Inspection H istory Repair/ A lteration History

6.8.2 Construction Records M ay include the follow ing: a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

N ameplate information Drawings Specifications Construction completion report NDE performed Material analysis Hydro data

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6.8.3 Inspection H istory a.

b. c.

Includes all measurements taken, condition of all parts inspected and a record of all examination and tests. Include a complete description of any unusual condition w ith probable reason for problem and recommendation for corrections. Sketches and detailed repair procedure should be provided if so desired by the customer. Corrosion rate and inspection interval calculations should be furnished and made a part of the permanent file.

6.8.4 Repair/ A lteration H istory Includes all data accumulated from initial erection w ith regard to repairs, alterations, replacements, plus data associated w ith service changes (i.e., specific gravity and temperature). Include results of coating-lining experience. 6.9

Reports 6.9.1 Recommended repairs shall include: a. b.

Reason for the repair. Sketches showing location and extent.

6.9.2 General inspection reports shall include: a. b. c. d. e. 6.10

M etal thickness measurements Conditions found Repairs Settlement data Recommendations

N on-D estructi ve Exami nations NDE personnel shall meet the qualifications identified in, but need not be certified in accordance with Appendix D. However, the results must be review ed by an A uthorized Inspector.

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General This section provides general requirements for materials w hen tanks are repaired, altered or reconstructed. (See Section 9 for specific data).


N ew M ateri al s Shall conform to current applicable tank standards.


Ori gi nal M ateri al s f or Reconstructed Tank s 7.3.1 A ll shell plates and bottom plates wel ded to the shell shall be identified. Original contract drawings, A PI nameplate or other suitable documentation do not require further identification. M aterials not identified must be tested.(See


If plates are not identified, subject plate to chemical analysis and mechanical tests, as required in A STM -A6 and A370 (including Charpy V-N otch). A PI-650 impact values must be satisfied. For know n materials, plate properties (at a minimum) must meet chemical and mechanical A PI-650 requirements w ith regard to thickness and design metal temperature. Flanges, fasteners, structural, etc., must meet current standards. Welding consumables must conform to the A WS classification that is applicable.

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N ew Wel d Joi nts a. b.


Must meet applicable standard. Butt-w eld joint w ith complete fusion and penetration.

Exi sti ng Joi nts M ust meet original construction standard.


Shel l D esi gn 8.4.1 When checking design criteria, the "t" for each shell course shall be based on measurements taken w ithin 180 days prior to relocation. 8.4.2 Determining maximum design liquid level for product is determined by: a. b. c. d.


Calculate the maximum liquid level (each course) based on product specific gravity. A ctual "t" measured for each course. M aterial allow able stress for each course. (See Table 3-2 - API-650). Selected design method.

Shel l Penetrati ons 8.5.1 New/ replacement penetrations must be designed, detailed, w elded and examined to meet current applicable standard. 8.5.2 Existing penetrations must be evaluated for compliance w ith the original construction standard.

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General Basis for repair/ alteration shall be equivalent to API-650 standard. 9.1.3 A ll repairs must be authorized by the A uthorized Inspector or an engineer. The A uthorized Inspector will establish hold points. 9.1.4 A ll proposed design, w elding procedures, testing methods, etc., must be approved by the A uthorized Inspector or an engineer. 9.1.5 A ppendix F summarizes the requirements by method of examination and provides the acceptance standards, inspector qualifications, and procedure requirements. This is a good summary of N DT requirements and includes procedures from A PI 650, but it should not be used alone.


Removal and Repl acement - Shel l Pl ate 9.2.1 Thickness of the replacement shell plate shall not be less than the greatest nominal "t" of any plate in the same course adjoining the replacement plate except thickened insert plate. NOTE:


When evaluating plate suitability, any change from the original design condition (i.e., specific gravity, pressure, liquid level and shell height) must be considered.

M i ni mum D i mensi ons of Replacement Shell Pl ate

Twelve inches (12"), or 12 times the "t" of the replacement, w hichever is greater. NOTE:

The replacement plate may be circular, oblong, square with rounded corners or rectangular w ith rounded corners, except when an entire plate is replaced. (See Fig. 9-1 for details).

When replacing entire shell plates, it is permissible to cut and rew eld along the existing hori zontal w eld joints. M aintain weld spacing as per established A PI-650 values. NOTE:

Page 27 of 58 API 653

Pri or to welding the new vertical joints, the existing horizontal weld must be cut for a minimum distance of twelve inches (12") beyond the new vertical joints. A s normal, w eld verticals bef ore roundseams.

Summary , 2005

9.2.3 Wel d Joi nt Desi gn

Replacement Shell Plates - Butt joints with complete penetration and fusion. Fillet w elded lapped patch plates are permitted.

Weld Joint Design a. b. c.

See API-650 ( through Joints in existing lap-w eld shells may be repaired according to original construction standard Weld details - See A PI-650(5.2) and API-653 (Section 11).

Refer to Figure 9-1 for M inimum w eld spacing dimensions. NOTE:

Special requirements for shell plates of unknow n toughness, not meeting the exemption curve for brittle fracture: The new vertical weld must be at least 3 or 5T from bottom joints.

9.3.1 Lapped patch shell repairs are now an acceptable form of repair, API 653, Second Edition, A ddenda 1. Existing patch plates may be evaluated to this Standard.

Lap patches may not be used on plate thicker than 1/ 2" or to replace door sheets.

Lap patch plates are not to be thicker than 1/ 2 or thinner than 3/ 16 .

A ll lap patch plates may be circular, oblong, square, rectangular or meet the nozzle reinforcing plate shapes of API 650.

Lap patch plates may cross w elds. See figure 9-1 for weld spacing details.

Lap patch plates may extend to and intersect with the external shell-to-bottom joint. Internal lap patches shall have 6 toe-to-toe w eld clearance between the patch and the shell-to-bottom w eld.

M aximum size of lap patch plates is 48 x 72 , minimum 4 .

Shell openings are not allow ed w ithin a lapped patch repair.

UT required in the areas to be w elded, searching for plate defects and remaining thickness.

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Repair plates shall not be lapped onto lap-w elded shell seams, riveted shell seams, other lapped patch repair plates, distorted areas, or unrepaired cracks or defects.

9.3.2 Lapped patch plates may be used to close holes.

The lap patch plate must be seal-welded, including the inner perimeter of the hole. The minimum hole diameter is 2 .

Nozzle necks and reinforcing plates shall be entirely removed prior to installation of a repair plate.

The overlap of a repair plate shall not exceed 8 times the shell thickness, minimum overlap is 1 . The minimum repair plate dimension shall be 4 inches.

The repair plate thickness shall not exceed the nominal thickness of the shell plate adjacent to the repair.

9.3.3 Lapped patch plates may be used for thinning shells, below retirement thickness.

Full fillet w eld required on lap patch plates.

9.3.4 Lapped patch repair plates may be used to repair small shell leaks or minimize the potential from leaks.


This repair method shall not be used if exposure of the fillet w elds to the product w ill produce crevice corrosion or if a corrosion cell betw een the shell plate and repair plate is likely to occur.

This repair method shall not be used to repair shell leaks if the presence of product betw een the shell plate and repair plate will prevent gas freeing from the tank to perform hot w ork.

Repai r of Def ecti ve Wel ds 9.6.1 Cracks, lack of fusion and rejectable slag/ porosity require repair. Complete removal by gouging-grinding and the cavity properly prepared for w elding. 9.6.2 Generally, it i s not necessary to remove existing w eld reinforcement in excess of that allow ed in A PI-650.

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9.6.3 Unacceptable weld undercut can be repaired by additional w eld metal (or grinding), as appropriate. NOTE:

M aximum allowable depth of undercut: a. b.

1/ 64" on vertical seams 1/ 32" on horizontal seams

9.6.4 Weld joints that have experienced loss of metal by corrosion may be repaired by w elding. 9.6.5 Arc stri kes Repair by grinding or w elded. If welded, grind flush. 9.7

Repai r of Shel l Penetrati ons 9.7.2 Reinforcing plates may be added but they must meet A PI-650 for dimensions and weld spacing. 9.7.3 Reinforcement plates can be installed to the inside wall, provided that sufficient nozzle projection exists for proper w eld tie-in.


A ddi ti on/Repl acement of Shel l Penetrati ons 9.8.1 The December 1998 A ddenda requires both A PI 653 and A PI 650 requirements be met for shell penetrations. 9.8.2 Penetrations larger than 2" NPS shall be installed w ith the use of an i nsert plate i f the shell "t" is greater than 0.50" and the material does not meet the current design metal temperature criteria. A dditionally, the minimum diameter of the insert plate shall be at least twice the diameter of the penetration or diameter plus twelve inches (12"), whichever is greater.


A l terati on of Exi sti ng Shel l Penetrati ons 9.9.1 A ltered details must comply w ith A PI-650. 9.9.2 New bottom installation (above old bottom) and using the "slotted" method through the shell may not now meet spacing requirements. Options for alternate compliance include the follow ing three (3) items:

Existing reinforcement plate may be "trimmed" to increase the spacing betw een the w elds, provided the modification still meets A PI-650.

Remove existing reinforcement and install a new pad. "Tombstone" shapes are acceptable.

The existing penetration (nozzle and pad) may be removed and the entire assembly relocated to the correct elevation. Page 30 of 58 API 653

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Repai r of Tank Bottoms (Definition see paragraph 3.9)

See figure 9-5 for details for w elded-on patch plates

N o w elding or w eld overlays are permitted w ithin the critical zone, except for w elding of: a. b. c. d. e. d.

Widely scattered pits. Pinholes Cracks in the bottom plates. Shell-to-bottom weld. Welded-on patch plates Replacement of bottom or annular plate.

If more extensive repairs are required w ithin the critical zone (than as listed in, the bottom plate (under the shell) shall be cut out and a new plate installed.

This is a new paragraph that gives the requirements for reinforcement plates.

REV I EW N OTE: Weld Spacing requirements must meet A PI-650 ( and requirements. No 3 plate laps closer than tw elve inches (12") from each other, from the tank shell, from butt w eld annular joints and from joints of the annular ring to normal bottom plates. 9.10.2 Repl acement - Enti re Bottom

N on-corrosive material cushion (i.e., sand, gravel or concrete) 3"-4" thick shall be used between the old and new bottoms.

The shell shall be "slotted" w ith a uniform cut made parallel to the tank bottom.

Voids in the foundation (below the old bottom) shall be filled with sand, crushed limestone, grout or concrete.

Raise elevation of existing penetrations if the new bottom elevation requires a cut through the reinforcement.

On floating roof tanks, keep in mind that the floating roof support legs may require revision to conform to new bottom elevation.

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N ew bearing plates are required for floating roof leg supports and for fixed roof support columns. Column length revisions are also required on fixed roof tanks.

Consider removal of old bottom, or of providing protection from potential galvanic corrosion. NOTE:

See API-RP 651. Also see API-653 (4.4.5.) regarding bottom leak detection.

New w eld joints in the tank bottom or annular ring shall be spaced at least the greater of 3 inches or 5t from existing vertical w eld joints in the bottom shell course.

A ddi ti onal Wel ded-on Pl ates New inspection requirements, plates must be M T or PT if the weld spacing requirements can not be met.


Repai r of Fi xed Roof s and Same criteria as previously noted/ discussed in A PI-650 relative to: a. b. c. d.


External and I nternal Fl oati ng. Roof s a. b.


Plate "t" Roof support structure Loading Roof-to-shell junction

Repair in accordance to original construction drawings. If no original draw ings available, use criteria from A PI-650, A ppendix C and H.

Repai r/Repl acement of Fl oati ng Roof Seal s 9.13.1 Rim mounted seals can be removed, repaired or replaced. Items for consideration are: a. b. c.

M inimize evaporation/ personnel exposure by limiting seal segment removal to 1/ 4 of the seal at one time. Use temporary spacers to keep roof centered. In-service repair may be limited to seal component parts or high positioned vapor seals.

9.13.2 Secondary seals can normally be "in-service" repaired or replaced.

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9.13.3 Seal -to-Shel l Gap Corrective action includes: a. b. c. d. e.

A djusting hanger system or primary shoe seal types. A dding foam filler to toroidal seals. Increasing length of rim mounted secondary seals. Replacement (all or part) of the primary system. A dding a rim extension to install secondary seal.

9.13.4 M echanical Damage: Repair or replace. NOTE:

Buckled parts require replacement, not straightening.

9.13.6 M inimum A llow able roof rim "t" = 0.10" M inimum "t" of new rim plate = 0.1875" 9.14

H ot Taps Installation on existing in-service tanks w ith shell material that does not require post-w eld heat treatment. NOTE:

Connection size and shell "t" limitations are: a. b. c. d.

Six inches (6 ) and small-minimum shell t 0.1875 Eight inches (8") and smaller-minimum shell "t" 0.25" Fourteen inches (14") and smaller-minimum shell "t" 0.375" Eighteen inches (18") and smaller-minimum shell "t" 0.50"

Use low hydrogen electrodes.

H ot taps are not permitted on: a. b.

Tank roof Within the gas/ vapor space of a tank.

9.14.2 H ot Tap Procedure Requirements a. b.

Use customer/ owner developed-documented procedure. If no documentation is available, API Pub. 2201 applies.

9.14.3 Preparatory Work

M inimum spacing in any direction (toe-to-toe of w elds) betw een the hot tap and adjacent nozzles shall be equivalent to the square root of RT (where "R" is tank shell radius, in inches, and "T" is the shell plate "t", in inches.

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Shell plate "t" shall be taken in a minimum of four (4) places along the circumference of the proposed nozzle location.

9.14.5 I nstal l ati on Procedure

Pre-cut pipe nozzle to shell contour and outside bevel for full penetration weld. (See Fig. 9-6, page 9-12 for details).

A fter pipe nozzle is w elded, install the reinforcement (1 piece or 2 pieces). A tw o piece pad requires a horizontal w eld). NOTES:

Full penetration w eld - pad to nozzle. Limit weld heat input as practical.

Upon weld completion: a. b. c.

1. 2.

Conduct NDE as required by procedure. Pneumatically test per API-650 procedure. A fter valve installation, pressure test (at least 1.5 times the hydrostatic head) the nozzle pri or to mounting the hot-tap machine.

Following the hot-tap machine manufacturer's procedure, onl y qualified operators can make the shell cut.

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General 10.1.1 Provides for dismantling and reconstruction of existing welded tanks relocated from their original site. 10.1.2 See Section 12 for hydrostatic and w eld requirements.


D i smantli ng M ethods Cut into any size pieces that are readily transportable to new site. 10.3.2 Bottoms

Deseam lapw elds, or cut alongside existing seams (a minimum of 2" from existing w elds), except w here cuts cross existing w eld seams.

If most of the bottom is to be reused, cut from shell along line A -A (Fig. 10-1), or if enti re bottom is salvaged i ntact, cut shell along line B-B.

10.3.3 Shel l s

Cut shell by one, or a combination, of the follow ing methods: a.

Cuts made to remove existing w elds and H A Z, the minimum H A Z to be removed w ill be one-half of the w eld metal width or 1/ 4 inch, w hich ever is less, on both sides of the weld seam.


A ny shell ring 1/ 2 inch thick or thinner may be dismantled by cutting through the w eld w ithout removing the H A Z.


Cuts made a minimum of 6" aw ay from existing w eld seams, except w here cuts cross existing w elds.

Shell stiffeners, w ind girders and top angles may be left attached to shell or cut at attachment w elds. If temporary attachments are removed, grind area smooth.

Cut shell from bottom plate along line B-B (see Fig. 10-1). The existing shell-to-bottom w eld connection shal l not be reused unl ess the entire bottom is to be salvaged intact.

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10.3.4 Roof s

Cut roof by lapw eld deseaming or alongside (a minimum of 2" from) the remaining w elds.

Roof structure Remove bolts or deseaming at structural w elds.

10.3.5 Pi ece M arki ng

Shell bottom and roof plates M ark prior to dismantling for ready identification and reconstruction placement.


Punch mark (minimum 2 sets) at matching centers located on top and bottom edges of each shell segment for future proper alignment.

Reconstructi on

Welding notes as follows: a. b. c.

Vertical w eld joints should not aligned w ith joints located in bottom plates. No w elding over heat affected zones (from original tank w elds), except w here new joints cross original joints. Refer to Fig. 9-1 for w eld spacing.

Tank and Structural A ttachment Welding Use processes specified in API-650.

Specific welding notes: a.

N o w elding is allow ed when parts to be w elded are w et from rain, snow or ice or w hen rain or snow is falling, or during high wind conditions (unless the work is shielded). Caution this is a common practice and should be avoided.


N o w elding is permitted w hen the base metal is below 0°F.


If the base metal temperature is betw een 0° and 32°F or the metal "t" is in excess of 1", the base metal within 3" of welding shall be pre-heated to approximately 140°F.

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A s normal, each layer of w eld deposit is to be cleaned of slag or other deposits.

A s in A PI-650, the maximum acceptable undercutting is 1/ 64" for vertical butt joints and 1/ 32" for horizontal butt joints.

Same tack w eld provisions as A PI-650, i.e.: a. b.

Vertical , manual tacks - Remove. Vertical, submerged tacks - If sound, clean only.


Tack welds left in place must have been applied by a qualified welder.

If w eldable primer coatings exist, they must be included in procedure qualification tests. NOTE: welding.

A l l other coating must be removed prior to

Low -hydrogen electrodes required on manual metal-arc w elds, including the shell to bottom attachment or annular plate ring.

10.4.3 Bottoms

Weld shell to bottom f i rst (except for door sheets) before w eldout of bottom plates is started.

10.4.4 Shel l s

Same fit-up/ welding procedures and values as allowed in A PI-650 for verti cal joints: a. b.

Over 5/ 8" thick - misalignment shall not exceed 10% of "t" (maximum 0.125"). Under 0.625" thick - misalignment shall not exceed 0.06". N OTE:

Complete vertical w elding before roundseam below is w elded.

H ori zontal j oi nts Upper plate shall not project over low er by more than 20% of upper plate "t"(with 0.125" maximum).

M aterial over 1.50" thick a minimum pre-heat of 200°F is required.

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10.4.5 Roof s There are no special stipulations, except that structural members must be reasonably true to line and surface. 10.5

Di mensi onal Tol erances

A llowable maximum out-of-plumbness (top of shell relative to shell bottom) shall not exceed 1/ 100 of total tank height, w ith a maximum of 5" this dimension also applies to roof columns.

10.5.3 Roundness See values and measurement locations on Table 10-2. 10.5.4 Peaki ng Shall not exceed 0.50". 10.5.5 Bandi ng Shall not exceed 1.00". N OTE: Somew hat more lax than A PI-650. 10.5.6 Foundati ons Same specifications as listed under A PI-650.

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SECTI ON 11 - WELD I NG 11.1

Wel di ng Qual i f i cati ons 11.1.1

Weld procedure specifications (WPS), welders and operators shall be qualified in accordance w ith Section IX of the A SM E Code.


Weldability of steel from existing tanks must be verified. If the material specification is unknown or obsolete, test coupons for the procedure qualification shall be taken from the actual plate to be used. SECTION 12 - EXAM I NA TI ON AN D TESTI NG

NDE shall be performed in accordance with A PI 650, plus A PI 653 supplemental requirements.

Personnel performing NDE shall be qualified in accordance with A PI 650.

A cceptance criteria shall be in accordance with A PI 650. NOTE: A ppendix "F" is not mentioned.

A ppendix G is mentioned fro qualifying personnel and procedures when using M FL.

12.1.2 Shel l Penetrati ons

UT lamination check required for: a. b.

A dding reinforcement plate to an unreinforced penetration. Installing a hot-tap connection.

Cavities from gouging or grinding to remove reinforcement pad w elds require either a magnetic particle or liquid penetrant test.

Completed welds attaching nozzle to shell or pad to shell and nozzle neck shall be examined by a magnetic particle or liquid penetrate test. Consideration should be given for extra NDE on hot taps.

Complete w elds in stress relieved components require magnetic particle or liquid penetrate testing (after stress relief, but before hydrostatic test).

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12.1.3 Repai red Wel d Fl aws

Cavities from gouging or grinding to remove w eld defects shall be either a magnetic particle or liquid penetrate tested.

Completed repair of butt w el ds shall be examined over their f ul l l ength by UT or radiographic methods.

12.1.4 Temporary and Permanent Attachments to Shell Pl ates

A ground area resulting from the removal of attachments requires a visual test.

Completed w elds on permanent attachments shall be examined by M T or PT, groups IV-VI, excluding the shell to bottom w eld.

12.1.5 Shel l -to-Shel l Pl ate Wel ds New welds attaching shell plate to shell plate require visual and radiographic examination. A dditionally, plate greater than 1", the backgouged surface of root pass and final pass (each side) shall be examined over its full length by a magnetic particle or liquid penetrate test.

New welds on new shell plate to new shell plate are to be examined and radiographed to A PI 650.

12.1.6 Shel l -to Bottom


Joints shall be inspected over its entire length by a right angle vacuum box and a solution film, or by applying light diesel oil. ( Diesel test technique).

A n air pressure test may be used to check the shell-tobottom w eld.

(New Paragraph) deals with lap w elded shell patches.

Radi ographs Number and location - Same as API-650, pl us the follow ing additional requirements:

V erti cal Joi nts a. b. c.

New plate to new plate: Same as A PI 650. New plate to existing plate: Same as A PI 650, plus one (1) additional radiograph. Existing plate to existing plate: Same as A PI 650, plus one (1) additional radiograph.

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Hori zontal Joi nts a. b. c.

N ew plate to new plate: Same as A PI 650. N ew plate to existing plate: Same as A PI 650, plus one (1) additional radiograph for each 50 feet of horizontal weld. Existing plate to existing plate: Same as A PI 650, plus one (1) additional radiograph for each 50 of horizontal w eld..

