# anthonyIM_07

September 5, 2017 | Author: Dhiwakar Sb | Category: Depreciation, Expense, Debits And Credits, Book Value, Taxes

#### Description

CHAPTER 7 LONG-LIVED NONMONETARY ASSETS AND THEIR AMORTIZATION Changes from Eleventh Edition Updated from Eleventh Edition. Approach Students find it difficult to accept the basic fact that deprecation is a process of writing off an asset’s cost, rather than a process that has something to do with asset valuation. (A great many business people have the same difficulty.) Instinctively, they think depreciation is related to some physical change in the asset, or to changes in its market value. Basically, this point is made only after repeated emphasis of it. Since the text summarizes APB Opinion No. 17 on goodwill, FASB Statement No. 2 on research and development, FASB Statement No. 13 on leases, FASB Statement No. 86 on computer software, and FASB Statement No 142 on goodwill and other intangible assets, instructors may wish to refer to this material for additional background. Cases Stern Corporation (B) is a straightforward problem in analyzing fixed asset transactions. Joan Holtz (C) describes several debatable items that might or might not be included in the asset amounts. Stafford Press describes a series of transactions related to amounts to be capitalized. The case probably cannot be covered in one session and, therefore, either the case should be used for two days or the instructor should assign only about half the transactions.

Problems Problem 7-1 With units-of-production depreciation, one finds the cost of one production unit, and then multiplies this by the units used in a year to determine the year’s depreciation: Cost of one unit 

Years 1 2 3 4 5 6

Units 930,000 800,000 580,000 500,000 415,000 300,000 3,525,000

x x x x x x x

\$.08 \$.08 .08 .08 .08 .08 .08

\$300,000 - \$18,000  \$.08 3,525,000

= = = = = = =

Units of Production Depreciation \$ 74,400 64,000 46,400 40,000 33,200 24,000 \$282,000

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SYD Charge \$80,571 67,143 53,714 40,286 26,857 13,429 282,000

(6/21 x \$282,000) (5/21 x 282,000) (4/21 x 282,000) (3/21 x 282,000) (2/21 x 282,000) (1/21 x 282,000)

Accounting: Text and Cases 12e – Instructor’s Manual

Anthony/Hawkins/Merchant

Problem 7-2 Equipment ID #103

Dr. Cash.................................................................................................................................................................................... 14,300 Accumulated Depreciation................................................................................................................................................... 59,755* Cr. Equipment................................................................................................................................................................. 70,300 Gain on Sale of Equipment........................................................................................................................................ 3,755 *(70,300 / 10) x 8 ½ years = \$59,755.

Equipment ID #415

Dr. Cash.................................................................................................................................................................................... 63,000 Accumulated Deprecation.................................................................................................................................................... 26,640* Loss on Sale of Equipment.................................................................................................................................................. 6,360 Cr. Equipment................................................................................................................................................................. 96,000 *Year 1, (\$96,000 x 30%)(½ year) = \$14,400. *Year 2, (\$81,600 x 30%)(½ year) = 12,240.

Equipment ID #573

Dr. Cash.................................................................................................................................................................................... 38,000 Accumulated Depreciation................................................................................................................................................... 49,500* Loss on Sale of Equipment.................................................................................................................................................. 7,000 Cr. Equipment................................................................................................................................................................. 94,500 *\$94,500 x 11/21 = \$49,500.

Problem 7-3

Automobile (new)........................................................................................................................................................................... 9,900 Accumulated Depreciation (old)..................................................................................................................................................... 14,500 Automobile (old)...................................................................................................................................................................... 16,000 Cash.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8,400 (No gain or loss was involved, because the two assets were of like kind.) Furniture.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8,850 Accumulated Depreciation.............................................................................................................................................................. 13,610 Loss on Disposal of Truck............................................................................................................................................................... 750 Truck......................................................................................................................................................................................... 19,860 Cash.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3,350 Problem 7-4

(1) Land...................................................................................................................................................................................... 80,600 Cash................................................................................................................................................................................ 80,600

(2) Building................................................................................................................................................................................ 138,000 Common Stock............................................................................................................................................................... 90,000 Notes Payable................................................................................................................................................................. 16,000 Cash................................................................................................................................................................................ 32,000

