Apa Style and Research Report Writing

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This is a book about research report writing. This book shows how to make a good report from beginning to the end includ...



Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, PhD University of Zanjan, Iran Seyyed Mohammad Alavi, PhD University of Tehran, Iran

ZABANKADEH PUBLICATIONS ([email protected]) No. 8, Bazarcheh Ketaab, Enghelab Avenue, Tehran, Iran Phone: + 98 21 66402367 Fax: + 98 21 66492961

© 2004 by Zabankadeh Publications No 8, Bazarcheh Ketaab, Enghelab Avenue, Tehran, Iran Tel: 0098 21 66402367 Fax: 0098 21 66492961 E-Mail: [email protected] zabankadeh.net P.O. Box: 13145-564 Tehran, Iran All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

APA Style and Research Report Writing Authors: Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, PhD Seyyed Mohammad Alavi, PhD Printed in Iran Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

‫ ـ‬1348 ،‫ ﻣﺤﻤﺪﻋﻠﻲ‬،‫ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻧُﺪوﺷﻦ‬ .(‫)اي ﭘﻲ اي اﺳﺘﺎﻳﻞ اَﻧﺪ رﻳﺴﺮچ رﻳﭙﺮت راﻳﺘﻴﻨﮓ‬

APA Style and Research Report Writing / Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Alavi. ‫ ﺗﻬﺮان ـ‬:‫ زﺑﺎﻧﻜﺪه‬،‫ م‬2004=1383 .‫ ﻣﺼﻮر‬:.‫ ص‬151 ، viii

ISBN: 964 – 6117 – 53 – 8 .‫اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ‬ .‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺑﺮ اﺳﺎس اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﻓﻴﭙﺎ‬ Alavi, Mohammad. -1339 ،‫ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬،‫ ﻋﻠﻮي‬.‫ اﻟﻒ‬.‫ ﮔﺰارش ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ داﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ‬.2 .‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ و ﺑﻴﺎن‬-- ‫ زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ‬.1

APA Style and Research Report Writing :‫ ﻋﻨﻮان‬.‫ب‬ 808/042 PE 1408 / ‫ س‬8 ‫ اﻟﻒ‬2 1383 ‫ م‬83 - 11248

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺨﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻠﻲ اﻳﺮان‬

APA Style and Research Report Writing ‫ دﻛﺘﺮ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻮي‬/ ‫ دﻛﺘﺮ ﻣﺤﻤﺪﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻧُﺪوﺷﻦ‬:‫ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎن‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎرات زﺑﺎﻧﻜﺪه‬ ‫ ﭼﺎپ دﻳﺒﺎ‬،‫ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ‬3000 ‫ ﺗﻴﺮاژ‬،1383 ‫ﭼﺎپ اول‬ ‫ راﻫﻨﻤﺎي ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ و ﻫﺮ‬،‫ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬،‫ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ‬،‫ ﻫﺮﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺑﺮداري‬.‫ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﻘﻮق ﺑﺮاي اﻧﺘﺸﺎرات زﺑﺎﻧﻜﺪه ﻣﺤﻔﻮظ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ .‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده دﻳﮕﺮ از ﻣﺘﻦ ﻛﺘﺎب ﻣﻤﻨﻮع ﺑﻮده و ﻣﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﺗﺤﺖ ﭘﻴﮕﺮد ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻗﺮار ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬

8 ‫ ﺷﻤﺎره‬،‫ ﺑﺎزارﭼﻪ ﻛﺘﺎب‬،‫ روﺑﺮوي دﺑﻴﺮﺧﺎﻧﻪ داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﺗﻬﺮان‬،‫ﺗﻬﺮان‬ (021) 66492961 :‫( ﻓﺎﻛﺲ‬021) 66402367 :‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‬

‫ رﻳﺎل‬21000 :‫ﻗﻴﻤﺖ‬

13145 ‫ ـ‬564 :‫ﺻﻨﺪوق ﭘﺴﺘﻲ‬

ISBN: 964 – 6117 – 53 – 8

964 ‫ ـ‬6117 ‫ ـ‬53 ‫ ـ‬8 :‫ﺷﺎﺑﻚ‬







1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Introduction Paper size and quality Page margins Paragraph indentation Line and paragraph spacing Line alignment Page header and numbering Font type and size

3 3 6 10 15 19 22 26


1. Introduction 2. Tables 3. Figures

29 29 38


1. 2. 3. 4.

Introduction Footnotes and citations Parenthetical citations Quotations


41 41 42 45


1. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. 2.10. 3. 4. 5.

Introduction References Books Secondary sources Journals and periodicals Non-print media Personal communication Government documents Electronic sources Abstracts Pamphlets and Brochures Unpublished materials Bibliographies Annotated bibliographies Final remarks

49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 56 56 57 57 58 58


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Introduction Headings Abbreviations and punctuation Punctuation spacing Final remarks

59 59 60 61 62


1. 2. 2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2.1.4. 2.1.5. 2.2. 2.3.

Introduction Library sources Standard references Encyclopedias Dictionaries Thesauri Almanacs and yearbooks Biography indexes and bibliographies Books Legal sources IV

69 69 71 71 71 72 72 72 73 74

2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.3.4. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.7.1. 2.7.2. 2.7.3. 2.8. 3. 3.1. 3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.3. 3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4. 4. 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 5.

Law dictionaries Codes Administrative regulations Court decisions Periodicals and journals Government documents Pamphlets and directories Unpublished materials Masters' theses Doctoral dissertations Other unpublished sources The Internet Library search methods Note keeping Standard search methods Determination of topics Finding sources Other search methods Course work in other disciplines Readers The interdisciplinary team Browsing Importance of library research Know the original source Be more informed Be critical Final remarks

75 75 75 75 76 76 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 84 85 86


1. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 3. 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 4.

Introduction Note keeping Subject notes Bibliographical notes Plagiarism Word-for-word plagiarizing The patch job The paraphrase Final remarks V

89 89 90 105 111 112 112 112 112


1. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 3. 4.

Introduction Main sections of the report The title page Abstract Introduction Method Results Discussion List of references Appendix Sections of a journal article Final remarks

115 116 116 118 121 121 124 126 127 130 130 135


1. 2. 3. 4.

Introduction The proposal Structure of a thesis/dissertation Final remarks


137 137 140 149 151



APA Style and Research Report Writing is designed to foster in undergraduate students the skills they need for success in their research courses. The book consists of three distinct sections: APA style, Library Research, and Reports and Theses. Section one presents the basic concepts of APA style in five chapters: general presentation, tables and figures, footnotes and quotations, references, and APA intricacies. Since the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published by the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). is a large and very detailed book, many undergraduate students find it a bit intimidating to use. Therefore, the five chapters of this section have been prepared in such a way as to make the task of complying with APA style easier for undergraduate students. A step-by-step, user-friendly, and interactive guide to the major aspects of Microsoft Word XP that students need to know is also incorporated to this section so that they can use the software for typing their final research report. Section two is composed of two chapters: The Library, and Note Keeping. Chapter six discusses the rudiments and the basic concepts of library research. It covers such topics as the sources available in the library, different library search methods, the importance of library research, and a few important hints for the library researchers. The focus of chapter seven is on the most popular library search method, note keeping. Two types of notes are discussed: bibliographical notes, and subject notes. Examples of each type are provided. In addition, the intricacies of note taking for each type are elaborated on. Plagiarism is discussed as the major pitfall in library research. Finally, a few hints are provided for the library research worker as to how they should approach the task of paraphrasing.


Section three, too, is composed of two chapters: The Research Report, and The Thesis. Chapter eight focuses on the detailed format that a modest research report should have. The different sections of the research report are discussed, along with visual illustrations to foster in undergraduate students the skills they need for writing their research reports. The final few pages of the chapter elaborate on the differences between student research reports and journal papers. Chapter nine is most useful for graduate students. A brief synopsis of the differences that exist between short research reports and masters' theses or PhD dissertations is presented. The discussions of the chapter are enriched with visual illustrations that are helpful to the graduate student in the process of writing his thesis or dissertation.

AUTHORS' NOTE Dr Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan (born in 1969/1348) is an assistant professor of TEFL at the University of Zanjan, Iran. Richard W. Sorfleet (born in 1951/1329) is a member of the professional teachers' association in Ontario, Canada (Ontario College of Teachers). The Ontario College of Teachers is the professional organization to which registered teachers in Ontario must belong—a sort of professional "guild" or association. Correspondence concerning this book should be addressed to the authors through the following e.mail addresses: Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan [email protected]

Seyyed Mohammad Alavi [email protected]

November, 2004



This section presents the basic concepts of APA style in five






Figures, Footnotes and Quotations, References, and APA Intricacies. Notice that the information presented in this section is only an updated synopsis for the information presented in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published by the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). That source is a large and very detailed book which many undergraduate students find a bit intimidating to use. Therefore, the five chapters of this section have been prepared in such a way as to make the task of complying with APA style easier for undergraduate students. A user-friendly and interactive guide to the major aspects of Microsoft Word XP that students need to know is also incorporated to this section so that they can use the software for typing their final research report.




1. INTRODUCTION General presentation refers to the overall appearance or look of your research report, thesis, or dissertation. The term "format" is sometimes used to signify the same point. On the whole, format includes the following considerations: paper size and quality page margins paragraph indentation line and paragraph spacing

line alignment page numbering page ordering

APA style requires that you stick to a fixed format. This format should not change when you submit a paper to a journal for publication. However, when you wish to submit your PhD dissertation or masters' thesis to the university, you should go by the guidelines that your university or supervisor sets. Iranian universities usually require that you go by APA style although there may be some modifications. 2. PAPER SIZE AND QUALITY APA style recommends that you type the manuscript of your research report on only one side of standard-sized heavy white bond paper, (A4size, 20-pound bond). Some universities and supervisors may tell you that computer paper ("tractor-fed") is also acceptable. APA style does not recommend this. If your supervisor accepts computer paper, be sure that the pin hole borders must be removed. (Razor-edge is preferable.) Erasable bond and onion skin are not acceptable. If you must prepare your paper on erasable bond, prepare a good copy of your paper on a copying machine and submit the copy instead of the original. GENERAL PRESENTATION


As you have already noticed, there are different kinds of paper. Papers used in notebooks, filler papers, A4-size, legal-size, letter-size, etc. are only a few examples. Students usually use standard filler papers. However, it is highly recommended that you use A4-size paper for your research reports. An A4-size sheet of paper is 21×29.7 centimeters. Remember that you should write or print your report on only one side of each sheet. Also notice that you should not fold your papers, and that you should keep them clean. Some teachers do not like folded and dirty papers, and this may put your scores in danger. Some supervisors do not recommend stapling the pages of your report together. Making punch holes on the left gutter and placing the report in a modest file may be preferred by some other supervisors. So make sure to ask them which method they prefer. If you type your report using Microsoft Word, make sure that the correct paper size has been selected by default. If the default paper size is not A4, you can change it very easily. There are two steps to this: On the File menu, select "page setup" (as shown in figure 1).

Figure 1. Page setup selection in Microsoft Word

This will open the "page setup" window (as shown in figure 2). Now you should click the "paper" tab. This will change the appearance of the



"page setup" window. Now you can click to choose a paper size. Be sure to use A4 size (as shown in figure2).

Figure 2. Page setup window in Microsoft Word (Paper Tab)

After selecting the A4 size, you can either click the "ok" or the "default" button. Clicking the ok button will change the paper size for this document (the one you are working with) only, but clicking the default button will change the paper size for this and every other documents you work with hereafter. It is recommended that you click the ok button, especially if the computer is not your own personal computer. For masters' theses and PhD dissertations, however, it is better to click the "default" button because you will be typing more than one document— one for each chapter, and one for each section of the front and back



matters. This helps you make sure that you do not change the paper size unwittingly across different documents. 3. PAGE MARGINS Page margins are the blank spaces around the edges of the page. In general, you insert text in the printable area inside the margins. However, you can position some items in the margins. For example, headers, footers, and page numbers normally appear in the margins.

Figure 3. Page setup window in Microsoft Word (Margin Tab)

When you prepare your research reports, you should leave some empty space all around the sheet of paper on which you write. If you pay attention to this page (that you are reading now), you see that there is



some distance between the text and the edge of the page on each side. This distance is called margin. Technically, there are four margins on each sheet of paper: top, bottom, left, and right. The generally-accepted size of a margin in APA style is 2.54 cm (or 1 inch). So, you should allow a distance of 2.54 cm on each side of the sheet of paper on which you write. If you type your report using Microsoft Word, make sure that the correct margin sizes have been set by default. On the File menu, select "page setup" (as shown in figure 1 above). This will open the page setup window. If the margin tab (as shown in figure 3 above) is not the default tab, click it to see the margin window (as shown in figure 3 above). Now you should be able to use the margin setting boxes (labeled "margin setting" in figure 3 above) to set the desired margin sizes (i.e., 2.54 in APA style). Then you can click the "ok" or the "default" button. Figure 4 is the schematic representation of what is meant by page margins and gutter.

Top Margin

Left Margin



Right Margin

Printable Area

Bottom Margin

Figure 4. Schematic representation of page margins and gutter

You may want to punch (make holes in) your sheets of paper and file them. If so, you need to add an extra 1 cm space to the left edge of the



page. This extra 1 cm is called the gutter. In Persian, the gutter should be added to the right edge of the page because Persian writing is right-toleft. In your dissertation or thesis, this consideration is vital since your work needs binding, and binding requires at least this 1 cm extra space at the edge of the page. To set the gutter size and position in Microsoft Word, on the File menu, select "page setup" (as shown in figure 1 above). This will open the page setup window. If the margin tab (as shown in figure 3 above) is not the default tab, click it to see the margin window (as shown in figure 3 above). Now you should be able to use the boxes labeled "gutter setting" and "Arabic/English gutter" to set the size and position (i.e., left or right) of the gutter. Then you can click the "ok" or the "default" button.

Figure 5. Page setup window in Microsoft Word (Layout Tab)



When working with Microsoft Word, knowing how to set page layout or orientation is very important. In fact, some versions of Microsoft Word (like version 2000, and version 2002—also known as XP) are bilingual. They provide the left-to-right and right-to-left cursor movements or text direction. To avoid running into difficulties, it is better to set the page layout before starting to type your project. To set the page layout in Microsoft Word, on the File menu, select "page setup" (as shown in figure 1 above). This will open the page setup window. If the layout tab (as shown in figure 5 above) is not the default tab, click it to see the layout window (as shown in figure 5 above). Now you should be able to use the box labeled "page orientation" to set the layout (i.e., left-to-right or right-to-left) of the page. Also use the boxes labeled "header position setting" and "footer position setting" of the layout window (as shown in figure 5 above) to set the position of the header and footer of the pages of your report. By default, Microsoft Word sets both the header and the footer at a distance of 1.25 cm from the very edge of the page. When you are done, you can click the "ok" or the "default" button. But before clicking either of these buttons, take a look at the preview (as shown in figure 5 by the label "previewing") to see if the look of the page resembles that of English pages or not. If so, click the "ok" or the "default" button. If not, click the "ok" or the "default" button to return back to the typing window and then click the left-to-right button shown in figure 6.

Figure 6. Left-to-right button for text direction

You will read more about "header" and "footer" in the following sections of this chapter. For the time being, it is important to know what the terms "header" and "footer" mean. A header, which can consist of text or graphics, appears at the top of every page. A footer appears at the GENERAL PRESENTATION


bottom of every page. Headers and footers often contain page numbers, chapter titles, dates, and author names. In APA style, short titles are used as the header on each and every page (more on this in the following sections). 4. PARAGRAPH INDENTATION You have already learnt that margins determine the overall width of the main text area (i.e., the space between the text and the edge of the page). Indentation, on the other hand, determines the distance of the paragraph from either the margins. Within margins, you can increase or decrease the indentation of a paragraph or a group of paragraphs. You can also create a negative indent (also called outdent), which pulls the paragraph out toward the left margin in left-to-right languages like English. Firstline indent (also known as regular indent) pushes the first line of a paragraph away from the left/right margin. You can also create a hanging or dangling indent, in which the first line of the paragraph is not indented, but other lines are.

Block style

Xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Indented style

Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Figure 7. Schematic representation of indented and block styles

There are two different styles for writing the paragraphs of your research report: (a) first-line-indent mode and (b) block mode. In the first-lineindent mode, the first line of the paragraph is usually pushed a little


away from the margin. In other words, the first letter of the first line of the paragraph does not appear over the first letter of the other lines of the same paragraph. That is, the first line of the paragraph starts from a different column than the other lines. All the other lines, however, start from the same column. This distance is called first-line indent. The length of this indent varies from 5 mm to 1.5 cm. It is a matter of your own choice. The generally-accepted length is 5 mm. In APA style, however, the start of each paragraph is indented 5-7 spaces (roughly 5 to 7 millimeters). Do not indent the abstract. If the abstract consists of more than one paragraph (e.g., in masters' theses and PhD dissertations), APA style recommends that all of the paragraphs be indented except for the first one. When the abstract is only one paragraph long, APA style prohibits indenting it in your papers or reports. There are two ways for setting paragraph indentations: (a) using the ruler tabs, and (b) using the paragraph format feature. The easiest way is to use the tabs on the ruler in your Microsoft Word to set the paragraph indentation (See figure 8). Be sure not to use the space or tab keys on your keyboard for this purpose since this can cause problems when you want to print the document on another computer—as is usually the case.

Figure 8. Ruler tabs and their functions

In the block mode, on the other hand, the first letter of the first line of the paragraph appears exactly over the first letter of each of the other lines of the same paragraph. That is, all lines start from the same column. Compare figures 9, 10, and 11 to see how the ruler tabs should be set for block, first-line indented, and other-line indented (i.e., firstline hanging or dangling) styles, respectively. GENERAL PRESENTATION 11

Figure 9. Block style ruler tabs (No indentation)

Figure 10. First-line indent style ruler tabs (Regular indentation)

Figure 11. Other-line indent style ruler tabs (Dangling indentation)

As you can see in figures 10 and 11, first-line indentation is of two types: (1) regular and (2) dangling or hanging (also called other-line indentation). In the regular type, the first line of the paragraph is pushed further in. In the hanging type, on the other hand, all lines except the first line are pushed in. Hanging indentation is normally used for listing references (or the bibliography) at the end of books, articles, research reports, and the like. Beware that APA style discourages the use of dangling indentation. Figure 12 shows the difference between hanging and regular indentation.


Regular 1st line indentation

Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx

Hanging 1st line indentation

Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx

Figure 12. Schematic representation of first-line indent types

A second way in which you can set paragraph indentations in Microsoft Word is by using the paragraph format feature available from the format menu on the menu bar. Select paragraph from the format menu as shown in figure 13.

Figure 13. Selecting paragraph from format menu in Microsoft Word

This selection will open the "paragraph" window as shown in figure 14. Once the window is open, make sure that the "indents and spacing" tab GENERAL PRESENTATION 13

is selected. Click the "indents and spacing" tab to select it if necessary. Then you should be able to see the following window (without the appended labels, of course). Now you can use the available features of this window to set the line alignment, text direction, line indentation, left- and right-side indentation, paragraph spacing (or the vertical distance between paragraphs), and line spacing (or the vertical distance between lines within paragraphs). You can see the changes for your settings in the preview window labeled "previewing changes" in figure 14. Once you are done, click the ok button so that your changes will take effect.