I ntersecti ons a. b. c.

N ew plate to new plate: Same as A PI 650. N ew plate to existing plate: Shall be radiographed. Existing plate to existing plate: Shall be radiographed.

Each butt-weld annular plate joint - Per A PI-650.

For reconstructed tanks 25 percent of all junctions shall be radiographed.

New and replaced shell plate or door sheet welds:

Circular - M inimum one (1) radiograph

Square or Rectangular:

One (1) in vertical, one (1) in horizontal, one (1) in each corner. NOTE:

A ll junctions between repair and existing w eld shall be radiographed. If defects are found, 100% is required on weld repair area.

For penetrations installed using insert plates as described in 9.8.2, the completed butt welds between the insert plate and the shell plate shall be fully radiographed.

12.2.2 Cri teri a A cceptance If a radiograph of an intersection between new and old w eld detects unacceptable flaw s (by current standards) the weld may be evaluated according to the original construction standard.

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Hydrostati c Testi ng

A full hydrostatic test, held for 24 hours, is required on: a. b.


A reconstructed tank. A ny tank that has had major repairs or alterations (See unless exempted by 12.3.2 for the applicable combination of materials, design and construction features. A tank w here an engineering evaluation indicates the need for the hydrostatic test.

M ajor Repair/ A lteration Operations that require cutting, addition, removal and/ or replacement of annular plate ring, shell to bottom w eld or a sizable shell segment. M aj or w ould therefore include: a.

The installation of any shell penetration (beneath the design liquid level) larger than 12" or any bottom penetration within 12" of the shell.


A ny shell plate (beneath design liquid level) or any annular plate w here the l ongest dimension of plate exceeds 12".


The complete or partial ( more than "1/ 2 t" of the w eld thickness) or more than 12" of vertical seams, or radial annular plate w elds.


New bottom installation if the foundation under the new bottom is not disturbed. 1. 2.


The Annular ring remains intact The welding repair does not result in w elding on the existing bottom w ithin the critical zone.

Partial of complete jacking of a tank shell.

12.3.2 Hydrostatic not Required Conditions

A full hydrostatic test of the tank is not required for major repairs and major alterations w hen: a. b.

The repair has been review ed and approved by an engineer, in w riting. The tank owner or operator has authorized the exemption in writing.

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Shel l Repai r

Weld procedures for shell repair must include impact testing.

N ew requirements, new shell materials must A PI 650 7th edition or later, must meet requirements for brittle fracture, stress must not be more than 7,000 psi as calculated from the new formula given in this paragraph. S = 2.6 H D G t S= H= t= D= G=

N ew radiography requirements, the finished weld in the shell plates shall be fully radiographed.

A big change in this section, door sheets shall comply w ith the requirements for shell plate installation, except they shall not extend to or intersect the bottom-to-shell joint.

Bottom Repai r Wi thi n the Cri ti cal Zone 12.5

shell stress in pounds per square foot tank fill height above the bottom of repairs or alteration in feet shell thickness at area of interest in inches tank mean diameter in feet specific gravity of product

N ow allow s UT to be used on annular plate butt w elds

M easured Settl ement (D uri ng Hydro)

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When settlement is anticipated, the tank being hydrotested must have a settlement survey.

Summary , 2005

I ni ti al Settl ement Survey: With tank empty, using the number of bottom plate projections as elevation measuring points (N), uniformly distributed around the circumference. FORM ULA: N=D/ 10 Where: a.





minimum number of measurement points (not less than 8). The M aximum spacing betw een measurement points shall be 32 feet. tank diameter (in feet). See Appendix B for evaluation and acceptance.

12.5.2 Survey Duri ng H ydro M easure at increments during filing and at 100% test level. NOTE:

Excessive settlement (per A ppendix B) shall be cause to stop test, investigate and/ or repair.

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SECTI ON 13 - M A RK I NG AN D RECORD K EEPI NG 13.1.1 A PI-653 reconstructed tanks require nameplate w ith letters and numerals must be a minimum of 5/ 32" high. The following information is required a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m.

Reconstructed to A PI-653. Edition/ revision number. Year reconstruction completed. If know n, the original applicable standard and original date. Nominal diameter Nominal height. Design specific gravity of product stored. Maximum permissible operating liquid level. Contractor's serial and/ or contract number. Ow ner/ operator identification number. M aterial for each shell course. M aximum operating temperature. A llow able stress used in calculations for each course.

13.1.2 N ew nameplate Shall be attached to the tank shell adjacent to existing nameplate. 13.2

Record k eepi ng Tanks evaluated, repaired, altered or reconstructed to A PI-653 require the following ow ner/ operator records: a. b. c.

Component integrity evaluation, including brittle fracture considerations. Re-rating data (including liquid level). Repair and alteration considerations.

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A dditional support data including, but not limited to, information pertaining to: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m.


Inspections (including "t" measurements). M aterial test reports/ certifications. Tests. Radiographs (to be retained for at least one year). Brittle fracture considerations. Original construction data. Location and identification (ow ner/ operator number, serial number). Description of tank (diameter, height and service). Design conditions (i.e., liquid level, specific gravity, stress and loading). Shell material and thickness (by course). Tank perimeter elevations. Construction completion record. Basis for hydrostatic test exemption

Certi f i cati on Documentation of reconstruction in accordance with A PI-653 is required. (See Fig. 13-2). APPEND IX B EV ALUATI ON OF TAN K BOTTOM SETTLEM ENT B.1.1 Common methods to monitor potential problem: a. b. c.

Initial settlement survey, at erection and hydro. Planned frequency, per soil settlement predictions For existing tanks (w ith no settlement history), monitoring should be based on visual observations and prior service history.

B.1.2 Excessive settlement requires evaluation/ interpretation of survey data. Tank should be emptied and releveling repair conducted.

B.1.3 Correcting shell and bottom settlement problems include the follow ing techniques: a. b. c.


Localized bottom plate repair. Partial releveling of tank periphery. M ajor releveling of shell and bottom.

Types of Settl ement Page 46 of 58 API 653

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B.2.1 Elevation measurements around the circumference and across the tank diameter are the best method for evaluating shell and bottom settlement problems. Local depressions may require other techniques. B.2.2 Shell Settlement Evaluation Tank settlement results from either one or a combination of the follow ing three (3) settlement components: B.2.2.1

Uniform settlement. M ay vary in magnitude, depending on soil characteristics. It is the l east severe or threatening settlement problem. It does not introduce stress in tank structure, but does present a potenti al problem for piping, nozzles and attachments.


Planar Tilt (rigid body tilting). Rotates the tank in a tilted plane. This tilt will cause an increase in the liquid level and an increase in the shell hoop* stress. Can also cause binding of peripheral seals in a floating roof and inhibit roof travel. This may be visible in the form of elongation of top shell ring in floating roof tanks. Can affect tank nozzles that have piping attached to them.


Differential Settlement (out of plane). Due to a tank shell being a rather flexible structure, non-planer configuration type settlement often occurs. Potential Problems: a. b. c. d. e.


Increased stress levels. Elongation of upper shell. Floating roof travel interference and potential seal damage or roof "hang-up". Development of shell flat spots. High nozzle/ piping stress levels.

Uniform and rigid body tilt can cause problems as noted, overall integrity of the shell and bottom are more likely to be impacted by differential settlement. Therefore, this type problem becomes very important to determine severity and evaluate properly. Common approach for settlement survey: a. b. c.

Obtain transit survey from the correct number of evenly spaced points. Determine magnitude of uniform and rigid body tilt from each point on tank periphery. Develop a graphic line point representation of the involved data.

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Develop values (show ing elevation differences) by comparing transit measurement readings by use of provided decimal chart. A stress analysis method is now included in this paragraph.

Refer to B.3.2 for method of determining acceptable settlement condition or values.

B.2.3 Edge settl ement B.2.3.1

Occurs w hen tank shell settles sharply around the periphery, resulting in deformation of the bottom plate near the shell junction. (See Fig. B-4 for pictorial view).

B.2.5 Local i zed Bottom Settl ement (Remote f rom Shel l ) B.2.5.1

Depressions/ bulged that occur in a random matter, remote from shell.


A cceptability dependent upon: a. b. c.

Localized bottom plate stresses. Design/ quality of lap welds. Void severity below the bottom plate.



1. 2.

N ot normally seen as extreme problem. When occurring, normally associated w ith new tank w here no or insufficient load bearing soil test borings have been made.

Determi nation of Acceptabl e Settl ement B.3.1 General Greater settlement may be acceptable in tanks w ith a successful service history than new construction standards allow . Each condition must be evaluated, based on service conditions, construction materials, soil characteristics, foundation design and prior service history.

B.3.2 Shel l Settl ement Determine the maximum out-of-plane deflection. The formula for calculating the maximum permissible deflection is shown on page B-4. Requires technical assistance.

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Repai rs If conditions beyond acceptable conditions are found, a rigorous stress analysis should be performed to evaluate the deformed profile, or repairs conducted. Various repair techniques are acceptable. (See Section 9.10 for helpful details). Several new figures have been added to A ppendix B, how ever the bases for the new figures and requirements have been challenged. There is no bases for the information in the figures.. The user is left to his ow n devices as how to use this information. A PPENDI X C CHECK LI STS FOR TAN K IN SPECTI ON

Tables C-1 and C-2 are sample checklists illustrating tank components and auxiliary items that deserve consideration during internal/ external inspections. Use these as guidance items only. Numerous items need not be checked by the inspector, but rather by plant personnel. Tabl e C-1 (In Service Inspection checklist) includes 111 separate items. Tabl e C-2 (Out-of-Service Inspection Checklist) includes 248 separate items. APPEN DI X D A UTH ORI ZED I N SPECTOR CERTI FI CA TI ON This A ppendix was rewritten in the 4th A ddenda to API 653. D .1

Written exam. based on the current A PI 653 Body of Knowledge.

D .2

Educational requirements for the A PI 653 A uthorized Inspector.

D .5

Recertification requirements for the A PI 653 A uthorized Inspector. D .5.3 The requirements for re-examination are listed, after two re-certifications, 6 years, each inspector shall demonstrate know ledge of revisions to A PI 653. APPEN DI X E TECH N ICA L I N QUI RI ES

This section is a listing of how to contact the API 653 committee. The Technical Inquiry Responses have also been listed, but are not a part of the exam. This information is useful in actual application of API 653.

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A PPENDI X F N DE REQUIREM EN TS SUM M ARY This section is a summary of the requirements for NDE personnel and procedures, API 650, A SM E Section V and VIII, and A SNT are listed. This is a very good section that w ill be useful to the user. APPENDI X G QUA LIFI CA TI ON OF TA NK BOTTOM EXA M IN A TI ON PROCEDURES AND PERSONNEL This appendix w as established in the first addenda to edition three of A PI 653 and outlines procedure and qualifications for floor scanning, G.2 Def i ni ti ons G.2.1 essenti al vari abl es: Variables in the procedure that cannot be changed w ithout the procedure and scanning operators being re-qualified. G.2.2 exami ners: Scanning operators and NDE technicians w ho prove-up bottom indications. G.2.3 bottom scan: The use of equipment over large portions of the tank bottom to detect corrosion in a tank bottom. One common type of bottom scanning equipment is the M agnetic Flux Leakage (M FL) scanner. G 2.4 authori zed i nspecti on agency: Organizations that employ an aboveground storage tank inspector certified by A PI (see 3.4). G.2.5 non-essenti al vari abl es: Variables in the procedure that can be changed w ithout having to re-qualify the procedure and/ or scanning operators. G.2.6 qual i f i cati on test: The demonstration test that is used to prove that a procedure or examiner can successfully find and prove-up tank bottom metal loss.

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G.2.7 scanni ng operator (or operator): The individual that operates bottomscanning equipment. G.2.8 si zi ng (or prove-up): The activity that is used to accurately determine the remaining bottom thickness in areas w here indications are found by the bottom scanning equipment. This is often accomplished using the UT method. G.2.9 tank bottom exami nati on: The examination of a tank bottom using special equipment to determine the remaining thickness of the tank bottom. It includes both the detection and proveup of the indications. It does not include the visual examination that is included in the internal inspection. G.2.10 tank bottom exami nation procedure (TBP): A qualified w ritten procedure that addresses the essential and non-essential variables for the tank bottom examination. The procedure can include multiple methods and tools, i.e., bottom scanner, hand scanner, and UT prove-up.

Summary , 2005

G.2.11 tank bottom examiner qual i f i cati on record (TBEQ): A record of the qualification test for a specific scanning operator. This record must contain the data for all essential variables and the results of the qualification test. G.2.12 tank bottom procedure qual i f i cati on record (TBPQ): A record of the qualification test for a tank bottom examination procedure. This

record must contain the data for all essential variables and the results of the qualification test. G.2.13 vari abl es or procedure vari abl es: The specific data in a procedure that provides direction and limitations to the scanning operator. Examples include; plate thickness, overlap of adjacent bottom scans, scanning speed, equipment settings. ect.


A n explanation of Tank Bottom Examination procedures


Requirements for Tank Bottom Examiners


Qualification Testing, including test plates, standards and variables.

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In case of conflict between API-12C, A PI-650 and A PI-653 standards involving "in-service" A ST's, w hich of the three codes w ill govern? a. b. c.


Which of the following have the ultimate responsibility for complying with API-653 standard provisions? a. b. c. d.


On-site Inspector Contractor Involved Ow ner/ operator of equipment Relevant State or Federal A gency

Internal pressures inside tanks may vary. Which of the following pressures represent the maximum amount and is still considered to be atmospheric storage? a. b. c. d.


A PI-12C API-650 API-653

3 oz. psig 1.0 lb. psig 1.5 lb. psig 2.5 lb. psig

What is the joint efficiency of a lap riveted joint w ith one (1) row of rivets? a. b. c. d.

45% 60% 75% 80% Page 52 of 58 API 653

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A ll prior reported brittle fracture tank failures have occurred under which of the follow ing conditions/ situations? a. b. c. d.


When external UT "t" measurements are used to determine a rate of general, uniform corrosion (relevant to shell integrity) w hich of the follow ing values cannot be exceeded? a. b. c. d.


10 years maximum 20 years maximum 5 years (after commissioning), or at 5 year intervals (w here corrosion rate is not know n). Five years or RCA / 4N , w hichever is more.

What primary factor determines the interval betw een internal and external inspections? a. b. c. d.


A tmospheric temperature of 20°F or low er. During a hydro test w here the test w ater w as 50°F or colder. Shortly after erection, follow ing a repair/ alteration, first cold w eather filling or change to low er temperature service. Where a testing medium other than w ater was used.

Jurisdictional regulations Tank service history, unless special reasons indicate an earlier inspection is required. Know n (or suspected) corrosion activity of product. Change of service to a product w ith a specific gravity 10% higher than prior stored product.

What is the mi ni mum dimension for a shell ring replacement piece or segment? a. b. c. d.

The actual area requiring renew al, plus 6" on all four surrounding sides. 12" or 12 times the "t" of the replacement plate, w hichever is greater. 10% of the individual ring segment involved. 20% of the individual ring segment involved.

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Which of the areas described below are considered to be the "cri ti cal zone" involving tank bottom repair? a. b. c. d.


Select the mi ni mum number of "t" measurements required (along the circumference of any proposed "hot-tap" nozzle location): a. b. c. d.


One (1) on horizontal centerline (3" from edge) on each side of proposed shell opening cut. Four (4) Eight (8) Establishment of both a minimum and average "t" over the entire nozzle installation area.

What type of contour cut (if any) and w hat degree of bevel (if any) is required on the nozzle "barrel" end that is to be joined to shell during a "hot-tap". a. b. c. d.


Within the annular ring, w ithin 12" of shell, or within 12" of inside edge of annular plate ring. A ny area where 3 plate laps are located Within 36" (measured vertically) from any shell penetration above. Within 3" from the shell on the bottom plates

No contour cut required, 30° outside bevel. No contour cut required, 45° outside bevel. Cut to shell contour and outside beveled for full penetration attachment weld. No contour cut required. 1/ 8" corner radius (minimum).

When reconstructing tank shells w ith a material "t" exceeding 1.50", w hat minimum pre-heat is specified? a. b. c. d.

No preheat required, if air temperature exceeds 70°F. 200°F. 225°F. 300°F.

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In re-erecting a tank shell, w hat length "sw eep-board" and w hat are maximum allow able values for weld seam peaking? a. b. c. d.


Welding procedure Specs (WPS) are established in Section 11 of A PI-653. Welders/ operators must be qual i f i ed in accordance w ith which of the codes listed. a. b. c. d.


0.50" (1/ 2") with 36" horizontal sweep board? 0.25" (1/ 4") on verticals; 0.50" (1/ 2") on horizontal with 36" board 0.75" (3/ 4") w ith 48" board. 1.00" (1") w ith 48" board.

AWS Section V ASM E Section VIII A SM E Section IX ASME

A PI-653 (Section 12) requires greater radiographic examination of tank shell w elds than does A PI-650. Relevant to new or repai red vertical joints in existing shell plates, how many radiographs are required? a. b. c. d.

Tw ice those required by A PI-650. A PI 650 requirements plus one (1) in every joint. One (1) for each w elder or operator involved on each ring. Tw o (2) for each w elder or operator involved on each ring for all plate thicknesses.

The f ol l ow i ng i nf ormati on appl i es f or questi ons 16 through 20 bel ow : A n internal inspection is performed on an aboveground storage tank 44 feet tall, 40 foot fill height, 112 feet diameter, light oil (specific gravity = 1) service, sand pad w ith a reinforced concrete ring w all foundation. There is one area of general corrosion on the north side of the shell 38 inches w ide and 20 inches tall. (The tank was built to A PI 650, 7th Edition). 16.

Calculate the minimum thickness for the first course based on product alone. a. b. c. d.

7/ 3/ 5/ 1/

8" 4" 8" 2" Page 55 of 58 API 653

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Calculate the "L" length for an area of general corrosion found ten feet from the bottom on the north side of the shell, t 2 = .125 inches. a. b. c. d.


There are four pits lined vertically on the south side of the tank in the first course. The pits measure 1", 1.250", 1." and .500" in length along a vertical line 8" long. The pit depth is approximately 0.255" each. a. b. c. d.


A repair is required. Because of the vertical pits, no repair is required. If the pit depth is only .130 inches the pits may be ignored. Scattered pits may be ignored.

A bulge is found on the tank floor, the diameter of the bulge is 30 inches, w hat is the maximum permissible height for the bulge? a. b. c. d.


3.7" 10" 13.84" 40"

11.1" .463" .962 1.11"

A n area of edge settlement in the tank bottom 6 feet from the tank shell has sloped down and settled. The settlement measures 2 inches at the deepest point. The edge settlement area has bottom lap w elds approximately parallel to the shell. a. b. c. d.

A more rigorous stress analysis must be performed. The area must be repaired. Sloped edge settlement is usually no problem The area should be documented and checked during the next inspection.

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A PI 653 CODE QUI Z ANSWER K EY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

c c d a c c b b d b c b a d b d

{Paragraph 1.1.2 page 1-1} {Paragraph 1.2 page 1-1} {Paragraph 3.3 page 3-1} {Table 4-3 page 4-7} {Paragraph 5.2.1 page 5-1} {Paragraph (b) page 6-1 and 6-2} {Paragraph 6.2.2 page 6-1} {Paragraph page 9-1} {Paragraph 3.9 page 3-1} {Paragraph page 9-11} {Paragraph page 9-11} {Paragraph page 10-3} {Paragraph 10.5.4 page 10-3} {Paragraph 11.1.1 page 11-1} {Paragraph page 12-2} (1/ 2") {Paragraph 4.3.3 page 4-3} t min = 2.6 (H-1) DG SE D = 112 H = 40 G=1 t min = ? S = 23,600 E= 1 t min =

2.6 (40-1) (112) (1) 23,600 t min =

11,356.8 23,600

t min = .481 inches (rounded to 1/ 2 inch)

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L = 3.7

(13.84") (Paragraph Page 4-2) Dt2 L = 3.7 (112)(.125) L = 3.7


L - 3.7(3.74)

L = 13.84 inches

18. a (A repair is required.) Paragraph4.3.2.2 Page 4-3) A dd the pit diameters 1 + 1.25 + 1 + .500 = 3.75 (M ore than allow ed in an 8 area) The pit depth exceeds one-half the minimum acceptable tank shell thickness. 19. b (.463") (Paragraph B.3.3 Page B7) R = Diameter divided by 2, in feet, 30 divided by 2 - 15 divided by 12 = 1.25 feet. B = .37R B = .37 (1.25) B = .463 inches 20.


(The area should be documented and checked during the next inspection.) Figure B-10 Using figure B-10 the area is acceptable, it should be documented.

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Section 2 API Standard 650 Summary

A PI STA NDA RD 650 WELDED STEEL TA NKS FOR OI L STORA GE Tenth Edi ti on, N ovember, 1998 Addendum 1, January, 2000 Addendum 2, November, 2001 Addendum 3, September 2003 SECTI ON 1 - SCOPE 1.1

General 1.1.1 This standard covers material, design, fabrication, erection and testing requirements for vertical, cylindrical, aboveground, closed and open-top, welded steel storage tanks in various sizes and capacities for internal pressures approximating atmospheric pressure. NOTE 1:

This standard covers only tanks w hose entire bottom is uniformly supported and only tanks in non-refrigerated service that have a maximum operating temperature of 200° F.


A bullet ( ) at the beginning of a paragraph indicates that there is an expressed decision or action required of the purchaser.


Listed below apply to specifics that most often apply to new tank erections w hereby Inspector know ledge must be reasonably thorough.

