API 571 Exam
DAMAGE MECHANISMS AFFECTING FIXED EQUIPMENT in the REFINERY INDUSTRY RECOMMENDED PRACTICE API 571 CLOSED BOOK QUESTIONS 1
Generally, API standards are reviewed and revised, reaffirmed or withdrawn at least every _________ years: (RP 571, Special Notes-December, 2003-Pg. iii) a. b. c. d.
An API 571 publication will no longer be in effect _________ years after its publication date as an operative API standard or where an extension has been granted, upon republication. (RP 571, Special Notes-December-2003: Pg. iii) a. b. c. d.
Completing nondestructive examinations. Identifying and understanding damage mechanisms. Completing the required destructive examinations Hiring properly qualified welders.
Recommended Practice 571 reflects industry information, but also it ____________ a mandatory standard or code: (RP 571, Forward-December-2003) a. b. c. d.
Revised by the owner-user as required. Purchased and resold to other owner-users. Used to obviate the need for applying sound engineering judgment. Used by anyone desiring to do so.
In order to safely and reliably manage equipment a key first step by the owner-user would be: (RP 571, Forward-December-2003) a. b. c. d.
Two Three Four Five
API publications may be _______________________________________: (RP 571, Forward-December-2003) a. b. c. d.
Two Three Four Five
Is Is not Maybe Should be
The guidelines provided in RP 571 can be used by ____________ to assist in identifying likely causes of damage and are intended to introduce the concepts of service-induced deterioration and failure modes: (RP 571, Scope 1.2) a. The welder b. The welding supervisor c. Contractor
d. plant inspection personnel 7
The damage mechanisms covered in RP 571 cover situations encountered in the refining and petrochemical industry and is specifically intended to address the damage mechanisms relating to ____________: (RP 571, Scope 1.2) a. b. c. d.
It may be necessary to consult with a _____________ familiar with applicable degradation modes and failure mechanisms. (RP 571, Scope 1.2) a. b. c. d.
Pressure vessels, piping and tanks. Pressure vessels only. Piping only. Tanks only.
Engineer Welding Superintendent Authorized inspector Construction organization
Fitness-For-Service in covered in which Recommended Practice? (RP 571, Section 2.1-Standards) a. b. c. d.
RP 530 RP 934 RP 579 RP 941
10 Risk-Based-Inspection in covered in which Recommended Practice? a. b. c. d.
RP 580 RP 934 RP 579 RP 941
Symbols and Abbreviations (RP 571, Section 3.2) Assign the appropriate Symbol and Abbreviation to each of the following: 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Alternating current magnetic flux leakage testing = ______ Acoustic emission = ______ Acoustic emission testing = ______ Boiler feed water = ______ Cooling water = ______ Eddy current = ______ Hydrogen = ______ Water = ______ Hydrogen Sulfide = _____ Heat affected zone = _____ Brinnell hardness number = _____ High pressure = _____ Intermediate pressure = _____
24 Low pressure = _____ 25 Knock out = _____
Mechanical and Metallurgical Failure Mechanisms (RP 571, Section 4.2) Recommended Practice 571, Section 4.2.1 26 Graphitization is a change in the microstructure of certain carbon steels and 0.5Mo steels after a long-term operations in the _________° F to _________° F range which may cause a loss of strength, ductility and/or creep resistance. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-a) a. b. c. d.
100° F to 600° F 800° F to 1100° F 200° F to 600° F 250° F to 1100° F
27 At elevated temperatures, the carbide phases in certain carbon steels and 0.5Mo steels are unstable and may decompose into graphite nodules. This decomposition is known as __________________: (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-b) a. b. c. d.
Spheroidization Temper embrittlement Graphitization Creep
28 Materials most effected by graphitization are ____________ and ____________: (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199) a. b. c. d.
Aluminum and Steel Brass and Aluminum Low alloy steels containing chromium and Copper Some grades of Carbon Steel and 0.5Mo Metals
29 The most important factors that effect graphitization are: (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-a) a. b. c. d.
Chemistry Stress Temperature Chemistry, stress, temperature and time of exposure
30 In general graphitization is normally: (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-b) a. b. c. d.
Observed visually Not commonly observed found on the bottom side of piping or lower portions of vessels and tanks found on the top side of piping or upper portions of vessels and tanks
31 The addition of _______________ % chromium has been found to eliminate graphitization: (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-c) a. 1.0
b. 3.0 c. 0.7 d. 2.5
32 Below _______________° F the rate of graphitization is very slow: (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-d) a. b. c. d.