(3) Desks and Chairs (80% x \$8,700)......................................................................................................................................... 6,960 Bookcases (80% x \$2,200).................................................................................................................................................... 1,760 Filing Cabinets (80% x \$1,100)............................................................................................................................................ 880 Cash................................................................................................................................................................................ 9,600

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Chapter 7

The above does not treat the equipment purchase as a fortunate acquisition. An argument can be made to record the equipment as a fortunate acquisition, giving rise to this entry instead: Desks and Chairs...................................................................................................................................................... 8,700 Bookcases................................................................................................................................................................ 2,200 Filing Cabinets......................................................................................................................................................... 1,100 Cash................................................................................................................................................................... 9,600 Retained Earnings.............................................................................................................................................. 2,400 Problem 7-5

Depletable Assets Land................................................................................................................................................................................... \$ 21,700,000 Tests – successful .............................................................................................................................................................. 35,250 Tests – unsuccessful........................................................................................................................................................... 116,250 Permits............................................................................................................................................................................... 41,000 \$ 21,892,500 Salvage value..................................................................................................................................................................... (2,325,000) Net Cost............................................................................................................................................................................. \$19,567,500 Unit depletion = \$19,567,500/800,000 tons = \$24.46/ton. Depreciation year 1 = \$24.46 x 30,000 tons = \$733,800 Depreciation year 2 = \$24.46 x 70,000 tons = \$1,712,200 Depreciation year 3 = \$24.46 x 75,000 tons = \$1,834,500 Land Improvements \$387,500/10 years = \$38,750/year amortization. Amortization year 1 = \$38,750 Amortization year 2 = 38,750 Amortization year 3 = 38,750 Buildings \$271,250/10 years = \$27,125/year depreciation Deprecation year 1 = \$27,125 Deprecation year 2 = 27,125 Deprecation year 3 = 27,125 Machinery Depreciation year 1 = \$1,162,500 x 10/55 = \$211,364 Depreciation year 2 = \$1,162,500 x 9/55 = \$190,227 Depreciation year 3 = \$1,162,500 x 8/55 = \$169,091

Cases Case 7- 1: Stern Corporation (B)* Note: This case is updated from the Eleventh Edition. Approach This is a straightforward problem, designed for use in connection with study of the text. I find it useful to put T-accounts on the board or on a Vugraph and post entries to them as they are given. The account titles *

This teaching note was prepared by Robert N. Anthony. Copyright © Robert N. Anthony.

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Accounting: Text and Cases 12e – Instructor’s Manual

Anthony/Hawkins/Merchant

given in the balance sheet should be used. The case assumes individual unit depreciation. It may be desirable to ask at some point what the entries would be if composite or group depreciation were used. Comments on Questions Question 1 1.

2.

3.

(a)

(b)

4. 5.

6.

(a)

(b)

7.

Cash............................................................................................................................................................................. 3,866 Accumulated Depreciation, Factory Machinery .......................................................................................................... 27,367 Factory Machinery ................................................................................................................................................. 31,233 Tools Used (Expense) ................................................................................................................................................. 7,850 Tools 7,850 (Note the contrast between depreciation and a direct write-off.) Depreciation Expense.................................................................................................................................................. 278 Accumulated Depreciation, Automotive Equipment............................................................................................... 278 (The additional depreciation is 1/6 x .20 x \$8,354. Note that the half-year convention is not used. Note that if the depreciation incurred in 2006 is disregarded, the loss will be overstated.) Cash............................................................................................................................................................................. 2,336 Accumulated Depreciation, Automotive Equipment.................................................................................................... 5,458 Loss on Sale of Other Assets........................................................................................................................................ 560 Automotive Equipment........................................................................................................................................... 8,354 (There can be a discussion of the proper showing of the loss on the income statement.) Patent Amortization Expense....................................................................................................................................... 11,250 Patent...................................................................................................................................................................... 11,250 Cash............................................................................................................................................................................. 75 Accumulated Depreciation, Office Machines.............................................................................................................. 1,027 Gain on Sale of Other Assets.................................................................................................................................. 75 Office Machines...................................................................................................................................................... 1,027 (The gain is preferably combined with the loss on Item 3, with entries to a “Loss or Gain” account. It is shown separately here for clarity.) Depreciation Expense............................................................................................................................................. 37 Accumulated Depreciation............................................................................................................................... 37 (.75 x .10 x \$490) Cash ....................................................................................................................................................................... 80 Accumulated Depreciation, Furniture and Fixtures................................................................................................. 432 Furniture and Fixtures...................................................................................................................................... 490 Gain on Sale of Other Assets............................................................................................................................ 22 Depreciation Expense............................................................................................................................................. 398,779 Accumulated Depreciation, Building................................................................................................................ 48,105 Accumulated Depreciation, Factory Machinery............................................................................................... 330,935 Accumulated Depreciation, Furniture and Fixtures.......................................................................................... 5,599 Accumulated Depreciation, Automotive Equipment........................................................................................................................................................ 9,989 Accumulated Depreciation, Office Machines................................................................................................... 4,151