1.1.3 The purchaser will specify SI dimensions or US customary dimensions. 1.1.6 A ppendi x B: Design and construction of foundations under flat bottom oil storage tanks. 1.1.7 A ppendi x C: Requirements for pan-type, pontoon-type and double decktype external floating roofs. 1.1.12 A ppendi x H: Requirements for an internal roof in a tank that has a fixed roof at the top of the tank shell. 1.1.14 A ppendi x J: Requirements covering the complete shop assembly of tanks not more than 20 feet in diameter. 1.1.15 A ppendi x K: A n example of the application of the variable-design-point method to determine shell-plate thickness. NOTE:

In larger tanks (over 200 feet in diameter), use of higher tensile strength steel, plus increased N DE procedures reduces plate "t". 1.1.17 A ppendi x M : Requirements for elevated temperature product storage up

Page of 1 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

to 500° F. NOTE:

A ppendixes A , D, E, F, L, N, O and P cover requirements on specifics that apply much less frequently from an inspection perspective.

1.1.21 Appendi x S: Requirements for the construction of austenitic stainless steel tanks. 1.1.22 A ppendi x T: Requirements for inspection (summary). 1.1.23 Appendi x U: Requirements for UT examination, in lieu of radiography. 1.2

Limitati ons a. A PI 650 stops at the face of the first flange. b. A PI 650 stops at the first sealing surface. c. A PI 650 stops at the first threaded connection. d. API 650 stops at the first circumferential w eld. SECTI ON 2: M A TERI A LS


General M ateri al Requi rements

Refer to 2.2.2 A STM Standards for acceptable tank steel plate requirements.

Plate for shells, roofs and bottoms may be on an edgethickness basis or on a w eight (pounds per square foot) basis. Example: 3/ 16" plate (0.1875" or 7.65 lbs.) or 1/ 4" plate (0.250" or 10.4 lbs.), etc.

Whether an edge-thickness or a weight basis is used, an underrun of not more than 0.01" from the computed design thickness or the minimum permitted thickness is acceptable.


M ost common plates used: 1. 2. 3.

ASTM A-283 Gr. C ASTM A-36 Alternate Design Basis (A DB) tanks (See Appendix K) require higher tensile strength material.

2.2.2 New ASTM specification used.

2.2.8 Special plate requirement or testing:

Page of 2 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

a. Customer may require a set of charpy v-notch impact specimens. b. Special toughness requirements may be specified. Normal design metal temperature shall be assumed to be 15°F above the lowest 1-day mean ambient temperature in the locality w here the tank is to be installed. (See Fig. 2-2).

Plate used to reinforce shell openings shall be of the same material as the shell plate to which it is attached. NOTE: 2.8

A lso must be at l east as thick as primary plate! Shell nozzles and manw ay materials shall be equal or greater yield and tensile strength and shall be compatible w ith the shell material.

The manufacturer must furnish mill test data, including the required toughness at design metal temperature.

Wel di ng El ectrodes For w elding materials w ith a minimum tensile strength less than 80 kips per square inch, manual arc-w elding electrodes shall conform to the E60 and E70 series, A WS 5.1. SECTI ON 3: DESI GN


Joi nts (Tank D esi gn) 3.1.1- No detailed discussion. Be know ledgeable about the eight (8) types listed.

Tack welds are not considered as having any strength value in the finished structure.

On plates 3/ 16" thick, a full fillet weld is required. On plates thicker than 3/ 16", the weld shall not be l ess than one-third the "t" of the thinner plate at the joint, with minimum of 3/ 16".

Single lap w elds - bottom and roof plates only.

Lap-weld joints shall be lapped not less than "5t" of the thinner plate, but need not exceed 1".

3.1.4 A WS weld symbols are required on draw ings.

V erti cal Shel l Joi nts

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Verticals shall be butt joints w ith complete penetration and fusion that w ill provide the same quality of deposited metal on both outside and inside weld surfaces.


Vertical joints (in adjacent shell courses) shall not be in alignment. A n off-set from each other of "5t"(w here "t" is the thickest course at the point of offset).

H ori zontal shel l j oi nts Same criteria as for verticals above, except that top angles may be double-lap welded.

Lap-w el ded Bottom Joi nts a.

3-plate laps shall not be closer than 12" from each other, from the tank shell, from butt-w elded annular plate joints and from joints between annular plate and bottom.


Welded on top side only (full fillet only).


On other than annular (doughnut) rings the plate under the shell must have the outer end of the joint fitted and w elded to form a smooth bearing for the shell plate. Note: Called a "BREAK -OVER." (Fig 3.3.b)


Butt-w el d bottom j oi nts (i.e., normally annular ring) a. b. c. d.

Parallel edges - either square or v-grove beveled. If square, root opening not less than 1/ 4". M inimum 1/ 8" thick back-up strip required. A 12" minimum space from each other or tank shell also applies.

A nnul ar ri ng j oi nts - complete penetration and fusion NOTE:

A 2" minimum projection beyond outside edge of shell (i.e., bottom extension). See Par. 3.5.2).

Shel l -to-Bottom Fi l l et Wel ds a. b.

When annular plates are used or required, butt welding is required with a mi nimum distance of 24" betw een shell and any bottom lap seam.

If shell is 1/ 2" thick or less - Fillets not more than 1/ 2" or less than the nominal "t" of the thi nner plate joined. Two (2) weld passes (minimum) are required.

Roof and Top-A ngl e Joi nts

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a. b.

Welded top side only with continuous full-fillet. Butt w elds are also permitted. Top angle (horizontal leg) may extend either inside or outside.

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3.2.5 Tank Capaci ty Three new paragraphs that describe the requirements for stating the capacity for a new tank. 3.4

Bottom Pl ates a. b.


Annul ar Bottom Pl ates a. b.


A minimum nominal "t" of 1/ 4" (10.2 lbs. per sq. ft.), exclusive of any corrosion allow ance (CA ). A 1" minimum w idth to project beyond outside edge of shell, on lap w eld bottoms (i.e., bottom extension).

A nnular bottom plates must be 24 inches w ide. A 2 inch projection beyond the outside of the shell.

Shel l D esi gn Shell designed on basis that tank is filled to a level "H" (fill level) with a specific gravity (SG) product value furnished by customer. NOTE:

Normally designed to be filled w ith w ater (i.e., SG of 1.0).

M anufacturer must furnish drawing that lists: a. b. c. d.

Required shell "t" (including CA) for design product and hydro test. Nominal "t" used, (i.e.; shell "t" as constructed). Material specification. A llow able stresses.

3.6.2 A llowable Stress - Be familiar with Table 3-2 for plate specifications, yield/ tensile strength and stress involved. NOTE:

A STM A -283, A -285 (GR. C.) and A-36 are the most common.

3.6.3 One Foot M ethod - Calculates the "t" required at design points 1 foot above the bottom of each shell course. *N ot allow ed for shells greater than 200 feet in diameter. Formul a: t d = 2.6D(H -1)G + CA (Design Shell Thickness) Sd Formula: t t = 2.6D(H-1) St NOTE:

See for details as to actual values or relationship of items show n in the formula above.

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Shel l Openi ngs

M anw ay necks, nozzle necks and shell plate openings shall be uniform and smooth, w ith the corners rounded, except w here the surfaces are fully covered by attachment w elds. NOTE:

1/ 8" corner radius for 2" and smaller nozzle. 1/ 4" corner radius for larger nozzle sizes.

No reinforcement required for nozzles 2" and smaller.

By design, nozzle necks (i.e., outside extension, w ithin the shell plate "t" and inside extension) may provide the necessary reinforcement. NOTE:

For manw ay and nozzle design values/ fabrication details, be familiar w ith and able to select the proper values from the following data sheets: 1. 2.

Fig. 3-4A , 3-4B, 3-5 and 3-6. Tables 3-3, 3-4, 3-5, 3-6, 3-7, 3-8, 3-9 and 3-10.

3.7.3 Spacing of Welds A round Connections This paragraph and the next three paragraphs confuse the w eld spacing issue. A great deal of confusion has been relieved w ith the addition of figure 3-22, minimum weld requirements for openings in shells according to section 3.7.3, see page 3-49.


Paragraphs on stress relief of materials.

H old times for stress relieving temperatures.

Shel l A ttachments (i.e., surface items such as angles, clips and stair treads).

Permanent attachment w elds shall not be closer than 3" from horizontal shell joint seams, nor closer than 6" from vertical joints, insert-plate joints or reinforcement-plate fillet w elds.

3.8.5 Roof N ozzles - See Fig. 3-12, 3-13 and 3-14. NOTE:

Remember note on bottom of Fig. 3-14. "When the roof nozzle is used for venti ng, the neck shall be trimmed flush w ith the roof line".

3.9.6 Primary/ Secondary Wind Girders or Stiffeners: and 3.9.7 See Fig. 3-17 for typical stiffening ring sections.

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NOTE: 3.10

Intermediate wind girders cannot be attached w ithin 6" of a horizontal shell joint.

Roof s 3.10.1 Refer to fixed roof types.

Roofs and structure designed to support dead load (i.e., roof deck and appurtenances), plus a uniform live load of not less than 25 lbs. per sq. ft. of projected area.

Roof plates - minimum nominal "t" of 3/ 16" (7.65 lbs. per sq. ft., 0.180" plate or 7 gauge sheet). NOTE:

Self-supported roofs may require thicker plate.

Supported cone roof plates shal l not be attached to the supporting members.

Internal-External structural members must have a minimum nominal "t" (in any component) of 0.17".

Roof plate weld attachment to top angle. NOTE:

Refer to Glossary, Frangible Joint, Items "a, b and c" -See weld size restrictions/ conditions. (3/ 16")

Frangible roof general information.

Roof plates may be stiffened by w elded sections, but not connected to girders-rafters.

Supported cone roofs slope 3/ 4" in 12" (or greater).

Rafters shall be spaced so that in the outer ring, their centers are not more than 2 ft. (6.28 feet), measured along the circumference. The maximum spacing for inner ring rafters (i.e., "Jack" rafters) is 5.5 feet. NOTE:

In earthquake zones, w here specified, 3/ 4" diameter tie rods (or equivalent) shall be placed betw een the outer ring rafters (i.e., "Long" rafters). Not necessary if "I" or "H " sections are used as rafters.

Roof Col umns Structural shapes or steel pipe is acceptable. If pipe, it must be sealed (or provisions for draining or venting made).

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Raf ter and Col umn Base Cl i ps a. b. c.


Outer row rafter clips - w elded to tank shell. Column-base clip guides - welded to tank bottom to prevent lateral shift. Other structural attachments - welded, bolted or riveted.

Wi nd Load on Tank s (Overturni ng Stabi l i ty) 3.11.1 Where specified, overturn stability values are and the w ind load (or pressure) shall be assumed to be: a. b. c.

Vertical plane surfaces - 30 lbs. per sq. foot. Projected areas - Cylindrical surfaces - 18 lbs. Conical-double curved surfaces - 15 lbs.


A ll based on w ind velocity of 100 m.p.h.

3.12.3 A nchor spacing - maximum of 10 feet apart. SECTI ON 4 - FA BRI CA TI ON 4.1

Fabri cati on (General )

When material requires straightening: a. b.

Pressing or non-injurious method required (prior to any layout or shaping). H eating or hammering not permitted, unless heated to a forging temperature. SECTI ON 5 - ERECTI ON


Erecti on (General ) 5.1.1 Subgrade shall be uniform and level (unless otherwise specified) i.e., sloped (1 w ay) bottoms. 5.1.5 Erection lugs shall be removed, noticeable projections or weld metal removed, torn or gouge areas repaired.

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Wel di ng (General )

A cceptabl e wel d processes a. b. c. d. e. f.

Shielded metal-arc Gas metal-arc Flux-cored arc Submerged-arc Electroslag Electrogas

M ay be performed manually, automatically or semiautomatically. Complete fusion w ith base metal required. NOTE:

Procedures described in ASME Section IX.

Wel di ng prohi bi ted w hen: a. b. c. d.

Surfaces are w et or moisture falling on surfaces. During high winds (unless shielded). When base metal temperature is less than 0° F. Base metal temperature is between 0° - 32° F and "t" exceeds 1 1/ 4" pre-heat of metal w ithin 3" of weld is required.

M ultilayer welds require slag and other deposit removal before next layer applied.

A ll w eld edges must merge w ith plate surface without a sharp angle. a. b.

Maximum acceptable undercut - 1/ 64" (0.016") vertical butt joints. M aximum acceptable undercut - 1/ 32" (0.031") horizontal butt joints.

Tack w elds, used in vertical joints, shal l be removed and not remain in finished joint - when manual l y wel ded. If sound, cleaned and fused, tack w elds can remain when the submerged-arc process is used.

Low -hydrogen electrodes shall be used for manual metal-arc welds, including shell to bottom junction for all shell courses over 0.5" thick of Group I-III material.

Stud w elding is recognized.

5.2.2 Bottoms

A fter layout/ tacking, w eld out may proceed w ith some shrinkage seams left open.

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Shell to bottom w elding shall be practically completed, before shrinkage openings (in above) are w elded.

5.2.3 Shel l s

M isalignment in completed vertical joints over 5/ 8" thick, shall not exceed 10% of plate "t", w ith a maximum of 0.125". M isalignment in completed vertical joints 5/ 8" thick and less thick shall not be greater than 0.06".

The reverse side of double-welded joints (pri or to the application of the first bead to the second side), must be cleaned by chipping, grinding or melting out.

Joints exceeding 1 1/ 2" base metal "t" a. b.


N o pass over 3/ 4" thick is permitted. M inimum preheat of 200°F is required.

N ew requirement for a procedure that minimizes the potential for underbead cracking, in group IV through VI material.

A fter any stress relief (but before hydro), w elds attaching nozzles, manw ays and cleanout openings shall be visually and magnetic particle or die penetrant tested.

Shell-to-bottom w elds, inside, may be checked by visual and any of the follow ing: magnetic particle, PT solvent, PT w ater w ashable, diesel test or right angle vacuum box.

New paragraph, a new procedure as an alternative to paragraph, allow s for pressure testing the volume between the inside and outside welds to 15 psi and applying a soap solution to the face of the fillet welds.

IN SPECTI ON, TESTI N G, A N D REPAI RS Butt welds, must be inspected visually, radiographic or ultrasonic method. 5.3.3

Examination and testing of the tank bottom: a. b. c.

Vacuum box Tracer gas test External "float" test

N OTE: Vacuum text procedure removed from this paragraph. The procedure is now in paragraph 6.6, as well as a procedure for tracer gas testing.

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5.3.5 Reinforcing. pads tested by up to 15 PSIG pneumatic pressure betw een tank shell and reinforcement on each opening. 5.3.6 Shell Testing - Be familiar with procedure. 5.4

Wel d Repai r 5.4.2 Pinhole or porosity bottom leaks - w eld over. 5.4.3 A l l defects in shell or shell-to-bottom joints. NOTE:


See Specifics - 6.1.7.

Di mensi onal Tol erances The maximum out-of-plumbness of the top (relative to bottom of shell) may not exceed 1/ 200 of the total tank height. 5.5.2 The 1/ 200 criteria shall also apply to fixed roof columns. 5.5.4a Weld "peaking" - shall not exceed 1/ 2". 5.5.4b Weld "banding" - shall not exceed 1/ 2". 5.5.5 Foundations (General)

For concrete ring walls - Top shall be level within ± 1/ 8" in any 30 foot circumference. and w ithin ± 1/ 4" in the total circumference (measured from average elevation). NOTE:

Non-concrete ring w alls the values change to ± 1/ 8" in any 10 feet and ± 1/ 2" in total circumference.

Sloped foundations - Same criteria.


Radi ographi c (Number-Locati on)

Requi rements f or verti cal shel l w el ds a.

Butt-w eld joints with the thinner plate 3/ 8" or less: One spot in the first 10 feet of each type and thickness w elded by each welder or operator. Thereafter, one additional spot in each additional 100 feet.

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Plates greater than 3/ 8" and through 1" thickness same as thinner plate above pl us al l junctions. A dditionally, tw o spots in al l bottom ring verticals (one as near to bottom as practical, the other random).


Plates thicker than 1" - full radiography of all verticals, plus all junctions. Butt weld around periphery of insert nozzles and manw ays complete radiography.


A t least 25% of spots must be at junctions of verticals and roundseam joints - minimum 2 per tank. A dditionally, one random spot in each bottom ring vertical.

Requi rements f or hori zontal shel l wel ds One spot in the first 10 feet (same type) thickness w ithout regard to w elder or operator. Thereafter, one spot in each additional 200 feet.

M ulti-tank erection (at same location) may use aggregate footage values of same type and thickness. NOTE: See Fig. 6-1 Radiographic Layout.

Each radiograph must clearly show 6" minimum weld length. NOTE: Each film must show Identifier, plus "t" gauge or penetrometer.

Tank bottom annular ring (See 3.5.1), the radial joints shall be radiographed as follow s: a. b.

Double-butt-weld joints - one spot on 10% of radial joints. Single weld joints w ith back-up bar - one spot on 50%. of radial joints.


Preferable spot - at the outer edge, near shell.

6.1.3 Techni que - Radi ography

A SM E method, Section V N DE, Article 2.

Radiographers meet A SNT - SNT - TC - 1A requirements.

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Radiography Standards - A cceptability to be in accordance with Section VIII, Div. 1, Par. UW-51(B), ASME.

6.1.6 Unacceptable radiographs (under 6.1.5), or the limits of the deficient radiograph are not defined, 2 adjacent shots are required. NOTE:

If adjacent spots are still unacceptable, additional spots are examined until weld is acceptable.

6.1.7 Weld defects shall be repaired by chipping or melting out from one or both sides, and rewelded.

When all w elds are repaired, repeat original inspection procedure.

The manufacturer shall prepare an as-built radiograph map showing the location of all radiographs taken along with the film identification marks.

6.2.1 M agnetic Particle - A SM E Section V, Article 7. 6.3

Ul trasonic Examinati on 6.3.1 Ultrasonic Method in lieu of radiography see A ppendix U. 6.3.2 UT not in lieu of radiography - A SM E Section V, Article 5


M ust be A SNT-SNT-TC-1A requirements

A cceptance standards shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the manufacturer.

Liquid Penetrant Examination 6.4.1 A SM E Section V, A rticle 6 must be follow ed. 6.4.2 M ust have written procedure 6.4.3 M anufacturer determines qualifications 6.4.4 A cceptance standards, A SM E Section VIII, Appendix 8, paragraphs 8-3, 8-4 and 8-5. 6.5.1

V i sual acceptabi l i ty based on f ol l owi ng: a. b.

No visible crater or surface cracks or arc strikes. Undercut does not exceed limits given in for vertical and horizontal butt joints.

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1/ 64" maximum allowable undercut on attached nozzles, manw ays, cleanout openings and permanent attachments.

Frequency of surface porosity does not exceed one "cluster" in any 4" of length and the diameter of each cluster does not exceed 3/ 32" (0.094 ).

6.5.2 A ll w elds failing to meet 6.5.1 requirements must be rew orked prior to hydro-testing. SECTI ON 7 - WELDI N G PROCED URE/QUA LIFICATI ON S * N o specifics SECTI ON 8 - M A RK I NG (N A M EPLATE) * N o specifics

A PI - 650 (A PPEN DI X REV IEW) A ppendix. A - Opti onal D esi gn Basi s For Smal l Tank s (Do not use Appendi x A on the API 653 Exam). A.1.4 The overturning effect of w ind load should be considered. A.1.5 Consider Tables A -1 through A -4 for sizes, capacities, shell plate thickness, etc. A.2.1 Shell plate thickness limited to 1/ 2". A.5.1 Vertical and horizontal joints, bottom, shell-to-bottom, roof and top angle - same provisions as normal size. A.5.2 Normal w eld spacing restrictions are relaxed. A.5.3 Radiograph inspection - slightly relaxed. A ppendi x B - Foundati on Constructi on B.2.1 Requires soil coring to determine sub-surface conditions.

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B.2.3 V aryi ng condi ti ons that requi re speci al engi neeri ng consi derati ons a. b. c. d. e. f.

Sites on hillsides. Sites on sw ampy or filled ground. Sites underlain by layers of plastic clay. Sites adjacent to w ater courses or deep excavations. Sites immediately adjacent to heavy structures. Sites exposed to floodw aters.

B.2.4 General methods to i mprove non-acceptabl e subsoi l a. b. c. d. e. f.

Removal and replacement w ith suitable, compacted subsoil. Compacting w ith short piles - preloading w ith an overburden of suitably drained earth. Removing w ater content then compacting. Stabilizing by chemical methods or grout injection. Driving bearing piles/ foundation piers. Load distribution over a extra large area.

B.2.5 Fill material must be sound and durable (i.e., at least equivalent to fill used in good highway construction), free from vegetation, organic matter or other corrosive substances. B.3.1 Suggested grade/surf ace el evati on - 1'. B.3.2

Fi ni shed grade (i.e., surface next to bottom) a. b. c.

Top 3"-4" - Clean sand, gravel, crushed stone (maximum size 1"), or other suitable inert material. Equipment and material movement w ill cause damages. Correct before bottom plates are installed. Oiled/ stabilized finished grade.

B.3.3 Fi ni shed tank grade Crowned from outer edge to center - 1" in 10'. B.4.2.1

Concrete foundation ringwall advantages a. b. c. d. e.

Better distribution of concentrated load. Provides a level, solid starting plane for erection. Provides better means to level tank during erection. Retains subsoil fill and finished top surface. M inimizes moisture under tank bottom.

Fig. B-1 - Foundation w ith Concrete Ringw all. Fig. B-2 - Foundation w ith Crushed Stone Ringw all. NOTE:

H ave familiarity w ith above types.

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B.4.3 Earth Foundati ons (w ithout concrete ringwall) a. b. c. e.

A 3' shoulder and berm - protected from w eathering. Smooth, level surface for bottom plates. A dequate drainage. Surface true to specified plane (tolerances specified in 5.5.6).