800° F 500° F 1100° F 250° F
33 In one general type of graphitization, the graphite nodules are distributed randomly throughout the steel. This type does not usually lower the creep resistance and is referred to as ________________ graphitization? (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-e) a. b. c. d.
Random General Local Concentrated
34 Another more damaging type of graphitization results in chains or local planes of concentrated graphite nodules which can result in a significant reduction in load bearing capacity while increasing the potential for brittle fracture. The two forms of this type of graphitization are know as ___________________ graphitization and ____________________ graphitization: (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-f ) a. b. c. d.
Random and General Weld heat affect zone and Non-weld Simple and Concentrated Chain and Local plane
35 Weld heat affected zone graphitization is most frequently found in the heat-effected zone adjacent to welds in a narrow band, corresponding to the low temperature edge of the heat effect zone. Graphite nodules can form at the low temperature edge of the heat effected zones, resulting a band of weak graphite cross section which because of its appearance is often referred to as ________________ graphitization: (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-i) a. b. c. d.
Closed eye graphitization Black-eyed graphitization Heat zone graphitization Eyebrow graphitization
36 Non-weld graphitization is a form of localized graphitization that sometime occurs along planes of localized yielding in steel. It also occurs in a chain-like manner in regions that have experienced significant plastic deformation as a result of __________________ or ___________________: (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206 ii)
a. b. c. d.
Pre-heating or welding Quenching or tempering Cold working operations or bending Bending or heating
37 The rate at which graphitization forms is difficult to predict, but when service temperatures are above 1000° F (538° C) severe heat affect zone graphitization can develop in as little as __________ years. Very slight graphitization would not be uncommon after ___________ to __________ years of operation at 850°F (454°C). (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-g) a. b. c. d.
2 and 10 to 20 5 and 30 to 40 1.5 and 3 to 5 10 and 2 to 5
38 Economizer tubing, steam piping and other equipment that operated in a range of temperatures between 850°F to 1025°F (441°C and 552°C) are ______________ likely to suffer graphitization. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-e) a. b. c. d.
Less Never More Probably
39 Hot wall piping, equipment in the fluid catalytic cracker (FCC), catalytic reforming and coker units are ______________ places to look for graphitization: (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-a) a. b. c. d.
Only Unlikely Primarily Likely
40 Graphitization can be prevented for long-term operations above 800°F (427°C) by using ______________________. (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199) a. b. c. d.
Chromium containing low alloy steels Thicker materials Low alloy steels with less chromium Material with a higher carbon content
41 Evidence of graphitization is most effectively evaluated through removal of full thickness samples for examination using __________________: (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52) a. Ultrasonic testing
b. Radiographic testing c. Eddy current testing d. Metallographic techniques
Recommended Practice 571, Section 4.2.2 42
A change in the microstructure of steels, where the carbide phases in the carbon steels becomes unstable and may agglomerate from their normal plate-like form to a spheroidal form, or from small finely dispersed carbides in low alloy steels to large agglomerated carbides is known as __________________: (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206) a. b. c. d.
Graphitization Metallographic change Spheroidization Carbide Phase change
43 Spheroidization may cause a loss of strength and/or _________ resistance. (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11) a. Creep b. Heat c. Low pressure d. Temperature 44 Materials commonly effected by spheroidization are all commonly used grades of carbon steel and ____________ including C-0.5Mo, 1Cr-0. 5Mo, 1.25Cr-0.5M0, 2./25Cr-1Mo, 3Cr-1Mo, 5Cr-0.5Mo and 9Cr-1Mo. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168) a. b. c. d. 45
High alloy steels Low alloy steels Aluminum Copper
Critical factors affecting Spheroidization are _________________: (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-a) a. b. c. d.
Metal chemistry and exposure time and temperature Temperature and microstructure and exposure time Temperature, exposure time and metal chemistry Metal chemistry, microstructure, exposure time and temperature
46 Spheroidization can occur in a few hours at __________°F , but may also take place over several years at ___________°F. (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-b) a. b. c. d.
800°F and 1300°F 200°F and 660°F 100°F and 500°F 200°F and 750°F
47 The rate of spheriodization depends on __________: (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-b) a. b. c. d.
Temperature Exposure time and temperature Temperature and initial microstructure The location of the equipment within the process unit
48 Annealed and course-grained steels have ____________ resistance to spheroidization then normalized and fine-grained steels. (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-c) a. b. c. d.