Figure 14. Paragraph window in Microsoft Word

In writing the paragraphs of your research report, the use of either the block mode or the indented mode is not a matter of choice. APA style requires that you use the regular first line indentation set at 5 to 7 millimeters for the paragraphs, and even for your reference items on the 14 GENERAL PRESENTATION

reference list. Your supervisor may want you to use hanging or dangling indentation set at 5 to 7 millimeters for the reference list of your report. Therefore, be sure to check this with your supervisor or university authorities. Where you use quotations, if the quotation is longer than 40 words, you should set it off from the foregoing and forthcoming sections of your report. Here you need to use the block style for the quotation. Notice that where APA style is not required, like in books, the American writer usually prefers the block mode whereas the British writer, on the contrary, seems to prefer the indented mode. 5. LINE AND PARAGRAPH SPACING In APA style, and in Microsoft Word, the term "spacing" is used in two different senses: (1) the vertical distance between the lines of a paragraph (called line spacing), and (2) the vertical distance between paragraphs within a text (called paragraph spacing).

Line and paragraph spacing in 1st line indented style

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Figure 15. Schematic representation of indented style

In indented mode, as figure 15 shows, the vertical distance between the lines of a paragraph is the same as the vertical distance between two or more successive paragraphs. That is, line spacing and paragraph spacing GENERAL PRESENTATION 15

are the same. This is the format that APA style requires you to follow in your research reports. In the reference section of your research report, APA style requires that you use single spacing for the lines of each source and double spacing between different sources. Here, you may sometimes use hanging or dangling indentation. In block mode (see figures 16 and 17), in contrast, the vertical distance between two successive paragraphs is twice as much as the vertical distance between the lines within each paragraph. That is, paragraph spacing is two times bigger than line spacing. APA style requires the block mode in two situations: (a) in quotations larger than 40 words, and (b) in the first paragraph of abstracts. Notice that in most cases abstracts are only one paragraph long. Figure 16 shows how a block quotation will look in a research report.

In an attempt to make sense of the various models of communicative competence and communicative language ability, Henning and Cascallar (1992) turn to the field of cartography for a metaphor: Various kinds of two-dimensional maps have been devised as aids to navigation. Some maps are useful geographical models for ocean navigation, others for automobile navigation, and still others for wilderness trekking . . . none of these two-dimensional maps provides a completely accurate representation of three-dimensional reality, nor does any one kind of two-dimensional map serve every navigational purpose equally well. (Henning and Cascallar, 1992, p. 4) So it is with models of language ability. The framework Douglas develops is not offered in opposition to any others. He tries to design a map to help . . . . Figure 16. Example of block quotation in research report

In block quotations, line spacing usually comes one step down from that of the main text. In other words, if lines of the main text are doublespaced, lines of the block quotation are one-and-a-half spaced. If, on


the other hand, the lines of the main text are one-and-a-half spaced, lines of the block quotation are single-spaced.

Line and paragraph spacing in 1st line block style

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Figure 17. Schematic representation of block style

To set paragraph spacing, you can use the features of Microsoft Word available from the menu bar. Move your mouse pointer to the "format" menu and left-click to choose "paragraph" as shown in figure 13 above. This will open the "paragraph" window as shown in figure 14 above. Now you can set the vertical distance between successive paragraphs by identifying the number of points you wish to include before and/or after each paragraph. To do this, you need to use the boxes "before" and/or "after" provided under the heading "spacing" in the "paragraph" window. This feature has been labeled "vertical paragraph spacing in figure 14 above so that you can easily locate it. Using your mouse pointer, you can add the required spacing between successive paragraphs. Be sure not to use the "enter key" on your keyboard to double the vertical space between paragraphs—as you would do on an ordinary typewriter—since this will create problems when you want to print your document using another computer, as is often the case. To make it easier for you to understand, part of the "paragraph" window (figure 14) is reproduced for you here in figure 18.


Figure 18. Setting vertical paragraph spacing in Microsoft Word

There are three standard types of vertical line spacing: (a) single spacing, (b) one-and-a-half spacing, and (c) double spacing. There are also as many non-standard types of line spacing as you can imagine. Compare the sections of figure19.

Single line spacing

1.5 line spacing

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xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx

Double line spacing

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xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx

xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx

Figure 19. Schematic representation of line spacing methods

In single spacing, the distance between two given lines of a paragraph is roughly about 1 cm. In one-and-a-half spacing, as the name says, this distance is about 1.5 cm. In double spacing, the distance is about 2 cm. APA style suggests that authors use double-spacing in their research reports or papers. Your supervisor may want you to use one-and-a-half spacing or even single spacing in your masters' thesis or PhD dissertation. However, you may prefer to single space your paragraphs. It is safer to ask your supervisor or university about the proper spacing that you are required to use. 18 GENERAL PRESENTATION

To set line spacing, you can use the features of Microsoft Word available from the menu bar. Move your mouse pointer to the "format" menu and left-click to choose "paragraph" as shown in figure 13 above. This will open the "paragraph" window as shown in figure 14 above. To make it easier for you to understand how to set line spacing, part of the "paragraph" window (figure 14) was reproduced for you in figure 18 above. Use the "line spacing" feature of the "paragraph" window (see figures 14 and 18) to set line spacing. Shortcut buttons of the main window of Microsoft Word provide another method of setting "line spacing." Click the appropriate shortcut button and you are there (See figure 20).

Figure 20. Setting vertical line spacing in Microsoft Word

6. LINE ALIGNMENT You have already learnt that many factors tell you how text is positioned. Margins control the distance from the edge for all the text on a page. Spacing controls the space needed between lines, and before and after paragraphs. Paragraph indentation and alignment tell you how paragraphs fit between the margins. Alignment refers to the appearance of the edges of the paragraph. On the whole, there are four types of horizontal paragraph alignment: (a) leftaligned, (b) right-aligned, (c) centered, and (d) justified. The most common type of paragraph alignment is left alignment. In a left-aligned paragraph, the left edge of the paragraph is flush with the left margin. In a right-aligned paragraph, on the other hand, the right edge of the paragraph is flush with the right margin. A justified paragraph is one GENERAL PRESENTATION 19

which has been aligned on both sides. That is, the left edge of the paragraph is flush with the left margin, and the right edge with the right margin. Center alignment is somewhat different. Here you can imagine a midline that passes across the length of the printable area of the page. The center of each line of the paragraph should be flush with this imaginary line. As such, the appearance of your paragraph will become symmetrical. Center alignment is used for specific purposes like in the title page of books.

Left alignment

Right alignment

Xxx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xxx xx xx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

Xxx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xxx xx xx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

Center alignment

Justified alignment

Xxx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xxx xx xx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

Xxx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xxx xx xx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

Figure 21. Schematic representation of alignment types

Another common type of alignment is called vertical alignment (sometimes called vertical indent). It controls the paragraph's position relative to the top and bottom margins. This is useful, for example, when you’re creating a title page, because you can position text precisely at


the top or center of the page, or justify the paragraphs so that they are spaced evenly down the page. To this end, you can use the "paragraph spacing" feature of Microsoft Word discussed above, and illustrated by figures 14, and 18. Shortcut buttons of the main window of Microsoft Word provide another method of setting "line alignment." Click the appropriate shortcut button and you are there (See figure 22).

Figure 22. Setting line alignment in Microsoft Word

APA style employs two types of alignments: (a) left alignment, and (b) center alignment. The information presented on the title page of your project needs to be presented with the center-alignment format. The rest of the report will be left-aligned. However, your supervisor may want you to use other forms of alignment. Thus, it is recommended that you consult your supervisor to make sure which form of alignment you should use in your research reports. Please understand that it is very difficult and almost impossible to justify paragraphs when you are not using a word processor installed in the hard disk of your personal computer that runs under graphic mode—one like Microsoft Word. Therefore, hand-written or mechanically typed reports—by means of regular typewriters—should be left-aligned. You are not allowed to write in the right margin. When you approach the end of each line, you should decide whether the next word is small enough to go within the remaining space. If not, you can do one of the two things: (a) syllabify the word, or (b) move it to the next line. Notice that syllabification should not be haphazard. You cannot break a word at any place you like. There are rules for it. Many dictionaries, like the American Heritage Dictionary, tell you where to break words. They GENERAL PRESENTATION 21

indicate separate syllables, usually by a heavy black dot in the first entry. For example, the word English may look like En•glish, the word dictionary like dic•tion•ar•y, etc. The dots tell you where to break the word. If you need to break the word English, you can only do this after the letter n. Similarly, you can break the word dictionary at one of the three places (that is, after the letters c, n, r). The first part is written at the end of the line and is followed by a hyphen (-). No hyphen is needed at the beginning of the next line. The rest of the word goes to the beginning of the next line. Take the following example: Jack really loves Mary. He knew that Mary loved convertible cars. He went to the . . . .

As the example shows, the word convertible has been broken into two parts: convert and ible. 7. PAGE HEADER AND NUMBERING On the top right-hand side of every page of the paper (or research report) a few words of the title (usually the running head) will appear. In APA style this is called the "short title." It is an "abbreviated title" which will appear on each page of the report if it is published. It should be capitalized and no more than 50 characters (letters, spaces, punctuation included) in length. Five spaces along (i.e., roughly about 5 millimeters) is the page number (See figure 23).

running text

distance (5-7 mm) short title

page number

Research Reports


more successive paragraphs. That is, line spacing and paragraph spacing are the same. This is the format that APA style requires that you to follow when . . . .

Figure 23. Page header and number at upper right corner of page

You don't need to type these on every page yourself: use the 'header and footer' function of your Microsoft Word, and they will appear automatically on each page. 22 GENERAL PRESENTATION

Figure 24. Selecting "page numbers" from insert menu

As shown in figure 24, from the insert menu on the menu bar, select "page numbers." This should open the following dialogue box:

Figure 25. Page number window in Microsoft Word

Now, use the features of this dialog box to set the page numbers. Select the "Top of page (Header)" as the position, and "Right" as the alignment. Then click ok. The page numbers will automatically appear on each page. To format the page number (i.e., to decide on Arabic/Roman/other numerals as well as to select the starting page number—for chapters GENERAL PRESENTATION 23

within books, theses, and dissertations), you can click the format button. The following dialog box (figure 26) will appear and you can adjust the settings you want:

Figure 26. Formatting page numbers in Microsoft Word

Figure 27. Selecting header and footer in Microsoft Word

To place the "short title" next to the page numbers, from the menu bar, select the "view" menu and then "Header and Footer" as shown in figure 24 GENERAL PRESENTATION

27 above. Once you have selected the header and footer option, the following dialog box will appear on the screen:

Figure 28. Customizing header/footer in Microsoft Word

You will be able to locate the blinking cursor. Now you should decide whether you want to put the short title as the footer or the header (APA style says that it should be placed as the header on the upper right-hand side of the page at a distance of 5 millimeters from the page number). You should use the left mouse button to click the appropriate place— header of footer (the mouse pointers in figure 28 above identify the header and footer boxes). The blinking cursor is moved to that position. Now, you can type the short title and adjust its position relative to the page number by means of the tabs on the ruler, line alignment buttons, and text direction (language selection) buttons identified in figure 28 above. You can also set the font and type face of the page header and page the number as shown in figures 29 and 30 below. Once you are done, click the close button to return to the typing window. Now you will see the header and the page number on the pages of your report as an embedded opaque image. In masters' theses and PhD dissertations, like in books, chapter titles may replace the short title. In addition, footers may be used instead of GENERAL PRESENTATION 25

headers. This is, however, determined by your supervisor or university. So, before deciding to use footers, or chapter titles, ask your supervisor or university authorities which one they prefer. 8. FONT TYPE AND SIZE Normally the font used in APA style is Times New Roman, set in 12 points (the font you are reading right now). The term "font" refers to the appearance of the typed letters. Compare the appearances of the fonts in table 1: FONT NAME

Times New Roman BordeauxLight Comic Sans MS HandelGothic BT


12 pt 12 pt 12 pt 12 pt


AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJj … AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJj … AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJj … AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJj …

Table 1. Examples of font name, size, and look

It is very easy to set the font and its size for your research project. Take a look at the following figure:

Figure 29. Font name and size selection in Microsoft Word


You can move the mouse pointer to the fields labeled "name of selected font" and "size of selected font" in figure 29 to select the appropriate font and set its size. Notice that most fonts can have four different appearances (called type face): regular, bold, italic, and bold-italic. Take a look at table 2: Times New Roman

Courier New







America America










Table 2. Examples of different type faces

In addition to the selection of appropriate type face, APA style sometimes requires that some parts of the text of your research report be underlined. These adjustments can easily be achieved by the shortcut buttons of the main window of Microsoft Word (See figure 30).

Figure 30. Type face shortcut buttons in Microsoft Word

To set the appropriate type face, move the mouse pointer to the appropriate button and left-click. To use the bold-italic type face, you need to left-click both the bold and the italic shortcut buttons. Also notice that these adjustments take effect only after you have selected the text to be modified. To do this, you need to click, and hold the left GENERAL PRESENTATION 27

mouse button down and drag your mouse over the text you want to modify. This will highlight the text (as shown in figure 31 below). Then you can release the mouse button, move its pointer to the appropriate type-face button, and click the left mouse button. Now, you should be able to see the change. Notice that text buttons show the direction in which the blinking cursor moves as you type your report.

Figure 31. Selecting text and changing its type face in Microsoft Word



1. INTRODUCTION If you are using tables and figures (graphs) to present the results of your study, you should consult the APA publication manual for the requirements (see pp. 120-158 of the manual). A brief synopsis is provided in this chapter for quick reference. 2. TABLES In APA style, tables and their captions should follow a very strict format. Take the following example: Table 1 Correlation between Perceived Control and Well-being for Males and Females Figure 1 shows how tables appear in a research report in accordance with APA style: Table 16 Specification of Devices Used by US Army


Code 117 123 325

Type code 23 code 67 code 89


Cost $ 120000 $ 217000 $ 670000

Figure 1. Appearance of a typical table in APA style



This is the recommendation of APA style for papers and research reports. However, in books, theses, and dissertations, the writers or their supervisors may prefer some variations. Therefore, you should consult your supervisor to make sure if you can deviate from APA style or not. It is very easy to draw tables in Microsoft Word once you know how many columns and rows you need for your table. There are a few methods for this. Two of the methods of inserting tables into your documents in Microsoft Word are easier than the others: (a) The shortcut table button, and (b) the table menu. To insert a table using the shortcut button, click that part of the document where you want to create a table. This will move the blinking cursor to that place. Then, click the table shortcut button (see figure 2 below) on the standard shortcut bar and drag to select the number of rows and columns you want as shown in figure 2. Once the correct number of rows and columns has been selected, click the left mouse button once more. This will place the table in the document.

Figure 2. Inserting table using shortcut key in Microsoft Word

The second method of inserting tables in word documents is through the use of the table menu from the menu bar. To insert a table using this method, click where you want to create a table to move the blinking cursor to that position. Then, on the Table menu, point to Insert, and then click Table as shown in figure 3 below. 30


Figure 3. Inserting table using table menu in Microsoft Word

This will open the table dialogue box as shown in figure 4.

Figure 4. Inserting table using table menu in Microsoft Word

Now, under Table size, select the number of columns and rows. Under AutoFit behavior, choose options to adjust table size. To use a built-in table format, click AutoFormat. This will open the table autoformat dialogue box as shown in figure 5 below. Now, you should be able to TABLES AND FIGURES


select the options you want. For APA style, select Table List 3 under Table style. Then click ok. You will return to insert table dialogue box (figure 4). Click ok to return to the main window of word. The selected table is now inserted in the place you chose for it.

Figure 5. Auto-formatting table in Microsoft Word

You can use the font size, font name, type face, and line alignment windows and shortcut buttons to change the appearance of your tables. Another good technique is to click and drag those cells, rows, columns and even the whole of the table that you want to modify so that they will be selected or highlighted. Then, you should move your mouse pointer 32


to the highlighted area and click its right button to open the table customization menu as shown in figure 6 below. Now you can customize your table as you like.

Figure 6. Built-in table customization menu in Microsoft Word

In order to highlight the whole of the table at once, you need to move the mouse pointer to the upper left edge of the table (in Persian to the upper right edge) to see the "anchor" as shown in figure 7.

Figure 7. Table anchor in Microsoft Word

By left-clicking the anchor, you will see that the whole of the table will be highlighted (or blocked). Now, move your mouse pointer to the highlighted area and right click to open the built-in table customization menu as shown in figure 6 above. Use the available options of this menu to customize your table as you wish. One of the most important skills you need to master to be able to comply with APA style is to know how TABLES AND FIGURES


to change the appearance and weight (or thickness) of the table grids (i.e., vertical and horizontal lines that keep table cells apart) and the table box (that is, the very external table grids). To customize the table grids, from the built-in customization menu select "borders and shading" (see figure 6). This will open the table "border and shading" dialogue box as shown in figure 8.

Figure 8. Table border and shading dialogue box in Microsoft Word

The options of this dialogue box are identified by black mouse pointers in figure 8. You can use these click points to customize your table. Notice that the preview represents the highlighted area of the table that you have already selected. If you have highlighted the whole table, the preview represents the whole table. If you have selected only one cell you will see only one box in the preview which represents that one cell. Clicking any of the vertical or horizontal lines in the preview area will cause a change in the corresponding area of the table. Before clicking the preview-area lines, you need to select the kind of style, color, and width that you want to apply to the highlighted area of the table. After setting your desired changes, click ok to return to the main window of 34


Microsoft Word where you can see the changes in your table. To comply with APA style, after highlighting the whole of the table (click the anchor (see figure 7)), right click it and select the "borders and shading" option (see figure 6) to open the "borders and shading." In the preview area of the "borders and shading" dialogue box (as shown in figure 8), click the vertical lines to remove them and then click ok.

Figure 9. Comparing table highlighted area 1 and the preview area

If you select two or more cells vertically (or even a complete column), the preview window will look like the one shown in figure 9. Here, all the internal grid lines of the selected area will be represented by the mid line in the preview area of the "borders and shading" dialogue box. TABLES AND FIGURES


If, on the other hand, you select two or more cells horizontally (or even a complete row), the preview window will look like the one shown in figure 10. Here, all the internal grid lines of the selected area will be represented by the mid line in the preview area of the "borders and shading" dialogue box.

Figure 10. Comparing table highlighted area 2 and the preview area

In addition, if you select a few cells both vertically and horizontally (or even the whole table), the preview window will look like the one shown in figure 11.



Figure 11. Comparing table highlighted area 3 and the preview area

Here, all the internal vertical grid lines of the selected area will be represented by the vertical mid line, and all the internal horizontal grid lines of the selected area will be represented by the horizontal mid line of the preview area of the "borders and shading" dialogue box. To set the shading of the table, or cells of the table, follow the steps as shown by figures 6 and 8 above. Make sure that the shading tab (labeled "shading tab" in figure 8 above) is selected. If not click to select it. This will open the dialogue box shown in figure 12. Now you can use the features of this dialogue box to customize the shading as you wish.