A ppendi x C - External Fl oati ng Roof s C.3.1 General If a w indskirt or top-shell extension is used for the purpose of containing roof seal at its highest point of travel, appropriate alarm devices are required. C.3.2 Joi nts Same as required in 3.1 (i.e., single lap, full fillet, 1" minimum lap, etc.). C.3.3. On the bottom side, w here flexure is anticipated adjacent to girders, support legs, or other relatively rigid members, full-fillet w elds (not less than 2" long on 10" centers) shall be used on any plate laps that occur within 12" of any such member. C.3.3.4

Decks (double and diaphragm) designed for drainage, shall have a minimum slope of 3/ 16" in 12".

C.3.4. Pontoon roofs shall have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat on a specific gravity product of 0.7 and with primary drains i noperati ve for follow ing conditions: a. b.

A 10" of rainfall in a 24 hour period w ith roof intact, except for double deck floating roofs that have emergency drains. Single-deck (i.e., diaphragm) and any 2 adjacent compartments punctured in single-deck pontoon types and any 2 adjacent compartments punctured in double-deck roofs Both types w ith no w ater or live load.

C.3.5 Pontoon Openi ngs a. b. c.

Each compartment provided with liquid tight manw ay. M anw ay covers provided w ith suitable hold-dow n fixture. Compartments vented against internal/ external pressure.

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C.3.8 Roof D rai ns a. b. c. d.

Primary drains may be hose, jointed or siphon type. Check valve required (hose and jointed pipe type) on pontoon and pan type roofs. Hose drain types designed to permit replacement w ithout personnel entering the tank (* Not N ormal ). M inimum roof drain size - 3" for a tank 120 in diameter and less; 4" for a tank greater than 120 feet in diameter.

C.3.9 Vents Purchaser furnishes fill and w ithdrawal flow rates. Fabricator sizes accordingly. C.3.10.1 and 3.10.2 Roof support leg requirements a. b. c. d. e.

Pipe legs - notched or perforated at bottom. A djustable length from roof top side. Designed to support roof and a uniform live load of at least 25 lbs./ sq. ft. Sleeves, gussets, etc., required at deck entry points. Load distribution members required on tank bottom.

NOTE: If pads used, continuous w eld required. C.3.11 M anways M inimum of 1 w ith 24" access, with gasket and bolted cover. C.3.12 Centeri ng/anti -rotati on devi ces requi red. C.3.13 Seal s a. b.

The space (rim) betw een outer roof periphery and shell - sealed by flexible device providing a reasonable close fit to shell surfaces. No pl ai n (i.e., bare) carbon steel shoes allow ed. NOTE:

c. d.

A dequate expansion joints (i.e., secondary seal strips) required. M ust be durable to environment and must not contaminate the product. NOTE:


M ust be galvanized or coated See A PI RP 2003.

A viation fuel restrictions.

Fabri cati on, Erecti on, Wel di ng, I nspecti on A nd Testi ng

C.4.2 Deck and other joint seams tested for leaks with vacuum box, penetrating oil, etc.

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C.4.3 Water flotation test required at initial erection. Weld repair can be seal-w eld type. C.4.5 50 PSIG hydro test required on drain system. A ppendi x D - Techni cal I nqui ries (N o specific comments) Appendi x E - Sei smi c Desi gn of Storage Tanks (N o specific comments) A ppendi x F - D esi gn of Tanks f or Smal l I nternal Pressures F.1.3 Internal pressures that exceed the w eight of the shell, roof and framing but do not exceed 2 1/ 2 pounds per square inch gauge w hen the shell is anchored to a counterbalancing w eight, such as a concrete ringwall. Appendi x G - Structurall y Supported A l umi num Dome Roofs (N o specific comments) A ppendi x H - I nternal Fl oati ng Roof s H .1

Scope Subsection 3.10 of standard. is applicable except as modified in this appendix. H .2.2 Types a. b. c. d. e. f. g.


M etallic pan internal - liquid contact with two peripheral rims. M etallic open top bulkhead - liquid contact/ peripheral rim and open top bulkheads. M etallic pontoon - liquid contact/ closed pontoons. M etallic double deck. M etallic on floats - deck above liquid. Metallic sandwich-panel - liquid contact, surface-coated honeycomb panels. Hybrid internal floating roofs.

M ateri al s H .3.2 Steel H .3.3 Aluminum

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H .3.4 Stainless Steel Same general provisions as for open top floating roofs. H .3.5.2/3.5.7 - Seal types a. b. c. d. e. H .4

Flexible foam contained in an envelope Liquid fill (in an envelope) Wiper type (resilient) M etallic Shoe Other mutually agreeable types (fabrication and customer)

General Requi rements and Desi gn H .4.4 Peri pheral Seal s H.4.5.1 through 4.5.3 - Desi gn Features a. b. c. d.

A ccommodate ± 4" local deviation betw een roof and shell. Tank shell free of internal projections, burrs, etc. Envelope seals to be liquid tight. Field joints, minimum 3" lap. M echanical shoe types - Galvanized steel (16 ga.) - Stainless Steel (18 ga).

H .4.5 Roof Penetrati ons Columns, ladders and other rigid vertical appurtenances that penetrate the deck shall have a seal permitting a local deviation of ± 5". NOTE:

Appurtenances require a vertical plumbness of 3".

H .4.6 Roof Supports H.4.6.1 through H.4.6.8 - Speci f ic requi rements a. b. c. d.

Both fixed and adjustable supports are acceptable. Supports/ attachments designed to support a uniform live load of 12.5 lbs./ sq. ft., unl ess roof is equipped w ith drains to prevent liquid accumulation. Same underside tack-w eld required on seams as on conventional floating roofs. (See C.3.3.3.). Same requirements on notching pipe legs, w elding support pads to bottom, etc., as on conventional. NOTE:

H .5

Pads may be omitted w ith purchaser approval.

Openings and A ppurtenances

Page of 20of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

H .5.1 Ladder Speci fi cs H .5.2 Vents H .5.2.2

Ci rcul ati on V ents a. b. c.

H .

Located on shell or fixed roof (above seal in full tank). M aximum spacing - 32". N o fewer than 4 total. Sized equal to or greater than 0.2 sq. ft. per ft. of tank diameter. Covered w ith corrosion resistant screen and weathershield.

Open vent required at center of fixed roof minimum area of 50 sq. in.


Pressure-vacuum vents (rather than air openings) required on gas blanketed tanks.

H .5.3 Overf l ow Sl ots H.5.4 Anti rotati on D evi ces H.5.5 M anhol es and Inspection H atches H.6

Fabri cati on, Erecti on, Wel di ng, I nspecti on and Testi ng

A ppendi x I - Undertank Leak Detecti on and Subgrade Protection (N o specific comments) Refer to A PI RP 652 and 651 for more guidelines. Appendi x J - Shop Assembl ed Storage Tank s (N o specific comments) A ppendi x K - Engi neeri ng D ata (N o specific comments) Appendi x L - Data Sheets (N o specific comments) In the real w orld use these sheets as a guide only. A ppendi x M - Requi rements f or Tank s Operati ng at El evated Temperatures (N o specific comments)

Page of 21of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

A ppendi x N - Use of New M ateri al s That are Not Identi f i ed (N o specific comments) Appendi x O - Recommendati ons f or Under-Bottom Connecti ons (N o specific comments) A ppendi x P - A l l ow abl e External Loads on Tank Shel l Openi ngs (N o specific comments) A ppendi x S - A usteni ti c Stai nl ess Steel Storage Tank s S.1.1 This section covers tank construction of material grades 304, 304L, 316, 316L, 317, and 317L. S.1.2 A mbient temperature tanks shall have a design temperature of 1000F Appendix T - NDE Requi rements Summary A ppendi x U - Ul trasoni c Exami nati on in Li eu of Radi ography (This is a new section, no specific comments)

Page of 22of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005



The first part of the exam is " Open Book.

A PI 650 Tenth Ed. COD E QUI Z (Select The Best Answer)


A peripheral seal, on an internal floating roof, shall be designed to accommodate _____ of local deviation between the floating roof and the shell. a. b. c. d.


Welders shall be qualified in accordance with a. b. c. d.



API 1104 ASME Section V ASME Section IX AWS D1.1

A new tank will hold a product with the specific gravity of 1.05. The corrosion allowance is .10. The thickness of the first course is 1.25 inches; The hydrostatic test stress is 25,000 PSI. What is the thickness required for the annular plate? (Note: Include corrosion allowance). a. b. c. d.


the manufacturer's standard + 100 mm + 1/8 inch the inspector's experience

5/16" 11/16" 3/8" 7/16"

In order to comply with API 650, the finished surface of a weld reinforcement on plate 1/2" thick, horizontal butt joints, may have a reasonably uniform crown not to exceed ________, for radiographic examination. a. b. c. d.

1/4" 3/16" 1/8" 1/16"

Page of 23of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005


What is the design thickness for the first course of a new tank 60 tall, with a fill height of 58 and a diameter of 80 4 ? The material of construction is A516M 485. Specific gravity of .6 a. b. c. d.


What is the hydrostatic test shell thickness of the tank in question 5? a. b. c. d.


.281 .416 .500 1.00

If the first course of a new tank is 12.5 mm and the design metal temperature is -7oC, what is the material group? a. b. c. d.


.416 .281 .117 .500

To what thickness should the tank in question 6 be constructed? a. b. c. d.


.097 .416 28.1 .281

Group I Group II Group III Group IV

What is the maximum reinforcement on a vertical butt joint, if the plate is .625 in. thick? a. b. c. d.

3/32 1/8 3/16 1/4

Page of 24of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

Please close all materials. The remainder of the Quiz is Closed Book.

Page of 25of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

The second part of the quiz is " Closed Book." 10.

According to API 650, which of the following types of connections shall be stress relieved? a. b. c. d.


Upon completion, the roof of a tank designed to be gas tight shall be tested by which one of the following methods? a. b. c. d.


erection/fabrication manufacturer purchaser Nuclear Regulatory Commission certified inspector

Per API 650, external floating roof deck plates having support leg or other rigid penetrations closer than ____ inches to lap weld seams must be full fillet welded not less than 2 inches on 10 inch centers. a. b. c. d.


Magnetic particle testing of all welds Application of internal air pressure not exceeding the weight of the roof plates and applying a solution suitable for the detection of leaks Penetrant testing the weld joints Visual inspection of the weld joints

Each welder making welds on a tank shall be certified by the _______. a. b. c. d.


All nozzles All Group I, II, III or IIIA opening connections less than 12 inches All Group IV, IVA, V or VI opening connections requiring reinforcement All connections requiring reinforcement

6 12 14 18

Upon completion of welding of the new tank bottom, the welds shall be inspected by which one of the following methods? a. b. c. d.

Radiographs Vacuum or air pressure Penetrant testing Hammer testing

Page of 26of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005


The maximum reinforcement thickness for vertical butt joints, less than or equal to 1/2" thick is . a. b. c. d.


Annular bottom plates shall have a radial width that provides at least _____ inches between the inside of the shell and any lap-welded joint in the remainder of the bottom. a. b. c. d.


c. d.

a joint between two abutting parts lying in approximately the same plane a joint between two abutting parts lying in approximately the same plane that is welded from both sides a joint between two overlapping members in which the overlapping edges of both members are welded with fillet welds a fillet weld whose size is equal to the thickness of the thinner joined member

Openings in tank shells larger than required to accommodate an NPS _____ inch flanged or threaded nozzle shall be reinforced. a. b. c. d.


3/32 1/8 1/64 3/64

A double-welded butt weld is ______. a. b.


10 30 24 18

The maximum acceptable undercutting of the base metal for vertical butt joints is ___ inch. a. b. c. d.


1/16" 1/8" 3/32" 3/16"

one two three four

The acceptability of welds examined by radiography shall be judged by the standards in . a. b. c. d.

ASME Section V, Division 7 ASME Section IX, Paragraph QW-191 ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Paragraph UW-51(b) API 1104

Page of 27of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005


When bottom annular plates are required by paragraph 3.5.1 of API 650, the radial joints shall be radiographed. For single welded butt joints using a backup bar, one spot radiograph shall be taken on _____ percent of the radial joints. a. b. c. d.


Annular bottom plates must extend a minimum of _______ inches outside the tank shell. a. b. c. d.


Manufacturer Purchaser State Inspector API 653 Inspector

A new tank is under construction. How many radiographs are required on the first course vertical welds if the shell is 35 mm thick? a. b. c. d.


500° F 500° C 200° F 200° C

Who is responsible for compliance with the API 650 standards? a. b. c. d.


1 1/2 2 3 4

The maximum operating temperature for tanks constructed to API 650 (not including appendices) is _______. a. b. c. d.


10 30 50 100

One radiograph shall be taken in every vertical joint 100% of the vertical joint Two radiographs shall be taken in the vertical joint No radiographs required

All bottom plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness of _____ inch, exclusive of any corrosion allowance specified by the purchaser for the bottom plates. a. b. c. d.

3/8 .250 .516 .325

Page of 28of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005


Repairs of defects shall not be attempted on a tank that is filled with _____ or on a tank that has contained ____ until the tank has been emptied, cleaned and gas freed in a safe manner. a. b. c. d.


Misalignment in completed vertical joints over 5/8" shall not exceed what percentage of the plate thickness? a. b. c. d.


ASME Section VIII ASME Section V ASME Section XI Agreed upon by the purchaser and the manufacturer

Column-based clip-guides shall be welded to the tank bottom to prevent __________. a. b. c. d.


diesel air stress gas

Ultrasonic acceptance standards, in accordance with API 650, shall be ______. a. b. c. d.


25% with a maximum of 1/16" 2% with a maximum of 3/64" 5% with a maximum of 3/8" 10% with a maximum of 1/8"

Reinforcing plates of shell penetrations shall be given a(n) ________ test, in accordance with API Standard 650. a. b. c. d.


nitrogen oil water grain

internal erosion structural uplifting lateral movement of column bases lateral expansion and contraction

Who is responsible for specifying whether the dimensions of a tank will be given in SI units or US customary units? a. b. c. d.

Industrial requirements U.S. Government mandates The purchaser The manufacturer

Page of 29of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005


When performing a vacuum test, the gauge should register a partial vacuum of at least ? a. b. c. d.


When reviewing a radiograph of an intersection, 2 inches of weld length must be shown on each side of the vertical intersection. How much of the vertical weld must be shown? a. b. c. d.



1 1 1/2 1 3/4 2

Which electrodes are in the AWS A5.1 specification? a. b. c. d.



the purchaser specifies the requirement. API mandates the requirement the manufacturer approves the requirement required by jurisdictional requirements

Shell plates are limited to a maximum thickness of a. b. c. d.


2 inches 50 mm 3 inches No API 653 requirement

An appendix becomes a requirement only when a. b. c. d.


2 lbf/in.2 3 lbf/in.2 4 lbf/in.2 5 lbf/in.2

E-9018 E-8518 E-8018 E-6010

What is the minimum size fillet weld that can be installed on a new tank? a. b. c. d.

1/8 3/16 1/4 5/16

Page of 30of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005


Roof plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness, in addition to any required corrosion allowance, of . a. b. c. d


The slope of a supported cone roof shall be at least a. b. c. d.


10% 15% 20% 25% .

the floor only the roof only shell welds greater than 1/2 shell welds less than 1/2

Which of the following NDE methods is not acceptable for the inspection of new shell-to-bottom welds. a. b. c. d.


1 m in 6 m 19 mm in 300 mm .75 mm in 12 mm 7.5 mm in 1.2 mm

Low hydrogen electrodes shall be used for weld on a. b. c. d.



Misalignment in completed vertical joints for plates greater than 5/8 thick shall not exceed . a. b. c. d.


3/16 1/4 7-Gauge both a and c

Magnetic particle Liquid Penetrant Vacuum Box Radiography

A tank construction crew is using a vacuum box constructed of clear plastic and a sponge-rubber gasket. a. b. c. d.

This is an acceptable practice. This is a good vacuum test. This vacuum box is not recognized by API 650. The crew can use any style vacuum box.

Page of 31of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005


Floor plates may be tested by vacuum box testing or a. b. c. d.


1/4 1/2 3/4 1

the contractor API 1104 ASME Section IX ASME Section VIII

A joint between two members that intersect at an angle between 0o (a butt joint) . and 90o (a corner joint) is called a(n) a. b. c. d.



Welds examined by radiography shall be judged as acceptable or unacceptable by . a. b. c. d.


6.5 5.4 3.9 2.0

Banding at horizontal weld joints shall not exceed a. b. c. d


air pressure test tracer gas and compatible detector explosion-bulge test acoustic emission test

What is the maximum out-of-plumbness of the top of the shell relative to the bottom of the shell of a new tank that is 65 tall? a. b. c. d.



fillet joint butt joint angle joint joint that requires backing

The client has requested the top course of a tank to be 1/2 thick. The maximum thickness of all the other courses is 3/8 thick. a. b. c. d.

The client wants it, do it. The top course is usually 1/2 thick. No shell course shall be thinner than the course above it. The thickness of each course is based on the design thickness of the tank not including corrosion allowance.

Page of 32of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

A PI 650 Tenth Ed. COD E QUI Z A nsw er K ey 1. b 2. c 3. c 4. d 5. d Solution:

(Page H-4, Par. H .4.4.3) A PI 650 (Page 7-2, Par. 7.3.2) A PI 650 (Page 3-6, Par. 3.5.3) A PI 650 (Page 6-3, Par. A PI 650 (Page 3-7, Par. A PI 650 t d = 2.6D(H-1)G + CA Sd t d = 2.6(80)(58-1)(.6) 25,300 t d = 7113.6 25,300

6. a Solution:

t d = .281 (Page 3-7, Par. API 650 t t = 2.6D(H-1) St t t = 2.6 (80) 58 - 1 28,500 t t = 11,856 28,500

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

b a b c b a b b c c c

t t = .416 (Page 3-6, Par. API 650 (Page 2-2, Fig. 2-1) API 650 (Page 5-1, Par. API 650 (Page 3-17, Par. A PI 650 (Page 5-4, Par. API 650 (Page 7-2, Par. 7.3.1) A PI 650 (Page C-1, Par. C.3.3.3) A PI 650 (Page 5-4, Par. 5.3.3) A PI 650 (Page 5-1, Par. API 650 (Page 3-5, Par. 3.5.2) A PI 650 (Page 5-1, Par. API 650

Page of 33of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

b b c c b c a b b b d b d c c b c a c d b d b a c d a b c b d c c

(Page 3-1, Par. A PI 650 (Page 3-11, Par. A PI 650 (Page 6-3, Par. 6.1.5) A PI 650 (Page 6-3, Par. A PI 650 (Page 3-5, Par. 3.5.2) A PI 650 (Page 1-1, Par. 1.1.1) A PI 650 (Page 1-2, Par. 1.3) A PI 650 (Page 6-1, Par. A PI 650 (Page 3-5, Par. 3.4.1) A PI 650 (Page 5-4, Par. 5.4.4) A PI 650 (Page 5-2, Par. API 650 (Page 5-4, Par. 5.3.4) A PI 650 (Page 6-4, Par. 6.3.4) A PI 650 (Page 3-48, Par. A PI 650 (Page 1-1, Par. 1.1.3) A PI 650 (Page 6-5, Par. 6.6.3) A PI 650 (Page 6-1, Par. A PI 650 (Page 1-1, Par. 1.1.4) A PI 650 (Page 2-1, Par. API 650 (Page 2-10, Par. 2.8.1) API 650 (Page 3-1, Par. API 650 (Page 3-44, Par. A PI 650 (Page 3-48, Par. A PI 650 (Page 5-2, Par. API 650 (Page 5-2, Par. A PI 650 (Page 5-2, Par. API 650 (Page 6-4, Par. 6.6.1) A PI 650 (Page 5-3, Par. 5.3.3) A PI 650 (Page 5-5, Par. 5.5.2) A PI 650 (Page 5-5, Par. 5.5.4(b) A PI 650 (Page 6-3, Par. 6.1.5) A PI 650 (Page 7-1, Par. 7.1.1) A PI 650 (Page 3-6, Par. API 650

Page of 34of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

Section 3 API Recommended Practice 575 Summary

A PI RECOM M ENDED PRA CTI CE 575 I N SPECTI ON OF ATM OSPH ERIC AND LOW-PRESSURE STORAGE TANK S First Edition, N ovember, 1995 SECTI ON 1 - SCOPE A tmospheric and low -pressure storage tanks that have been in service. SECTI ON 3 - SELECTED N OND ESTRUCTIV E EXA M I NA TI ON (NDE) M ETHOD S 3.1

Ul trasonic Thi ckness M easurement This section is a discussion of thickness measurements and Dual-element verses single-crystal transducers. The doubling phenomena is mentioned.


M agneti c Fl oor Testi ng RP 575 now recognizes magnetic floor scanning. M FLT (M agnetic Flux Leakage Testing) is one of the more common types of floor tests. It can be used on bare floor or on some coatings. The principal is basically flooding the area w ith a magnetic field and measuring any changes in the field. This display will appear on a CRT (Cathode Ray Tube). One of the main limitations of this type of testing is the problem of distinguishing between surface roughness and a through floor pin hole. The process w ill not evaluate the w elds or w eld areas. Even w ith those problems, this is one of the fastest, best methods for inspecting the bottom side or soil side of most tanks. SECTION 4 - TYPES OF STORA GE TANK S


General Storage tanks are used in a w ide variety of industries for a w ide range of products. Basically, our discussion will deal primarily with those that store crude oil, intermediate and finished products, chemicals, w ater and a general assortment of other products. For our purposes, the inspection, evaluation and comments dealing with future service conditions and limitations can all be generally categorized together, since conditions that w ould change the serviceability or repair needs for a tank are basically identical, regardless of the product stored. Other than diameter and height, the only other tw o (2) service factors to be considered are the specific gravity and temperature of the product. 4.1.1 Linings as covered in A PI RP 652 and cathodic protection A PI RP 651.