More The same Less None of the above
49 Spheroidization can occur in piping and equipment after exposure to temperatures above ______ °F. (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-a) a. b. c. d.
850°F 200°F 250°F 450°F
50 The loss in strength caused by spheroidization may be as high as ________%, but failure is not likely to occur except under very high applied stresses, in areas of stress concentration or in combination with other damage mechanisms. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-a) a. b. c. d.
70 20 30 50
51 Spheroidization causes a loss in strength which is usually accompanied by an increase in ductility which allows for deformation at ______________________: (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-b) a. b. c. d.
Bottom of the piping Top of the piping and/or equipment Stress concentrations All of the above
52 In operating units such as the FCC, catalytic reforming and coker, spheroidization affects __________ and __________________: (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-c) a. b. c. d.
product quality and quantity of production hot wall piping and equipment Only the bottom portion of equipment and piping None of the above
53 Fired heater tubes in boilers or process units may be affected by a ____________ in creep strength. (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-c)
a. b. c. d.
Change Increase Loss All of the above
54 Equipment in general is __________ renewed or repaired due to spheroidization. (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-c) a. Often b. Seldom c. Continually d. Usually 55 Spheroidization is not readily visible and can only be detected through ________________: (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-a) a. UT b. RT c. MT d. Metallography 56 In the case of ______% to ______% CrMo alloys, spheroidization is a process of transforming the carbides from their original finely dispersed morphology to large agglomerated carbides. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-b) a. b. c. d.
5.0 to 9.0 1.25 to 1.5 2.25 to 3.0 1.25 and 2.25
57 Spheroidization is difficult to prevent except by minimizing long-term exposure to elevated _____________: (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124) a. b. c. d.
Pressure Refinery products Climate Temperature
58 Spheroidization can only be found through field _____________ or removal of samples for metallographic observations: (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199) a. b. c. d.
Radiographic testing Metallography Ultrasonic testing Magnetic particle testing
Recommended Practice 571, Section 4.2.3 59 The reduction in toughness due to metallurgical changes that can occur in some low alloy steels as a result of long-term exposure in the temperature range of 650°F (343°C) to 1100°F (593°C) is referred to as ____________________? (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52) a. Graphitization b. Spheroidization
c. Temper Embrittlement d. 885°F Embrittlement 60 The metallurgical change discussed in question no. 59 causes an upward shift in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature as measured by ____________________ testing? (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206) a. b. c. d.
Holiday Ultrasonic Charpy impact metallographic
61 Although the loss of toughness is not evident at operating temperature, equipment that is temper embrittled may be susceptible to ________________ during start-up and shutdown. (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11) a. b. c. d.
Corrosion fracture Thermal fracture Brittle fracture Critical fractures
62 The materials which are primarily affected by temper embrittlement are ______________________? (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-a) a. b. c. d.
1.25Cr-0.5Mo C-0.5Mo 2.25Cr-1Mo, 3Cr-1Mo and high strength low alloy Cr-Mo-V rotor steels All of the above
63 Older generation 2.25Cr-1Mo materials manufactured prior to __________ may be particularly susceptible. Some high strength low alloy steels are also susceptible. (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-b) a. b. c. d.
1972 1965 1983 1990
64 Two steels which are not significantly affected by temper embrittlement are ________ and ________: (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-c) a. b. c. d.
C-0.5Mo and 1.25Cr-0.5Mo 2.25Cr-1Mo and 3Cr-1Mo 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 3Cr-1Mo All of the above
65 Alloy steel composition, thermal history, metal temperature and exposure time are all considered __________ factors. (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-a) a. b. c. d.
Critical Non-critical Safety None of the above
66 Temper embrittlement can occur during fabrication heat treatment, most of the damage occurs over many years of service in the embrittling temperature range of _________ to _________. (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-d) a. b. c. d.
150°F to 500°F 650°F to 1100°F 300°F to 450°F 350°F to 550°F
67 Temper embrittlement can significantly reduce the structural integrity of equipment ________________ flaw. (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-e) a. b. c. d.
Elongated type Crack type Rounded type All of the above
68 Although there have been very few industry failures related directly to temper embrittlement it occurs in process units after long-term exposure to temperatures above _________°F. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-a) a. b. c. d.
500°F 750°F 650°F 250°F
69 2.25Cr-1Mo develops it more quickly at 900°F than in the 800°F to 850°F range, but the damage is more severe after long-tern exposure at 850°F. It is known as _______________? (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-c) a. b. c. d.