Figure 12. Table shading dialogue box in Microsoft Word

The shading feature is excellent when you want to show contrast between different cells of a table. In APA style no shading is required. In dissertations, theses, and books you may use this feature. 3. FIGURES Figures are also numbered consecutively (Figure 1, Figure 2) but separately from tables. The figure caption is presented below the figure that it refers to. In the figure caption, the word 'Figure' and the number of the figure is underlined, however the title is not underlined (see the example below). Unlike tables, the main words in the caption are not capitalized (only the first word is). The figure caption finishes with a period. For example: Figure 1. Comparison of mean perceived control scores for males and females. 38


The following figure shows how a figure will appear in a paper or research report in accordance with APA style:





Mean score


TBRT-EM 3 2 1 0 Proficient

Fairly-Proficient Semi-Proficient


Subjects' proficiency level

Figure 3. Mean plot for subjects’ sentence-completion task performance.




1. INTRODUCTION Traditionally, a footnote was normally defined as a note at the bottom of a page, giving further information about something mentioned in the text above. A reference number or symbol would usually be printed after the relevant word in the text and before the corresponding footnote at the foot of the page. More recently, the term "footnote" has been extended to mean 'an extra comment or information added to what has just been said within the text' (usually within parentheses). APA style uses the label "parenthetical citation" to refer to this kind of footnoting. 2. FOOTNOTES AND CITATIONS In APA style, footnotes take one of the two forms: (a) traditional footnoting style, and (b) parenthetical citations. The former is sparingly used when you want to draw the readers' attention to important information. Here, you will place a superscribed number after the text that requires the footnote. In the past, the footnote would be presented at the foot of the page—being set off from the main text by a line, and carrying the same numeral code (See figure 1).

Spacapan (1991). There are two aims of this study: (a) to explore the relationship between perceived control of internal states as measured by the PCOISS1 and psychological wellbeing as . . . . 1 Perceived Control of Internal States Scale

Elements of footnote

Figure 1. Traditional footnoting method



Recently, however, footnotes are presented at the end of the paper or research report on a separate page that carries the heading "Footnotes." 3. PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS "Parenthetical citation" is the technical term used in APA style to refer to a popular form of footnoting. Your readers should be able to discover—without undue fuss—the source of any language or ideas you have used in writing your paper/project that are not your own. This is an important part of being a responsible member of the academic community. When you use the ideas or language of someone else, you can refer your readers easily to that resource by using something called a parenthetical citation. Within parentheses, at the end of the "quoted language" or "borrowed idea," key words should be used that refer your readers to your page of references, where the readers can then find out whatever bibliographic information is necessary to track down that resource. The APA system of citing sources indicates the author's last name and the date, in parentheses, within the text of your paper or project (i.e., inline with the main text of your report or paper. Figure 2 shows how a parenthetical citation will look within the running text: (Wesche, 1992). In this context, performance testing borrowed from the field of vocational testing in which a test taker needs to carry out realistic tasks applying language skills in actual or simulated settings (Carroll and Hall, 1985). The criteria used for . . . . Figure 2. Example of parenthetical citation

The commonest form of parenthetical citation of an entire work or source consists of the author's last name followed by a comma and the year of publication. Example: (Jason,1994)

(Bachman, 1990)

Use the last name only in both first and subsequent citations, except when there is more than one author with the same last name. In that case, use the last name and the first initial. Example: (Jason, K.,1994)

(Bachman, L., 1990)

If the author is named in the text, only the year is cited. 42


Example: According to Irene Taylor (1990), the personalities . . . . If both the name of the author and the date are used in the text, parenthetical reference is not necessary. Example: In a 1989 article, Gould explains Darwin's . . . . Parenthetical citations are needed when you quote the language of other people. In this case, the page number(s) should follow the year. Specific citations of pages or chapters follow the year. Example: Emily Bronte "expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social" (Taylor, 1988, p. 11). As you see, in the above example, the language of Taylor (1988) has been quoted from page 11 of his work. In this case, the following formula has been used: (Author's last name + comma + year + comma + p. +page number)

If the quotation is made from two or more pages, the system needs some variations. For consecutive pages—pages that follow each other—a hyphen (-) is used; for non-consecutive pages, on the other hand, the page numbers are set off by means of commas. The hyphen means "to" and the comma means "and" in parenthetical citations of this type. Take the following examples: Consecutive pages: Non-consecutive pages:

Example (Jason, 1994, pp. 23-37) (Jason, 1994, pp. 23, 27, 36)

Some universities (or even your supervisor) may want you to use a colon (:) between the year and the page numbers instead of using the abbreviations p. or pp. This is part of Modern Language Association (MLA) style. Therefore, you need to ask your supervisor about the preferred style. Take the following examples: APA MLA (Jason, 1994, p. 23) (Jason, 1994: 23) Single page: (Jason, 1994, pp. 23-37) (Jason, 1994: 23-37) Consecutive pages: Non-consecutive pages: (Jason, 1994, pp. 23, 27) (Jason, 1994: 23, 27)



When the reference is to a work by two authors, cite both names each time the reference appears. Example: Sexual-selection theory often has been used to explore patterns of various insect mating (Alcock & Thornhill, 1983) . . . Alcock and Thornhill (1983) also show . . . . When the reference is to a work by three to five authors, cite all the authors the first time the reference appears. In a subsequent reference, use the first author's last name followed by "et al." (meaning "and others"). Example: Patterns of Byzantine intrigue have long plagued the internal politics of community college administration in Texas (Douglas, et al., 1997) When the reference is to a work by six or more authors, use only the first author's name followed by "et al." in the first and all subsequent reference. The only exceptions to this rule are when some confusion might result because of similar names or the same author being cited. In that case, cite enough authors—usually three of them—so that the distinction is clear. When the reference is to a work by a corporate author, use the name of the organization as the author. Example: Retired officers retain access to all of the university's facilities (Columbia University, 1987, p. 54). Personal letters, telephone calls, e-mail correspondence (note that APA's preferred spelling is e-mail), and other material that cannot be retrieved are not listed in References (at the end of your research report) but are cited in the text. Example: Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, April 17, 1989) confirmed that the ideas . . . . Parenthetical references may mention more than one work, particularly when ideas have been summarized after drawing from several sources. Multiple citations should be arranged as follows. Examples: List two or more works by the same author in order of the date of publication: e.g., (Chomsky, 1987, 1989) 44


Differentiate works by the same author and with the same publication date by adding an identifying letter to each date: e.g., (Bloom, 1987a, 1987b) List works by different authors in alphabetical order by last name, and use semicolons to separate the references: e.g., (Finch, 1989; Smith, 1983; Tutwiler, 1989). 4. QUOTATIONS APA style instructs writers to document quotations, paraphrases, summaries, and other information from sources as follows: "Document your study throughout the text by citing by author and date the works you used in your research. This style of citation briefly identifies the source for readers and enables them to locate the source of information in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the article" (Publication Manual, p. 207). When using APA style, you should consult the Publication Manual for general style requirements (e.g., style for metric units) and for advice on preparing manuscripts and electronic texts. You can remember from the preceding section that language quoted directly from other people should be identified by the use of parenthetical citations that show, the author's name, year of publication, and page number(s). Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) are incorporated into the text, enclosed by double quotations marks ("), and followed by parenthetical citations. Line spacing for short quotations is the same as line spacing for the main text of the report. Take a look at figure 3:

the following claim: "We are rarely concerned just with the particular performance per se but also with the knowledge, skill, and other attributes that enable both the given performance and a range of other performances engaging the same knowledge and skills" (Messick, 1994, p. 16). This suggests that constructs like relevant knowledge and skills, rather . . . .

Figure 3. Example of in-line quotation



Long quotations of 40 or more words are displayed in a double-spaced block of typewritten lines with no quotation marks. APA style suggests that you do not single space; however, some instructors will require that indented quotations be single-spaced, especially when quoting poetry, which loses some of its formal characteristics when double-spaced. Check with your instructor before single-spacing quotations. Indent five spaces from the left margin and type the entire quotation on the indented margin without the usual opening paragraph indentation. If the quotation is more than one paragraph, indent the first line of the second and additional paragraphs five spaces from the already indented margin— that is, ten spaces from the left margin. Take a look at figure 4:

(Bachman, 1990, p. 312). Skehan hypothesizes a similar problem in another domain that of a waiter in a restaurant: Although at first sight 'waiter behavior' might seem to be a straightforward affair, we soon need to ask questions like: what range of customers needs to be dealt with? What range of food is to be served? Once one probes a little, the well-defined and restricted language associated with any role is revealed to be variable, and requiring a range of language skills. (Skehan, 1984, p. 216) Tests developed in the real-life mold, which equate language ability with a specific language performance, are analogs to the training courses . . . .

Figure 4. Example of block quotation

If you have a quotation within a block quotation, enclose it in double (") quotation marks. If you have a quotation within a short quote (one incorporated within the text), enclose it within single quotation marks ('). Ellipsis points ( . . . ) are used to indicate omitted material. Type three periods with a space before and after each period to indicate omission within a sentence ( . . . ). To indicate an omission between sentences, type a punctuation mark for the sentence followed by three spaced periods ( . . . . ) (? . . . ) (! . . . ). When a period or comma occurs with 46


closing quotation marks, place the period or comma within the closing quotation mark. Put any other punctuation mark outside the quotation marks unless that mark is part of the quoted material (See figures 5 and 6).

Douglas claims "A specific purpose language test . . . . allows us to make inferences a bout a test taker's capacity to use language in the specific purpose domain." (2000, p. 19)

Figure 5. Ellipsis points in in-line quotations

Douglas (2000) proposes a more precise definition of specific purpose language tests: A specific purpose language test is one in which test content and methods are derived from an analysis of a specific purpose target language use situation . . . allowing for an interaction between the test takers' language ability and specific purpose content knowledge, on the one hand, and the test tasks on the other. Such a test allows us to make inferences about a test taker's capacity to use language in the specific purpose domain. (Douglas, 2000, p. 19) Douglas discusses reasons for wishing to develop 'specific purpose language' tests, and notes that language performance . . . .

Figure 6. Ellipsis points in block quotations

Copy quoted passages exactly as they appear in the original. Permit errors to stand, but call attention to them by adding the notation [sic]



immediately after their occurrence in a passage. If you insert a word or phrase to clarify a quotation, enclose the addition in brackets. Example: "A former department head [James Damber] wrote . . . ." In this example, "James Damber" has been added to the quotation. If you change the type face (i.e., italicize, underline, …) of some parts of the quoted material, indicate the change in parentheses. Take the following example:

Douglas claims "A specific purpose language test . . . . allows us to make inferences a bout a test taker's capacity to use language in the specific purpose domain." (2000, p. 19) (italics mine)

Figure 7. Indicating your additions in quotations




1. INTRODUCTION Throughout your paper or research report, you must acknowledge the sources of all the information that you provide (quotations or references). You have already learnt how to do this by means of parenthetical citations. In addition to parenthetical citations, APA style requires that you provide an alphabetical list of references at the end of your report—after its conclusion section. 2. REFERENCES According to APA style, the sources in a paper or research report should be listed alphabetically on a separate page headed References. It follows the final page of the text and is numbered. Entries appear in alphabetical order according to the last name of the author; two or more works by the same author appear in chronological order by date of publication. When there are two or more books or articles by the same author, repeat the name of the author in each entry. Two or more works by the same author with the same publication date are identified by lower-case letters of the alphabet. Do not double space the distance between different sources. Do not use first-line hanging or dangling indentation in your reference list either. In listing the references of your report or paper, notice that the title of books and journals must be italicized unless your are using regular typewriters that lack this feature. Here you need to use underlining instead of italicizing the book/journal title. To give you an insight as to how different types of sources should be listed in your References section, a few examples are provided here.



When using these examples, it is important to follow the suggested pattern closely, even to the spacing of periods, commas, etc. 2.1. BOOKS Books fall into a few categories. Each kind requires referencing of its own. There are seven major kinds of books: (a) single-author books, (b) multi-author books, (c) editions other than first, (d) edited volumes, (e) books without author or editor listed, (f) multi-volume works, and (g) multi-author articles in a multi-author volume. Examples of reference for each kind have been presented here. Notice that the abbreviation et al. (for "and others") is not used in the reference list, regardless of the number of authors, although it can be used in the parenthetical citation of material with three to five authors (after the initial citation, when all are listed) and in all parenthetical citations of material with six or more authors.. Single-author books Alverez, A. (1970). The savage god: A study of suicide. New York: Random House. Multi-author books Natarajan, R., & Chaturvedi, R. (1983). Geology of the Indian Ocean. Hartford, CT: University of Hartford Press. Hesen, J., Carpenter, K., Moriber, H., & Milsop, A. (1983). Computers in the business world. Hartford, CT: Capital Press. Editions other than first Creech, P. J. (1975). Radiology and technology of the absurd (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. Edited volumes Stanton, D. C. (Ed.). (1987). The female autograph: Theory and practice of autobiography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. If you are referring to an article or signed chapter in an edited volume, your reference would look like this: 50


Pepin, R. E. (1998). Uses of time in the political novels of Joseph Conrad. In C. W. Darling, Jr., J. Shields, & V. B. Villa (Eds.), Chronological looping in political novels (pp. 99-135). Hartford: Capital Press. Books without author or editor listed Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. (1961). Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam. Multi-volume works To refer to a single volume, include only the relevant date and volume number; to refer to another volume in the work, create another entry. Nadeau, B. M. (Ed.). (1994). Studies in the history of cutlery. (Vol. 4). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Multi-author articles in a multi-author volume Pepin, R.E., Darling, C.W., & Villa, V. (1997). Poe and the French symbolistes. In P. Wursthorn, Jr., J. Darling, & J. Brother (Eds.), The era of decadence (pp. 110-145). Hartford, CT: Woodland Press. 2.2. SECONDARY SOURCES A secondary source is one in which material has been quoted from another source. To cite from a secondary source is to use material that is quoted or paraphrased elsewhere when you do not use the original resource. Here, your reference should include the source of your language (or idea): Affleck, M., Allen, R., & DeLoatch, K. (Eds.). (1997). Whatever happened to the humanities? Studies in Byzantine Intrigue, 77, 235-278. Note that in the above example, the italicized 77 is a volume number, not a page number. In your text—the body or main content of the paper or report, you would quote or paraphrase the idea that Affleck has quoted or used, as follows: REFERENCES


As Villa trenchantly points out, "Perhaps the conflict seems so strong because the stakes are so low." (as cited in Affleck, Allen, & DeLoatch, 1997, p. 21). 2.3. JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS In reference to journals or periodicals, use inclusive page numbers. Do not use the abbreviations "p." or "pp." unlike what you did in the main text of the paper or report. Take the following examples: Heyman, K. (1997). Talk radio, talk net. Yahoo!, 3, 62-83. Maddux, K. (1997, March). True stories of the internet patrol. NetGuide Magazine, 88-92. Periodicals without volume numbers Include month and day (if any) as well as the year. Months are not abbreviated. Military style is not used for dates (not 2 April; instead, use April 2). Page numbers are not condensed (not 178-88; instead, use 178188). Discontinuous pages are cited in full (1A, 9A; not 1A+). Take the following example: Grover, R. (1988, September 19). A megawatt power play. Business Week, 34-35. Newspaper articles If the article is "signed" (that is, you know the author's name), begin with that author's name. (Notice the discontinuous pages.) Poirot, C. (1998, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond 'morning after'. The Hartford Courant, pp. F1, F6. If the author's name is not available, begin the reference with the headline or title in the author position. New exam for doctor of future. (1989, March 15). The New York Times, B-10.



2.4. NON-PRINT MEDIA Non-print media includes films, cassettes, musical recordings, and so on. Reference to these materials has its own specific style. The following examples show how you can write references of this kind. Films Redford, R. (Director). (1980). Ordinary people [Film]. Paramount. Films of limited circulation Holdt, D. (Producer), & Ehlers, E. (Director). (1997). River at High Summer: The St. Lawrence [Film]. (Available from Merganser Films, Inc., 61 Woodland Street, Room 134, Hartford, CT 06105) Cassettes Lake, F. L. (Author and speaker). (1989). Bias and organizational decision making [Cassette]. Gainesville: Edwards. Musical recording Barber, S. (1995). Cello Sonata. On Barber [CD]. New York: EMI Records Ltd. 2.5. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Personal communication refers to letters, telegrams, e-mails, phone conversations, and so on. Because this kind of material is often not recoverable (i.e., it is not possible for someone else to see or hear it), it should not be listed in the list of References. It can, however, be listed parenthetically within the text. It is extremely important that what is cited in this way be legitimate and have scholarly integrity. The parenthetical citation for interviews may look like this: Example: (R. Wilbur, personal communication, March 28, 1968). The parenthetical citation for phone conversations may look like this:



Example: According to Connie May Fowler, the sources for her novel Sugar Cane were largely autobiographical (personal communication, July 22, 1997). 2.6. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS Government documents are often used in research, especially when the topic has to do with politics, economics, legislation, and so on. In this case, the reference list shows which documents were used in the study. 1) The reference to a report from the Government Printing Office, corporate author, may look like this: National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress (DHHS Publication No. A 821195). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2) Reports from a Document and Deposit Service (e.g., NTIS, ERIC, etc.) other than U.S. government may take the following form: Tandy, S. (1980). Development of behavioral techniques to control hyperaggressiveness in young children (CYC Report No. 803562). Washington, DC: Council on Young Children. (NTIS No. P880-14322). Gottfredson, L. S. (1980). How valid are occupational reinforcer pattern scores? (Report No. CSOS-R-292). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. Center for Social Organization of Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 182 465) 2.7. ELECTRONIC SOURCES Electronic correspondences, such as e-mail or discussions on bulletin boards or discussion groups, is regarded by APA style as personal communication (like phone conversations or memos), because it is not recoverable by others. Such instances of personal communication are cited only within the text and not on the reference page. For citing personal communications in the text, give the initials and surname of the author and provide as exact a date as possible. Take this example:



Example 1: R.W. Runyon (personal communication, April 18, 1993) Example 2: (M. Kohel, personal communication, June 28, 1993) However, if the information is, in fact, retrievable, the following elements are necessary for the reference page: Author, I. (date). Title of article. Name of periodical : (On-line), xx.available: specify path

The date should be the year of publication or the most recent update. If the date of the source cannot be determined, provide the exact date of your search. Take the following example: Sosteric, M. (1996). Electronic journals: The grand information future? Electronic Journal of Sociology: (On-line), 4 (1). Available: http://www.sociology.org/content/vol004.001/sosteric.html The path information should be sufficient for someone else to retrieve the material. For example, specify the method used to find the material: the protocol (Telnet, FTP, Internet, etc.), the directory, and the file name. Do not end the path statement with a period. In the following sections, examples of different types of sources, and how they should appear in the reference list, are provided. Please understand that commas, periods, underlined and italicized words, etc. are vital in listing references. So, follow them closely. Online journals, FTP Funder, D.C.(1994, March). Judgmental process and content: Commentary on Koehler on base-rate [9 paragraphs] Pscyoloquy [Online serial]. 5(17). Available FTP: Hostname:princeton.edu Directory: pub/harnad/Psycholoquy.94.5.17.base-rate.12.funder Online articles (WWW) Klein, Donald F. (1997). Control group in Pharmacoptherapy and psychotherapy evaluations. Treatment, I. Retrieved November 16, 1997 from the World Wide Web: http://www.apa.org/treatment/vol1/97_a1.html