Page 1 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998


Atmospheri c Storage Tanks Those that have been designed to operate in their gas and vapor spaces at internal pressures which approximate atmospheric pressure. 4.2.2 Use of Tanks A tmospheric storage tanks are used to store materials having a true vapor pressure (at storage temperature) w hich is substantially less than atmospheric pressure. NOTE:


Vapor Pressure is the pressure on the surface of the liquid caused by the vapors of the liquid. Vapor pressure varies w ith temperature, inasmuch as that more of the liquid vaporizes as the temperature rises.

Low-Pressure Storage Tank s 4.3.1 Description and Design of Low-Pressure Storage Tanks Low -pressure storage tanks are those designed to operate at pressures in their gas or vapor spaces exceeding the 2.5 pounds per square inch gauge pressure permissible in A PI Standard 540, but not exceeding 15 pounds per square inch gauge. Low -pressure tanks are usually built to A PI Standard 620. SECTI ON 5 - REA SON S FOR I NSPECTI ON A ND CA USES OF DETERI ORA TI ON


Reasons f or I nspecti on a.

Reduce the potential for failure and the release of stored products.


M aintain safe operating conditions.


M ake repairs or determine when repair or replacement of a tank may be necessary.


Determine w hether any deterioration has occurred and, if so, prevent or retard further deterioration.


Keep ground w ater, nearby w aterw ays and the air free of hydrocarbon and chemical pollution.

5.2.1 External Corrosion a.

External (underside) tank bottom corrosion results from contamination in the pad. Cinders contain sulfur compounds that become very corrosive when moistened.

Page 2 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998


Electrolytic corrosion (pitting type) results when clay, rocks, oyster shell, w ooden grade stakes, etc., come in contact w ith the underside bottom, as they attract and hold moisture.


Poor drainage from faulty pad preparation.


Low er external shell corrosion due to: i. ii. iii.


Settlement, w ith corrosion at soil grade line Casual w ater collection point Insulation moisture w icking .

Shell appurtenances are subject to crevice corrosion at non-seal welded joints (angles/ flats).

5.2.2 Internal Corrosion a.

Primarily dependent on product stored.


Corrosion resistant linings are most common preventative.


Normal locations and causes are: i. ii.


Vapor space (above the liquid). M ost commonly caused by H 2S vapor, w ater vapor, oxygen or a combination of the three. Liquid area. M ost commonly caused by acid salts, H 2S or other sulfur compounds.

Other forms of internal attack, considered as forms of corrosion are: i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Electrolytic corrosion. Hydrogen blistering. Caustic Embrittlement. Graphitic corrosion (cast iron parts). Dezincification (brass parts).

In the areas covered by the stored liquid, corrosion is commonly caused by acid salts, hydrogen sulfide or bottom sediment and water (BS&W). 5.3

D eteri orati on of N on-Steel Tank s a.

Both wooden and concrete tanks may require inspection.


Potential problem areas: i. ii.

Wood - subject to rotting, attack by termites, subject to shrinkage, corrosion of the steel bands. Concrete - internal corrosion, cracking due to settlement or temperature change, spalling (exposes reinforcement and corrodes due to atmosphere). Page 3 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998



Tanks constructed of other materials (i.e., alloy or aluminum) can present special problems, but are subject to the same mechanical damage potential as steel tanks.


Other nonmetallic tanks (i.e., plastic, fiberglass or glass reinforced epoxy) may present special problems, but w ill not be discussed in this presentation.

Leaks, Crack s and M echani cal D eteri orati on a.

Leaks, w hatever the cause, can cause serious economic losses or environmental damage resulting in fines or penalties by governmental agencies. These, how ever, pale in comparison to the problems associated with the instantaneous (catastrophic) failure of a shell w ith resulting loss of the entire tank, the product stored, plus perhaps all surrounding structures.


Plate cracking is alw ays of prime importance w hen inspecting tanks. Cracks can result from a wide variety of causes. The more frequent causes are: i. ii iii. iv. v.

Faulty w elding. Unrelieved stress concentrations (i.e., stress raisers) around fittings or appurtenances. Stress caused by settlement or earth movement, especially differential settlement Vibration Poorly designed repair or sloppy craftsmanship.

The most likely points of occurrence are: i. ii. iii iv. v. NOTE:

Shell to bottom junction. A round nozzle and manw ay connections. .A round rivet holes. A t welded brackets. A t w elded seams. The low er shell to bottom sketch plate is especially critical in relatively larger or hot tanks. It can act as a plastic hinge with the potential for cracking. See A PI 650 (Appendix M ).


M any other kinds of mechanical deterioration can develop. In earthquake areas, sloshing damage may occur to roofs. Shell buckling (directly above bottom) can occur in tanks having relatively large height to diameter ratios.


A nother form of mechanical deterioration is settlement. Frequent causes are: i. ii. iii.

Freezing/ thaw ing of the ground. Unusually high tides in tidal areas. Slow lateral flowing of the soil. Page 4 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998


Fai l ure of A uxi l i ary Equi pment a.

Frequent problem areas are associated w ith pressure/ vacuum conservation vents.


M ost common problems are: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.

Collection of gummy residue on pallets. M oving parts, guide and seat corrosion. Foreign deposits (by birds or insects). Ice formation. Tampering. A dding extra weights to pallets (w hich changes release point of vapor). Lay-dow n of sand from abrasive blasting.

NOTE: c.

Quite often, vents are the only safety relief device available to prevent pressure or vacuum damage.

Other potential auxiliary problem areas: i. ii. iii.

M alfunction of gauging system. Floating roof drains. Plugged drain sumps (debris or ice). SECTI ON 6 - FREQUENCY OF I N SPECTI ON

A PI Standard 653 provides requirements for inspection frequency, including factors to consider in determining inspection frequency. SECTION 7 - M ETH OD S OF I NSPECTI ON A N D IN SPECTI ON SCH ED ULI N G The first part of this section deals with safety aspects of entry. The next section is a current list of tools commonly used in tank inspection and a suggested list of equipment that might be needed in tank inspection. 7.2

External I nspecti on of I n-Servi ce Tank See A ppendix C, Table C-1 and C-2 of this RP. 7.2.3 Foundation Inspection Refer to A PI Standard 653 for limitation. 7.2.4 A nchor Bolt Inspection The condition of anchor bolts can usually be determined by visual inspection. The hammer and UT thickness methods are also described in this section. Page 5 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998

7.2.6 Grounding Connection Inspection The total resistance from tank to earth should not exceed approximately 25 ohms. 7.2.8 Insulation Inspection Under insulation corrosion is now considered to be a more severe problem than previously thought. a.

A visual examination is usually, but not always, sufficient to spot problem areas.


A reas to be more closely checked include: i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Around all nozzles and appurtenances, especially if the caulking bond is loose or points for casual water entry is evident. A round saddles w here movement or expansion may have damaged insulation or seal. A round open-bubbles on polyurethane foam systems. A long bottom edge w here moisture wicking may have occurred. A long roof to shell junction, unless this area is protected by an overhand rat-guard type insulation support brackets (where block insulation is used). Thickness M easurements Ultrasonic-thickness measurements should be conducted only by trained personnel using a properly calibrated thickness measurement instrument and an appropriate thickness measurement procedure.

Caustic Cracking If caustic or amine is stored in a tank, the tank should be checked for evidence of damage from caustic stress corrosion cracking, sometimes referred to as caustic embrittlement.

7.4.4 Tank Bottoms This section suggests inspection of the entire tank bottom by using M agnetic Flux Leakage, looking for bottom side corrosion. Other UT type techniques may also be used. A -scan or shear wave ultrasonic testing may be used under specific conditions. H ammer-testing is also mentioned as a testing technique.

Page 6 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998

7.4.6 Testing for Leaks The usual types of tests are mentioned, hydrostatic tests, vacuum box tests, external water bottom tests and tracer gas tests. A nother method being used successfully is the injection of inert gas with a tracer gas under the tank. Instruments capable of detecting a few parts per million (PPM ) of the tracer gas are then used for sniffing for leaks on the topside of the tank floor. A n advantage of such a method is that w elded repairs can be made immediately w ith the inert gas under the bottom and a re-check can be made immediately after repairs. 7.5

Testi ng of Tanks The w ord testing, as used in this subsection, applies only to the process of filling the tank w ith a liquid or gaseous fluid, at the appropriate level or pressure, test the tank for strength or leaks.


I nspecti on Schedul i ng The tw o main aspects to consider when inspecting a tank: a. b.

the rate at w hich deterioration is proceeding; and the safe limit of deterioration.

The following may be used for most common forms of deterioration, metal corrosion, the rate of metal loss and the remaining life of a tank component. t actual - t minimum corrosion rate

Remaining life = Where:

Remaining life = the remaining life of a tank component, in years t actual =

the thickness measured at the time of the inspection for a given location or component used to determine the minimum allow able thickness, in inches.

t minimum = the minimum allow able thickness for a given location or component, in inches. Corrosion rate


t previous -= t actual in years betw een t actual and t previous

t previous =- thickness at the same location as t actual measured during a previous inspection, in inches.

Page 7 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998


I nspecti on Checkl i sts Inspection checklists should be used judiciously by the inspector as memory joggers for issues and items to be checked during inspection, both internal and external.

Page 8 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998

Section 4 API RP 651 Summary


Scope Recommended practices covered by this presentation is to present procedures, practices, information and guidance for achieving effective corrosion control on above ground hydrocarbon storage tank bottoms. It contains provisions for the application of cathodic protection to existing and new storage tanks. Corrosion control methods based on chemical control of the environment and the use of protective coatings are not covered in detail. Certain recommended practices may also be applicable to tanks in other than hydrocarbon service. This is intended to serve only as a guide. Specific cathodic protection design is not provided. Every tank condition is not covered. Standardization is precluded because of the varied conditions for field application.


Ref erenced Publ i cati ons


Def i ni ti ons Definitions in this section reflect the common usage among practicing corrosion control personnel. In many cases, in the interests of brevity and practicality, the strict scientific definitions have been abbreviated or paraphrased. 3.1

aboveground storage tank : A stationary container of greater than 500 barrel capacity, usually cylindrical in shape, consisting of a metallic roof, shell, bottom, and support structure w here more than 90 percent of the tank volume is above surface grade.


anode: A n electrode of an electrochemical cell at w hich oxidation (corrosion) occurs. A ntonym: cathode.


back f i l l : M aterial placed in a hole to fill the space around anodes, vent pipe, and buried components of a cathodic protection system. A nodes can be prepackaged with backfill material for ease of installation.


break out pi pi ng: A ll piping associated w ith the transfer of products in and out of storage tanks.


cathode: A n electrode of an electrochemical cell at w hich a reduction reaction occurs. A ntonym: anode. cathodi c protecti on: A technique for preventing corrosion by making the


Page 1 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998

entire surface of the metal to be protected act as the cathode of an electrochemical cell. 3.7

cok e breeze: A carbonaceous backfill material.


conti nui ty bond: A metallic connection that provides electrical continuity.


corrosi on: The deterioration of a material, usually a metal, that results from a reaction w ith its environment.


current densi ty: The current per unit area flow ing to or from a metallic surface.


current requi rement test: Creates direct current flow from a temporary ground bed to the structure to be protected to determine the amount of current necessary to protect that structure.


deep anode groundbed: One or more anodes installed vertically at a nominal depth of 15m (50 ft) or more below the earth s surface in a single drilled hole for the purpose of supplying cathodic protection.


di f f erenti al aerati on cel l : A n electrochemical cell the electromotive force of w hich is due to a difference in air (oxygen) concentration at one electrode as compared w ith that at another electrode of the same material.


el ectri cal i sol ati on: The condition of being electrically separated from other metallic structures and the environment.


el ectri cal i sol ati on cel l : A n electrical circuit w here electrical current flows from certain areas of a metal to other areas through a solution capable of conducting electricity (electrolyte).


el ectrochemi cal cel l : A n electrochemical system consisting of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte so as to create an electrical circuit. The anode and cathode may be separate metals or dissimilar areas on the same metal. The cell includes the external circuit which permits the flow of electrons from the anode toward the cathode.


el ectrode potenti al : The potential of an electrode as measured against a reference electrode. (The electrode potential does not include any resistance losses in potential in either the electrolyte or the external circuit. It represents the reversible work required to move a unit charge from the electrode surface through the electrolyte to the reference electrode).


el ectrol yte: A chemical substance containing ions that migrate in an electric field. For the purposes of this recommended practice, electrolyte refers to the soil or liquid adjacent to and in contact w ith the bottom of an aboveground petroleum storage tank, including the moisture and other chemicals contained therein.


envi ronmental crack i ng: The brittle fracture of a normally ductile Page 2 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998

material in w hich the corrosive effect of the environment is a causative factor. 3.20

external ci rcui t: Consist of the w ires, connectors, measuring devices, current sources, etc., that are used to bring about or measure the desired electrical conditions w ithin an electrochemical cell. It is this portion of the cell through w hich electrons travel.


f orei gn structure: A ny metallic structure that is not an intended part of the system in question.


gal vani c anode: A metal that, because of its relative position in the galvanic series, provides sacrificial protection to another metal that is more noble, when coupled in an electrolyte. These anodes are the source of current in one type of cathodic protection.


gal vani c seri es: A list of metals and alloys arranged according to their relative potentials in a given environment.


groundbed: Consists of one or more anodes installed below the earth s surface for the purpose of supplying cathodic protection.


hol i day: A discontinuity in a protective coating that exposes unprotected surface to the environment.


impressed current: A n electric current supplied by a device employing a pow er source that is external to the electrode system. (A n example is direct current for cathodic protection).


i nsul ati ng coati ng system: A ll components of the protective coating, the sum of w hich provides effective electrical insulation of the coated structure.


i nterf erence bond: A metallic connection designed to control electrical current interchange betw een metallic systems.


I R drop: The voltage generated across a resistance by an electrical current in accordance w ith Ohm's Law : E=I X R. For the purpose of this recommended practice, IR drop is the portion of a structure-to-soil potential caused by a high resistance electrolyte betw een the structure and the reference electrode or by current flow from the anodes to the tank bottom.


i sol ati on: Electrical isolation.


l i ner: A system or device, such as a membrane, installed beneath a storage tank in or on the tank dike, to contain any accidentally escaped product.


membrane: A thin, continuous sheet of non conductive synthetic material Page 3 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998

used to contain and/ or separate tw o different environments. 3.33

oxi dati on: The loss of electrons by a constituent of chemical reaction.


pol ari zati on: The change from the open circuit potential of an electrode resulting from the passage of current. (In this recommended practice, it is considered to be the change of potential of a metal surface resulting from the passage of current directly to or from an electrode).


recti f i er: A device for converting alternating current to direct current. Usually includes a step-down AC transformer, a silicon or selenium stack (rectifying elements) , meters and other accessories w hen used for cathodic protection purposes.


reducti on: The gain of electrons by a constituent of a chemical reaction.


ref erence el ectrode: A device w hose open circuit potential is constant under similar conditions of measurement.


resi stor: A device used w ithin an electrical circuit to control current flow .


sacri f i ci al anode: A nother name commonly used for a galvanic anode.


sacri f i ci al protecti on: The reduction or prevention of corrosion of a metal in an electrolyte by galvanically coupling it to a more anodic metal.


secondary contai nment: A device or system used to control the accidental escape of a stored product so it may be properly recovered or removed from the environment. For the purposes of the recommended practice, secondary containment refers to an impermeable membrane.


shal l ow anode groundbed: A group of cathodic protection anodes installed individually, spaced uniformly, and typically buried less than 20 feet below grade.


shunt: A conductor of a known electrical resistance through which current flow may be determined by measurement of the voltage across the conductor.


stati onary: Something that is permanently installed on the ground or on a foundation.


stray current: Current flow ing through paths other than the intended circuit.


stray current corrosi on: Corrosion resulting from direct current flow through paths other than the intended circuit.


stress corrosi on cracki ng: The fracture of a metal by the combined action Page 4 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998

of corrosion and tensile stress that may be w ell below the tensile strength or even the yield strength of the material. 3.48

structure-to-el ectrol yte vol tage (also structure-to-soil potential or pipeto-soil potential): The voltage difference between a metallic structure and the electrolyte w hich is measured w ith a reference electrode in contact w ith the electrolyte.


structure-to-structure vol tage (also structure-to-structure potential): The difference in voltage betw een a metallic structures in a common electrolyte.


tank cushi on: The material immediately adjacent to the exterior steel bottom of an aboveground storage tank.


tank pad: A nother name for a tank cushion.


test l ead: A n electrically conductive cable attached to a structure and leading to a convenient location. It is used for the measurement of structure-to-electrolyte potentials and other measurements.


test stati on: A small enclosed box-like housing and the usual termination point of one or more test leads.


vol tage: Refers to an electromotive force, or a difference in electrode potentials expressed in volts. A lso know n as a potential.


w ater bottom: A water layer in the bottom of a tank caused by separation of water and product due to differences in solubility and specific gravity.

Page 5 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998


STEEL STORAGE TAN KS 4.1.1 Corrosion may be defined as the deterioration of a metal due to a reaction to its environment. Corrosion of steel structures is an electrochemical process. The corrosion process occurs w hen: a. b. c.

A reas with different electrical potentials exist on the metal surface. These areas must be electrically connected. A reas must be in contact with an electrolyte. M oist soil is the most common electrolyte for external surfaces of the tank bottom. Water and sludge are, generally, the electrolytes for internal surfaces. NOTE:

There are four (4) components in each corrosion cell: 1. 2. 3. 4.

A n anode A Cathode A metallic path connecting the anode and cathode. (See Fig. 1) A n electrolyte

4.1.2 M any forms of corrosion exist. The tw o (2) most common (relative to tank bottoms) are general and pitting corrosion. a. b.

General type: Thousands of microscopic corrosion cells occur on an area of the metal surface resulting in relatively uniform metal loss. Pitting type: Individual cells are larger and distinct anode and cathode areas can be identified. NOTE:

Corrosion occurs at the A node. M etal loss may be concentrated within relatively small areas w ith substantial surface areas unaffected.

4.1.3 through 4.1.5 Conditions that influence w hich areas of a surface become anodic or cathodic and/ or corrosion cells are: a. b. c. d. e. f. g.


Composition of the metal. Differences in electrochemical potential (i.e., uneven distribution of alloying elements or contaminates within the metal structure). Differences betw een the w eld bead, the heat affected zone and the parent metal. Physical and chemical properties of the electrolyte. Differences in oxygen concentrations. Soil characteristics (i.e., dissolved salts, moisture content, pH, etc.). Clay, w ood or other debris in bottom contact.

Corrosi on M echani sms Page 6 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998

4.2.1 Stray current corrosion occurs when stray currents (also know n as interference currents) travel through the soil electrolyte and on to structures for which they are not intended. NOTE:

The most common, and potentially more damaging, stray currents are direct currents (i.e., grounded DC electric pow er systems) such as electric railroads, subw ays, welding machines, impressed current cathodic protection systems and thermoelectric generators.

The severity of corrosion resulting from interference currents depend on the following: a. b. c. d.

Separation and routing of the interfering and affected structures and the location of the interfering current source. M agnitude and density of the current. Quality of or absence of a coating on the affected structure. Presence and location of mechanical joints having high electrical resistance.

4.2.2 Bimetallic Corrosion occurs when tw o (2) metals w ith different compositions (thus different electrolytic potentials) are connected in an electrolyte (usually soil). (See Fig. 4). NOTE:

Current flow s from the more active metal (anode) to the less active metal (cathode) w ith resulting accelerated attack at the anode. Exampl es: Bronze check valve to steel piping. Stainless Steel or Copper pipe to steel tank.

4.2.3 Internal Corrosion may occur on the inside surface of a tank bottom. Factors influencing severity are: a. b. c. d.

Conductivity (2 function of dissolved solids). Suspended solids pH level Dissolved gases such as CO2, H 2S or O2.


5.1.4 Limitations Cathodic protection is an effective means of corrosion control onl y if it is possible to pass electrical current between the anode and cathode (i.e., tank bottom). M any factors can either reduce or eliminate the flow of electrical current, reducing protection effectiveness. Such factors include: a. b. c. d.

Foundations such as concrete, asphalt or oiled sand. A n impervious lining between the tank bottom and anodes such as in secondary containment systems. High resistance soil or rock foundations. Old storage tank bottoms left in place w hen a new bottom is installed.


I ntroducti on Cathodic protection is a technique for preventing corrosion by making the entire surface of the metal act as the cathode of an electrochemical cell. The two (2) methods of protection are: a. b.


Sacrificial anode Impressed current.

Gal vani c Systems 6.2.1 Use of a metal more active than the structure to be protected to supply the current required to stop corrosion. See Table 3 (Page 10 code) for a partial galvanic series. The more active metal is called a sacrificial anode. Exampl e: The anode is electrically connected to the structure and buried in the soil. A galvanic corrosion cell develops and the active metal anode corrodes (is sacrificed) while the metal structure (cathode) is protected. NOTE:

M etals commonly used as sacrificial anodes in soil are magnesium and zinc (in either cast or ribbon form). Usually distributed around the perimeter of the tank or buried beneath the bottom.

6.2.2 A dvantages of Galvanic Systems a. No external power supply is required. b. Installation is easy. c. Capital investment is low . d. M inimum maintenance costs. e. Interference problems (stray currents) are rare. f. Less frequent monitoring required. 6.2.3 Disadvantages of Galvanic Systems Page 8 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998

a. b. c. d. 6.3

Driving potential is limited. Current output is low . M ethod is limited to use in low-resistivity soils. Not practical for protection of l arge bare structures.