Graphitization Temper embrittlement Mechanical fatigue Spheroidization
70 Equipment susceptible to temper embrittlement are most often found in ____________________ units, particularly reactors, hot feed effluent exchangers components and hot HP separators. Potential also exist in catalytic reforming units (reactors and exchangers), FCC reactors, cokers and visbreaking units. (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-b) a. b. c. d.
Tank farm Water cooled heat exchanger Boiler Hydroprocessing
71 Temper embrittlement is a metallurgical change that is not readily apparent and can be confirmed by ______________. (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-a) a. Radiographic testing
b. Impact testing c. Ultrasonic testing d. Metallographic testing 72 A means of minimizing the possibility of brittle fracture in existing materials during startup and shutdown, is to limit system pressure to about _________ of the maximum design pressure for temperatures below Minimum Pressurization Temperature (MPT). (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-a-ii) a. b. c. d.
50% 25% 30% 75%
73 MPT's usually range from ______°F for the earliest, most highly temper embrittled steels, down to ______°F or lower for newer, temper embrittlement resistant steels. (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-a-iii) a. b. c. d.
350°F down to 150°F 500°F down to 100°F 200°F down to 100°F 1100°F down to 600°F
74 When weld repairs are required in existing materials, the effects of temper embrittlement can be reversed (de-embrittlement) by heating at ______°F for ______hours per inch of thickness and the rapidly cooling to room temperature. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-a-iv) a. b. c. d.
1150 for 2 500°F for 1 1200°F for 1/2 None of the above
75 For new materials, limiting the acceptance levels of manganese, silicon, phosphorus, tin, antimony and arsenic in the base metals and consumables is _______ way to minimize temper embrittlement. (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-b-i) a. b. c. d.
Probably the Not the best The best All of the above
76 A common way to minimize temper embrittlement is to limit the "______" factor for base metals and the "______" factor for weld metal. (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-b-ii) a. b. c. d.
A and B J and X Y and Z A and M
77 Studies have shown that limiting the phosphorus (P) and Silicon (S) to less than ______ is sufficient to minimize temper embrittlement. (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-b-iii) a. 0.01% b. 0.5%
c. 10% d. 3% 78 A common method of monitoring for temper embrittlement in a reactor is too install _______ of original heats of the alloy steel material. Samples are then periodically removed for impact testing purposes, (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-a) a. b. c. d.
Sheets Windows made Blocks Cans
Recommended Practice 571, Section 4.2.4 79
____________ is a form of damage found mostly in older vintage carbon steels and C-0.5 Mo low alloy steels under the combined efects of deformation and aging at an intermediate temperature. (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11) a. b. c. d.
Mechanical fatigue Temper embrittlement Strain aging Sheroidization
80 Strain aging mostly affects older pre-_______ carbon steels with large grain size and C-0.5Mo low ally steel. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168) a. b. c. d.
1991 1960 1980 1962
81 Steels manufactured by the Bessemer or open hearth process contain _______ levels of critical impurity elements than newer steels manufactured by the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) process. (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-a) a. b. c. d.
Lower Higher No None of the above
82 In general, steels made by BOF process and fully killed with _________ will not be susceptible to strain aging. (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-c) a. b. c. d.
Lead Copper Aluminum Either of the above
83 Strain aging is found ______ and ______ steels with higher levels of nitrogen and carbon. (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-c)
a. b. c. d.
Rimmed and Capped Fully killed carbon steels Steels manufactured by the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) process None of the above
84 Strain aging has also been observed in material that have been ______ worked and placed into service at _______ temperature without stress relieving. (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-d) a. b. c. d.
Hot / High Cold / Intermediate Hot / Ambient None of the above
85 Strain aging is a major concern for equipment that contains __________. (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-e) a. b. c. d.
Cracks Porosity Petroleum product None of the above
86 Employing a pressurization sequence versus temperature is critical to preventing __________ fracture. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-f) a. b. c. d.
Brittle Sudden Compound Either of the above
87 When making weld repairs on materials susceptible, the affects of strain aging will be eliminated by employing ____________ (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-c) a. b. c. d.
Only certified welder Pre-heating prior to welding PWHT after welding Specially manufactured electrodes
Recommended Practice 571, Section 4.2.5 88 A loss of toughness due to metallurgical changes in alloys containing a ferrite phase as a result of exposure in a temperature range between 600°F (316°C) and 1000°F (540°C) is know as _________. (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199) a. b. c. d.