On-line journals, subscriber-based Central Vein Occlusion Study Group. (1993. October 2). Central vein occlusion study of photocoagulation: Manual of operations [675 paragraphs]. Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials [On-line serial]. Availabe: Doc No. 92 2.8. ABSTRACTS Abstracts are the short synopses of long research reports that appear in one-paragraph or one-page formats. Very often they can be retrieved from online sources. Some libraries provide CD-ROMs or Microfilms that contain abstracts. Within brackets, identify the source: (e.g., [CDROM] or [Microfilm]). Citing reference to abstracts requires specific skills. The following examples will help. On-line abstract Meyer, A.S., & Bock, K.. (1992). The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation? [On-line]. Memory & Cognition, 20. 715-726. Abstract from: DIALOG File: PsychINFO Item: 80-16351 Abstract on CD-ROMs Bower, DL. (1993). Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals: Characteristics of referring and nonreferring supervisors [CDROM]. Abstract from: Proquest File: Dissertation Abstracts Item: 9315947 2.9. PAMPHLETS AND BROCHURES In reference to pamphlets and brochures, treat pamphlets created by corporate authors in the same way you would treat an entire book written by a corporate author. Do not forget to identify your resource as [Brochure] or [Pamphlet] within brackets. The following example will help you write your references to pamphlets and brochures. The Writing Center of Capital Community-Technical College. (1997). Writing: the goal is variety (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Hartford, CT: Author. 56


2.10. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Unpublished materials are usually housed by college and university libraries. The often-referred-to materials of this kind are masters' theses and PhD dissertations. Dissertations When you have used the actual dissertation (usually from the shelves of the University where it was written, sometimes obtained through interlibrary loan), the reference will look like: Darling, C. W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs. Dissertation abstracts When you have used an abstract of the dissertation found on microfilm in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI), your reference may take the following form: Darling, C. W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44(02), 221A. (University Microfilms No. AAD44-8794) For masters' theses, do the same thing. This time, you will use the phrase "Unpublished masters' thesis" in the reference instead of the phrase "Unpublished doctoral dissertation." 3. BIBLIOGRAPHIES Bibliographies are alphabetical lists of books and articles dealing with specific subjects or general areas of study; for example, the Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature. Although they contain no facts themselves, bibliographies are the most complete references of where to find the facts. Most are annotated with notes about each item to indicate special qualities or usefulness. You are seldom asked to write bibliographies because the reference list of your research report should normally include only reference to the



items you actually used in your study. However, your supervisor or university may require that you prepare a bibliography in addition to the list of references of your report. If so, notice that the points discussed in sections 2 through 2.10 above must be observed. 4. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES An annotated bibliography will have the same basic layout as a Reference page. However, There are three major differences. First, you can include in your bibliography works that you think would be useful to your reader that you might not have used in the writing of this particular paper or article. Second, you can break down the references into useful categories and arrange those categories in ways that you think would be helpful to your reader. Third, you can add commentary to the references, telling your reader the particular virtues (or, if necessary, the shortcomings) of that resource. Commentaries should be concise, economical summaries, written in sentence fragments; if related, fragments should be connected with semicolons. The commentary should begin on a new line, indented slightly from the preceding line. Example: National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress (DHHS Publication No. A 821195). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Documents connections between children's lack of attention in school and hours of television watching; provides scientific evidence of changed viewing habits over ten years. 5. FINAL REMARKS On the World Wide Web, the author's name is not always available. If you have determined that the material nonetheless has scholarly integrity (because, say, it was published on the web-site of a responsible scholar or prestigious university), you would list that resource in your Reference page the same way you would treat a book without an author: begin your reference with the title. Parenthetically, within your text, use the title of the document so that your reader can find the list on your References page and discover, then, how to find that document.




1. INTRODUCTION Chapters one through four presented the main elements of APA style. There are a few other aspects of APA style that require your attention. These aspects include: 1. Headings and heading levels 2. Abbreviations and punctuation 3. Punctuation spacing This chapter will provide a brief overview of these less-often-noticed, though very important, aspects of APA style. 2. HEADINGS The APA publication manual gives clear guidelines concerning the format to be used for the different levels of headings. The term "heading" refers to the phrases that label the different sections of a paper, research report, book, masters' thesis, or PhD dissertation. The four major levels of heading identified by the APA publication manual are illustrated below: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4

CENTERED UPPER-CASE Centered Upper-case and Lower-case Flush left, Underlined, Upper-case and Lower-case Side Heading Indented, underlined, lower-case paragraph heading ending with a period

For many research reports only two levels of headings are required. In this case, the publication manual suggests using heading level 2 and heading level 3, as illustrated below. APA INTRICACIES


Abstract Title (Using Capital Letters for Main Words) Method Participants Materials Procedure Results Discussion References The other levels of headings will need to be used (a) if additional headings are used throughout the introduction, or (b) if you need to divide your results or discussion sections into subsections. If additional heading levels are required consult the APA publication manual (pp. 9093, 242-243). In PhD dissertations, masters' theses, and books, the writer may introduce variations on this basic formula. He may use numbers to organize the headings and subheadings as has been done in this book. 3. ABBREVIATIONS AND PUNCTUATION The APA publication manual provides very clear guidelines concerning the abbreviations and punctuation to be used throughout your report. You should check these carefully. Some commonly used abbreviations are listed here: e.g.

for example


etc. i.e., vs. et al.

and so forth that is versus used when you have multiple authors and you have already provided the full citation number of subjects in the total sample

M SD ns p

number of subjects in each group or subset of the sample mean standard deviation not significant probability


degrees of freedom




4. PUNCTUATION SPACING Punctuation includes commas, colons, end-of-sentence punctuation (or periods/full stops), punctuation in quotations, spaces between words, and semicolons should be closely observed in your research reports. APA style makes some suggestions for the correct use of punctuation in your reports. Place one space after punctuation (: ; . , ? ! etc.) because the APA now calls for one space to appear after all punctuation marks. If you are using a mono-space font (such as Courier), you may consider using two spaces after end-periods and colons, but consult your supervisor first to make sure about his/her preferences. EXCEPTIONS: 1) No space is needed after internal periods in abbreviations. Example: a.m. but not a. m. i.e., but not i. e. , U.S. but not U. S. 2) No space is needed after the colon in ratios. Example: 6:1 but not 6: 1 5:2 but not 5: 2 7:6 but not 7: 6 Hyphens need no space before or after them. Example: trial-by-trial analysis

step-by-step completion

Dashes are typed as two hyphens with no space before, between or after them. Example: Studies--published and unpublished--are . . . .



Note that Microsoft Word will automatically change the appearance of the dash. The above example, when typed in Microsoft Word will look like this: Example: Studies—published and unpublished—are . . . . The negative symbol of mathematics or the Minus symbol (-) looks very much like the hyphen. Type the "minus symbol" as a hyphen with space on both sides Example: x – 3 but not x-3

y – 26 but not y-26

Here, again, Microsoft Word will automatically pull the hyphen to make it longer so that it will resemble the "minus" sign more closely. Also notice that opening punctuation marks like ( { [ " ' are preceded but not followed by a space. Take the following examples: CORRECT


It (the Moon) has . . . .

It( the Moon )has . . . .

Jack said, "I will . . . ."

Jack said , " I will . . . . "

etc. Table 1. Examples of right and wrong punctuation use

The hints provided in the next section help you minimize the possibility of punctuation and spelling errors in your research reports. 5. FINAL REMARKS In Microsoft Word the enter key on the keyboard should only be used at the end of each paragraph or block.

To minimize the possibility of error in your research reports. You can use the features of Microsoft Word available from the tools menu on the 62


menu bar to set the writing and grammar options for your documents before you start typing them. To access these options, you need to open the "options" dialogue box. See figure 1:

Figure 1. Selecting "options" in Microsoft Word

This should open the Options dialogue box as shown in figure 2. When the dialogue box opens, make sure that the "Spelling & Grammar" tab should be selected for setting the required options. If this is not done by Microsoft Word default settings, click the tab to select it. Then you will be able to set the options as you like. Also notice that if you are setting options for text written in a language other than your language version of Word, the options may differ in the dialog box. For example, if you are typing Spanish text in an English document, the grammar and style options for Spanish will be different from the ones for English. APA INTRICACIES


Figure 2. Setting spelling and grammar options in Microsoft Word

The following are grammar and writing style options you can set in the Grammar Settings dialog box (Tools menu, Options command, Spelling & Grammar tab—as shown in figures 1 and 2): Capitalization problems, such as proper nouns ("Mr. jones" should be "Mr. Jones") or titles that precede proper nouns ("aunt Helen" should be "Aunt Helen"); Numerals that should be spelled out (use nine instead of 9), and vice versa (use 12 instead of twelve). The option also detects incorrect usage of "%" in place of "percentage;" 64


Use of contractions that should be spelled out or that are considered too informal for a specific writing style—for example, "We won't leave 'til tomorrow" instead of "We will not leave until tomorrow;" Gender-specific language, such as "councilman" and "councilwomen" which should be replaced by non-gender-specific (or non-sexist) language; Questionable but not strictly incorrect possessive usages such as "Her memory is like an elephant's" or "I stopped by John's;" Pronouns "I" and "me," which shouldn’t be used in scientific or technical writing; Wordy relative clauses or vague modifiers (such as "fairly" or "pretty"), redundant adverbs, too many negatives, the unnecessary use of "or not" in the phrase "whether or not," or the use of "possible … may" in place of "possible … will." After setting the options, click ok. This will return you to the main Word window. You will see the effect of the set options when you type your research report.




This section is composed of two chapters: Chapter Six: The Library Chapter Seven: Note Keeping Chapter six discusses the rudiments and the basic concepts of library research. It covers such topics as the sources available in the library, different library search methods, the importance of library research, and a few hints for the library researchers. The focus of chapter seven is on the most popular library search method—note keeping. Two types of notes are discussed: bibliographical notes, and subject notes. Examples of each type are provided. In addition, the intricacies of note taking for each type are elaborated on. Plagiarism is discussed as the major pitfall in library research. Finally, a few hints are provided for the library research worker as to how they should approach the task of paraphrasing.




1. INTRODUCTION One of the key capabilities that university students should be able to develop in themselves is the ability to use research findings from their own and related fields. A good place where they can assimilate an increasing amount of knowledge to keep abreast of recent developments in their field is the library. Literally thousands of books, periodicals, documents, and pamphlets are placed on library shelves each year. Skill is required in making a comprehensive search for information about a specific topic. A failure to develop these skills will lead to much wasted effort and frustration. Although a knowledge of library methods is desirable for the consumer of research, it is essential for the research worker. Too often graduate and undergraduate students and other beginning research workers try to solve a problem without attempting to determine whether others have conducted investigations in the same area. This chapter, designed to help the consumer and research worker gain knowledge of library skills, emphasizes that library study is not a meaningless activity but an essential ingredient of the systematic approach to problem solving. The major sections of this chapter include (1) a statement of the purpose of library study, (2) a description of library resources, and (3) suggestions of methods which will aid in the collection of data from library resources. 2. LIBRARY SOURCES Many excellent libraries are available to graduate and undergraduate students throughout the world. Because of the differences in organization of materials, detailed instructions about the use of a library THE LIBRARY


may not be helpful; therefore, attention has to be focused on library sources and on methods which can serve in any library setting. A useful method for learning about library sources is to visit the library where the research is to be carried out. First, contact the head librarian and arrange for a description of the sources and their location. A guided tour of the various sections of the library should follow. The initial orientation time can be spent browsing to become familiar with the location of various sections and departments. Library source are either general sources (called generalities) or specific sources (called specifics). General sources talk about more than one topic assigning a few pages or one single chapter to each topic. Encyclopedias are the best example of general sources. Specifics, on the other hand, are totally devoted to one single topic. For example, Chomsky's Studies on semantics in generative grammar (Chomsky, 1972) discusses only one topic—namely semantics in generative grammar. Undergraduate students are asked to use generalities because their research reports are supposed to be relatively short (not more than 20 pages). Furthermore, only a small section of this short report will be dedicated to literature review—no more than a few pages, say, 2 or 3 at best. PhD and masters' students, on the other hand, will find specifics more promising for their research projects. This is because of the fact that a full chapter is dedicated to the review of the related literature in PhD dissertations and masters' theses. On the whole, major library sources of use to research workers fall into the following seven categories: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

standard references books legal sources periodicals or journals government documents pamphlets and directories unpublished materials

Each of these source types is explained in a separate section below.



2.1. STANDARD REFERENCES Certain references are consulted first whenever there is a systematic library search. The librarian can provide information about the availability of these sources although the best way to become familiar with the basic references is to study the organization of their contents carefully. 2.1.1. ENCYCLOPEDIAS Encyclopedias are the most important example of standard references. They contain summaries of research studies arranged by topics. The content of each topic has been prepared by a specialist who volunteered to summarize research findings for his specific area of interest. These summaries cannot be considered as substitutes for the original research reports but can be used for screening purposes to limit the scope of the library search. If a study appears relevant, a reference to the original source is provided at the end of each section. Because of the time required to prepare a comprehensive encyclopedia, studies in print less than one year before the publication date of a given encyclopedia will probably not be described in that source. Recently, the major encyclopedias of the world have been marketed in the form of CD-ROM volumes that can be viewed on personal computers. Updates of these electronic encyclopedias are available on the Internet. The major volumes that are available in electronic format are Encyclopedia Americana, Encyclopedia Africana, Encyclopedia Encarta, and Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Encarta is perhaps the best in this rich aristocracy of electronic encyclopedias. 2.1.2. DICTIONARIES Dictionaries are the constant companions of a researcher. Because a researcher must define terms with precision, a knowledge of which dictionaries to use is an inevitable part of successful library research. Among the better-known general dictionaries are the Oxford English Dictionary (12 volumes), Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles (4 volumes), Funk and Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary, and Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language. More specialized dictionaries are also needed at times. Longman THE LIBRARY


Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics by Richards, Platt, and Platt (1985) is one such dictionary. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics by David Crystal (1980) is another specialized dictionary. Students of English literature will also find valuable information in specialized dictionaries of their own field. 2.1.3. THESAURI Thesauri are a new type of reference. A thesaurus is a reference book that has been compiled in conjunction with the development of information retrieval systems. A thesaurus of descriptors is a list of words and phrases that indexers use to describe a periodical article or research report so that it can be stored for future search and retrieval. Researchers can use them to search for information that has been stored in the system. Two of the thesauri that provide indexers and researchers with a common communication system are (1) The New York Times Thesaurus of Descriptors: A Guide for Organizing, Indexing, and Searching Collections of Information on Current Events, and (2) The Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors. 2.1.4. ALMANACS AND YEARBOOKS A wealth of current information may be found in almanacs and yearbooks. The World Almanac, published from 1868 to the present, affords up-to-date statistics and data concerning events, progress, and conditions in a wide variety of fields. The librarian can tell you which almanac best suits your research needs. 2.1.5. BIOGRAPHY INDEXES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES When carrying out a research study, one may have to obtain a specific fact about a person, such as his birthdate, degrees, publications, present position, or professional affiliations. This type of information as well as information concerning the background, competency, prestige, or biases of a person, may be found in encyclopedias or in biography indexes. Here again, the librarian can tell you which biography index best suits your research needs. Compiling a bibliography is one of the first and one of the last things a researcher may need to do in conducting a study. This essential task is 72


less arduous and time-consuming if the researcher is well acquainted with the various labor-saving devices at his disposal. He may find books and periodicals in the library that will help him locate bibliographies that have already been compiled. Of course, the bibliographies will vary in type and quality; some will be exhaustive and others selective or brief; some will be annotated—providing brief descriptions of each source— and others not. If the bibliographies are compiled by experts in the field and give clues to the content, general value, scholarship, and significant features of the publications, that is, if they are annotated, they may save the researcher weeks of searching time. 2.2. BOOKS Material included in textbooks and other expository works may contain authoritative information that is very helpful to the research worker. Unfortunately, the contents of books are seldom classified in external sources in sufficient detail to insure complete access by conventional search methods. The sources of such information follow. Author subject card index: All libraries contain card catalogues. Many provide an author-title index and a subject index. The author-title index is an alphabetical listing of all the titles and a separate listing for authors; for example, three cards would be found in the author-title index for a book titled Recreation by Jones and Smith, one under "recreation" and one for each author. A card entry would also be found under "recreation" in the subject catalogue and also, depending on the contents of the book, references may be found under "camping," "fishing," "wild life," "golf," or "bird watching." Each card in the author-subject card index will usually contain either a cross-reference to another card or information regarding the (1) author or authors, (2) title, (3) date of publication, (4) description of contents, and (5) Library of Congress card number. Subject headings: This source published by the Library of Congress is a valuable adjunct to the card catalogue system developed by the college library. As an example, if the researcher is unable to find a desired topic in the regular card catalogue, use of Subject Headings will indicate other categories where the topic might be found. Because many libraries use Subject Headings as a guide for establishing subject card catalogues, this



volume is usually conveniently located near the main card catalogue. The library staff can assist in its use. Books in print: This source is an author and title series index to the Publishers Trade List Annual. It contains a listing of most books Printed by 1,400 American publishers and includes more than 163,000 entries. Included is a reference to author, title, publisher, and cost; however, books, published in English in foreign countries, government documents, certain law volumes, and many paperback editions are not listed. Listings are divided into two sections; in the first, publications are arranged alphabetically by author. The second section contains an alphabetical listing of titles. Often, when only the author or title of a work is known, Books In Print will enable the researcher to obtain sufficient additional information to provide a complete bibliographic reference. Cumulative book index: Issued since 1938, this source contains a listing of all books published in the English language; therefore, its coverage is somewhat broader than Books In Print. The source, however, does not list government documents. Books out of print: Frequently the researcher is unable to obtain a published volume in the library or through an interlibrary loan because it is out of print. Several methods for acquiring such a source can be used. First, the librarian can be requested to place the bibliographic reference on an out-of-print list which is circulated among librarians and book readers. Second, he can examine listings in the Antiquarian Bookman available from Box 1100, Newark, New Jersey. This periodical contains commercial listings of rare and out-of-print volumes. Third, the researcher can contact University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, to determine whether facsimiles of the volume are available on microfilm or xerographic enlargements. 2.3. LEGAL SOURCES Legal references are an important source of information for the researcher interested in analyzing the development of social thought in society. Students of English literature may find legal sources very effective. Records of past legislative acts and court decisions have long been recognized as a reflection of basic changes occurring in the fabric of society. In addition to a scholarly interest in legal proceedings, the 74


practicing educator should possess sufficient skill in legal research to meet the day-to-day requirements for information arising out of the practice of his profession. Legal sources can be divided into four categories, namely, dictionaries, codes, administrative regulations, and court decisions. 2.3.1. LAW DICTIONARIES Before attempting to read laws and particularly legal decisions, the research worker should have access to a law dictionary. The Law Dictionary, edited by A. C. Black, is a standard legal reference. In addition, the research worker may need assistance in interpreting certain legal material. The aid of a law professor or practicing attorney should be solicited when required. 2.3.2. CODES Legal codes contain a list of laws enacted by legislative bodies. Federal codes are listed in official sources in two ways: (1) serially by data and (2) by topic. In the United States, both federal codes and the code of the local state laws can be found in most university libraries; only large law libraries contain complete sets of codes for all of the states. 2.3.3. ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Statutes frequently outline policy and delegate the responsibility for its administration to administrative agencies. Administrative enactments which are not law in the sense of having been enacted by legislative bodies nevertheless have the force of law in many instances. They have been called administrative laws. Proceedings of state educational bodies such as state boards of education are incorporated in administrative codes. These regulations govern the actions of local school districts as well as other educational institutions, and can be used in language teaching/learning research. 2.3.4. COURT DECISIONS While much of organized law has been established through legislative action, the courts are also guided by previous judicial decisions. These decisions may interpret, modify, or negate legislation. Court decisions



can be used as a good source of information regarding the state of language teaching and learning policies in a country. 2.4. PERIODICALS AND JOURNALS In library terms, a periodical is a source that is published at specific time intervals. Quarterlies, Monthlies, Dailies, etc. are among the different types of periodicals (e.g., TESOL Quarterly). Periodicals and journals usually contain more recent accounts of current research than do standard references or books. Utilization of periodical references will enable the researcher to examine the results of studies soon after they are completed. Further, original sources of classic studies are frequently found in periodicals. A list of the most important indexes that are useful for research projects of EFL learners follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Bibliographic Index Biography Index Child Development Abstracts Essay and General Literature Index International Index to Periodicals Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature

Newspapers often constitute an excellent record of past events. Public officials and attorneys utilize newspaper accounts to determine the legality of certain actions taken in the past. In the United States, the most authoritative index to newspaper articles reflecting a national interest is the New York Times Index issued since 1913. Although many libraries do not have original editions of newspapers, many possess microflim copies. Newspaper indexes are published monthly with yearly summaries. Topics are arranged alphabetically. Each entry briefly describes the contents, and lists the date the article appeared in the newspaper and its page and column number. 2.5. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS Documents are publications issued by governments. They provide excellent sources of information but because of the number of publications, diversity of topics, and variety of agencies involved, ready



access to specific sources is difficult. Government documents provide a rich reference source frequently bypassed in routine library searches. 2.6. PAMPHLETS AND DIRECTORIES Pamphlets include publications of local governmental and private agencies which do not exceed a certain number of pages. Examples would include public relations releases issued by private organizations, and information bulletins, conference notices, manuals, and handbooks issued by local governmental and educational agencies. Some libraries catalogue these publications in the regular cataloguing system; thus references to pamphlets can be found in the card catalogue. The location and method used for cataloguing pamphlets can be found by consulting the library staff. When searching for pamphlets, it is important to remember that they usually are available for only a short time after publication and some are produced for advertising or propaganda purposes. Once again, the librarian is the best reference who can tell you how pamphlets can be located and which pamphlet best suits your research needs. Directories are an essential tool in drawing a sample from a known population for the purpose of circulating a questionnaire. If the investigator wishes to ascertain the opinions of city managers concerning the role of schools in city government, for example, he will need a list of all city managers in the area of the study. From this "population" of names, a sample could be chosen. Recently, however, the homepages of schools, universities, etc. list the names and addresses of their staff in their staff directories. Yahoo or MSN people search is also a useful directory. Directories are as valuable in professional life as a personal address book is in private life. A researcher can use them to locate the names and addresses of persons, periodicals, publishers, organizations, or firms when he wants to obtain information, interviews, or research materials and apparatus. By consulting directories, he may find people or organizations who have similar professional interests or who are qualified to answer his questionnaires or help solve his problems. The directories are listed alphabetically and are arranged under subject headings. The librarian can tell you which directory best suits your research needs. THE LIBRARY


2.7. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Results of most recently conducted research studies quite frequently are first available in unpublished form. Many worthwhile studies in addition to masters' theses and doctoral dissertations do not appear in published form. These include papers presented at conferences, intern research reports, studies conducted for associations and groups, and the products of the efforts of school district personnel. The assumption should not be made that the highest quality research is always published in journals. On the contrary, because of the limited interest in certain topics, valuable studies may not be included in the conventional research journals. 2.7.1. MASTERS' THESES Masters' theses are often not published. Two useful listings of masters' theses include Masters' Theses In Education and Masters Abstracts. The former source has been published for a number of years and includes a title and short description of masters' theses completed by degree candidates at major colleges and universities. The second source, Masters Abstracts, is relatively new. It contains a short summary of studies completed by masters' candidates of contributing institutions. Copies of masters' theses listed in the Abstracts can be obtained in microfilm or xerographic enlargements from the publisher. 2.7.2. DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS In comparison with masters' theses, a more complete listing of doctoral dissertations is available. Most dissertations submitted to colleges and universities in the United States can be found listed in a number of sources. Doctoral Dissertations Accepted By American Universities includes most dissertations accepted by higher institutions since 1933. This listing service has been replaced by Dissertation Abstracts which contains a short summary of each study including a brief statement of findings. The beginning researcher is cautioned, however, to obtain a copy of the original investigation through the interlibrary loan service or from the publishers of the Abstracts before citing the results in a research study. Proper evaluation of the research findings can be made only by examining the entire document.



2.7.3. OTHER UNPUBLISHED SOURCES Other unpublished sources can be found in the pamphlets section of the library, in the card catalogue, or in special field service collections. Direct contact can be made with associations and school districts where certain types of research are known to be under way. Unpublished research studies provide a rich source of information for the investigator who desires to give an accurate portrayal of the present status of knowledge in a specific topic area. The sources, however, are less systematically organized and catalogued than other published sources. 2.8. THE INTERNET In modern societies, many libraries afford access to the Internet. The Internet can also afford access to a rich repertoire of abstracts—or even full-text materials. Two good online sources are known as ERIC and Proquest. To access the abstracts available at Proquest or ERIC clearinghouses, you can use the Internet search engines. A list of the most useful search engines and their addresses follows: Ask Jeeves: Altavista: Mamma: Lycos: Direct hit: Google: Microsoft: Yahoo: NBC: Netscape: Excite: Hotbot:

http://www.ask.com/ http://www.altavista.com/ http://www.mamma.com/ http://www.lycos.com/ http://www.directhit.com/ http://www.google.com/ http://www.msn.com/ http://www.yahoo.com/ http://www.nbci.com/ http://www.netscape.com/ http://www.excite.com/ http://www.hotbot.com/

To successfully search a topic through the Internet, enclose your search words (also called keywords or descriptors) within quotation marks. For example, to search the topic 'field independence', place "field independence" in the search box of your search engine and let it go. You can also go by the search engine's web directory. Take a look at figure 1 below:



Figure 1. Ask Jeeves search window

3. LIBRARY RESEARCH METHODS The most effective methods for utilizing library resources depend to a certain extent on the facilities and organization of the library which is available. As mentioned previously, consultation with library staff members will prove a valuable aid in obtaining the most effective use of this source. Methods for library use can be described as: (1) note-keeping (2) standard search procedures (3) other search methods. 3.1. NOTE KEEPING After locating source materials, you should read them and take notes in a manner that furthers the whole research process. Note-keeping is a



systematic method for collecting information that will help the investigator utilize the results of library research more fully. In conducting an historical study, an extensive content analysis, or a comprehensive literature review or survey to determine the current status of knowledge in a special field, the researcher may collect material from a great many sources for future use. He must use an adequate method for recording and filing notes that maximizes accuracy and minimizes time spent in nonproductive clerical work. The easiest and the most economical method is to use note cards. This is the focus of the next chapter (chapter 7). 3.2. STANDARD SEARCH METHODS Most professional researchers identify a few phases for any successful library research. The phases of library research must be accomplished in precisely the same manner as they are described by these professional researchers. Since academic library research, especially at undergraduate level, is often done in college and university libraries, most of these professional researchers suggest only two phases for library search. Following is a description of the two phases in library search procedures which can be utilized in nearly all college and university libraries. 3.2.1. DETERMINATION OF TOPICS The key to a successful library search is proper selection of key topic words, signposts which will guide the researcher through the labyrinth of library sources. After determining the area for which the survey is developed, a list of words should be made which describes the topic. The list of topics, compiled in this way, should be recorded for the researcher's use and can be listed in the written report to indicate the scope of the library search. 3.2.2. FINDING SOURCES Once the list of topics has been developed, the investigator can begin the process of methodically examining each listing of books and periodicals. Consult each of the key topics and work back through older editions. For studies dealing with learning, the investigator may find a need to continue the search into the earlier literature dealing with education or THE LIBRARY


educational psychology. Many of the journal articles listed under the appropriate topics can be eliminated from consideration by examining the titles. A list should be made of journal articles and books with titles which indicate a relationship to the selected topics. Sufficient bibliographic information should be recorded to insure location of the sources. An examination of the most recent sources will provide bibliographies to earlier works which may be useful. A list of these should be compiled and checked off when the search is continued. An important source of information concerning current research not in published form can be obtained by examining copies of the Dissertation Abstracts or the Masters' Abstracts which contain short summaries of doctoral dissertations and masters' theses completed by graduate students in subscribing institutions. If the description of the study indicates it contains needed information, the complete work should be obtained through the interlibrary loan service or from the publishers of Dissertation Abstracts. The description of standard search methods presented in the preceding paragraphs emphasizes one principle. It is absolutely necessary to refer to original sources; use commentaries on and summaries of research only as a means of identifying original sources. 3.3. OTHER SEARCH METHODS Besides "note keeping" and "standard library search methods," there are less recognized steps that you can take to make your research more fruitful. These further steps are recommended below to broaden your scope of inquiry beyond the traditional boundaries. 3.3.1. COURSE WORK IN OTHER DISCIPLINES A graduate survey course can provide a means for the investigator to become familiar with other areas which may have a bearing on the subject of the investigation. Doctoral candidates with dissertation topics relating to other disciplines such as psychology, political science, economics, history, or sociology are counseled into appropriate courses at this level. The assigned readings and lectures offer an opportunity to



select pertinent areas of these disciplines to add to the body of educational knowledge. 3.3.2. READERS Reader is a name commonly used to designate selections of works which have been collected into one volume with editorial comments and explanation by the editors. The readers present an excellent source for the research worker who wishes to gain knowledge about other academic areas. 3.3.3. THE INTERDISCIPLINARY TEAM The interdisciplinary team is increasingly utilized in a number of largescale research endeavors. The sociologist, psychologist, historian, social psychologist, political scientist, anthropologist, and philosopher can add new perspective to a problem which may be considered essentially linguistic in nature. Some debate exists concerning the point during study development when talent from other areas should be utilized. Some feel that personnel from related disciplines should be involved during the planning stages while others assert that the outside expert is most helpful after the preliminary plan for the study has been made. In any event, individuals with training in non-linguistic disciplines— professionals, professors or graduate students—can be of assistance to the researcher. 3.3.4. BROWSING Many graduate students have encountered a study with important implications for their investigation while browsing through books and periodicals. The ease of browsing depends on the physical organization of library facilities. When books and periodicals are catalogued in open stacks without restrictions, browsing can be more easily accomplished than when each book or periodical must be checked out prior to examination. 4. IMPORTANCE OF LIBRARY RESEARCH The purpose of library study is dictated by the activity involved. The research worker uses the library to determine new developments which THE LIBRARY


have a bearing on his specialty whatever it might be. Although the research worker uses the library for somewhat different purposes, a knowledge of his use of the literature is essential to evaluate the quality and interpret the findings of studies. In masters' theses and PhD dissertations, there should be a chapter that presents the background and history of the topic under study. Although it is often possible to locate a "state of the art" article about the research topic in a specialized journal that presents this needed background and history whole sale, very often PhD candidates and masters' students will have to use library resources to write their reviews of the related literature. Before a research worker initiates a study, he must first determine what has previously been done in the topic area. In addition to classic studies, a thorough knowledge of contemporary research in the topic area would also be necessary. Current status in a specific area cannot be determined by skimming and by reading summaries of studies; intensive analysis is required. Determination of current status in a field of knowledge requires access to the most accurate sources available. 4.1. KNOW THE ORIGINAL SOURCE Like rumor, the restating of conclusions presumably reached by a pioneer in a field of knowledge can result in gross distortion of the original findings. If "animal imagery in Shakespeare's plays" is the problem selected for study, the original account of the investigations done in this connection should be read. Second-handed descriptions should not be considered a substitute for the original sources. When a study published in an unfamiliar language is to be used, a comparison of more than one translation of the original work should be made if at all possible. Although examination of original articles sometimes requires much time, the practice eliminates secondhand scholarship. 4.2. BE MORE INFORMED In researching a specific literary topic, the library search may extend to directly related fields such as literary criticism; in a library, however, books are catalogued and journals are classified on the basis of broad subject areas. As a result, you may fail to encounter references to 84


relevant studies in other areas unless you take special steps in addition to prescribed library search methods. Useful findings from other fields may not be utilized by research workers because of a lack of communication among research workers in the various fields of study. 4.3. BE CRITICAL More than a single study usually has been conducted relating to a problem area selected by you for your term project. The report of these related studies must be analyzed line by line; even the meaning of each word must be determined, if possible. The purpose of this critical analysis is threefold. The quality of individual studies must be ascertained. The findings of two or more studies should be analyzed to determine if investigators concurred in their findings and should be contrasted to identify differences in their conclusions. Disagreements of two or more competent investigators about the exact nature of facts leads to the third consideration, namely, a determination of the gaps in the existing body of knowledge. The research worker may then decide to do his research in such a way as to fill this gap. Library scholarship is essential for constructing a foundation upon which quality research can be built. Before moving ahead, the research worker must be aware of what is known with some degree of certainty, what is accepted as truth by some but not by others, and must have some inkling of the nature of unexplored areas where additional research should be conducted. Many research projects necessitate the use of instruments such as questionnaires, schedules, attitude scales, rating scales, and achievement tests, and apparatus such as soundproof booths, one-way mirrors, and other devices. Development of valid and reliable instruments with which to conduct an investigation may require a great amount of expertise, time, and effort. If appropriate, the use of instruments developed and validated by others will save time and serve also to relate the problem under study to other better known "facts." A library-based survey of the literature can be initiated for the primary purpose of identifying valid instruments, proven methods, or appropriate apparatus. Therefore,



library search is a useful tool, available for the research worker, that makes the selection of data collection instruments easy. To formulate the null and alternate hypothesis for statistical analysis in an experimental design an investigator may be justified in guessing tentatively the outcome of the research. This guess, or estimate, of the outcome should be based on research findings from similar investigations and related to a theoretical rationale. In comparing the relative merits of two given methods of language teaching, for example, the investigator should examine previous research studies in which these methods were compared. He could make one of four decisions: 1. If no previous studies were conducted comparing the two methods, the probable outcome could not be ascertained; 2. If a number of competent researchers had compared the methods using various types of subjects (normal children, mentally retarded children, illiterate adults, and adults learning English as a second language, for example) and some investigators had found method I superior and others indicated that method II produced greater learning, then no probability would be established because of conflicting conclusions; 3. If a majority of previous studies indicated the superiority of method I, probability would be established. The investigator would formulate his hypothesis with the "guess" that method I would result in greater learning; 4. If nearly all previous studies indicated that method I was superior, the hypothesis could be formulated to indicate greater gain from this method. A review of related studies serves as a guide to what is acceptable and what is not acceptable verification of the hypothesis in question. Library research is used to establish the appropriateness of certain statistical tools and analytical methods in your experiments. 5. FINAL REMARKS In connection to language teaching, the most important purpose for conducting library research is to improve the effectiveness of teaching practices. The aims previously described for library research were 86


directed toward improving the quality of planned research investigations. All investigations, however, are aimed at improving the effectiveness of the classroom teacher. Quite clearly, if the teacher and school administrator do not familiarize themselves with results of studies, most of the effort expended by research workers will be wasted. A thorough review of the literature should be made before school district personnel embark on an experimental language teaching program or make changes in existing programs which have proven satisfactory in the past. In addition to other considerations including acceptance by teachers, parents, and members of the general public, change must follow a careful examination of related research findings. By utilizing the library, practicing educators can profit from the successes of others. They can also eliminate or circumvent causes of failure.




1. INTRODUCTION The term "note" is often used to refer to something written down, often in abbreviated form, as a record or reminder. There are two note keeping methods: (a) note taking, and (b) note making. To take notes suggests a passive procedure of recording words verbatim, like a secretary taking dictation; to make notes demands your full attention. In this book, however, the two terms have been used interchangeably. 2. NOTE KEEPING Critical note taking is an exciting, challenging experience; passive note taking is a monotonous, boring activity. A nonselective unsystematic method of recording notes usually piles up tangled masses of data that are a greater obstacle than an aid to a researcher who is working on a problem. An efficient note taking system preserves the most significant ideas in a form that facilitates shifting, comparing, grouping, and ordering items. When you write the final report of your research study, pertinent, precise, and flexible notes can be organized and synthesized into original thought patterns more easily than continuous pages of rambling, jumbled information. There are two types of note cards: (a) subject notes, and (b) bibliographical notes. Subject notes are used to keep paraphrased material or quoted language. Bibliographical notes are used to keep the bibliographical information of the source used in note taking. Subject and bibliographical notes serve different purposes. Each type of note possesses its individual characteristics. from a practical standpoint, mongrel notes (part bibliographical and part subject) are useless. Copying full bibliographical data on each subject card would be



excessively time-consuming; failing to put full data on mongrel notes would cause difficulties; therefore, keeping the two types of note cards separate is advisable. Any note taking system that serves your needs is acceptable, but the well-tested subject and bibliographical note taking procedures discussed below are worthy of consideration. 2.1. SUBJECT NOTES The information that you record on subject notes (also called subject cards) depends upon the nature of your problem and your experiential background. During an investigation, you may (1) copy many specific facts from references, such as dates, places, names, statistics, formulas, and definitions; (2) summarize or copy arguments, questions, explanations, illustrations, or descriptions; (3) write comments about your reactions to reference materials; (4) state relationships, conclusions, or interpretations that come to your mind during the contemplative phases of your work; and (5) jot down items that require further checking. Subject notes usually make up the bulk of the notes taken in a study; they form a reservoir of facts. When writing a report you may draw upon them to (1) support a particular position, (2) illustrate a point of view, (3) make comparisons, (4) weave a web of logical evidence, or (5) buttress arguments by passages from recognized authorities. This last usage—using passages from recognized authorities to buttress your arguments—is most useful for students of literature. Discriminatingly selected subject cards provide the building blocks that you need to solve a problem; haphazardly collected notes may cause your investigation to collapse. Copying subject notes about every item that remotely relates to your problem is an unprofitable practice. To avoid wasting time writing, filing, reexamining, and culling many worthless subject cards, form the following habits: Before taking any notes, skim quickly through a few of the references. Examine the table of contents, topical headlines, summary paragraphs to ascertain the purpose, scope, biases, distinctive features of the reference. Read only those sections 90


best and and that

relate to your problem and record the location of important facts or passages. If you own the book, underline these items; if not, list the location of them on a card in an abbreviated form, such as 198:2, 4-6 (page 198: paragraph 2, lines 4-6). Photocopying some materials may save considerable time. After you have skimmed the references, reevaluate the underlined, listed, or photocopied passages and copy or paraphrase the most pertinent ones on your subject cards. (Van Dalen, 1962, p. 97)(italics mine) A system of note taking that produces permanent, easy-to-handle notes lessens the labor involved in assembling the final report. Writing notes consecutively in bound books or on pages of paper is an unwise practice, for the items will later have to be relocated, reclassified, and either recopied or indexed elaborately. A note is of the greatest value if it is a complete unit that can be (a) found quickly in a sheaf of notes, (b) traced readily to the original source, and (c) transferred easily from one position in your outline to another. If each item is placed on a separate card, you can run through notes taken from many sources and at different times, slip out those cards that pertain to the same subject, and reorganize them quickly in a logical sequence for your report. When several items of information are placed on one card, problems arise. If the items fall logically into different sections of the report, the process of shuffling cards and ordering them into the proper report sequence is a confusing and arduous task. You may overlook important information that is buried among other data on a card, or you may combine unrelated facts in a report merely because they were on the same card. Since smeared, penciled notes or illegible pen scratchings that are crammed with complicated abbreviations will impede your progress, always type notes or write them in ink. Make an effort to form each letter and figure perfectly and to use a simple abbreviation system consistently. After taking a note, check to make certain that you or a secretary can decipher each word accurately now and in the future. Because assorted shapes of note sheets are clumsy to organize and easy to lose, write all subject notes on cards of the same size. Some research workers prefer to use notepaper because it is not as bulky as cards, provides more space for writing, and is more convenient to use when NOTE KEEPING


typing; others prefer cards because they are more durable and easier to sort and arrange. The nature of the study and the idiosyncrasies of the writer determine what size card or paper is most serviceable. Subject cards may require a larger-size card than bibliographical notes. It is recommended that you use same size cards for both bibliographical and subject notes. It is also recommended that you refrain from using paper instead of cards. Note cards are most convenient for recording notes from printed sources. Most commonly used size is 10 × 15 cm. The paper used for making note cards should be thick and stiff enough so that they can be handled easily. It is recommended that two different colors be used for subject and bibliographical cards for ease of reference at a later time. It is also recommended that the subject and bibliographical cards be of the same size.