Impressed Current Systems 6.3.1 Uses DC usually provided by a rectifier (i.e., device for changing A C into DC). DC flow s from the rectified to the buried impressed current anode. 6.3.2 A dvantages of Impressed Current Systems a. b. c. d.

Availability of large driving potential. High current output for protecting large structures. Capability of variable current output. A pplicable to almost any soil resistivity.

6.3.3 Disadvantages of Impressed Current Systems a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Interference problems (i.e., stray currents) on foreign structures. Loss of A C pow er causes loss of protection. Higher costs (maintenance and operating). Higher capital costs. Safety aspects of rectifier location. Safety aspects of negative lead connections. M ore frequent monitoring.

6.3.4 Rectifiers - Tw o (2) major components: a. b.

Step-dow n transformer (reduces A C supply voltage). Rectifying elements to provide DC output.


Silicon rectifiers are more efficient, but are troubled by power surges, (i.e., lightening prevention devices required). Selenium rectifiers are used, but have decreased life span if ambient temperature exceeds 130°F.

6.3.5 Impressed Current A node materials are graphite, steel, high silicon cast iron or mixed metal oxides on titanium. Usually buried in a coke breeze backfill (reduces circuit resistance), in remote groundbeds, distributed around or under the tank or installed in deep groundbeds.

SECTI ON 7 - DESI GN OF CA TH OD I C PROTECTI ON SYSTEM S Page 9 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998

When dealing w ith your client/ customer, be aw are of certain conditions that may influence your job assessment/ evaluation. These items include: 7.2.1 A nything that acts as a barri er to the flow of current w ill prevent the application of cathodic protection. 7.2.2 Tank bottom replacement has a significant impact on protection effectiveness. If cathodic systems exist, or installation is planned for the new bottom, the ol d bottom must be removed. NOTE:

If the old bottom remains in place, even with cathodic systems installed betw een the old and new bottoms, future problems may occur. If a conductive electrolyte exists betw een the bottoms, the current flow and metal loss w ill be from the new bottom.

Secondary containment systems between bottoms (i.e., impermeable membranes) have both good and bad features relative to cathodic protection.

A dvantages a. b. c.

Contains leaks and prevents ground contamination. Eliminates current flow betw een bottoms. Prevents ground w ater wicking into sand pad.

Disadvantages a. b. c.

Future addition of cathodic protection impossible. M embrane acts as a basin to contain electrolyte. With leak, traps hydrocarbon, becomes "hotw ork" issue.

SECTI ON 8 - CRI TERI A FOR CA TH ODI C PROTECTI ON : Page 10 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998

When has adequate protection been achieved and does it still exist? 8.2

Protecti on Cri teri a Developed from lab experiments or from existing, successful systems. M inimum requirements are listed below . A negative (cathodic) potential of at least 850 mV w ith the cathodic protection current applied. A negative polarized potential of at least 850 mV relative to a CSE. A minimum of 100 mV of cathodic polarization measured between the tank bottom metallic surface and a stable reference electrode contacting the electrolyte.


M easurement Techniques 8.3.1 The standard method of determining the effectiveness of cathodic protection on a tank bottom is the tank-to soil potential measurement. NOTE:



M easurement is performed using a high-impedance (i.e., resistance) voltmeter and a stable, reproducible reference electrode contacting the electrolyte. (See Fig. 10) Perimeter measurement may not represent potential at the center of the tank bottom.




Introducti on Coupled w ith operation and maintenance, Field inspection surveys (to determine that cathodic protection has been established and that it is currently effective) should be established. A few items that should be considered include: a. b. c.

Conditions that affect protection are subject to change w ith time. Changes may be required to maintain (or even establish) protection. If tanks are empty, large areas of the bottom may not be in contact w ith underlying soil. Potential surveys, may therefore, be misleading.

NOTE: d.

Potential surveys should be made w ith sufficient product gauge so as to maximize bottom-cushion contact.

Initial surveys (on new installation) should not be conducted until after adequate polarization (i.e., a positive or negative condition) has occurred. This is generally 6-18 months after system energized.

11.3.1 Surveys should include one or more of the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 11.4

Structure-to-soil potential. A node current. Native structure-to-soil potentials. Structure-to-structure potential. Piping to tank isolation (if protected separately). Effect an adjacent structures. Continuity of structures (if protected as single structure). Rectifier DC volts, DC amps, efficiency and tap settings.

Cathodi c Protecti on Records Depending on need, circumstance and customer direction, the follow ing should be considered as permanent record needs: a. b. c. d. e f. g.

Design and location of insulating devices. Results of current requirement tests, w here made and procedures used. What w as native structure-to-soil potential bef ore current w as applied. Results of soil resistivity (resistance) test at the site, w here made and procedures used. Type of system (i.e., sacrificial anode, impressed current, etc. ). Repair of rectifiers, other DC power sources required. Repair/ renewal of anodes, connections or cable.

Page 12 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998

Section 5 API RP 652 Summary


Scope This recommended practice describes the procedures and practices for achieving effective corrosion control in aboveground storage tanks by application of tank bottom linings to existing and to new storage tanks. This recommended practice also provides information and specific guidance for tanks in hydrocarbon service. Some of the practices may also be applicable for other services. NOTES: 1. 2. 3.

This does not designate specific bottom linings for all situations because of the wide variety of service environments. This recommended practice is a guide only. Detailed lining specifications are not included.


Ref erenced Publ i cati ons


Def i ni ti ons 3.1

aboveground storage tank : A stationary container, usually cylindrical in shape, consisting of a metallic roof, shell, bottom and support structure w here more than 90% of the tank volume is above surface grade.


adduct: A curing agent, generally an amine, that has been combined w ith a portion of the resin, usually an epoxy.


ami ne: A n organic compound having amino functional groups w hich provide chemical reactivity and utility as a curative for epoxy and other resins.


anchor pattern: Surface profile or roughness.


anode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at w hich oxidation (corrosion) occurs. Electrons flow aw ay from the anode in the external circuit. Corrosion usually occurs and metal ions enter the solution at the anode. * A ntonym: cathode.


aromati cs: Strong hydrocarbon solvents w hose chemical structure has an Page 1 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998

to the environment. 3.22

i sophthal i c pol yester: A resin polymerized from isophthalic acid (or anhydride), ethylene or propylene glycol and malaic acid (or anhydride). The solid resin is generally provided as a solution in styrene, which acts as a solvent and as a cross-linking agent for the resin.


l i ni ng: A coating bonded to the internal surfaces of a tank to serve as a barrier to corrosion by the contained fluids.


mi l : One one-thousandth of an inch (0.001").


mi l l scal e: A n oxide layer formed on steel during hot forming operations. N OTE: A ppearance: slick, smooth, shiny surface area.


phenol i c: A resin of the phenol-formaldehyde type.


pol yami de: A resin w hose chemical structure contains adjacent carbonyl and amino functional groups that is often used as a curative for epoxy resins. Commercially available polyamides are reaction products of dimerized and trimerized fatty acids and polyamines.


pol yami doami ne: : A resin whose chemical structure contains adjacent carbonyl and amino functional groups that is often used as a curative for epoxy resins. Commercially available polyamides are reaction products of dimerized and trimerized fatty acids and polyamines.


resi n: A natural or synthetic substance that may be used as a binder in coatings.


vi nyl -ester: A polyester that usually contains Bisphenol-A in the resin backbone and tw o vinyl groups for reactivity. The solid resin is generally provided as a solution in styrene, w hich acts as a solvent and as a crosslinking agent for the resin.


vi nyl group: A functional group on a resin molecule that contains a carbon-to-carbon double bond at the end of the molecule.

Page 2 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998



General The common mechanisms of internal storage tank bottom corrosion include: a. b. c. d. e.

Chemical corrosion Concentration cell corrosion Galvanic cell corrosion Corrosion caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria Erosion corrosion.


1. 2.



Water collection on tank bottoms may contain salt and sediment that "settles out" on bottom plates. The chlorides and other soluble salts may provide a strong electrolyte w hich can promote corrosion.

Chemi cal Corrosi on a.

Normally seen in environmental and product clean-up tanks. Concentrated acids, added to water (w ith heat) to break emulsion of oil and w ater, becomes deluded. Diluted acid is much more corrosive than stronger acids. b.


Carbon steel corrosion rates in various hydrocarbon services have been established. Refer to NA CE 510700. These apply onl y if there are no accelerating mechanisms present.

Chemical attack also occurs in caustic, sulfuric acid, ballast water and w ater neutralization services.

Concentrati on Cel l Corrosi on Occurs in lower oxygen concentration areas (i.e., surface deposit, mill scale or crevice). NOTE:


Recognized as pitting or in a significant localized metal loss area.

Gal vani c Cel l Corrosi on Formation of a bi-metallic corrosion couple due to the presence of an electrolyte (i.e., dissolved oxygen). The common locations for occurrence are: a. b.

Breaks in mill scale. HA Z adjacent to w elds

NOTE: A lso noted by significant localized metal loss.


Corrosi on Caused by Sul f ate-Reduci ng Bacteri a Page 3 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998

a. b. c. 4.6

Phenomenon recognized but not understood. Usually negligible, occasionally service. Thought to be associated with concentrated cell corrosion, due to deposits forming a barrier to the diffusion of dissolvedoxygen.

Erosi on Corrosi on Normally occurs in mixing tanks where soil particles or small aggregate are present and movement occurs (i.e., waste water treating or mixing, adjacent to mixers in crude tanks). The movement of aggregate causes abrasive attack. Normally seen as "well defined" loss pattern. SECTI ON 5 - DETERM I NA TI ON OF N EED f or TAN K BOTTOM LI NI N GS


General Tank bottoms normally fabricated from carbon steel plate sections typically 1/ 4" (6 mm) thick. A nnular floor plate rings may be thicker (up to 1/ 2" (12 mm). Sketch plates (under shell) of 5/ 16" plate may often be found in older tanks. The need for an internal tank bottom lining is generally based upon one or more of the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g.


Corrosion prevention Tank design Tank history Environmental considerations Flexibility for service change Upset conditions Federal, State or local regulations.

Li ni ngs f or Corrosi on Preventi on Proper selection and application of bottom linings can prevent internal bottom corrosion. NOTE:


If the tank bottom measurements indicate that a "t" of 0.100" exists, or will be present pri or to the next schedule turnaround, then a recommendation for applying a lining should be strongly considered.

Desi gn Consi derati ons and Tank I nternal s Design or fabrication details that w ould jeopardize the integrity, or limit the life expectancy or effectiveness, may exist. Exampl e:


Steam coils limit accessibility for surface preparation. The resulting thermal effects effect may cause localized failure by blistering or cracking. Tank H i story Page 4 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998

a. b. c.

Consider corrosion history when determining need for lining. Consider history of other tanks in similar service. Some important considerations are: i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Where is corrosion problem occurring (product side, soil side, outer periphery, etc.)? How fast is corrosion proceeding? Has there been a significant change in corrosion rate? What type of corrosion is occurring? H as through-bottom penetration occurred?

5.4.1 Tank Foundati on Inadequate foundation can cause tank settlement, bottom flexing may occur, causing the internal lining to fail by cracking. 5.4.2 M ethods of Constructi on a. b. c.

Irregular surfaces (i.e., rivets, butt straps and skip w elding) are difficult to cover and protect w ith a lining. Older tank lining application may be complicated by chemical contaminates. Column bases and roof leg support pads may present application problems.

If a prior liner is present, and a portion is to be salvaged and reused, the new liner application and material must be compatible.

Previous Repairs: Prior mechanical repair/ additions must be considered. Such as, are there odd-shaped patches to cover, support-angles to seal, no back-welded or hot-taps that will require special crevice sealing solutions?

Prior Storage: Special cleaning techniques, or degree of cleaning required must be considered w hen evaluating w hich type of coating is most effective. NOTE:


M ost major material suppliers have data and technical expertise that can be requested. The data should be free, the technical help will add to costs.

Envi ronmental Consi derati ons Properly applied internal linings reduce the chance of external environmental contamination. Cathodic protection also usually reduces underside bottom loss. 5.5.1 Location Page 5 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998

When considering the need for an internal lining, always consider: a. b. c. d. 5.6

Fl exi bi l i ty f or Servi ce Change a. b. c.


The potential for ground w ater contamination in hydrogeologically sensitive areas. Proximity to populated areas or public roads. Proximity to rivers, lakes, parks or scenic areas. Presence/ location of containment dikes.

Changes in service may drastically affect the performance of existing liners. If "swing-service" is expected of the tank involved, then all potential services and their compatibility w ith internal lining being considered must be carefully and fully evaluated. Remember: Tank linings do not offer universal resistance. Product makeup varies. Therefore, properties of the lining must vary. A gain, technical assistance from the liner supplier can be of great value.

Upset Condi ti ons Don't forget the impact involved. Consult customer as to potential for occurrence. SECTI ON 6 - TA N K BOTTOM LI N I NG SELECTI ON


General : Tank bottom linings can generally be divided into two (2) classes: a. b.

Thin films (20 mils or less). Thick films (greater than 20 mils).


1. 2. 3.


Linings are installed at tank erection or after some period of service. Generally, thin-film is applied w hen some minimal corrosion has occurred. Other liner discussion includes:

Thi n-f i lm types Frequently based on epoxy or epoxy-copolymer resins. See Table 1 (Lining Systems) for generic types and their suitability for various services. NOTE:

A l l linings that are employed to protect tank bottoms must be resi stant to water.

6.2.1 A dvantages - Disadvantages (Thin Film Type) Page 6 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998


A dvantages: i. ii.


New plate provides a smooth surface that can easily be made ready for coating application. Low er cost (due to ease of application).

Disadvantage: Corrosion creates a rough/ pitted surface that is difficult to completely coat and protect.


Thi ck-Fil m types Commonly reinforced with glass flake, chopped glass fibers, glass mat, glass cloth or organic fibers. a.

Generic types and w here used. (See Table 2)

NOTE: b.

Additional data available in NA CE Publication 6A187.

Specific notes relative to thick-film types: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi

A ll applied over a w hite or near-w hite abrasive blast. Primer frequently required. Dependent upon thickness required - multiple coats needed. Resin-rich topcoat required. Polyesters require w ax addition to ensure timely cure. Check with manufacturer for specifics (chemical immersion, elevated temperature tolerance, limitations in specific products, etc.).

6.3.1 A dvantages (thick-film types): A dvantages: a. b. c. d.

Less susceptible to mechanical damage. Provides additional strength to bridge over small bottom perforations. Not as sensitive to pitting and other surface irregularities during installation. Less need for removal of sharp corners, edges, offsets and weld spatter.

6.3.2 Disadvantages (thick-film types): Disadvantages:


a. Require more time and effort to apply. b. M ore expensive. c. M akes future inspections more difficult. Desi gn of Storage Tank Bottom Li ni ngs Page 7 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998


N ormal data or know ledge required: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.


M ore specific data: i. ii.


Linings should extend 18-24 inches up the shell. Transition area (from bottom horiz. to shell vert.), is a common failure area. Proper support, especially with thick-films are critical in this area. With thin-film types, desired film thickness normally requires 2-3 coats. Thick-films range from 1-4 coats. New tanks, or where onl y internal loss has occurred may require 35-55 mils. Older bottoms, corroded on both sides may require 80-120 mils (usually reinforced).

"Whi te" (SSPC-SP5/ NACE #1) or a "near-whi te" (SSPCSP10/ N A CE #2) abrasive blast cleaner. A nchor pattern (surface roughness) required is generally betw een 1.5 and 4 mils, depending on lining selection.

Excepti onal Ci rcumstances A f fecti ng Sel ecti on Be sure to take into consideration: a. b. c. d.

Corrosion history or corrosion potential Elevated temperatures. A bove 160°F is critical. Product purity. Thin-films may be sufficient. Liner may contaminate product.


NA CE Publ. TM O174 or M ilitary Spec M IL-C-4556D may be of assistance if manufacturer cannot furnish special data.

SECTI ON 7 - SURFACE PREPARA TI ON Page 8 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998




a. Surface preparation is a critical part of lining operation. Surface preparation is performed to provide the appropriate combination of surface cleanliness/ surface profile (anchor profile) required to establish good chemical and mechanical adhesion of the coating resin to the substrate (i.e., steel). Inadequate surface preparation is a major cause of lining failure. H ow ever, a well prepared surface becomes meaningless if all of the abrasive material (i.e., sand, etc.) is not removed prior to primer/ liner application. In such event, a lack of adhesion, future peeling or disbonding failure can be expected. Continuous immersion presents a sever exposure.

NOTE: 7.2

Precl eani ng a. b.


SP5 #1 (w hite metal finish) or SP10 #2 (near-white) is often specified as the mini mum degree of surface cleanliness.

Before blasting, al l contaminants (i.e., oil, tar, grease, salt, etc.) must be removed. Solvent cleaning (SSPC-SP1), high pressure w ater or steam cleaning should be considered. Fresh w ater wash after solvent cleaning, may be required to remove soluble salts and cleaning chemicals.

Bottom Repai r - Wel d Preparati on a. M ost common repair of perforations is w elded steel patches. A nother repair method is to epoxy a 12 gauge steel plate over the bottom perforation pri or to thick-film (reinforced) linings being installed. SA FETY NOTE: b.


Weld repair may be di sal l ow ed if tank pad has been contaminated w ith flammable materials.

Remove sharp edges, corners and protrusions. Chipping or pow er grinding most common removal method.

A brasi ve Bl asti ng D o N ot Bl ast w hen steel temperature is less than 5°F(3°C) above the dew point or if the relative humidity is greater than 80%. In particularly humid areas, such as coastal regions, potential solutions might be selective timing, w hich may influence w ork schedules, or perhaps the use of forced air injection. NOTE:


Liner applications must be conducted when surface condition is appropriate. Delay (betw een blast and application) w ill produce poor results. When i n doubt, restore surface preparation to the necessary degree.

Surf ace Prof i l e or A nchor Pattern Page 9 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998

a. b. c. 7.6

M atch profile to accommodate selected liner. Refer to material manufacturer's recommendation. Typical anchor pattern is 1.5 to 4 mils. This generally increases w ith liner thickness.

Types and Qual i ty of A brasi ves SECTI ON 8 - LI N I NG APPLI CA TION


General a. b. c. d.


Appl i cati on Gui del i nes a. b. c. d.


SSPC-PA 1 and NA CE 6F164 - Good painting practice. Establish and adhere to proper mixing practices. If conflicts arise (betw een ow ner/ user; liner applicator or material manufacturer) over any aspect of the job, resol ve them pri or to beginning the project. Consider restraints imposed by steel temperature and relative humidity.

Lini ng Thi ckness a. b.


A void disbonding or delamination by following manufacturer's recommendations. Stick to ti me i nterval (betw een coats) recommended by owner's specifications or manufacturer. SSPC-PA 1 is a dependable procedure to follow . Establish and adhere to recommended drying (curing) period. Customers often get impatient.

Insufficient film thickness w ill not provide adequate coverage or protection. Excessive thickness can compromise adhesion and integrity. Thi cker i s not al w ays better.

Li ni ng Curi ng a.

Lining failure is attributed to: i. ii. iii.

NOTE: b.

Improper preparation. Improper application. Inadequate curing. A dhesion and film integrity depend upon above listed items.

Proper curing conditions may be aided by force-curing (i.e., circulating warmed, dehumidified air). N otes Page 10 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998

A PI RP 652 (Rei nf orced Gl ass-epoxy I nternal Li ni ng 65 M i l s Thi ck ) Clean and repair the tank bottom (install lap weld steel plate patches 3/ 16" or 1/ 4" and w eld build-up). A brasive blast per API 652 specifications, remove all residue (air blow , broom sw eep and vacuum) remove all moisture. H and trow el epoxy in the corner area and radius all transitions, and around patch plates. Consult a "Technical Representative" for the product being installed, include a job site visit. If the following conditions are correct: Proper blast profile Proper material mixture A pplication equipment properly functioning M aterial specifications correct Proper thickness applied Proper curing procedure follow ed Weather restraints are observed The l i ni ng w i l l be sati sf actory and l ast 10 - 20 years. SECTI ON 9 - I N SPECTI ON Items 7.1 (General) through (Discontinuities) list some qualifications, parameters and procedures to assist or guide in the area of Inspection. Without going into detail or explanation, some or all of the follow ing should provide guidelines or assistance. 9.2

Personnel NA CE certi f i ed


Recommended Inspecti on Parameters Refer to N A CE RP-02-88

Cleanliness and Profile: Refer to SSPC-VIS1 (reference photos) and N A CE TMO175 (sealed steel reference panels NA CE RPO287 provides a method of measuring surface profile.

Film thickness

Page 11 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998

a. b.

Hardness: A s applicable, refer to the follow ing procedures: a. b. c. d.

Soon after application, w et f i l m "t" measurement should be made. Refer to A STM D4414. A fter curing, dry fi l m "t". Refer to SSPC PA 2.

ASTM D 2583 ASTM D 2240 ASTM D 3363 Solvent w ipe test

Discontinuities a. b.

Linings exceeding 20 mils "t" shall be holiday tested w ith a high voltage detector (see NA CE RPO188). Linings less than 20 mils should be tested w ith a low voltage (67.5 volts) wet sponge detector.


General a. b.


Properly selected/ applied liners should provide a service life of 10-20 years. A ny bottom mechanical repair should be complete prior to any liner installation or repair.

Determi ne Cause of Fai l ure Before deciding how to make a lining failure repair, the cause or extent should be established by visual inspection and a review of the operating history. A ttempt to determine if: a. b. c.


Failure w as due to mechanical damage. Environmental attack w as responsible. Improperly installed.

Types of Repai r a. b. c.

Spot repairs for localized failure (blisters, pinholes or mechanical damage) Topcoating for more extensive failure but w here adhesion and integrity is still good. M ake sure topcoat is compatible w ith existing liner. Complete replacement w hen existing liner is beyond repair.