Temper embrittlement 885°F embrittlement Creep None of the above
89 Critical factor with regards to 885°F embrittlement are the alloy composition, particularly chromium content, the amount of ferrite phase and operating ______________. (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-a)
a. b. c. d.
Pressure Duration Temperature All of the above
90 Wrought and cast 300 series stainless steels containing ferrite and duplex stainless steels such as Alloys 2205, 2304 and 2507 are affected. What other steels are affected? (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206) a. b. c. d.
Carbon steel Aluminum Copper and Brass 400 Series SS (e.g. 405, 409, 410, 410S, 430 and 446).
91 Damage is cumulative and results from precipitation of an embrittling intermatallic phase that occurs most readily at approximately at _________°F (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-c) a. b. c. d.
600°F 885°F 1000°F 400°F
92 Units where 885°F embrittlement may occur are: (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-c) a. b. c. d.
FCC Coker Crude and Vacuum All of the above
93 885°F embrittlement is a metallurgical change that is not readily apperant with metallography, but can be confirmed through _______ and/or _______ testing. (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-a) a. b. c. d.
Ultrasonic and/or penatrant Radiographic and/or eddy current Penatrant and/or holiday Bend and/or impact
94 The best way to prevent 885°F embrittlement is to use____________ or ____________ alloys, or to avoid exposing the susceptible nmaterial to the embrittling range. (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-a) a. b. c. d.
High ferrite or ferritic Wrought or 300 series stainless steels Low ferrite or non-ferritic None of the above
95 885°F embrittlement is reversible by heat treatment followed by rapid cooling. The de-embrittling heat treatment temperature is typically ________ or higher and may not be practical for many equipment items. (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-c) a. 1100°F
b. 900°F c. 250°F d. 400°F 96 Most cases of 885°F embrittlement are found in the form of ________ during turnarounds and/or startups and shutdowns when the material is below about ________ °F. (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-b) a. b. c. d.
Laminations/200°F Cracking/200°F Pitting/250°F All of the above
Recommended Practice 571, Section 4.2.6 97 The formation of a metallurgical phase which can result in a loss of fracture toughness in some stainless steels as a result of high temperatures exposure is know as ______________________. (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11) a. b. c. d.
Temper embrittlement Sigma phase embrittlement 885°F embrittlement Spheroidization
98 The materials affected by sigma phase embrittlement are ____________________________. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-a-b-c) a. b. c. d. 99
300 Series stainless steels wrought metal, weld metals and castings 400 Series stainless steels Duplex stainless steels All of the above
Cast 300 series stainless steels including HK and HP are especially susceptible due to their high _______ to _______ % ferrite content. (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-a) a. b. c. d.
35 to 60 5 to 10 0.3 to 1 10 to 40
10 The 400 series stainless steels and other ferritic and martensitic SS with _______% Cr or more are 0 also susceptible. (e.g. 430 and 440). (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-a) a. b. c. d.
3.5 6 10 17
10 __________________, _______ and ________________ are critical factors: 1 (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-a) a. Process unit, time and pressure
b. Alloy composition, time and pressure c. Process unit, temperature and pressure d. Alloy composition, time and temperature 10 In susceptible alloys, the primary factor that affects sigma phase formation is the time of exposure at 2 _________________: (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-b) a. b. c. d.
Elevated temperatures Elevated pressures Pre-heating and PWHT None of the above
10 Sigma phase embrittlement occurs in ferritic (FeCr), martensitic (FeCr), austentic (Fe-Cr-Ni) and 3 duplex stainless steels when they are exposed to temperatures in the range of ________°F to _________°F: (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-c) a. b. c. d.
200°F to 300°F 450°F to 600°F 700°F to 950°F 1000°F to 1750°F
10 Formation of sigma phase can occure in austenitic stainless steels if it is exposted to PWHT at 4 ________°F: (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-f) a. b. c. d.
600°F 900°F 1100°F 1275°F
10 Stainless steels with sigma can normally withstand normal operating stresses, but upon cooling to 5 temperature below _________°F they may show a complete lack of fracture toughness as measured in Charpy impact testing. (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-h) a. b. c. d.
600°F 500°F 1100°F 650°F
10 Sigma phase embrittlement can affect units and equipment such as ________________________: 6 (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-a-b-c) a. Stainless steel cyclones, piping ductwork and valves in high temperature b.