Author(s) last name(s), year

Page number(s)

Subject line (use a different color)

Note taking area

Position of card continuation memo

Figure 1. Appearance of a subject note/card



OVER / Cont

Subject notes, also called subject cards, are used to keep paraphrased material or quoted language. Each subject card should also contain brief bibliographical information about the source, a blank subject line, and the paraphrased or quoted idea or language (See figure 1 above). At the upper left corner of the card, the author's surname and the year of publication of the source should be indicated (e.g., Jason, 1994). A comma will separate these two pieces of information. If there are more than one authors, use APA conventions discussed in previous chapters. At the upper right corner of the card, the page number(s) should be written. If the material on the card is being quoted or paraphrased from a single page of the source, the abbreviation "p." will precede the page number (e.g., p. 48).

Pervin, 1963

p. 32

One of the key developments within psychological literature on control has been the growing recognition of the multidimensional nature of the control construct. Early studies defined control only in terms of the availability of the means to influence an aversive situation or outcome. Recent studies show the importance of individual perceptions in control of temper under situations of stress. They also delineate the differences between field dependent (FD) and field independent (FI) individuals in this connection. They show FI individuals can control such situations better than FD individuals.

Figure 2. A sample subject card



When the note has been taken from two or more consecutive pages, the abbreviation pp. will be used, and the starting-and-end-page numbers are used with a hyphen between them (e.g., pp. 32-35). If the pages are not consecutive, hyphen will be replaced by comma (e.g., pp. 32, 35). One space below the head information, you need to draw a centered line (called the subject line). Nothing should be written on this line. It should be kept blank until you have collected all the note cards you need for your study. The reason for this will be discussed below. Paraphrased or quoted information can be left-aligned or justified. A sample note card will look like figure 3 below. Writing notes on both sides of a card is a mistake. If you must flip cards constantly when organizing notes into a logical order, you may become confused and overlook items. Have you ever searched desperately for a note, only to find it much later tucked away on the back of a card— which you assumed to be blank?

Douglas, 2000

p. 19

"A specific purpose language test is one in which test content and methods are derived from an analysis of a specific purpose target language use situation, so that test tasks and content are authentically representative of tasks in the target situation, allowing for an interaction between the test taker’s language ability and specific purpose content knowledge, on the one hand, and the OVER *



* test tasks on the other."

Figure 3. Front and back of a subject card

Sometimes, the paraphrased or quoted information is longer than one single card. Here there are two possibilities. If the information is a fragment of the last sentence which you have written on the front side of the card, place it at the back of the card. Flip the card vertically to write on its back—as shown by * in figure 3 above. Write OVER at the lowerright corner of the front side of the card. Notice that quoted language must be placed within quotation marks. (See figure 3) If, on the other hand, the information is longer than a fragment of a single sentence (that is, if the remaining information is one-and-a-half sentence or longer) a new card should be used. Here, the rest of the note must be placed on a second card. Write "Cont 1" at the lower-right corner of the first card and then write the remaining information on a new card. The two cards in figure 4 below present and example of card continuation. Take a close look at figure 4 to see how this should be done: NOTE KEEPING


Shohamy, 1995

p. 196

"Indeed, a few testers did try to get away from the distinction and to claim that any linguistic behavior constitutes instances of performance (Rae, 1985). This broader view does away with the communicativeperformance division since competence can only be inferred through performance which is therefore all that can be directly observed and hence assessed. Since no communicative theoretical model made a clear Cont 1

Shohamy, 1995, Cont 1

p. 196

distinction between competence and performance, pragmatic considerations and operational definitions should guide the development of language tests. With no underlying theory of performance, actual performances, translated into tasks and actions, became the de facto theory. The tests, then, were communicative, functional, authentic, and direct, with a special focus on performance and ignoring the notion of competence."

Figure 4. Two consecutive subjects cards

The second card does not need a subject line. If extra information remains when you come to the end of the second card, your should either 96


write the remaining information at the back of the second card (if it is a fragment of a sentence, or continue to the third, fourth, fifth … cards. Here you need to use Cont 2, Cont 3, Cont 4, Cont 5, etc. Only the first card requires the subject line (See figure 5).

Shohamy, 1995

p. 196

"Indeed, a few testers did try to get away from the distinction and to claim that any linguistic behavior constitutes instances of performance (Rae, 1985). This broader view does away with the communicativeperformance division since competence can only be inferred through performance which is therefore all that can be directly observed and hence assessed. Since no communicative theoretical model made a clear Cont 1

Shohamy, 1995, Cont 1

p. 196

distinction between competence and performance, pragmatic considerations and operational definitions should guide the development of language tests. With no underlying theory of performance, actual performances, translated into tasks and actions, became the de facto theory. The tests, then, were communicative, functional, authentic, and direct, with a special focus on performance and ignoring the notion of competence. The main criteria for determining what it means to know a language was in performing tasks. Cont 2



Shohamy, 1995, Cont 2

p. 196

These performance definitions have since dictated the process of test development: The purpose and context for a test are defined based on a needs analysis; samples of the ‘behavior’ in that context are defined, actual performance or simulation tasks that elicit the performance are selected; tasks are performed by the test-taker (in simulated or real situations); the language samples are elicited; and the language samples are assessed, usually by means of rating Cont 3

Shohamy, 1995, Cont 3

p. 196

scales which define criteria for successful performance. Language testers, then, have turned to behavioral definitions in which language is described in performance terms rather than in implicational terms. Performance tests also have gained high face validity, high washback, and high client acceptability. Competence has not been the focus of these language tests, as only what could be observed was measured, and covert mental acts were totally overlooked."

Figure 5. Four consecutive subjects cards



Entries on the card can be made in handwriting; however, if a typewriter can be used in the library, note-taking is faster, especially when large quantities of material are to be recorded verbatim. Recent technological developments have made computers and scanners available. You can scan the sections of the printed material you want to use, save them using TIF file format, convert them into text by different OCR software packages—like AABBYY Sprint—and open them in you Microsoft Word software for editing and use. Entries on note cards should be coded systematically to facilitate ease of access when the materials are being analyzed for writing the research report. The cards can be filed in small recipe boxes, steel files, or fiber folders. Cards should be indexed in two ways—by author and subject. The cards should be arranged with the author's surname listed in the upper left-hand corner, using the standard bibliographic reference form. Cards can then be filed alphabetically by author.

IMPORTANT NOTICE 1 Since bibliographical cards (explained below) carry the complete data for references, the subject card may merely identify the source by author's surname and publication date, but it must indicate the exact page or pages from which the note is derived. Since each footnote in your final report will have to state the complete bibliographical information for the reference, forgetting to record the source and page of a note may cause discouraging delays when you are ready to write up the study. Days may be spent in obtaining a reference again and rereading it to locate a quotation—and the search may not always culminate in success.

As you have already noticed, there are two types of note cards: (a) paraphrased-information cards, and (b) quoted-material cards. Some researchers include a third type of subject cards—summary cards. It is much wiser if you use different colors for different type of cards. For NOTE KEEPING


example, you may decide to use pink cards for paraphrasing, yellow cards for quotations, gray cards for summaries, and white cards for bibliographical notes. This will help you file and retrieve your cards more easily. Furthermore, it will save you in case you forget to use quotation marks on cards to identify quoted language. Now you may want to know which type of materials should be paraphrased and which quoted. It is wiser if you use direct quotation cards for: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

points of major controversy points of major importance points of major disagreement definitions of key terms and concepts used in your study any other point that may create negative reaction in your readers or supervisor

After locating pertinent material in a reference, you may decide to copy it verbatim, paraphrase it, or summarize it. Your decision will determine the type and form of the note you make. Never copy a statement word for word unless it is especially significant and vitally important to your study. Enclose a copied statement in quotation marks at once so that you will not later assume these are your own words and commit an act of plagiarism unwittingly. Using a different color for quotation cards is a much wiser strategy. Copy quoted passages exactly as they appear in the original. Permit errors to stand, but call attention to them by adding the notation [sic] immediately after their occurrence in a passage. If you insert a word or phrase to clarify a quotation, enclose the addition in brackets. For example, "A former department head [James Damber] wrote the report." To inform the reader that words have been omitted, insert ellipses— three periods with alternating spaces ( . . . ). For example, "Professor Thomas Wood . . . first outlined the program in 1910." If you omit something from the end of a sentence or delete more than one sentence, add an additional period—making four periods in all ( . . . . ). After copying a quotation, recheck each word, punctuation mark, and capital letter to make certain that you have not made a mistake or omitted anything.



Should the investigator paraphrase or record statements verbatim as they are listed in the library sources? Paraphrasing saves time and provides the beginning researcher with practice in analyzing passages, obtaining facts, and determining the ideas and attitudes expressed by the author. The process also increases the possibility of error. The person preparing the notes can project his own attitudes and bias and perhaps distort the meaning intended by the author whose work is being reviewed. Frequently, information recorded on note cards is not immediately utilized by the investigator and may be placed in storage for a long period of time. Paraphrased passages thus may lose much of their original meaning. Although it is not recommended by many scholars, limitations imposed by paraphrasing can be overcome if items from the original source are recorded word for word. Needless to say, word-for-word recording of the items from the original source takes more time, but the possibility for distortion is reduced. The use of a typewriter to record notes from sources enables the investigator to record a great deal of information in a short time. Care must be taken, however, to include sufficient information from the printed source to avoid quoting out of context. In spite of the fact that paraphrasing may create some problems for the beginning researcher, it is usually recommended that you use as much paraphrasing as possible. Remember to refrain from copying pages of direct quotations where possible. Get the full meaning out of the author's ideas and then paraphrase his ideas into notes that can be woven into the first draft of your report with little or no recasting. Stringing quotations together to form a research report is an indication of sloppy, superficial thinking; such compilations make dull reading and no significant contribution to the advancement of knowledge. A worthwhile report is a product of critical thinking: it presents the investigator's own ideas and is written in his own words. Copying notes verbatim merely postpones the time when you must analyze and synthesize the source materials. Paraphrasing and summarizing are skills that require practice. copying phrases, words, or partial sentences usually produces unsatisfactory notes, for after a lapse of time, these isolated items may not convey significant meanings and the partial quotes may be mistaken for one's own words or may be easily distorted. You cannot assimilate an author's ideas if you merely copy fragments of his sentences or change a word or NOTE KEEPING


two. Assimilation requires effort: you must concentrate on passages until you eliminate unessential details, single out the significant ones, and recast these ideas into sharply coined, original sentences that reproduce the exact intent of the author. A few carefully drafted notes are invaluable; an abundance of inaccurate, ambiguously stated notes is useless.

IMPORTANT NOTICE 2 For purposes of critically analyzing the results of research studies, reproduction of the entire study should be obtained. Most libraries have book copiers for photo reproduction of material from bound volumes. To avoid its high cost, the publishers of journals can be contacted to determine if reprints of studies are available. The researcher must exercise judgment in selecting and accurately recording the essential parts of printed materials.

Accepting and copying unquestioningly the words on a printed page is a dangerous and unfruitful practice. Reference materials vary in reliability; consequently, you must become a skillful detective who makes comparisons, notes discrepancies, sees relationships, analyzes arguments, and evaluates data. During this process, disturbing doubts, and challenging questions may seep into your mind. You may ask: Did the author use primary sources? Did he observe these conditions himself? Did he borrow his ideas from someone else? Does this statement contradict what he wrote earlier or what some other authority reported? From what source? Did he obtain these statistics? How were they derived? Is his definition of this new term different than that given by other authorities? Where can I obtain a clearer definition of this new term? Does this new term refer to the same concept that other authorities identify with other terms? Is Galileo not spelled differently in the Encyclopedia Britannica? Does this author agree with other authorities? Has he arrived at his conclusions by a sound reasoning process? Do the



statements that he presents as supporting evidence justify his conclusions? Critical reading will produce many questions such as these. Keeping a record of them and seeking answers to them will prod your investigation toward a successful solution. Personal reactions to reference materials may be written on separate cards or below a summary or quotation note. If you register a personal reaction to a source material directly on a subject card, distinguish your words from those of the author by enclosing them in [] or by placing an asterisk * or some similar symbol beside them.

IMPORTANT NOTICE 3 It is much safer if you use separate cards, and preferably cards with a color different from your subject and bibliographical cards, for your personal ideas and reactions. Needless to say, this will save you from later confusion.

To prevent materials from getting lost during the collection of data, file your notes regularly in a convenient depository. Use vertical files, letter files, accordion files, work organizers, or large manila folders and a cardboard box of the proper size. To speed the filing of notes and to order them in a manner that will facilitate writing the final report, label the file guide cards with the main topics and subtopics in your report outline. Keep your filing system up-to-date. If a category that was once important is no longer useful, place the notes under other topics or place them in an inactive file until the study is completed. When you must add new topics, fit them properly into the organizational scheme of the report. Some professional researchers recommend that at least 35% of all the cards should be quoted-information cards. The remaining 65% of the cards will be paraphrased-information cards. After you have collected all your cards, you need to leave them aside for a few days during which you give yourself a period of rest. This is important because you need to "desuggest" your mind before you can label the cards. NOTE KEEPING


After a few days—preferably two weeks—when you no longer remember the content of the cards, you can start reading them. This time you should identify the main idea of each card—as you would do for paragraphs in your reading comprehension courses—and write it down on the card right above the blank subject line which you had put on the cards when you first wrote them. The main ideas should be short phrases that can later be used as the headings and subheadings of your project. These phrases will give you a good idea as to how the cards should be grouped together to afford sets of cards carrying the same topic or subject on their subject lines. Cards in each set of cards can then be sorted by author, or in chronological order, and incorporated into the research report where they best fit. You can even elicit the final outline of your research report from your card groupings. Some researchers prefer to begin their note-taking only after they have written a tentative outline for their final project. If this is the case, headings and subheadings of this outline may be used as clues that go over the empty subject lines of cards. In other words, if the main ideas of the cards are the same as the topics and subtopics of the tentative report outline, the outline topics and subtopics should be placed on the cards. This will facilitate the locating, sorting, and classifying of the cards and the writing of the report. If you encounter materials in a reference that suggest a new or more effective topic heading, use it and revise your outline accordingly. When you cannot decide where to file a note, study its relationship to the subject and determine whether your outline contains overlapping, vague, or insufficient subject headings. Your initial outline and the headings you assign to topics will not be perfect. You will discover weaknesses in them and ways to improve them as you work. Brief notes may be made of items that vie for your attention when you are trying to concentrate on something else. While reading, note taking, or engaging in some other pursuit, you may encounter a worthwhile reference, see a desirable method of classifying some facts, question a point, or become concerned about a personal problem. To avoid becoming sidetracked and to prevent worthwhile ideas from escaping you, jot these thoughts down quickly in abbreviated form to preserve them for later consideration. Once recorded, they are less likely to keep intruding on your train of thought and interrupting the work at hand.



IMPORTANT NOTICE 4 Notes of temporary nature may be listed in a notebook and those of a more permanent nature on cards. Divide your temporary notes into research and personal items. For example, Research: "good bibliography on English language teaching, Taghavi, 1963, p. 322. Check average salary of Iranian highschool teachers last year. How long did Mr. Taghavi observe Iranian schools? Did he speak the English language?" Personal: "Obtain a copy of The New York Times. Ask Professor Hashemi for a conference on Thursday. Get stamps." Each day scan these notes and during spare moments try to take care of some of them. Set aside definite blocks of time periodically to clear up any unfinished business. When you finish an item, cross it off your list.

2.2. BIBLIOGAPHICAL NOTES Bibliographical notes are made for several purposes: (a) to have the complete bibliographical information available for each reference that may contribute to a research study, (b) to facilitate the relocation of the reference in the library at a later time, (c) to preserve a brief record of the general nature and value of a reference, and (d) to have the information necessary for constructing a formal bibliography or list of references. For each source, you will write a bibliography card. The bibliography cards will be used when you decide to write the reference(s) list of your research report. Here again, you should use 10 × 15 cm cards. Use hanging/dangling indentation. The bibliographical information that you



write down on the bibliography cards should go by the conventions of APA style presented in foregoing chapters. This will save time and effort when you want to prepare the final report of your research project. Figures 6.1. and 6.2. give you an idea of what the front and back sides of a typical bibliography card will look like:

Call Number

Library name, Section and shelf number

Bibliographical note should be written here after APA style.

OK Figure 6.1. Schematic representation of the front side of a typical bibliography card

To help you relocate the reference quickly, the following information should be placed on the card: (a) the library call number, (b) the name of the library if you patronize more than one, and (c) the room, department, division, or section that houses the reference—if the library utilizes the open system. It is a good strategy to place the library call number of the source at the upper left corner of the card. The name of the library (and also the section of the library) should be placed at the upper right corner of the card. These pieces of information will save time and effort if you need to retrieve the source from the library at a later time.



After using several references, the research worker may become confused about what information is in the various volumes. Writing very brief notes on the back of the bibliographical card will help you recall what contributions the reference may make to your study. The notes that you place at the back of a bibliography card will include information of various kinds. They can focus on such topics as: the nature of the source the scope of the source the chief strengths of the source the special features of the source the chief weaknesses of the source the page numbers of the most pertinent topics in the source If your supervisor asks you to compile an annotated bibliography, for the final research report, these notes will provide you with much useful information (See figure 6.2.).

Your major note about the source: Topic 1 Topic 2 Etc.

Page numbers for topic1 Page numbers for topic 2 Etc.

Specific notes about the source that can be used for compiling an annotated bibliography entry for the source.

Figure 6.2. Schematic representation of the back side of a typical bibliography card



Figures 7.1. and 7.2. are an example of an actual bibliographical note written after the conventions of writing bibliographical notes as delineated by figures 6.1. and 6.2.

913.32 J173m

Torqabah University Library Section D, Shelf 24

Pervin, L. A. (1963). The need to predict and control under conditions of threat. Journal of Personality, 31, 570-587.

OK Figure 7.1. Front of bibliography card for a source

Excellent review of literature (1921-1963) on: Conditions of threat Control

pp. 23-31 pp. 33, 37-39

Gives appropriate examples of conditions of threat Cites pertinent bibliography Provides operational definitions for key terms etc.