SECTI ON 11 - SAFETY Page 12 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998


Tank Entry Permits for tank entry and hot w ork should be issued and enforced. Follow guidelines for issuing permits and preparing a tank or confined space for entry, as detailed in API Publication 2015.


Surf ace Preparati on and Li ni ng Appl i cati on Use respiratory equipment and protective clothing as found in: a. b. c. d. e.


OSHA Standard for Abrasive Blasting. SSPC PA 3. NA CE 6D163. A ny relevant federal or state regulation. A s required on tank entry permit.

M anuf acturer's M ateri al Saf ety Data Sheets a. b. c.

Indicates the "chemi cal make-up" that can present health hazards to personnel. M SDS inform about materials so that they can protect themselves and how to respond properly to emergency situations. Purpose of M SDS is to inform personnel of: i. ii. iii. iv. v.

A M aterial's physical properties w hich make it hazardous to handle. The type of personal protective equipment needed. First aid treatment necessary ( if exposed). Safe handling under normal conditions and during emergencies such as fires and spills. A ppropriate response to accidents.

Page 13 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998

A PI -652 (LI N I N G TA N K BOTTOM S) "QUI Z" 1.

Which of the follow ing pertains to or establishes the "dew poi nt"? a. b. c. d.


Difference (in °F) between the relative humidity value and the internal tank air temperature. Difference (in °F) betw een the internal tank air temperature and the substrate (steel) temperature The temperature at w hich moisture condenses from the atmosphere. The moisture content value at which adhesion betw een the liner and the substrate cannot be achieved.

Indicate the most correct definition for "a hol i day". a. b. c.

A lamination that develops betw een coating layers. A discontinuity in a coating film that exposes the metal surface to the environment. A ny thin liner area w here an additional film "t" layer is required.


, are common examples of aromatic solvents.


A during hot forming operations.


There are five (5) common mechanisms normally associated with internal tank bottom corrosion. List any three (3) of the five (5) causes below.


is an oxide layer formed on steel

a. b. c. 6.

M atch the follow ing SSPC surface preparation to the metal finish specification, as specified in Section 5. D raw A rrow to Connect. White M etal Finish Near-White M etal Finish


Page 14 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998


Select the general rul e normally followed relative to liner application vs. temperature and humidity restrictions. a. b. c. d.


5°F (3°C) above dew point, w ith relative humidity below 80% 10°F (5.5°C) above dew point, with relative humidity below 80% Stop application when visually, adhesion and bonding is not being achieved. A ny substrate temperature w hen moisture is visible.

What is the typi cal range required on anchor pattern (i.e., depth profile) prior to liner installation. Answer:


is a natural or synthetic substance that may be used as a bi nder in coatings.


When considering the need for an internal lining, make selections from below as some of the more important. A.

B. C. D.

a. Where is corrosion occurring? b. How fast is it proceeding. c. Have there been significant corrosion rates changes. d. What type of corrosion is occurring. e. H ave bottom perforations occurred. Sub-items "b", "c" and "d" only. A ll of the above. Primarily cost and out-of service time frame involved.

Page 15 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998

unsaturated ring w ith delocalized pi electrons. Benzene, toluene and xylene are common examples of aromatic solvents. 3.7

bi sphenol -A pol yester: A polyester w hose chemical structure incorporates Bisphenol-A into the resin molecule in place of some or all of the glycol. The solid resin is generally provided a solution in styrene, w hich acts as a solvent and as a cross-linking agent for the resin.


cathode: A n electrode of an electrochemical cell as which a reduction is the principle reaction. Electrons flow tow ard the cathode in the external circuit. * A ntonym: anode


cathodi c protecti on: A technique for to reduce corrosion of a metal surface by making that surface the cathode of an electrochemical cell.


coal tar: A black hydrocarbon residue remaining after coal is distilled.


coal tar epoxy: A coating in w hich the binder is a combination of coal tar and epoxy resin.


copol ymer: A large molecule w hose chemical structure consists of at least two (2) different monomers.


corrosi on: The deterioration of a material, usually a metal, because of a reaction with its environment.


curi ng: The setting up, or hardening, generally due to a polymerization reaction between tw o (2) or more chemicals (resin and curative).


dew poi nt: Pertains to the temperature at w hich moisture condenses from the atmosphere.


di f f erenti al aerati on cel l : A n electrochemical cell , the electromotive force of which is due to a difference in air (oxygen) concentration at one electrode as compared w ith that at another electrode of the same material.


el ectrochemi cal cel l : A system consisting of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte so as to create an electrical circuit. The anode and the cathode may be different metals or dissimilar areas on the same metal surface.


el ectrol yte: A chemical substance containing ions that migrate in an electric field.


epoxy: Resin containing epoxide (oxirane) functional groups that allow for curing by polymerization w ith a variety of curatives. Epoxy resins are usually made from Bisphenol-A and epichlorohydrin.


f orced-curi ng: A cceleration of curing by increasing the temperature above ambient, accompanied by forced air circulation. hol i day: A discontinuity in a coating film that exposes the metal surface


Page 16 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998


"c" (Temperature at w hich moisture condenses from atmosphere.


"b" (Discontinuity exposing surface to environment).


Benzene, Toluene and Xylene.


Mill Scale


A ny of the follow ing: Chemical Corrosion Concentration cell corrosion Galvanic Cell Corrosion Erosion Corrosion Corrosion caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria.


White --------- SP5 #1 Near-White ---- SP10 #2


"a" (5°F above dew point w ith relative humidity below 80%).


1.5 to 4 mils




A - All 5 considerations.

Page 17 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998

Section 6 API Recommended Practice 571 Summary

       

     

      

    

Page 1 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006

    

Page 2 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006

   

                                                                       

   

                                                                                                           Page 3 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006

                                                                                                                                                                                            Page 4 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006

                          

                                                                                          

           

                                     

Page 5 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006

                                                                                                                                

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                                                                                                                                             

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                                                                                                 

                 

                       

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Section 7 API RP 577 Summary

W el d i n g I n sp ect i on an d M et al l u r g y AP PI RP 55777 Fi rrst Eddi t i on O cct ob eer , 200044

Su m m ar y an d N ot es For A PI 653 Exam

Prepared by; Ron VanA rsdale Ow ner

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(Thi s page i ntenti onal l y l ef t bl ank )

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A PI RP 577 Fi rst Edi tion - October, 2004 Welding I nspecti on and M etal lurgy

SECTI ON 1 - SCOPE A PI RP 577 provides guidance to the A PI authorized inspector on welding inspection, as encountered w ith fabrication and repair of refinery and chemical plant equipment and piping. Common w elding processes, welding procedures, welder qualifications, metallurgical effects from welding, and inspection techniques are described.

SECTI ON 2 - REFEREN CES SECTI ON 3 - D EFI N I TI ON S (For the purposes of this standard, the follow ing definitions apply.) 3.1 actual throat: The shortest distance betw een the weld root and the face of a fillet weld. 3.2 ai r carbon arc cutti ng (CA C-A ): A carbon arc cutting process variation that removes molten metal with a jet of air. 3.3 arc bl ow: The deflection of an arc from its normal path because of magnetic forces. 3.4 arc l ength: The distance from the tip of the w elding electrode to the adjacent surface of the weld pool.

3.5 arc stri ke: A discontinuity resulting from an arc, consisting of any localized remelted metal, heataffected metal, or change in the surface profile of any metal object. 3.6 arc w el di ng (A W): A group of w elding processes that produces coalescence of w ork pieces by heating them w ith an arc. The processes are used with or w ithout the application of pressure and w ith or without filler metal.

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3.7 autogenous w el d: A fusion w eld made w ithout filler metal. 3.8 back -gougi ng: The removal of w eld metal and base metal from the w eld root side of a welded joint to facilitate complete fusion and complete joint penetration upon subsequent w elding from that side. 3.9 backi ng: A material or device placed against the backside of the joint, or at both sides of a w eld in w elding, to support and retain molten weld metal. 3.10 base metal : The metal or alloy that is w elded or cut. 3.11 bevel angl e: The angle betw een the bevel of a joint member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member. 3.12 burn-through: A non-standard term for excessive visible root reinforcement in a joint w elded from one side or a hole through the root bead. A lso, a common term used to reflect the act of penetrating a thin component w ith the w elding arc w hile hot tap welding or in-service welding. 3.13 constant current pow er suppl y: A n arc w elding pow er source w ith a volt-ampere relationship yielding a small welding current change from a large arc voltage change. 3.14 constant vol tage pow er suppl y: A n arc w elding pow er source w ith a volt-ampere relationship yielding a large w elding current change from a small voltage change. 3.15 crack: A fracture type discontinuity characterized by a sharp tip and high ratio of length and w idth to opening displacement.

accumulated effect (for example total crack length) render a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifications. The term designates rejectability. 3.17 di rect current el ectrode negati ve (D CEN): The arrangement of direct current arc w elding leads in which the electrode is the negative pole and w orkpiece is the positive pole of the w elding arc. Commonly known as straight polarity. 3.18 di rect current el ectrode posi ti ve (D CEP): The arrangement of direct current arc w elding leads in which the electrode is the positive pole and the w orkpiece is the negative pole of the w elding arc. Commonly known as reverse polarity. 3.19 di sconti nui ty: A n interruption of the typical structure of a material, such as a lack of homogeneity in its mechanical, metallurgical or physical characteristics. A discontinuity is not necessarily a defect. 3.20 di storti on: The change in shape or dimensions, temporary or permanent, of a part as a result of heating or w elding. 3.21 f i l l er metal : The metal or alloy to be added in making a w elded joint. 3.22 f i l l et w el d si ze: For equal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest isosceles right triangle that can be inscribed w ithin the fillet w eld cross section. 3.23 f usi on l i ne: A non-standard term for w eld interface. 3.24 groove angl e: The total included angle of the groove betw een w orkpieces.

3.16 def ect: A discontinuity or discontinuities that by nature or Page 4 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006

3.25 heat af f ected zone (H AZ): The portion of the base metal w hose mechanical properties or microstructure have been altered by the heat of w elding or thermal cutting.

3.35 j oi nt type: A w eld joint classification based on five basic joint configurations such as a butt joint, corner joint, edge joint, lap joint and tjoint.

3.26 heat i nput: The energy supplied by the w elding arc to the w orkpiece. Heat input is calculated as follows: heat input = (V x i)/ 60v, w here V = voltage, i = amperage, v = weld travel speed (in./ min.).

3.36 l ack of f usi on (LOF): A nonstandard term indicating a weld discontinuity in which fusion did not occur betw een w eld metal and fusion faces or adjoining w eld beads.

3.27 hot crack i ng: Cracking formed at temperatures near the completion of solidification. 3.28 i ncl usi on: Entrapped foreign solid material, such as slag, flux, tungsten or oxide. 3.29 i ncompl ete fusi on: A weld discontinuity in w hich complete coalescence did not occur betw een weld metal and fusion faces or adjoining weld beads. 3.30 i ncompl ete j oi nt penetrati on: A joint root condition in a groove w eld in w hich weld metal does not extend through the joint thickness. 3.31 i nspector: An individual w ho is qualified and certified to perform inspections under the proper inspection code or who holds a valid and current National Board Commission.

3.37 l amel l ar tear: A subsurface terrace and step-like crack in the base metal with a basic orientation parallel to the w rought surface caused by tensile stresses in the throughthickness direction of the base metal w eakened by the presence of small dispersed, planar shaped, nonmetallic inclusions parallel to the metal surface. 3.38 l ami nati on: A type of discontinuity w ith separation or w eakness generally aligned parallel to the w orked surface of a metal. 3.39 l i near di sconti nui ty: A discontinuity w ith a length that is substantially greater than its w idth. 3.40 l ongi tudi nal crack : A crack with its major axis orientation approximately parallel to the weld axis.

3.32 i nterpass temperature, w el di ng: In multipass w eld, the temperature of the w eld area betw een w eld passes.

3.41 nondestructi ve exami nati on (N DE): The act of determining the suitability of some material or component for its intended purpose using techniques that do not affect its serviceability.

3.33 IQI : Image quality indicator. Penetrameter is another common term for IQI.

3.42 overl ap: The protrusion of w eld metal beyond the w eld toe or weld root.

3.34 j oi nt penetrati on: The distance the w eld metal extends from the w eld face into a joint, exclusive of weld reinforcement.

3.43 oxyacetyl ene cutti ng (OFC-A ): A n oxygen gas cutting process variation that uses acetylene as the fuel gas.

Page 5 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006

3.44 PM I (Posi ti ve M ateri al s I denti f i cati on): A ny physical evaluation or test of a material (electrode, wire, flux, w eld deposit, base metal, etc.), which has been or will be placed into service, to demonstrate it is consistent w ith the selected or specified alloy material designated by the ow ner/ user. These evaluations or tests may provide either qualitative or quantitative information that is sufficient to verify the nominal alloy composition. 3.45 peeni ng: The mechanical w orking of metals using impact blow s. 3.46 penetrameter: Old terminology for IQI still in use today but not recognized by the codes and standards. 3.47 porosi ty: Cavity-type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification or in thermal spray deposit. 3.48 preheat: M etal temperature value achieved in a base metal or substrate prior to initiating the thermal operations. 3.49 recordabl e i ndi cati on: Recording on a data sheet of an indication or condition that does not necessarily exceed the rejection criteria but in terms of code, contract or procedure w ill be documented. 3.50 reportabl e i ndi cati on: Recording on a data sheet of an indication that exceeds the reject flaw size criteria and needs not only documentation, but also notification to the appropriate authority to be corrected. A ll reportable indications are recordable indications but not vice-versa. 3.51 root f ace: The portion of the groove face w ithin the joint root.

3.52 root openi ng: A separation at the joint root betw een the w orkpieces. 3.53 shi el di ng gas: Protective gas used to prevent or reduce atmospheric contamination. 3.54 sl ag: A nonmetallic product resulting from the mutual dissolution of flux and nonmetallic impurities in some w elding and brazing processes. 3.55 sl ag i ncl usi on: A discontinuity consisting of slag entrapped in the w eld metal or at the w eld interface. 3.56 spatter: The metal particles expelled during fusion welding that do not form a part of the w eld. 3.57 tack wel d: A w eld made to hold the parts of a weldment in proper alignment until the final welds are made. 3.58 throat theoreti cal : The distance from the beginning of the joint root perpendicular to the hypotenuse of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed w ithin the cross-section of a fillet weld. This dimension is based on the assumption that the root opening is equal to zero. 3.59 transverse crack: A crack w ith its major axis oriented approximately perpendicular to the w eld axis. 3.60 travel angl e: The angle less than 90 degrees between the electrode axis and a line perpendicular to the w eld axis, in a plane determined by the electrode axis and the weld axis. 3.61 tungsten i ncl usi on: A discontinuity consisting of tungsten entrapped in weld metal. 3.62 undercut: A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the weld toe or weld root and left unfilled by weld metal.

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3.63 underf i l l : A condition in w hich the weld joint is incompletely filled w hen compared to the intended design. 3.64 w el der certi f i cati on: Written verification that a w elder has produced w elds meeting a prescribed standard of w elder performance. 3.65 w el di ng: A joining process that produces coalescence of base metals by heating them to the w elding temperature, with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone, and w ith or w ithout the use of filler metal. 3.66 wel di ng engi neer: An individual w ho holds an engineering degree and is know ledgeable and experienced in the engineering disciplines associated with welding. 3.67 w el dment: A n assembly w hose component parts are joined by welding. 3.68 wel d j oi nt: The junction of members or the edges of members w hich are to be joined or have been joined by welding. 3.69 wel d rei nf orcement: Weld metal in excess of the quantity required to fill a joint. 3.70 w el d toe: The junction of the w eld face and the base metal.

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SECTI ON 4: 4.1


GENERAL This section focuses on the tasks that are not only considered the responsibility of the inspection personnel, but also other concerned parties w ho will design, examine or perform welding.


TASK S PRIOR TO WELDI NG These crucial steps are necessary to avoid the many w elding problems which can occur during or after the w elding process. 4.2.1 Draw i ngs, Codes and Standards Review the draw ings, standards, codes and specifications to ensure the requirements for the w eldment are understood, as well as to identify any inconsistencies. 4.2.2 Wel dment Requirements Review requirements for the weldment w ith the personnel involved w ith executing the w ork 4.2.3 Procedures and Qual i f i cati on Records Review the WPS(s) and welder performance qualification record(s) (WPQ) to assure they are acceptable for the w ork. 4.2.4 N DE I nf ormati on Confirm the N DE examiner(s), N DE procedure(s) and NDE equipment of the inspection organization are acceptable for the w ork. 4.2.5 Wel ding Equipment and Instruments Confirm w elding equipment and instruments are calibrated and operate properly. 4.2.6 H eat Treatment and Pressure Testi ng Confirm heat treatment and pressure testing procedures and associated equipment are acceptable. 4.2.7 M ateri al s Ensure all filler metals, base materials and backing ring materials are properly marked and identified and, if required, perform PM I to verify the material composition.

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4.2.8 Wel d Preparati on Confirm weld preparation, joint fit-up, and dimensions are acceptable and correct. 4.2.9 Preheat Confirm the preheat equipment and temperature. 4.2.10 Wel di ng Consumabl es Confirm electrode, filler w ire, fluxes, and inert gases are as specified and acceptable. 4.3

TA SK S DURIN G WELDI NG OPERA TI ONS Welding inspection during welding operations should include audit parameters to verify the welding is performed to the procedures. 4.3.1 Qual i ty Assurance Establish a quality assurance and quality control umbrella with the w elding organization. 4.3.2 Wel di ng Parameters and Techni ques Confirm w elding parameters and techniques are supported by the WPS and WPQ. 4.3.3 Wel dment Examinati on Complete physical checks, visual examination and in-process NDE


TA SKS UPON COM PLETION OF WELDIN G Final tasks upon completion of the w eldment and w ork should include those that assure final weld quality before placing the weldment in service. 4.4.1 Appearance and Fi ni sh Verify post-w eld acceptance, appearance and finishing of the welded joints. 4.4.2 N DE Revi ew Verify N DE is performed at selected locations and review examiner s findings. 4.4.3 Post-wel d Heat Treatment Verify post-weld heat treatment is performed to the procedure and produces acceptable results. Page 9 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006

4.4.4 Pressure Testi ng Verify pressure test is performed to the procedure. 4.4.5 D ocumentati on Audit Perform a final audit of the inspection dossier to identify inaccuracies and incomplete information. 4.5

NON-CON FORM A N CES A N D D EFECTS A t any time during the w elding inspection, if defects or non-conformances to the specification are identified, they should be brought to the attention of those responsible for the w ork or corrected before welding proceeds further.


N DE EXA M I N ER CERTI FI CA TI ON The referencing codes or standards may require the examiner to be qualified in accordance w ith a specific code and certified as meeting the requirements. They also require the employer to develop and establish a w ritten practice or procedure that details the employer s requirements for certification of inspection personnel.


SA FETY PRECA UTI ONS Inspectors should be aw are of the hazards associated with welding and take appropriate steps to prevent injury w hile performing inspection tasks. A t a minimum, the site s safety rules and regulations should be review ed as applicable to w elding operations.

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GENERAL The inspector should understand the basic arc w elding processes most frequently used in the fabrication and repair of refinery and chemical process equipment. These processes include: a. b. c. d. e. f.


Shielded metal arc w elding (SM AW) Gas tungsten arc welding (GTA W) Gas metal arc welding (GM AW) Flux cored arc w elding (FCA W) Submerged arc welding (SA W) Stud arc w elding (SW)

SHI ELDED M ETA L ARC WELDI NG (SM A W) a. b. c. d. e.

M ost w idely used of the various arc welding processes. Uses an arc betw een a covered electrode and the w eld pool. Employs the heat of the arc coming from the tip of a consumable covered electrode, to melt the base metal. Shielding is provided from the decomposition of the electrode covering, w ithout the application of pressure and with filler metal from the electrode Either alternating current (ac) or direct current (dc) may be employed.

5.2.1 El ectrode Coveri ng Depending on the type of electrode being used, the covering performs one or more of the follow ing functions: a. b. c. d. e.

Provides a gas to shield the arc and prevent excessive atmospheric contamination of the molten filler metal. Provides scavengers, deoxidizers, and fluxing agents to cleanse the w eld and prevent excessive grain grow th in the w eld metal. Establishes the electrical characteristics of the electrode. Provides a slag blanket to protect the hot w eld metal from the air and enhances the mechanical properties, bead shape, and surface cleanliness of the weld metal. Provides a means of adding alloying elements to change the mechanical properties of the w eld metal.

5.2.2 A dvantages of SM A W a. b. c. d. e.

Equipment is relatively simple, inexpensive, and portable. Can be used in areas of limited access. Less sensitive to wind and draft than other processes. Used w ith most common metals and alloys High quality w elds.

Page 11 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006

5.2.3 Li mi tations of SM AW a. b. c. 5.3

Deposition rates are lower than for other processes. Slag usually must be removed at stops and starts, and before depositing a w eld bead adjacent to or onto a previously deposited weld bead. Electrode storage.


Uses an arc betw een a non-consumabl e tungsten el ectrode and the w eld pool. Used with shielding gas and without the application of pressure. Used w ith or w i thout the addition of f i l l er metal (A utogenous). The CC type power supply can be used w ith either dc or ac. Injection points Deadlegs Corrosion under insulation (CUI) Soil-to-air (S/ A ) interfaces Service specific and localized corrosion Erosion and corrosion/ erosion Environmental cracking Corrosion beneath linings and deposits Fatigue cracking Creep cracking Brittle fracture Freeze damage

5.3.1 Advantages of GTA W a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Produces high purity w elds. Little post-weld cleaning is required. A llows for excellent control of root pass weld penetration Can be used for autogenous w elds (no filler metal). Good for thin metals Good appearance M echanization potential

5.3.2 Li mi tati ons of GTA W a. b. c. d.

Relatively slow deposition rate Low tolerance for contaminants Difficult to shield the weld zone in drafty environments Two-handed process

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GA S M ETAL ARC WELDI NG (GM A W) a. b. c. d. e.