300 series stainless weld overlays and tube-to-tubsheet attachment welds during PWHT of underlaying CrMo base metal
c. Stainless steel heater tubes
d. All of the above 10 Sigma phase embrittlement is a metallurigal change that is not readily apperant and can only be 7 confirmed through metallographic examination and ____________: (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52-a) a. b. c. d.
Ultrasonic and/or penatrant testing Radiographic and/or eddy current testing Penatrant and/or holiday testing Impact testing
10 Sigma phase embrittlement damage appears in the form of cracking, particularly at __________ or in 8 _____________________. (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-b) a. b. c. d.
The bottom of vessels and Areas of low restraint Welds and Areas of low restraint Welds and Areas of high restraint All of the above
10 The best way to prevent sigma phase embrittlement is to use alloys which are resistant to sigma 9 formation or to avoid exposing the material to ________________ : (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-a) a. b. c. d.
The embrittling range Post weld heat treatment Non destructive testing None of the above
110 The 300 series SS can be de-sigmatized by solution annealing at 1950°F (1066°C) for _________ hours. (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-c) a. b. c. d.
6 10 4 None of the above
Recommended Practice 571, Section 4.2.7 111 The sudden rapid fracture under stress (residual or applied) where a material exhibits little or no evidence of ductility or plastic deformation is know as ______________. (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124) a. b. c. d.
Brittle fracture Creep and stress rupture Sigma phase embrittlement None of the above
112 ____________ and ______________ steels are materials which are particularly susecptiable to brittle fracture. (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199) a. b. c. d.
Thinner and low alloy Thinner and high alloy Thicker and high alloy Carbon steels and low alloy
Particular attention should be paid to __________ materials. (RP 571, Section 188.8.131.52) a. b. c. d.
Thinner Older Thicker None of the above
114 When a critical combination of factors is reached brittle fracture can occure: (RP 571, Section 184.108.40.206-a) a. The size, shape and stress concentration effect of a flaw b. The amount of residual and applied stresses on a flaw c.
A materials fracture toughness(resistance to crack like flaws) as measured in a charpy impact test.
d. All of the above 115 Thicker materials have a _____________ resistance to brittle fracture: (RP 571, Section 220.127.116.11-d) a. b. c. d.
Higher The same Lower None of the above
116 Equipment manufactured to the ASME Boiler Code, Section VIII, Division 1 prior to the December ______ Addenda, were made with limited restrictions on notch toughness for vessels operating in cold temperatures : (RP 571, Section 18.104.22.168-a)) a. b. c. d.
1992 2001 1987 None of the above
117 Equipment manufactured to the ASME Boiler Code, Section VIII, Division 1 after the December ______ Addenda, were subject to the requirements of UCS _________ (impact exemption curves). (RP 571, Section 22.214.171.124-b)) a. b. c. d.
1992 and 66 2001and 66 1987and 66 None of the above
118 Since most processes run at ____________ temperatures brittle fracture usually occures at startup, shutdown or during hydrostatic and or tightness testing. (RP 571, Section 126.96.36.199-c) a. b. c. d.
Lower Extreamly low Elevated None of the above
DAMAGE MECHANISMS AFFECTING FIXED EQUIPMENT in the REFINERY INDUSTRY RECOMMENDED PRACTICE API 571
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
d d c b b d a a c a ACFM AE
48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
a a c c b c b d a d b c
CLOSED BOOK-ANSWERS 95 a 96 b 97 b 98 d 99 d 10 d 0 10 d 1 10 a 2 10 d 3 10 d 4 10 b 5 10 d 6
14 2 14 3 14 4 14 5 14 6 14 7 14 8 14 9 15 0 15 1 15 2 15 3
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47
AET BFW CW EC H2 H2O H2S HAZ HB HP IP LP K.O. b c d d b c a a b d c b c c a d c a b d a c
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94
c c c a a a b b c b d b b a a c b a c c c b c c b a a c b c d b d d c
10 7 10 8 10 9 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 12 0 12 1 12 2 12 3 12 4 12 5 12 6 12 7 12 8 12 9 13 0 13 1 13 2 13 3 13 4 13 5 13 6 13 7 13 8 13 9 14 0 14 1
d c a c a d b d c c c c
15 4 15 5 15 6 15 7 15 8 15 9 16 0 16 1 16 2 16 3 16 4 16 5 16 6 16 7 16 8 16 9 17 0 17 1 17 2 17 3 17 4 17 5 17 6 17 7 17 8 17 9 18 0 18 1 18 2 18 3 18 4 18 5 18 6 18 7 18 8