Figure 7.2. Back of the same bibliography card



Some libraries utilize the open system, some others the close system. In an open-system library, you are allowed to walk between the shelves and retrieve the books, journals, etc. yourselves, which can then be checked out of the library at the circulation desk. In the close system, by way of contrast, you cannot reach the sources yourselves. You have to write the call numbers of the sources on pieces of paper (that are usually placed near the card catalogues by the library staff) and give them to the librarian. The librarian will then retrieve those sources from the shelves and let you check them out. Most Iranian libraries follow the close system. To economize on time and effort, establish efficient bibliographical note-taking habits. Screen references before copying a single item so as to avoid accumulating many useless cards. Refrain from scribbling partial bibliographical information on notebook covers, backs of letters, class notes, or any available scrap of paper. Scattered, fragmentary notes that are written on assorted sizes of paper are easy to lose, difficult to relocate and file, and hard to interpret. Copying each reference in full, once and for all, on a separate standardsize card or sheet of paper is a prudent practice. Cards are more durable and easier to handle, to sort, and to file than lists of sources on sheets of paper. A 10 × 15 cm card is convenient to carry, but some researchers prefer larger or smaller cards. If you keep a few blank cards in your purse or pocket at all times, recopying bibliographical information will not be necessary. Before compiling your bibliography, investigate the form and content of the entries that you will be required to use in the final report. Different professors, institutions, and publishers establish style standards that vary slightly. If they do not have their own style manual, they require that scholars conform to some other recognized style manual—very often APA style, and sometimes MLA style. If you form the habit of recording bibliographical notes in conformity with a recommended style manual, you can type the final bibliography directly from these cards without reorganizing the data. This practice eliminates the tedious task of shifting items on cards and avoids the errors that may creep into a bibliography during the recopying process. Always carry sample style cards for a book, periodical, and newspaper NOTE KEEPING


with you and refer to these samples when you write bibliographical notes. To save time and to eliminate errors, you may prefer to purchase printed bibliographical cards or to mimeograph cards that provide blanks for required items. If you keep a style manual accessible while working, you can check the correct bibliographical form when special problems arise, such as how to write up the entry when an organization is the author; when a pseudonym is used; when a translator or editor is noted; or when the article copies from an encyclopedia, a chapter of a yearbook, or a newspaper. When you do not have a style manual available, copy all the essential information from the reference; reorganize these items in accordance with the approved style before you include them in the formal report. Before taking a single note from a reference, make out a bibliographical card neatly and legibly in ink. Procure the information for books from the title page rather than from the cover of the book. After completing the task, check carefully whether you have omitted any necessary data— an item, word, letter, punctuation mark, or number—and check the correctness of the spelling, punctuation marks, and call number. When you are finished, make an "OK" notation at the lower right corner of the front of the card (as shown in figure 7.1. above). With this strategy, no doubts concerning the accuracy of the bibliographical cards will arise later. The extra minutes expended in recording bibliographical information accurately is time well invested, for careless errors may later cause you to spend hours searching for missing items, recopying cards, and retyping entire bibliographical cards. Merely omitting the pages covered by an article on an entry may force you to make a special trip to the library, and if the volume has been checked out by another person, a return trip and more wearisome waiting at the circulation desk will be necessary. After collecting a number of bibliographical notes, one must organize them into some meaningful order. An alphabetical arrangement by authors' surnames—or the first important word of the title if there is no author given—proves satisfactory in most studies. Some research workers file their bibliographical cards under subject headings and then sort them alphabetically by authors' surnames. They make out duplicate 110


or cross-reference cards for a work that is used in more than one section of their final research report, annotating its usefulness for each of section at the back of the cards. In some studies, researchers classify cards under primary and secondary sources; under types of references, such as books, periodicals, and pamphlets; or under the chronological arrangement. Because elaborate filing systems are cumbersome, experienced writers employ simple systems. Two such systems are (a) mechanical key sort systems, and (b) computer storage. Mechanical key sort systems can be used to classify extensive notes obtained from reviews of the literature. The key sort system consists of cards with a number of holes in all four margins, a filing cabinet and thin steel rod. When the cards are filed, designated holes are punched out of them indicating specific topics; later when notes relating to a specific topic are needed, the steel rod is pushed through the designated hole of the entire file of cards. Those cards which have the designated hole opened will fall from the stack of cards and the others will be retained. The use of key sort cards eliminates the need to alphabetize or otherwise organize the cards in the file to assure ready access. With the development of computer storage systems, a means is available to store many items of information for almost instant future access. The system has been used for accounting and inventory control purposes. It can provide a means for storing information gathered from very extensive surveys of the literature. Items of information gathered from library research can be coded and fed into a computer. When the information is needed at a later date, certain instructions can be fed into the machine and the desired information can be made available in printed form almost immediately. 3. PLAGIARISM Closely related to library research is the notion of plagiarism. The term plagiarism is used to refer to the act of stealing original ideas of others and presenting them as one's own original ideas without identifying their sources. The plagiarist is the student or scholar who leads readers to believe that what they are reading is the original work of the writer— when it is not. There are several species of plagiarism. NOTE KEEPING


3.1. WORD-FOR-WORD PLAGIARIZING After composing half of a first sentence, the writer copies exactly what is in the original text. If the writer encloses all the copied text in quotation marks and identifies the source in a footnote, there can be no charge of plagiarism. However, a research paper cannot simply be a list of direct quotations. A reader might then justifiably feel that the writer's personal contribution to the discussion is not very significant. 3.2. THE PATCH JOB This occurs when phrases are lifted out of the original text and moved into patterns. The writer provides a few linking words and transitions, but the major part of each sentence is not original. Again, the writer must use quotation marks and identify all sources when using material that is not original. But to put every stolen phrase in quotation marks and footnote it would produce an almost unreadable text, and the writer is still not contributing significantly to the discussion. 3.3. THE PARAPHRASE This occurs when the writer substitutes equivalent terms for ideas encountered in reading. While paraphrasing does not require quotation marks—it is not, after all, a direct quotation—it does require the identification of the source. Paraphrasing is not the idea of the student, even though the words may be the student's, and so the idea must be attributed to its source. A footnote or a parenthetical citation is necessary; otherwise, it is an act of plagiarism. 4. FINAL REMARKS While doing library research, always remember that the purpose of "paraphrase" should be to simplify or to throw a new and significant light on a text. Paraphrasing requires much skill if it is to be honestly used and should rarely be resorted to by the student except for the purpose of his personal enlightenment. Some ideas are clearly drawn from an original source, but there are ideas that are in "the public domain." In other words, they are ideas that have been accepted generally, and that many writers have used before. In this case, the student may use them without footnotes. However, if there is any doubt about the source, the student should footnote the idea. 112



This section is composed of two chapters: Chapter Eight: The Research Report Chapter Nine: The Thesis Chapter eight focuses on the detailed format that a modest research report should have. The different sections of the research report are discussed, along with visual illustrations to foster in undergraduate students the skills they need for writing their research reports. The final few pages of the chapter elaborate on the differences between student research reports and journal papers. Chapter nine is most useful for graduate students. A brief synopsis of the differences that exist between short research reports and masters' theses or PhD dissertations is presented. The discussions of the chapter are enriched with visual illustrations that are helpful to the graduate student in the process of writing his thesis or dissertation.




1. INTRODUCTION A research reports consists of specific sections or chapters. APA style sets specific rules as to how a research report should be prepared. Type the manuscript on one side of standard-sized heavy white bond paper, (A4-size, 20-pound bond). Computer paper ("tractor-fed") is acceptable, but the pin hole borders must be removed. (Razor-edge is preferable.) Erasable bond and onion skin are not acceptable. If you must prepare your paper on erasable bond, prepare a good copy of your paper on a copying machine and submit the copy instead of the original. One-inch margins (2.54 cm) at the top, bottom, right and left sides are now required by APA. Double spacing is required throughout the paper. Double-space after every line of the title, headings, quotations, references, etc. Do not use single or one-and-a-half spacing unless your supervisor tells you to do so. If you wish to use single-spacing for quotations of verse and drama because it more nearly approximates what the poet and dramatist would want, consult with your supervisor before doing so. Each page is numbered consecutively, including title page and reference page. Type the numbers in the upper right-hand corner using Arabic numerals. Arrange the pages of the manuscript as follows: Title page numbered 1. Abstract (separate page numbered 2). Text (start on a new page numbered 3). Notice that pages with figures are seldom numbered. A short title is used throughout the paper including the title page. The short title is a single two or three-word derivation of the title of the paper. For example, if the title of your paper were Understanding Patterns of Byzantine Intrigue, THE RESEARCH REPORT


your Short Title could be Byzantine Intrigue. The Short Title is typed (in upper-and-lower-case letters) one inch (2.54 cm) below the top of the page flush with the right-hand margin; the numeral 1 also appears on the title page. The distance between the short title and the numeral 1 is 5-7 millimeters. The Short Title should not be confused with the Running Head which is typed flush left at the top of the title page (but below the manuscript page header) and in all uppercase letters. The Running Head is usually not necessary for high school and college papers unless specifically required by individual instructors. However, it may well be required on documents being prepared for actual publication. The title itself is typed in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the page. If the title requires more than one line, double-space between all the lines. Within the main text (the body of the report), paragraphs are indented five to seven spaces (which translates into about a half-inch indent on word-processors). The only exceptions to this requirement are the abstract, block quotations, titles and headings, entries in the reference list, table titles and notes (if any), and figure captions, which require no indents. All typing is done flush-left, not right justified nor full justified. In other words, leave the right margin uneven or "ragged right." Do not break (hyphenate) words at the ends of lines. Type a line short or just beyond the right-hand margin rather than break a word at the end of a line. 2. MAIN SECTIONS OF THE REPORT The research report is made up of a number of distinct sections. These sections include the title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, references and appendix. In an MA thesis or a PhD dissertation, you should also provide table of contents, list of tables, and list of figures. The key points relating to each section of the report are presented below. 2.1. THE TITLE PAGE The format of the title page in APA style is illustrated below. The title page should have the title of the paper centered on the page. The Short Title and page number appear at the top right of the title page. The



student's name appears one double-space below the title. The institutional affiliation (name of the college or university for which the paper has been written) appears one double-space below student name. If there is no institutional affiliation, the city and state or city and country of the author should be identified instead (See figure 1).

Top margin (2.54 cm)

Short title

Page number


Perceived Control of States and Wellbeing

Author's name

Left margin (2.54 cm)

Hasan Taghavi Aliabadi

Printable area

Torqabah University

Author's affiliation


Right margin (2.54 cm)

Running head

Perceived Control 1

Bottom margin (2.54 cm)

Figure 1. Appearance of title page recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT


Title: The title of your report should clearly and concisely capture the essence of your study (in 10 to 12 words). This is not easy to do! Drop any words that are not useful (e.g., 'a study of . . .'). Don't include any abbreviations in the title. The title is positioned in the centre of the page (vertically and horizontally). The first letter of the main words is capitalized. Name: Underneath the title you type your name (usually your first name, initial and then surname). This is also centered. Affiliation: Below your name put the name of your university or organization. If there is no institutional affiliation, the city and state or city and country of the author should be identified instead. In PhD dissertations and masters' theses, the authors may include other pieces of information like the name of the supervisor, a descriptive phrase showing why the report is being submitted, and the date of submission. Running head: The title also includes a 'running head'. It should be all capitals and no more than 50 characters in length (letters, spaces, punctuation included). Page header: On the top right-hand side of every page of the paper (or report) a few words of the title (usually the running head) will appear. This short title is the short form of the main title that appears close to the page number. Five spaces along is the page number. You do not need to type these on every page yourself: use the 'header and footer' function of your word processor as discussed in chapter 1, and they will appear automatically on each page. 2.2. ABSTRACT The abstract is presented on a page of its own, which is usually the second page of the report, using the heading 'Abstract', which is centered. The first line is not indented. It provides a brief summary (120 words or less) of the main elements of your report. It is important that the abstract describe the following: a) the question that was addressed b) the sample used c) the experimental method 118


d) an overview of the main findings e) the conclusions and implications of the study

Type the abstract as a single paragraph in block format (i.e., without paragraph indentation. To help you get an idea of what is required in the abstract, have a look through journals published in your topic area. Collect examples of good concise abstracts to use as role models. Figure 2 shows the appearance of an abstract page:

Perceived Control


Abstract Recent studies suggest that perceived control of the emotional impact of a stressful event may be just as important as the perception that control of the event is possible. This study explored the importance of perceived control of internal states in psychological wellbeing, using a general community sample (N=439). Scores on the Perceived Control of Internal States Scale (PCOISS) showed moderate, positive correlations with a number of wellbeing measures. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the important role that perceived control plays in psychological wellbeing.

Figure 2. Appearance of abstract page recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT


Page 3 is the beginning of the main body of the paper or research report. The title of the paper appears (centered) one double-space below the Short Title. The first line of the body of the paper appears one doublespace below the title. The first part of the main body of the paper or report is the introduction (See figure 3 below).

Perceived Control


Perceived Control of States and Wellbeing One of the key developments within psychological literature on control has been the growing recognition of the multidimensional nature of the control construct. Early studies defined control only in terms of the availability of the means to influence an aversive situation or outcome (Pervin, 1963). Studies over the last fifteen years, however, have explored . . . . Method Participants The sample consisted of 439 adults, ranging in age from 18 to 82 years (M=37, SD=13). Forty-two per cent of the sample were males, 58 per cent were females. Fifty eight per cent of participants were either married or living with a partner, 24% were single . . . .

Figure 3. Appearance of first body page recommended by APA 120


2.3. INTRODUCTION As mentioned earlier, the main text of the report begins on page 3 with the introduction. Unlike the other sections of the report, it is not labeled 'Introduction'. Instead the full title of the report is presented at the top, centered, with all main words capitalized (See figure 3 above). The first lines of all paragraphs are indented 5-7 spaces (roughly one tab if you are using a word processor). The introduction should include at least three points: (a) Statement of the problem (b) Review of the literature (c) Statement of the study purpose The introduction indicates the problem that is to be addressed and reviews the literature relevant to the topic of your research (using citations where appropriate). In some works, including masters' theses and PhD dissertations, however, the literature will appear as a separate section or even a separate chapter—usually chapter two. In the closing section of the introduction, the purpose or rationale of the study is presented and the specific questions and hypotheses are stated. 2.4. METHOD The method section is not presented on a new page, but flows on from the end of the introduction—or the review of literature where it is presented as a separate section (See figures 3 above). It describes exactly how your study was conducted, with sufficient detail so that another researcher could repeat the study. The method is divided into a number of subsections. These subsections are flushed left and underlined. The first letter of each of these subsections is capitalized. The most important subsections of "method" are (a) participants, (b) materials, and (c) procedure. Participants: This section (usually headed Participants) contains a brief description of the subjects or respondents included in your study. For studies involving humans you should report the major demographic— human-related—characteristics of the sample (age, sex, race, education level, etc.) giving both numbers and percentages of subjects in each category (e.g., males, females), and mean and standard deviations for



continuous variables. Give the total number of subjects and the number of cases in each experimental condition. You can obtain this information by running Frequencies SPSS on these variables. Also indicate any 'drop-outs' or subjects that did not complete participation in the study (See figure 3 above).

Perceived Control


living with a partner, 24% were single . . . . Materials Each questionnaire booklet contained a number of validated scales and demographic questions. Respondents were asked to provide details of their gender, age, marital status and educational level. Details of the scales included in the booklet are provided below. Perceived Control of Internal States Scale (PCOISS: Pallant, in press). The PCOISS1 is an eighteen-item scale designed to measure respondents' perceptions of their ability to control their internal states and to moderate the impact of aversive events on their emotions, thoughts and physical wellbeing. According to the author (Pallant, in press) the PCOISS has good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha=.92) and adequate test-retest reliability (.89 over a two-week period . . . .

Figure 4. Appearance of materials section recommended by APA 122


Apparatus or materials: In a study involving a laboratory experiment you describe the equipment used under the left-aligned heading Apparatus. You also describe the tools to measure the dependent variable. If a survey or questionnaire design was used, you describe the scales or questionnaires used under the flush-left heading Materials. Details of the reliability and validity of the scales would be reported, along with the reliability and validity of the instruments obtained in the current study. See figure 4 above for an understanding of how the Materials section should be presented. For your better understanding of the figure, the last line of figure 3 has been repeated in figure 4 so that you can see the position of the Materials subheading relative to the previous subheading—Participants.

Perceived Control


and adequate test-retest reliability (.89 over a twoweek period . . . . Procedure The students enrolled in a research subject at Torqabah University were asked to distribute questionnaire booklets to their friends, family and acquaintances. Each potential participant was provided with a package containing an explanatory statement, the questionnaire booklet and a reply-paid envelope. Participation in the study was voluntary and all questionnaires were completed anonymously . . .

Figure 5. Appearance of procedure section recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT


Procedure: In this section you describe the design of the study, the procedures used to assign subjects to the various conditions or sample groups, and the techniques used to manipulate the independent variable. In a survey design you describe the sampling procedure and how the questionnaires were distributed and collected. Sufficient detail should be provided to enable another researcher to replicate your study. See figure 5 above for an understanding of how the Procedure section should be presented. The last line of figure 4 has been repeated in figure 5 so that you can see the position of the Procedure relative to the previous subheading—Materials. 2.5. RESULTS In this section you would describe your data, the statistics used and the results of the descriptive and inferential techniques used. This section should be brief and to the point, but provide sufficient detail that the reader can understand what was done. It needs to be well structured, perhaps following the order of the hypotheses that were specified in the introduction. Remind the reader of each hypothesis, describe the statistical analysis used and report the results. Do not attempt to explain the results (except where it is necessary to perform an additional analysis to explore the outcome further)—the interpretation of results should be saved for the discussion section. When reporting the results of statistical analyses you need to include the name of the test (e.g., independent samples t-test), the value obtained, the degrees of freedom, the probability level, the effect size and the direction of the effect (e.g., were males higher or lower than females). Where appropriate, you may also need to report the mean, standard deviation and number of subjects for each group. Sometimes the results of analyses can be presented more clearly in table or graph format, rather than described in a paragraph. Do not go overboard with graphs save these for dramatic effect (e.g., when presenting significant ANOVA interactions). All tables and figures must be referred to in the text and sufficient explanations provided to ensure that the reader can understand what is presented. There are some quite strict guidelines for the formatting of tables and figures (See the explanations presented in the previous chapter). Figure 6 below shows how you should report the results of your project. 124


Perceived Control


questionnaires were completed anonymously . . . . Results Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to explore the relationship between scores on the PCOISS and a number of measures of wellbeing (Satisfaction with Life scale, Positive Affect scale.

In a thesis or dissertation, table 1 is inserted here

Negative Affect scale, Perceived Stress scale). Preliminary analyses revealed no violations of the assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity. The PCOISS showed moderate to strong correlations, in the expected direction, with each of the wellbeing measures (see Table 1).

The strongest correlation for the PCOISS was with the Perceived Stress scale: r(425) = -0.58, p.001. The PCOISS showed a similar pattern of correlations with measures of wellbeing . . . .