Uses an arc betw een conti nuous f i l l er metal el ectrode and the weld pool. Used w ith shielding from an externally supplied gas and w ithout application of pressure. Can be operated in semiautomatic, machine or automatic modes. Employs a constant voltage (CV) pow er supply Uses short-circuiting, globular or spray methods to transfer metal from the electrode to the workpiece. The type of transfer is determined by these most influential factors: i. ii. iii. iv. v.

M agnitude and type of welding current Electrode diameter Electrode composition Electrode extension Shielding gas

5.4.1 Short Ci rcui ti ng Transf er (GM A W-S) a. b.

Encompasses the l ow est range of wel di ng currents and electrode diameters. Produces a fast freezing w eld pool that is generally sui ted f or: i. ii. iii.


Joining thin sections Out-of-position Root pass

With fast-freezing nature of the process, comes the potential for lack of sidewall fusion w hen welding thick-wall equipment or a nozzle attachment.

5.4.2 Gl obul ar Transf er a. b. c. d.

Encompasses relatively l ow current (below 250 A ). Characterized by a drop si ze w i th a di ameter greater than that of the el ectrode Generally l i mi ted to the f l at posi ti on. Can produce spatter.

5.4.3 Spray Transf er a. b. c.

H i ghl y di rected stream of di screte drops that are accelerated by arc forces. Spatter is negligible M ay be di f f i cul t to appl y to thi n sheets. (Thickness limitations of the spray arc have been overcome by the use of pulsed GM A W, in which the current is pulsed to obtain the advantage of spray transfer).

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5.4.4 Advantages of GM A W a. b. c. d. e. f.

Only consumable electrode process that can w eld most commercial metals and alloys. High productivity deposition rates are significantly higher. N o slag to remove. Clean process Continuous feed Low est hydrogen potential of all processes

5.4.5 Li mi tati ons of GM AW a. b. c. d. e. f. 5.5

Equipment is more complex and more costly. Equipment is less portable and usually limited to shop welding. Unsuitable for windy conditions. Weld is more susceptible to lack of fusion. Little tolerance for contamination. Consumables.

FLUX CORED A RC WELD I NG (FCA W) a. b. c. d. e.

Process uses an arc between continuous tubular filler metal electrode and the w eld pool. Used with shielding gas from a flux contained within the tubul ar el ectrode. Can be used w i th or wi thout addi ti onal shi el di ng from an externally supplied gas. N ormally a semiautomatic process. Use depends on: i. ii. iii.


type of electrodes available mechanical property requirements of the w elded joints joint designs and fit-up

Recommended power source is the dc constant-vol tage type.

5.5.1 A dvantages of FCAW a. b. c. d. e. f.

M etallurgical benefits from the flux. Slag supports and forms the weld bead. High deposition of w eld metal. Suitable for field work since shielding is produced at the surface giving better protection against drafts. Tolerates contamination. Deep penetration.

5.5.2 Li mi tati ons of FCAW a. b. c. d.

Equipment is complex, costly and less portable. Heavy fumes require exhaust equipment. Slag removal betw een passes. Backing material is required for root pass w elding. Page 14 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006



Uses an arc or arcs betw een a f l ux covered bare metal el ectrode(s) and the w eld pool. The arc and molten metal are shi el ded by a bl ank et of granul ar f l ux, supplied through the w elding nozzle from a hopper. Process is used without pressure and filler metal from the electrode and sometimes from a supplemental source (w elding rod, flux or metal granules). Can be applied in three different modes: i. ii. iii.

e. f.

semiautomatic automatic machine

Can use either a CV or CC pow er supply Used extensively in ship pressure vessel fabrication and pipe manufacturing.

5.6.1 A dvantages of SA W a. b. c. d. e. f.

Very high deposition rate. Repeatable high quality w elds for large w eldments and repetitive short welds. Deep penetration. Good for overlay. Hand-held process. High operator appeal.

5.6.2 Li mi tations of SA W a. b. c. d. e. f. 5.7

Requires high amperage at 100% duty cycle. A rc not visible, making it harder to control. Flat or horizontal fillets only. Extensive set up time. Needs positioning equipment. Slag removal.

STUD A RC WELD IN G (SW) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

Uses an arc between a metal stud and the w ork piece. Once the surfaces of the parts are properly heated, they are brought into contact by pressure. Shielding gas or flux may or may not be used. Process may be fully automatic or semiautomatic. Stud gun holds the tip of the stud against the work. Direct current is normally used for SW, with the stud gun connected to the negative terminal (DCEN) The power source is a CC type. Predominantly limited to welding insulation and refractory support pins to tanks, pressure vessels and heater casing. Page 15 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006

5.7.1 Advantages of SW a. b. c. d. e.

High productivity Considered an all-position process Simple Repetitive A utomatic stud feeding (option)

5.7.2 Li mi tati ons of SW a. b. c. d.

Primarily suitable for only carbon and low -alloy steels. Specialized to a few applications. Needs clean surface. Equipment malfunctions.

SECTI ON 6 WELD I N G PROCED URES (See I TA C Chapter 9 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on) This section will be discussed during the ASM E Section IX presentation. A nyone who is not familiar with w elding procedures should review this section at length.

SECTI ON 7 WELD I N G M A TERI A LS (See I TA C Chapter 9 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on) This section will be discussed during the ASM E Section IX presentation. A nyone who is not familiar w ith welding materials should review this section at length.

SECTI ON 8 WELD ER QUA LI FI CA TI ON (See I TA C Chapter 9 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on) This section will be discussed during the ASM E Section IX presentation. A nyone w ho is not familiar w ith welder qualifications should review this section at length.

SECTI ON 9 N ON D ESTRUCTI V E EXA M I N A TI ON (See I TA C Chapter 8 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on) This section will be discussed during the ASM E Section V presentation. A nyone w ho is not familiar w ith N DE methods should review this section at length.

Page 16 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006

SECTI ON 10 - M ETA LLURGY (See I TA C Chapter 10 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on) This section contains a very basic discussion of w elding metallurgy, and a review of this section w ill give you a general overview of the subject. It w ill not, how ever, make you proficient in metallurgy. A dditional study is a must.


GENERAL This section provides details of specific welding issues encountered by the inspector in refineries and petrochemical plants.


H OT TAPPIN G A ND IN -SERV ICE WELD I NG Prior to performing this work, a detailed w ritten plan should be developed and review ed. 11.2.1 El ectrode Consi derati ons 1.

Hot tap and in-service welding operations should be carried out only w ith low -hydrogen consumables and electrodes (e.g., E7016, E7018 and E7048).


Extra-low hydrogen consumables, such as Exxxx-H 4, should be used for welding carbon steels w ith CE greater than 0.43% or w here there is potential for hydrogen assisted cracking (H A C) such as cold w orked pieces, high strength and highly constrained areas.


Cellulosic type electrodes (e.g., E6010, E6011 or E7010) may be used for root and hot passes. (a)

Advantages of cellulosic electrodes: (i) (ii)


easy to operate. provide improved control over the welding arc.

Limitations of cellulosic electrodes: (i) (ii)

increased risk of H A C and burn-through. H igher risk of hydrogen assisted cracking (H AC).

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11.2.2 Fl ow Rates Under most conditions, some product flow inside the material being w elded is advantageous. 11.2.3 Other Consi derati ons A void w eave beads to reduce heat input. 11.2.4 Inspecti on a. b.

UT for laminations should be performed before w elding. VT, PT and/ or M T can be performed on completed welds.

Page 18 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006



WELD JOI NT TYPES Five basic joints: a.

Butt: A joint betw een two members aligned approximately in the same plane.

Applicable Welds:


Corner: A joint betw een tw o members located approximately at right angles to each other in the form of an L.

Applicable Welds:

Page 19 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006


Tee: A joint betw een tw o members located approximately at right angles to each other in the form of a T.

Applicable Welds:


Lap: A joint betw een tw o overlapping members in parallel planes.

Applicable Welds: Fillet Bevel-Groove Flare-V-Groove J-Groove Square-Groove

Slot Spot Seam Projection *Braze


Page 20 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006


Edge: A joint between tw o or more parallel or nearly parallel members.

Applicable Welds:

Page 21 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006


WELD SYM BOLS Engineering and construction drawings often use standard symbols to represent w eld details. Fi gure A -2 Symbol s for V ari ous Wel d Joi nts

N ote: The reference line is show n dashed for illustrative purposes.

Fi gure A-3 Suppl ementary Symbol s f or Wel ds

Page 22 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006

Fi gure A-4 Standard Wel d Symbol s


WELD JOIN T NOM ENCLA TURE Standard terminology applies to the various components of a w eld joint. Fi gure A -5 Groove Wel d N omencl ature

Page 23 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006


ELECTRODE I D ENTI FI CA TI ON The AWS specification and classification system allows selection of an electrode, which w ill provide a weld metal with specific mechanical properties and alloy composition. Fi gure A-6 SM A W Wel di ng El ectrode I denti fi cati on System

Fi gure A -7 GM AW/GTA W w el di ng El ectrode I denti f i cati on System

Fi gure A -8 FCA W Wel di ng El ectrode I denti f i cati on System

Page 24 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006

Fi gure A-9 SAW Wel di ng El ectrode I denti f i cati on System

A PPEND I X B A CTIONS TO A DD RESS I M PROPERLY M AD E PRODUCTI ON WELD S N o comment A PPEN DI X C WELD IN G PROCED URE REV I EW This subject matter is covered in the review of A SM E Section IX, but is an excellent source of reference material for those who do not have experience w ith welding procedures. A PPEND IX D


N o comment

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(Thi s page i ntenti onal l y l ef t bl ank )

Page 26 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006

Section 8 API 653 Nondestructive Examination Summary

A PI 653 N ondestructi ve Exami nati on A PI Paragraph Nondestructive Examination procedures, qualifications and acceptance criteria shall be prepared for visual, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, and radiographic methods in accordance with A PI Standard 650 and the supplemental requirements given herein. A PI 653 Paragraph Personnel performing nondestructive examinations shall be qualified in accordance with A PI 650 and the supplemental requirements given herein. A PI 653 Paragraph A cceptance Criteria is based on A PI 650 and supplemental requirements of A PI 653. A PI 653 Paragraph New A ppendix G is introduced. The requirements for M FL, procedures, operator qualifications, training and equipment calibration is listed in this appendix. A PI 653 uses A PI 650 requi rements for nondestructi ve testi ng procedures and personnel certi f i cati on. The American Society for N ondestructive Testing, Inc. Recommended Practice SNT-TC1A is recognized for technician qualifications in some NDE techniques. SN T-TC-1A is a document that outlines requirements for Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing, the main items listed are: a. b. c. d.

Work Experience Training Education Testing

In order to qualify as an ASNT Level II, Radiographers must have: a. b. c. d.

12 M onths Job Experience 79 H ours Formal Training High School Graduation Level II Exam, General, Specific and Practical

Page 1 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005

In order to qualify as an A SN T Level II, Ultrasonic Technicians must have: a. b. c. d.

12 M onths Job Experience 80 H ours Formal Training High School Graduation Level II Exam, General, Specific and Practical A PI 650 does not requi re M T or PT Techni ci ans to be certi fi ed to A SNT-SNT-TC-1A.

Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 M agneti c Parti cl e M ethod

M T Pri nci pl es of Operati on Basically, an object or localized area is magnetized through the use of A C or DC current. Once the area is magnetized lines of flux are formed, see above. Dry iron pow der, or iron pow der held in suspension is added to the surface of the test piece. Any interruption in the lines of flux will create an indication which can be evaluated. The process may be used on any material that is ferromagnetic. This method of NDE can be used in visible light or with special pow ders, under black light. Surface discontinues are the most commonly detected indications using this process.

Page 2 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005

API 653 requirements A PI 653 di rects the user to API 650 Paragraph 6.2.1 - 6.2.3 When magnetic particle examination is specified, the method of examination shall be in accordance with the A SM E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Nondestructive Examination, A rticle 7. A PI 650 Paragraph 6.2.2 M agnetic particle examination shall be performed in accordance w ith a w ritten procedure that is certified by the manufacturer to be in compliance w ith the applicable requirements of Section V, of the ASM E Code. A PI 650 Paragraph 6.2.3 No A SN T Certification Required, M anufacturer Determined M agneti c Parti cl e M ethod A cceptance Standards per A PI 650 A PI 650 Paragraph 6.2.4 A cceptance standards and removal and repair of defects shall be per Section VIII, A ppendix 6, Paragraphs 6-3 and 6-4, of the A SM E Code. A SM E Secti on VI I I, A ppendi x 6, Paragraph 6-3 Definition of indication. M ust be larger than 1/ 16 . A SM E Secti on VI I I, A ppendi x 6, Paragraph 6-4 Acceptance Standards A ll surfaces to be examined shall be free of: a. b. c.

relevant linear indications; relevant rounded indications greater than 3/ 16 four or more relevant rounded indications in line separated by 1/ 16 or less, edge to edge.

A PI 650 Paragraph 6.2.4 A cceptance standards and removal and repair of defects shall be per Section VIII, A ppendix 6, Paragraphs 6-3 and 6-4, of the A SM E Code. A SM E Secti on VI I I, A ppendi x 6, Paragraph 6-3 Definition of indication. M ust be larger than 1/ 16 .

Page 3 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005

A SM E Secti on VI I I, A ppendi x 6, Paragraph 6-4 Acceptance Standards A ll surfaces to be examined shall be free of: a. b. c.

relevant linear indications; relevant rounded indications greater than 3/ 16 four or more relevant rounded indications in line separated by 1/ 16 or less, edge to edge.

Study N otes:

Page N umber:


Calibration requirements



Yoke w eight requirements, both A C and DC



General M T procedure requirements



Know w here to find:

Page 4 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005

Nondestructi ve Exami nati on A PI 650 Li qui d Penetrant M ethod

PT Pri nci pl es of Operati on Penetrant testing is a family of testing that can be divided in to tw o major groups, visible light and fluorescent or Black Light detectable groups. the basic steps of the operation can be seen above. Step 1 the test piece must be cleaned. Step two the penetrant is applied, a dw ell time or soaking time waited. Step three the excess penetrant is removed. Step four the developer applied. Step five the part is inspected, any indication is evaluated. Step six the part is post cleaned. This inspection technique relays on the penetrant being pulled in to all surface irregularities by capillary action. When the developer is applied the penetrant is blotted back to the surface making the irregularities visible. The irregularities are then evaluated into three groups, false indications, commonly called handling marks, nonrelevant indications and defects. The defects are evaluated to a given standard for acceptance. This process will detect:

Surf ace def ects onl y!

Page 5 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005

Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 Li quid Penetrant M ethod A PI 650 Paragraph 6.4.1 When liquid penetrant examination is specified, the method of examination shall be in accordance w ith the A SM E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, "Nondestructive Examination, A rticle 6 A PI 650 Paragraph 6.4.2 Liquid Penetrant examination shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure that is certified by the manufacturer to be in compliance w ith the applicable requirements of Section V, of the ASM E Code. A PI 650 Paragraph 6.4.3 No A SN T Certification Required, M anufacturer Determined A PI 650 Paragraph 6.4.4 A cceptance standards and removal and repair of defects shall be per Section VIII, Division 1, A ppendix 8, Paragraphs 8-3 , 8-4 and 8-5, of the ASM E Code A SM E Secti on V I II Di vi si on 1 Li quid Penetrant Exami nati on - Acceptabi li ty A ppendi x 8 paragraph 8-3 Eval uati on of I ndi cati ons A n indication is the evidence of a mechanical imperfection. Only indications with major dimensions greater than 1/ 16 in. shall be considered relevant. a. b. c,

A linear indication is one having a length greater than three times the width. A rounded indication is one of circular or elliptical shape with the length equal to or less than three times the width. A ny questionable or doubtful indications shall be reexamined to determine w hether or not they are relevant.

Appendi x 8 paragraph 8-4 Acceptance Standards A ll surfaces shall be free of : a. b. c.

relevant linear indications relevant rounded indications greater than 3/ 16 four or more relevant rounded indications separated by 1/ 16

Appendi x 8 paragraph 8-5 Repai r Requirements Page 6 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005

Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 Li quid Penetrant M ethod Study Notes Read A SM E Section V, Article 6

Study N otes:

Page N umber:


Test temperatures



Surface temperatures



General PT procedure requirements



Know w here to find:

Page 7 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005

Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 Ul trasoni c M ethod (Wel d Qual i ty)

A PI 650 Paragraph 6.3.1 Introduction of the new A ppendix U. This appendix sets requirements for UT inspection when performed in lieu of radiography. A PI 650 Paragraph (Ultrasonic requirements not in lieu of radiography) When ultrasonic examination is specified, the method of examination shall be in accordance w ith the A SM E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, "Nondestructive Examination," Article 5. A PI 650 Paragraph Ultrasonic examination shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure that is certified by the manufacturer to be in compliance w ith the applicable requirements of Section V, of the ASM E Code. A PI 650 Paragraph Examiners performing ultrasonic examinations under this section shall be qualified and certified by the manufacturers as meeting the requirements of certification as generally outlined in Level II or Level III of A SNT Recommended Practice SN T-TC-1A (including applicable supplements).

Not e: " Accept ance st andards shal l be agreed upon by t he purchaser and t he manufact urer." API 650 Paragraph The API 653 Effectivity Sheet has listed A SM E Section V, Article 23 (Section SE-797 only). This section deals with Standard Practice for M easuring Thickness by Manual Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Contact M ethod . The section includes the general procedure requirements for thickness readings.

Page 8 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005

Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 Radi ographi c Examinati on

Radi ographi c Examinati on A cceptabi l i ty A PI 650 Paragraph 6.1.5 The acceptability of w elds examined by radiography shall be judged by the standards in Section VIII, Division I, Paragraph UW-51(b), of the A SM E Code. UW-51 Radi ographi c and Radi oscopi c Exami nati on of Wel ded Joi nts (b) This section requires indications show n on the radiographs to be repaired. The repairs may be radiographed or optionally, examined by ultrasonic examination. Indications that are unacceptable: A ny crack Zone of incomplete fusion Zone of incomplete penetration A ny other elongated indication which is longer than: 1/ 4 in for t up to 3/ 4 in 1/ 3 t for t from 3/ 4 in to 2 1/ 4 in 3/ 4 in for t over 2 1/ 4 in UW-51 Radi ographi c and Radi oscopi c Exami nati on of Wel ded Joi nts (subparagraph 3) A ny group of aligned indications that have an aggregate length betw een the successive imperfections exceeds 6L where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group. Rounded indications in excess of that specified by the acceptance standards given in Appendix 4.

Page 10 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005

Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 Radi ographic Exami nati on Study Notes

Read A SM E Section V, Article 2

Study N otes:

Page N umber:


Backscatter acceptability



Geometric Unsharpness



IQI information






Location M arkers



General RT procedure requirements



Know w here to find:

Page 11 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005

Section 9 API 653 ASME Section IX Summary

A PI 653 ASM E Secti on I X A PI 653 - Secti on 11 - Wel di ng 11.1.1 Welding procedure specifications (WPS) and w elders and welding operators shall be qualified in accordance w ith Section IX of the A SM E Code. This includes welding procedure qualification records (PQR). A SM E Section IX is a document that outlines the requirements for welding procedures and welder qualifications. Other organizations that have the requirements for procedures are AWS (A merican Welding Society) and API (A merican Petroleum Institute) (API 1104). While both organizations have excellent rules, the only origination required by A PI 653 is A SM E Section IX. A welding procedure shows compatibility of: a. b. c. d.

Base metals Filler metals Processes Technique

The general approaches to procedure qualification is usually in one of two forms: a.

Prequalified procedures: These are AWS w elding procedures used only for structural w elding and do not require testing. The user is limited to specific w eld joints and specific w eld processes (see AWS D 1.1).


Procedure qualification testing: These are A PI and A SM E requirements. Both require actual w elding to be performed and destructively tested.

A SM E procedure qualification testing uses a listing of essential variables in the creation of weld procedures. Essential variables are those in w hich a change is considered to affect the mechanical properties of the weldment, and shall require requalification of the WPS, ASM E IX Paragraph QW - 251.2. Under A SM E rules the w elding procedure begins w ith the creation of the WPS. This information is taken from ASM E IX and outlines the ranges of materials, electrodes and other general aspects. Then the PQR is created, performed and tested and used as proof for the WPS. The WPS can have many supporting PQRs.

Locations of weld specimens from plate procedure qualification.

Page 1 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003

Locations of w eld specimens from pipe procedure qualification. Page 2 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003

Page 3 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003

Weld procedure specimens, guided bends are also used for welder qualification tests.


Tensile Specimens


Guided Bends Face


Page 4 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003

Si de

The tests commonly required by A SM E Section IX are: a. b.

Tensile Bends 1. 2. 3.

Face Root Side

Table QW -451 is the Procedure qualification thickness limits and test specimens requirements. Each groove w eld must pass tension tests and transverse bend tests. This table is w here the requirements for testing are listed.. A fter the procedure qualification testing the Welding Inspector must check production w elding to ensure welds are being made in compliance with the approved and tested weld procedure. Remember the w eld procedure is proof that the weld can be successfully made. The general sequence for procedure qualification testing is as follow s: Select w elding variables (write the WPS and PQR) Check equipment and materials for suitability M onitor w eld joint fit-up as w ell as actual w elding, recording all important variables and observations Select, identify and remove required test specimens Test and evaluate specimens Review test results for compliance w ith applicable code requirements Release approved procedure for production Qualify individual welders in accordance with this procedure M onitor production welding for procedure compliance

Page 5 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003

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