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ANTHROPOMETRIC PRINCIPLES IN WORKSPACE AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN DEFINITION: The word ‘anthropometry’ means measurement of the human body. It is derived from the Greek words ‘anthropos’ (man) and ‘metron’ (measure). Anthropometric data are used in ergonomics to specify the physical dimensions of workspaces, equipment, equipment, furniture and clothing to ensure that physical mismatches between the dimensions of equipment and products and the corresponding user dimensions are avoided. DESIGNING FOR A POPULATION OF USERS Specify the user population (to a group of people sharing common ancestors, common occupations, occupations, common geographical locations or age groups.) and then to design to accommodate accommodate as wide a range of users as possible and acknowledge and allow for the inherent variability of the user population. SOURCES OF HUMAN VARIABILITY Biological anthropologists distinguish four types of human adaptation. Over many genetic changes may occur as a result of natural selection. Over the lifetimes, genetic changes course of a lifetime, organisms exhibit plasticity exhibit plasticity (literally (literally the capability of being acclimatisation, and over the moulded). Over the short term, organisms can exhibit acclimatisation, adaptation. Only the last two of these forms of very short term behavioural adaptation. adaptation are reversible. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHANGE IN BODY SIZE OF POPULATIONS Many studies indicate that better living l iving conditions are associated with larger body size. Thus, smallness in a population may be a plastic response to deprivation IMPLICATIONS FOR ERGONOMICS These findings have far-reaching implications for ergonomists attempting to design to accommodate a wide range of people. The structure of populations and their living conditions are changing in many parts of the world. This means that anthropometric data captured in the past may no longer be representative. When designing for international markets, then, each target country has to be considered separately. Anthropometry and its uses in ergonomics The approach of ergonomics is to consider product dimensions in human terms in view of the constraints placed on their design by body size variability ANTHROPOMETRIC SURVEYS Traditionally, measurements are made using manually operated instruments such as anthropometers and calipers. Automated or semi-automated systems have been developed eg: Whole-body scanners & stereophotogrammetry. Manually operated instruments (such as the ‘digital tape measure’) are used to capture the measurements according to a user-programmed protocol. World Health Organization recommends (WHO, 1995) that, if anthropometric data are to be used as reference standards, a minimum sample size of 200 individuals must be taken.

TYPES OF ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA Structural anthropometric data Structural anthropometric data are measurements of the bodily dimensions of subjects in fixed (static) positions. Measurements are made from one clearly identifiable anatomical landmark to another or to a fixed point. Limitations on the use of structural data Structural data may be used for design in situations where people are adopting static postures. Caution should be used when applying these data to design problems that involve movement, particularly skilled movement. Functional anthropometric data Functional anthropometric data are collected to describe the movement of a body part with respect to a fixed reference point. The size and shape of the workspace envelope depends on the degree of bodily constraint imposed on the operator. The size of the workspace envelope increases with the number of unconstrained joints. Generally speaking, fewer functional than structural anthropometric data are available. Newtonian anthropometric data Newtonian anthropometric data are used in mechanical analysis of the loads on the human body. The body is regarded as an assemblage of linked segments of known length and mass (sometimes expressed as a percentage of stature and body weight). Ranges of the appropriate angles to be subtended by adjacent links are also given to enable suitable ranges of working postures to be defined. This enables designers to specify those regions of the workspace in which displays and controls may be most optimally positioned. Newtonian data may be used to compare the load on the spine due to different lifting techniques. PRINCIPLES OF APPLIED ANTHROPOMETRY IN ERGONOMICS The normal distribution For design purposes, two key parameters of the normal distribution are the mean and the standard deviation. The mean is the sum of all the individual measurements divided by the number of measurements. It is a measure of central tendency. The standard deviation is calculated using the difference between each individual measurement and the mean. It is a measure of the degree of dispersion in the normal distribution. Thus, the value of the mean determines the position of the normal distribution along the x (horizontal) axis. The value of the standard deviation determines the shape of the normal distribution. The distribution of stature in a population exemplifies the statistical constraints on design. An important characteristic of the normal distribution is that it is symmetrical – as many observations lie above the mean as below it (or in terms of the figure, as many observations lie to the right of the mean as to the left). If a distribution is normally distributed, 50% of the scores (and thus the individuals from whom the scores were obtained) lie on either side of the mean.

Estimating the range The standard deviation contains information about the spread of scores in a sample. It is known, for a normal distribution, that approximately two-thirds of the observations in the population fall within one standard deviation above and below the mean. Using the standard deviation and the mean, estimates of stature can be calculated below which a specified percentage of the population will fall. The area under the normal curve at any point along the x -axis can be expressed in terms of the number of standard deviations from the mean. Using the mean and standard deviation of an anthropometric measurement and a knowledge of the area under the normal curve expressed as standard deviations from the mean, ranges of body size can be estimated that will encompass a greater and greater proportion of individuals in a population. Thus, given the mean and standard deviation of any anthropometric variable, a range of statures, girths, leg lengths, etc. can be computed within which a known percentage of the population will fall.