Figure 6. Appearance of results section recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT


When submitting a research report for publication the tables and figures are presented at the end of the manuscript; some journals may want the contributors to present the tables and figures in the main body of the report, though. For a thesis or dissertation, however, the tables are incorporated in the main body of the report. You should check with your supervisor concerning the specific requirements for your report. 2.6. DISCUSSION In the discussion section you attempt to integrate or pull together all the various sections of your report. This involves a summary of the main findings of the study, followed by your interpretation of these results, in light of your literature review presented earlier in your report.

Perceived Control


with measures of wellbeing . . . . Discussion The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the important role that perceived control plays in psychological wellbeing. Respondents with high levels of perceived control of their internal states reported higher levels of life satisfaction and positive affect, and lower levels of negative affect and perceived stress. The respondents also . . . .

Figure 7. Appearance of discussion section recommended by APA 126


According to the APA publication manual, you are "free to examine, interpret, and qualify the results, as well as to draw inferences from them" (the APA publications manual, p. 18). You should compare your results with previous research and suggest reasons for any differences found. You should consider the broader implications of your findings, discuss any limitations or weaknesses of the study, and make suggestions for future research. 2.7. LIST OF REFERENCES The reference list begins on a new page. Type the word References (Reference in the case of only one) centered at the top of the page. Double-space all reference entries. Indent the first line of each entry; the second and succeeding lines in references should be typed flush to the left-hand margin. It is understood that when the document is published in a journal, references will appear in a hanging-indent format; some institutions— including Iranian universities—may require the hanging-indent format for theses and dissertations. The references in the example page below have italicized titles. Although the technological reasons for an insistence on underlining are no longer applicable, the APA Publication Manual says that underlines are preferred for manuscripts being prepared for eventual publication. If your paper is not being submitted for publication, italics are acceptable. The "references" section provides details of the literature that you have referred to in your report. Do not include other background material that you may have read but did not refer to specifically in your literature review. The very strict guidelines for the format used to present the different types of material (journal articles, books, etc.) have already been discussed—and examples have been presented—in the previous chapter. For your ease of reference, examples of some of the more commonly used reference types have been reproduced here. EXAMPLE 1: Journal article (one author)

Dawis, R. V. (1987). Scale construction. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 481-189.



EXAMPLE 2: Journal article (more than one author)

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1984). The effect of sampling error on convergence, improper solutions, and goodness-of-fit indices for maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis. Psycholmetrika, 49, 155-173. EXAMPLE 3: Book (one author)

Stangor, C. (1998). Research methods for the behavioral sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. EXAMPLE 4: Book (more than one author)

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R. L. & Black, W. C. (1992). Multivariate data analysis with readings. New York: Macmillan. EXAMPLE 5: Book (later editions)

Goodwin, C. J. (1998). Research in psychology: Methods and design (2nd edition). New York: John Wiley. EXAMPLE 6: Edited book

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (Eds.). (1991). Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. Hillsdale, NJ: Academic Press. EXAMPLE 7: Book chapter in an edited book

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Criteria for scale selection and evaluation. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman. (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (pp. 1-15). Hillsdale, NJ: Academic Press. Remember that the references are presented in alphabetical order by author. Each reference is given a new line, indented by 5-7 spaces (roughly 5-7 millimeters). Multiple entries by the same author are ordered according to the year of publication, with the earliest listed first.



References that have the same first author but different second authors are presented alphabetically by the surname of the second author.

Perceived Control


References Pallant, J. F. (in press). Development and evaluation of a scale to measure perceived control of internal states. Journal of Personality Assessment. Pervin, L. A. (1963). The need to predict and control under conditions of threat. Journal of Personality, 31, 570-587. Taylor, S. E. (1983). Adjustment to threatening events: A theory of cognitive adaptation. American Psychologist, 38, 1161-1173. Thompson, S. C., Nanni, C., & Levine, A. (1994). Primary versus secondary and central versus consequence-related control in HIV-positive men. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 540-547. Thompson, S. C., & Spacapan, S. (1991). Perception of control in vulnerable populations. Journal of Social Issues, 4, 1-21.

Figure 8. Appearance of the references section recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT


2.8. APPENDIX If you have additional material that the reader might like to refer to, but is not central to your report, this can be provided in the appendix. This could include the item of a scale used in the questionnaire, the results of additional analyses conducted, or an example of responses to an openended question. If you need to use a number of appendices, these are labeled using a letter, rather than a number (Appendix A, Appendix B, and so on). Each appendix must be given a title. 3. SECTIONS OF A JOURNAL ARTICLE If you are submitting your work to a journal for publication, there are a number of additional sections required. These include author identification notes and footnote(s). If you are submitting your research paper to a journal, or if you are required to adhere strictly to APA style, the following order should be used to present the various parts of your report: 1. title page 2. abstract 3. introduction (not identified by any heading) 4. method 4.1. participants 4.2. materials 4.3. procedure 5. results 6. discussion 7. references 8. author identification notes (not usually needed for research report) 9. footnotes (if any) 10. tables (one per page), with titles attached 11. figure captions 12. figures (one figure per page), with no captions attached This order is often relaxed, particularly when preparing a thesis or dissertation, so check with your supervisor or lecturer. The following figures will help you understand how these pages are prepared. Note the short title, page numbers, italicized and underlined parts, etc.



The page headed Author Note provides the reader with information concerning the author of the report. This page should provide information concerning how the author can be accessed. This page is optional in academic reports but must be provided when you submit your report to a journal for publication (See figure 9).

Perceived Control


Author Note Correspondence concerning this paper should be addressed to Hasan Taghavi Aliabadi, School of Humanities, Torqabah University, PO Box 218, Iran KHPT 3122. e-mail: [email protected]

Figure 9. Appearance of author note recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT


The "footnotes" page provides additional information or explanation concerning the points you have identified in the report by superscribed numerals. Compare figure 4 above with figure 10 below. The footnote for PCOISS1 in figure 4 is presented in figure 10.

Perceived Control


Footnotes 1 The PCOISS was developed as part of a multidimensional, multidomain inventory. Copies of this inventory can be obtained from the author.

Figure 10. Appearance of footnotes recommended by APA 132


After the Footnotes page, you will need to include a few pages for presenting the tables you used in your report. Each table appears on a page of its own. Label each and every table "Table" and use an Arabic numeral to identify it. Titles should be underlined. The text accompanying tables must be double-spaced. Do not end the table caption with a period.

Perceived Control


Table 1 Pearson Product Moment Correlation between the PCOISS and Wellbeing Measures Scale


Mastery scale




+ Affect



- Affect






* p < .001

Figure 11. Appearance of tables recommended by APA



After the Table page(s), you will need to include a few pages for presenting the figures you used in your report. Each figure appears on a page of its own. Label each and every figure "Figure" and use an Arabic numeral to identifying it. The term "Figure" and the Arabic numeral following it must be underlined. The text accompanying figures must be double-spaced. End the figure caption with a period.

Perceived Control female


male 180



Mean Total PCOISS

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 18-24



Age Group

Figure 1. Comparison of PCOISS scores for males and females across three age groups.

Figure 12. Appearance of figures recommended by APA




Notice that APA style does not recommend the use of line graphs only. You can use bar graphs, pie graphs, etc. The major concern of APA style is about the way in which you write the captions of figures in your reports. APA style suggests that all tables and figures appear at the end of the paper, each on a separate page. Some schools and colleges, however, require these elements to appear within the body of the paper. A great deal may depend on the capabilities of the word-processing machine you are using. Consult with your instructor before deciding where to place tables and figures. 4. FINAL REMARKS Notice that some journals may recommend the MLA (Modern Language Association) or the Chicago style sheet (CSS). Each journal has a "notes for contributors" or "submission policy" section that may be included somewhere in the journal itself, or in the Homepage of that journal on the Internet. Therefore, before submitting your manuscript to any journal for publication, make sure whether that journal prefers APA, MLA, or CSS style. APA style is the most popular one, though.




1. INTRODUCTION Masters' theses and PhD dissertations are specific types of research reports that usually remain unpublished. They are longer than journal papers and may require considerations other than those outlined by APA style. When preparing a thesis, or a dissertation, a number of modifications to APA style are required, although many of the conventions still apply. It is important that you consult your supervisor for the specific requirements of your department and institution. 2. THE PROPOSAL Before you are allowed to do your research in masters' and PhD levels, you need to submit a research proposal to your department or the to the professor whom you have chosen as your supervisor. Sometimes more than one copies of the research "proposal" should be submitted. Your department will tell you how many copies you are supposed to submit. A research proposal is a plan you suggest for your research. It can serve as a rough draft of your final research report. Therefore, you can save time and effort if you use the same format for the proposal as you will ultimately use in the final report. The research proposal will answer the questions that any pedantic cynical professor might ask when you first say that you have a question or questions that you want to address in a research project: 1) What are the research questions, hypotheses, variables? 2) What has already been done to answer the questions? 3) What evidence do you expect to gather to answer the question(s)?



4) Where or from what subjects (or texts or objects) do you expect to collect data? How? How will you analyze the data you collect? 5) What do you expect the results to be? Exactly how will the results you obtain address the question? 6) What wider relevance (or restricted relevance) does the study have? Are there any suggestions for further research? 7) Where can the related literature be found? 8) If new materials, tests, or instruments are proposed, what does a sample look like? 9) What are the limitations of your research project? This list is formidable. If you prepare the proposal for anyone other than yourself, the first thing to do is to inquire whether there is a set format that you should follow. You can check with your department, university or library to find if your university gives graduate students a detailed outline for theses and dissertation proposals. Some universities ask for no more than three double-spaced pages outlining the research plan. Some others, may ask you to give not only an extensive description of the study, but a list of relevant course work and a detailed timetable for completion of the project. Whether the format is open or extremely detailed, the same questions will need to be answered. The major sections of a research proposal are listed here: I. Introduction The introduction does three things: (a) states the purpose of your research project, (b) describes the design of your research project, and (c) justifies how your research project is significant. II. Review of the related literature The literature review does at least three things: (a) overviews the background of your research project, (b) highlights the research lag or gap in the literature that needs attention, and (c) leads to your statement of the problem and research question(s). III. Statement of the problem Building upon your literature review, you will state what the specific problem that you want to address in your research study is. IV. Research questions and hypotheses In this section of your proposal, you will list the questions, and 138


the research and null hypotheses that you will address in your research. Sometimes, research questions and hypotheses are placed under the "Statement of the problem" heading—as part of it. Your supervisor or university may require separate sections for each, so check this with your department or supervisor. V. Method In this section of your research proposal, you will describe the population, subjects, sampling method, apparatus and instruments, materials, procedure, and data collection and analysis techniques. The timetable of your research project will also be discussed here. In brief, this section will show how your are going to do your research. Each one of the elements of the method section must be defined in a separate paragraph—and preferably under separate sub-headings. VI. Definition of key terms and concepts In this section of the proposal, you will tell the reader how you are going to define the technical terms that apply to your research. For example, if your research focuses on the "effects of stress on language proficiency," you need to define the terms "stress" and "proficiency." Operational definitions should be provided for each term. VII. (De)limitations of the study In this section, you will outline the limits of your study for the reader. This can be anything, from the specific models that you use in your study (e.g., Bachman's 1990 CLA model) to the limitations you impose on sampling, population, etc. VIII. References You will provide a list of the references that you have cited in your literature review (section II). Some supervisors may want you to provide additional references that you will be using. Some of them may even ask for annotated bibliographies. IX. Appendices You will append any material (tests, questionnaires, etc.) that you will be using in your research project to your proposal—if the department or your supervisor asks for them.



The different sections of the research proposal will be converted into parts of the research report or the thesis/dissertation after the completion of the study: Sections I, III, IV, VI, and VII will be placed in chapter one of the thesis or dissertation; section II will comprise the second chapter of the thesis or dissertation; section V will make up chapter three of the thesis or dissertation; Chapter four of the thesis or dissertation will present the findings and discuss the results of the research study; and, Chapter five of the thesis or dissertation will (a) discuss the conclusions of the research study and (b) make suggestions for further research. 3. STRUCTURE OF A THESIS/DISSERTATION The main differences between theses/dissertations and the research report discussed in chapter eight are highlighted below: 1) Additional preliminary pages are required for a thesis. These include acknowledgments, approval page, table of contents, list of tables and figures, etc. 2) The abstract for a thesis is usually longer than that of a research report or a paper. It may include more than one paragraph. 3) The different sections of the thesis (introduction, method, results etc.) are usually presented as separate chapters (with different short titles), each starting on a new page. In a thesis the introduction is labeled (unlike an article). 4) The tables and figures are usually presented as part of the results section, integrated with the running text, as you would see in a published journal article or a book. 5) Different heading styles are permissible, particularly where they aid presentation and readability. This includes the use of different fonts and type faces (italics, bold, etc.) that are not usually part of strict APA style. Names of journals and books are italicized rather than being underlined. 6) Italics can be used throughout the thesis or dissertation wherever it is necessary to underline (e.g., in the reference list for journal titles, book titles, etc.). Check this with your supervisor or department. 7) Single spacing can be used where necessary in a thesis to improve presentation. This includes titles, headings, quotations, tables and references (however, keep the double spacing between items on your reference list to keep different sources you used in your study apart). 140


8) Hanging or dangling indentation is used in the reference list. The space between different entries of the list is doubled. There are three distinct parts to a thesis or dissertation: (a) the front matter, (b) the body, and (c) the back matter. The front matter includes: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

the "Title" page the "Approval" page the "Acknowledgments" page the "Table of contents" page(s) the "List of tables" page(s) the "List of figures" page(s) the "Abstract" page(s) (one or two pages, check with your supervisor)

The approval page lists the names of the members of the thesis or dissertation committee and provides a leading line for the signature of each of them. It usually begins with a short paragraph of approval (See figure 2 below). The abstract may be longer than one paragraph. The first paragraph is not indented, but the other paragraphs may be indented. Check with your supervisor or department. The body of a thesis or dissertation normally consists of five chapters: Chapter One: Chapter Two: Chapter Three: Chapter Four: Chapter Five:

Preliminaries Review of the literature Method Results and discussion Conclusion

The back matter of a thesis or dissertation includes the list of "references" and the "appendices." In Iran, most universities require a Persian "Approval" page and a Persian "Abstract" page at the end of a thesis or a dissertation that an EFL graduate student submits to the English department. Check this with your department or supervisor to see if these additional Persian pages are required or not. The following figures illustrate the typical appearances of the pages of the front matter of a thesis or dissertation. THE THESIS


Torqabah University College of Psychology


by Hasan Taghavi Aliabadi

Supervisor: Dr. X. Ravankav Reader: Dr. J. Ravangard

Thesis submitted to the Graduate Studies Office in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MA in Psychoanalysis

September, 1921

Figure 1. Thesis title page 142


IN THE NAME OF GOD We hereby certify that we have read this thesis written by Hasan Taghavi Aliabadi, entitled Perceived control of states and wellbeing, and that it is satisfactory in scope and quality as a thesis for the degree of MA in Psychoanalysis. Dr. X. Ravankav (Supervisor)


Dr. J. Ravangard (Reader)


Dr. A. Ravanparish (Reader)


Dr. R. Pishgou (Internal Examiner)


Dr. P. Froidzade (Internal Examiner)


Dr. M. Ravanbin (External Examiner)


Dr. Z. Ravanjou (External Examiner)


September, 1921 II

Figure 2. Thesis approval page THE THESIS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to many people who have contributed to the preparation of this thesis. First of all, I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to my supervisor Dr. X. Ravankav whose help and support were manifested in more ways than I can say without writing a whole other thesis on that subject. I also acknowledge the cooperation of Dr. J. Ravangard who read the thesis and provided me with useful comments which enabled me to convert turgid prose into readable English. Most of the materials used in chapter two of this thesis have been provided by Dr. P. Froidzade. I am also grateful to the students who responded to the questionnaires with patience. I am also indebted to my friends, Mahdi Songhori and Reza Aliabad-e-Katooli who proofread the manuscript and made corrections where needed.


Figure 3. Thesis acknowledgements page 144








Table of contents


List of tables


List of figures


Abstract Chapter 1: Preliminaries Introduction


Statement of the problem


Questions and hypotheses


Definition of key terms and concepts


Delimitations of the study


Final remarks


Chapter 2: Review of the literature The eighteenth century


The early psychoanalysts



... IV

Figure 4. Thesis table of contents THE THESIS


LIST OF TABLES Page Chapter 3 Subject frequency


Reliability analysis of PCOISS


Validity analysis of PCOISS


Reliability analysis of GEFT


Validity analysis of GEFT

88 91

Chapter 4 ANOVA for group 1 PCOISS


ANOVA for group 2 PCOISS


ANOVA for group 3 PCOISS


ANOVA for group 4 PCOISS


ANOVA for group 1 GEFT


ANOVA for group 2 GEFT


ANOVA for group 3 GEFT


ANOVA for group 4 GEFT





Figure 5. Thesis list of tables 146


LIST OF FIGURES Page Chapter 3 Pie chart for subject distribution


Reaction time scatter plot 1


Reaction time scatter plot 2


Reaction time scatter plot 3


Reaction time scatter plot 4


Reaction time scatter plot 5


Chapter 4 Bar graph for subject group 1


Bar graph for subject group 2


Bar graph for subject group 3


Bar graph for subject group 4





Figure 6. Thesis list of figures THE THESIS


ABSTRACT Recent studies suggest that perceived control of the emotional impact of a stressful event may be just as important as the perception that control of the event is possible. This study explored the importance of perceived control of internal states in psychological wellbeing. The study used a general community sample (N=439). The subjects took both the Perceived Control of Internal States Scale (PCOISS) and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT). Scores on the PCOISS showed moderate, positive correlations with a number of wellbeing measures. Subjects' scores on the GEFT, used to identify Field Dependent (FD) and Field Independent (FI) subjects, were compared to their scores on PCIOSS. The results revealed that FD subjects, compared to FI subjects, were less able to control internal states. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the important role that perceived control plays in psychological wellbeing. The implications of the study are discussed. Suggestions for further research are also made.


Figure 7. Thesis abstract 148


4. FINAL REMARKS Remember that each section of the front matter in a thesis or dissertation should start on a new page. Observe the page numbers (centered page footers) in figures 1 through 6 above. As you see, roman numerals have been used for numbering the pages of the front matter. The body and back matter pages are normally numbered in accordance with APA style (Arabic numerals at the upper right corner of the page at a distance of 5 to 7 millimeters from the short title). To realize which points to observe in your thesis or dissertation, you can ask your supervisor to lend you a thesis or dissertation done by another student, one that your supervisor evaluates to be good. You can then follow the format of that thesis or dissertation. This minimizes the probability of errors and mistakes in your work.




American Psychological Association. (1994). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (4th ed.). New York: American Psychological Association. Hatch, E., & Lazaraton, A. (1991). The research manual: Design and statistics for applied linguistics. New York: Newbury House Publishers. Lehmann, I. J., & Mehrens, W. A. (Eds.). (1971). Educational research: Readings in focus. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc. Lester, J. D. (1995). Writing research papers: A complete guide (7th ed.). New York: Harper Collins College Publishers. Maxwell, J. A. (1996). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. London: SAGE Publications. Microsoft Corporation. (2004). Microsoft Encarta reference library [Computer Software]. Redmond, WA.: Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Corporation. (2004). Microsoft Word 2002 [Computer Software]. Redmond, WA.: Microsoft Corporation. Seliger, H. W., & Shohamy, E. (1989). Second language research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools. Basingstoke: Burgess Science Press. Van Dalen, D. B. (1973). Understanding educational research: An introduction (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.



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