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Chapter 7

(Note that depreciation is calculated after the earlier entries have been recorded and that depreciation on factory machinery is not calculated on the \$85,000 of fully depreciated assets.)

Question 2

Accumulated Gross Depreciation Net Land........................................................................................................................................................................... \$ 186,563 \$ 186,563 Building..................................................................................................................................................................... 2,405,259 \$ 711,484 1,693,775 Factory machinery .................................................................................................................................................... 3,394,352 1,945,926 1,448,426 Furniture and fixtures ................................................................................................................................................ 55,994 45,604 10,390 Automotive equipment .............................................................................................................................................. 49,944 41,965 7,979 Office machines ........................................................................................................................................................ 41,507 31,129 10,378 Tools ......................................................................................................................................................................... 53,444 53,444 Patent......................................................................................................................................................................... 45,000 _________ 45,000 Total.................................................................................................................................................................... \$6,232,063 \$2,776,108 \$3,455,955 Case 7- 2: Joan Holtz (C)* Note: This case is unchanged from the Eleventh Edition. Approach This case brings up a wide variety of problems that arise in applying the general principle that the cost of an asset includes all the costs involved in acquiring it and getting it ready to perform that service for which it is intended. The case discussion should bring out the difficulty of resolving these problems, the fact that people will differ on how to resolve them leads to differences in accounting treatment, and the necessity for solving these problems in some practical way. It may be desirable to bring up the different objectives of income tax accounting and financial accounting. Since income tax accounting generally seeks to minimize current income, the motive generally is to charge off as much as possible as expense in the current year. Similarly, since some state taxes are based on the “value” of property, there are advantages in making this value as low as possible. In financial accounting, on the other hand, the presumed objective is to present the situation fairly, and there often are strong practical reasons for making current income high, which is accomplished by capitalizing costs and charging them off against future periods. Although there is no absolute requirement that a given item be treated the same way for tax purposes as it is treated for book purposes, it is reasonable to expect that the tax examiner will raise questions about expensing for tax purposes an item that the company has decided should be capitalized for book purposes. Thus, there is a conflict of objectives, and companies often have interesting discussions of where, on balance, is the best place to draw the line. Comments on Questions Question 1 I find it useful to approach this problem as if the new wing were being constructed by an outside firm. Under these circumstances, the price would include all the items listed except (g) mistakes made during construction, and (i) losses not covered by insurance. (Even these would be included under certain circumstances.) The contractor would charge for interest, either explicitly, or as part of its fee. An outside *

This teaching note was prepared by Robert N. Anthony. Copyright © Robert N. Anthony.

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Accounting: Text and Cases 12e – Instructor’s Manual