APPLYING STATISTICS TO DESIGN Statistical information about body size is not, in itself, directly applicable to a design problem. First, the designer has to analyse in what ways (if any) anthropometric mismatches might occur and then decide which anthropometric data might be appropriate to the problem. In other words, the designer has to develop some clear ideas about what constitutes an appropriate match between user and product dimensions. Next, a suitable percentile has to be chosen. In many design applications, mismatches occur only at one extreme (only very tall or very short people are affected, for example) and the solution is to select either a maximum or a minimum dimension. If the design accommodates people at the appropriate extreme of the anthropometric range, less-extreme people will be accommodated. MINIMUM DIMENSIONS A high percentile value of an appropriate anthropometric dimension is chosen. When a doorway, for example, sufficient head room for very tall people has to be provided and the 95th or 99th percentile (male) stature could be used to specify a minimum height. The doorway should be no lower than this minimum value and additional allowance would have to be made for the increase in stature caused by items of clothing such as the heels of shoes, protective headgear, etc. Seat breadth is also determined using a minimum dimension: the width of a seat must be no narrower than the largest hip width in the target population. Minimum dimensions are used to specify the placement of controls on machines, door handles, etc.

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TYPES OF ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA Structural anthropometric data Structural anthropometric data are measurements of the bodily dimensions of subjects in fixed (static) positions. Measurements are made from one clearly identifiable anatomical landmark to another or to a fixed point. Limitations on the use of structural data Structural data may be used for design in situations where people are adopting static postures. Caution should be used when applying these data to design problems that involve movement, particularly skilled movement. Functional anthropometric data Functional anthropometric data are collected to describe the movement of a body part with respect to a fixed reference point. The size and shape of the workspace envelope depends on the degree of bodily constraint imposed on the operator. The size of the workspace envelope increases with the number of unconstrained joints. Generally speaking, fewer functional than structural anthropometric data are available. Newtonian anthropometric data Newtonian anthropometric data are used in mechanical analysis of the loads on the human body. The body is regarded as an assemblage of linked segments of known length and mass (sometimes expressed as a percentage of stature and body weight). Ranges of the appropriate angles to be subtended by adjacent links are also given to enable suitable ranges of working postures to be defined. This enables designers to specify those regions of the workspace in which displays and controls may be most optimally positioned. Newtonian data may be used to compare the load on the spine due to different lifting techniques. PRINCIPLES OF APPLIED ANTHROPOMETRY IN ERGONOMICS The normal distribution For design purposes, two key parameters of the normal distribution are the mean and the standard deviation. The mean is the sum of all the individual measurements divided by the number of measurements. It is a measure of central tendency. The standard deviation is calculated using the difference between each individual measurement and the mean. It is a measure of the degree of dispersion in the normal distribution. Thus, the value of the mean determines the position of the normal distribution along the x (horizontal) axis. The value of the standard deviation determines the shape of the normal distribution. The distribution of stature in a population exemplifies the statistical constraints on design. An important characteristic of the normal distribution is that it is symmetrical – as many observations lie above the mean as below it (or in terms of the figure, as many observations lie to the right of the mean as to the left). If a distribution is normally distributed, 50% of the scores (and thus the individuals from whom the scores were obtained) lie on either side of the mean.

Estimating the range The standard deviation contains information about the spread of scores in a sample. It is known, for a normal distribution, that approximately two-thirds of the observations in the population fall within one standard deviation above and below the mean. Using the standard deviation and the mean, estimates of stature can be calculated below which a specified percentage of the population will fall. The area under the normal curve at any point along the x -axis can be expressed in terms of the number of standard deviations from the mean. Using the mean and standard deviation of an anthropometric measurement and a knowledge of the area under the normal curve expressed as standard deviations from the mean, ranges of body size can be estimated that will encompass a greater and greater proportion of individuals in a population. Thus, given the mean and standard deviation of any anthropometric variable, a range of statures, girths, leg lengths, etc. can be computed within which a known percentage of the population will fall.

APPLYING STATISTICS TO DESIGN Statistical information about body size is not, in itself, directly applicable to a design problem. First, the designer has to analyse in what ways (if any) anthropometric mismatches might occur and then decide which anthropometric data might be appropriate to the problem. In other words, the designer has to develop some clear ideas about what constitutes an appropriate match between user and product dimensions. Next, a suitable percentile has to be chosen. In many design applications, mismatches occur only at one extreme (only very tall or very short people are affected, for example) and the solution is to select either a maximum or a minimum dimension. If the design accommodates people at the appropriate extreme of the anthropometric range, less-extreme people will be accommodated. MINIMUM DIMENSIONS A high percentile value of an appropriate anthropometric dimension is chosen. When a doorway, for example, sufficient head room for very tall people has to be provided and the 95th or 99th percentile (male) stature could be used to specify a minimum height. The doorway should be no lower than this minimum value and additional allowance would have to be made for the increase in stature caused by items of clothing such as the heels of shoes, protective headgear, etc. Seat breadth is also determined using a minimum dimension: the width of a seat must be no narrower than the largest hip width in the target population. Minimum dimensions are used to specify the placement of controls on machines, door handles, etc.

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