Anthony/Hawkins/Merchant

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Chapter 7

The trade-in problem depends on whether the old machine was similar to the new one. If not, the issue should be solved by referring to the market value of the old machine, if such can be established. The difference between book value and market value is a gain on disposal of the old machine. If the machines are similar, the net book value of the old is added to the cash consideration given for the new to establish the cost of the new; no gain is recorded. Question 4 In its Statement No. 2 on Research and Development, the FASB espoused a general philosophy that costs should be expensed if related future revenue is uncertain, and that this applies to a whole class of costs, such as research and development, even though some items in this class are almost certain to produce revenue (such as development costs on a product whose future profitability has been confirmed by market tests). If the same reasoning is applied to applications engineering costs, these costs should be expensed. To do this, however, results in the peculiar effect mentioned in the question, namely, that profits do not go up to match increased sales volume. Moreover, from the customer’s standpoint, these services are “bundled” with the computer to constitute a working system; the customer is buying this system, not just the computer. Thus, if the system is leased, these costs should be capitalized along with the hardware costs. The argument against capitalization is that the lease revenue is uncertain. Although past experience has shown that computers are leased for four years, if the company produces a lemon, the machines will be returned in a year or two, and the profits will then turn out to have been overstated if the applications engineering costs are capitalized. Moreover, expensing the costs as incurred better reflects the cash flows of the business. Question 5 This item illustrates the ambiguity firms face when they attempt to interpret standards and apply them to actual situations. It is not simply “black or white.” Considerable judgment is required to interpret and apply the standard, especially when firms encounter situations different from those with which they have typically dealt. The result can be a dilemma. Conceptually, one alternative may seem more appropriate. Practically, however, it may be difficult to accomplish. Some firms may opt for the “easier” solution as being the most practical, especially when the differences do not have a material effect on the financial statements. Others may make the extra effort to implement the alternative they consider conceptually more appropriate. The costs that are capitalized for fixed assets are “all expenditures that are necessary to make the asset ready for its intended use.” In the situation described in item 6, the intended use is to manufacture product at the 65 ppm quality standard (or better) .1 Thus, conceptually, it would be reasonable for the electronics component manufacturer to capitalize all of the costs required to enable the machine to meet the 65 ppm quality standard. However, the firm faced a dilemma when one of its major customers, eager for the functionality of the new component, agreed to purchase product that did not quite meet the 65 ppm quality standard. Thus, on one hand, when the machine begins to generate revenue, the manufacturer must match the related costs— including depreciation which is based on the cost of the machine—with the revenue generated. On the other hand, when the machine begins to generate revenue, the complete cost of the machine—that is, the complete cost required to achieve the 65 ppm standard—is not known; hence, the amount of depreciation to charge is not known. 1

It is becoming increasingly common for customers to impose quality standards on their suppliers, or to require suppliers to meet industry defined standards.

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Accounting: Text and Cases 12e – Instructor’s Manual

Anthony/Hawkins/Merchant

The journal entry recording this disposal would be: Cash.................................................................................................................................................................................... 149,860

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Under this alternative, any further expenditures required to meet the 65 ppm standard would simply be expensed. This teaching note was prepared by Robert N. Anthony. Copyright © Robert N. Anthony.

*

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Chapter 7

Accumulated Depreciation (bldgs.)........................................................................................................................ 199,056 Loss on Sale of Fixed Assets.................................................................................................................................. 35,182 Land.................................................................................................................................................................. 34,034 Buildings........................................................................................................................................................... 350,064

2.

3.

4.

The \$35,182 is a “plug” figure; that is, it is determined as a result of the following sequence: (1) the cost of the old land and building must be removed from the books (credits); (2) the accumulated depreciation on the building must also be removed (debit); (3) the cash consideration must be recorded (debit); (4) the balancing debit is \$35,182, representing the difference between the net book value of the assets disposed of and the cash proceeds from the disposal. Although extraordinary items have not yet been covered in the text, it should be made clear that such gains or losses on disposal of fixed assets are not extraordinary items. The entry for this disposal is completely analogous to the previous one, except in this instance there is a gain instead of a loss: Cash....................................................................................................................................................................... 35,200 Accumulated Depreciation (eqpt.) ......................................................................................................................... 40,890 Equipment......................................................................................................................................................... 73,645 Gain on Sale of Fixed Assets............................................................................................................................. 2,445 The purchase price should probably be recorded at \$109,868, although the company’s policy may be to treat all cash discounts separately, in which case the cost would be \$112,110. The \$450 delivery cost should be capitalized, as should installation costs. The question on the latter is the appropriate hourly rate; I feel the 60 hours should be costed at \$27.15, the retail billing rate less profit, for a total of \$1,629. Others will argue for the \$15 rate, or \$900. One possible entry therefore is: Equipment (109,868 + 450 + 1,629)...................................................................................................................... 111,947 Cash (possibly other items)............................................................................................................................... 111,947 The company paid \$140,000 to purchase the land for the new plant. Land....................................................................................................................................................................... 140,000 Cash .................................................................................................................................................................. 140,000 As stated in the text, the cost of land includes the cost of tearing down existing structures so as to make the land ready for its intended use. Land....................................................................................................................................................................... 21,235 Cash .................................................................................................................................................................. 21,235 In either case, the drainage installation is an additional cost that should be capitalized, as follows: Land....................................................................................................................................................................... 13,950 Cash .................................................................................................................................................................. 13,950 STAFFORD PRESS Condensed Balance Sheet (Revised to Reflect Move)

Assets Liabilities and Owner’s Equity Current assets: Current liabilities............................................................ \$ 160,223 Cash.................................................................................................................................................................................. \$ 121,912 Long-term liabilities....................................................... 425,000 Other current assets........................................................................................................................................................... 251,790 Common stock................................................................ 400,000 Total current Assets........................................................................................................................................................ 373,702 Retained earnings........................................................... 310,857 Plant and equipment:............................................................................................................................................................ Land.................................................................................................................................................................................. 175,185 9

Accounting: Text and Cases 12e – Instructor’s Manual

Anthony/Hawkins/Merchant

Buildings ....................................................................................................................................................................................... \$561,000 Less accumulated........................................................................................................................................................................ Depreciation............................................................................................................................................................................ 0 561,000 Equipment......................................................................................................................................................................................... 319,025 Less: accumulated depreciation ................................................................................................................................................................................... 132,832 186,193 _________ Total liabilities and Total assets........................................................................................................................................................................................ \$1,296,080 owners’ equity.......................................................................... \$1,296,080 5.

The item was intentionally stated ambiguously in the case so that the issue of similar (‘‘likekind”) trade-ins can be discussed. If the equipment traded in was similar, then the journal entry is constructed so that no gain or loss on disposal is recorded: Equipment (new) (20,830 + 6,800)..................................................................................................................................... 27,630 Accumulated Depreciation (old)......................................................................................................................................... 5,200 Cash............................................................................................................................................................................... 20,830 Equipment (old)............................................................................................................................................................. 12,000 On the other hand, if it is assumed that the trade-in was not similar, the entry is as follows: Equipment (new) (20,830 + 6,050)..................................................................................................................................... 26,880 Accumulated Depreciation (old)......................................................................................................................................... 5,200 Loss on Sale of Fixed Assets.............................................................................................................................................. 750 Cash............................................................................................................................................................................... 20,830 Equipment (old)............................................................................................................................................................. 12,000 Note that in either case the nominal trade-in allowance \$7,200 is irrelevant. In the second treatment, the \$750 loss is the difference between the fair value of the trade-in, \$6,050, and its \$6,800 net book value.

6.

This is straightforward as given:............................................................................................................................................. Buildings............................................................................................................................................................................ 561,000 Cash............................................................................................................................................................................... 136,000 Mortgage Payable.......................................................................................................................................................... 425,000

7.

Some might argue that these moving costs should be capitalized, on the grounds that there are future benefits associated with the move (that was the owner’s motivation in moving). In response, I ask, “How would you feel if the move had been made out of necessity--say, the old property had been condemned or taken by eminent domain?” The response in that case usually is that the moving costs should not be capitalized. Since the benefits are speculative and (more importantly), since changing the location of equipment through a move does not alter its future productive capacity or useful life, I see no strong argument for capitalization. Thus, the entry would be (again using \$27.15 per hour for the workers’ time, consistent with item 3): Moving Expense (8,440 + 3,394)...................................................................................................................................... 11,834 Cash............................................................................................................................................................................... 11,834 (There would be labor, over and above this 125 hours, charged to moving expense, but the total number of workers’ hours devoted to the move is not given.)

8.

The repair of the damage during the move has not improved the equipment so as to constitute a betterment; thus it is expensed: Maintenance (or Moving) Expense..................................................................................................................................... 3,220 Cash................................................................................................................................................................................. 3,220 The decrease in salvage value, \$660, could be expensed immediately with an entry such as:

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