André Bazin: Selected Writings 1943–1958 - Note on the Texts

June 24, 2018 | Author: Timothy Barnard | Category: Translations, North American Free Trade Agreement, Copyright, Trans Pacific Partnership, Proofreading
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Descrição: Translator’s Note on the Texts https://www.caboosebooks.net/andre-bazin-selected-writings...

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@ Kdtl dk tfl ]lxts ]indtfy H`rk`rm

@kmré H`zik w`s hdrk ik @pric ����. ]fl puhcisflr is prdum td rlcl`sl tfl prlslkt vdcunl ` glw wlljs hlgdrl tfl fukmrlmtf `kki vlrs`ry dg fis hirtf, hir tf, ik tfl fdpl fdp l tf`t it wicc hrike rlklwlm iktlrlst ik fis wdrj. ]fis vdcunl is `csd `ppl`rike tfl yl`r dg tfl sixtiltf `kkivlrs`ry dg H`zik’s ml`tf `t tfl `el dg gdrty ik Kdvlnhlr ����. Ufiaflvlr siml dg tfis c`ttlr m`tl l`af dg us w`s hdrk dk, wl a`k nl`surl dur civls `e`ikst tfl tr`eia hrlvity `km `stdkisfike prdmuativity dg tfis ndst eilm cigl, murike wfiaf H`zik wrdtl dvlr �,��� `rtiacls ik tfl hrilg ffllk-yl`r ‖grdn tfl Cihlr`tidk td tfl Kduvlccl W`eul’ plridm ik wfiaf fl wdrjlm. Ylt mlspitl hlike hy g`r tfl ndst inpdrt`kt, prdmuativl `km stinuc`tike Grlkaf ffcn aritia dg fis elklr`tidk, H`zik f`s sufllrlm ` g`tl ik ml`tf `s arulc `s fis prln`turl ml`tf itslcg. @p`rt grdn fis g`ndus prdtéeé Gr`kådis ]rufl`ut, ]rufl`ut, wfd `h`kmdklm aritiaisn gdr ffcnn`jike `km wfd milm tr`eia`ccy yduke ik turk, `km fis ‖plrsdk`c e`iks`ylr’ Éria Xdfnlr, dkl wducm hl f`rm prlsslm td imlktigy n`ky `utfdrs dk wfdn H`zik f`s f`m ` (pdsitivl) ik﬈ulkal dvlr tfl adursl dg tfl kdw slvlr`c elklr`tidks dg Grlkaf ffcn aritias td f`vl pr`atislm tfl tr`ml sikal fis ml`tf. Kdt td nlktidk nlktid k fis st`tus `s ` rlcia witfdut rlclv`kal td tdm`y’s mlh`tls ik ffcn tfldry tfldry.. ]fis is surlcy mul ik p`rt td tfl lvlk wdrsl g`tl dg fis writikes. Ik Grlkaf, kd aritia`c lmitidk dg `ky p`rt dg fis wdrj lxists dr f`s lvlr lxistlm. ]fl ffrst dg tfl gdur scin vdcunls adnprisike fis hlst-jkdwk puhcia`tidk, ` adcclatidk dg sixty-gdur `rtiacls grdn

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lvlry st`el dg fis a`rllr witf tfl titcl  Pu  Pu’’lst-al qul cl aikén`4, w`s puhcisflm ukmlr fis dwk suplrvisidk tfl ndktf dg fis ml`tf, witf tfl ffk`c vdcunl `ppl`rike gdur yl`rs c`tlr ukmlr tfl suplrvisidk dg O`aquls Xivlttl. H`zik `km fis lmitdrs tddj tfl dppdrtukity td rlvisl `km `hrimel fis wdrj `km td ffx ` glw”hut g`r grdn `cc”dg tfl lclnlkt`ry nist`jls gdukm ik tfl drieik`c puhcia`tidks, hut kd aritia`c adnnlkt`ry dr lxpc`k`tdry kdtls f`vl lvlr hllk prdvimlm. Ik tfl ffy-six yl`rs sikal tfis adcclatidk w`s adnpcltlm, kd aritia`c lmitidk f`s hllk issulm, mlspitl rleuc`r s`cls `s ` adursl tlxt. Ik g`at, ` sfdrt tfirtllk yl`rs `lr tfl gdurtf `km ffk`c vdcunl  w`s issu issulm lm tfl adccl adcclatidk atidk sufllrlm tfl iekdn iekdniky iky dg hli hlike ke sc`sf sc`sflm lm `cndst ik f`cg `km rlmualm td ` sikecl vdcunl”lvlk `s tfl puhcisflr sticc ac`ins tfl riefts td tlxts ik tfl adcclatidk wfiaf it f`s kdt jlpt ik prikt gdr dvlr gdrty yl`rs. It is ik tfis nutic`tlm gdrn tf`t tfl hddj is `v`ic`hcl tdm`y, ` vdcunl c`ajike jly lss`ys wfiaf f`vl kdw p`sslm iktd virtu`c dhcividk ik Grlkaf. Qdnl dg tfdsl lss`ys a`k hl gdukm ik tr`ksc`tidk ik tfl prlslkt vdcunl. Pu  Pu’’lst-al qul cl cl aikén`4 aikén`4 is `aadnp`kilm ik Grlkaf hy ` sn`cc f`kmguc dg pdstfunduscy lmitlm adcclatidks dk Ol`k Xlkdir, Drsdk Ulccls `km Af`rcil Af`pcik, `cdke witf tfrll nisalcc`kils. Kdkl f`s `ky sdrt dg adnnlkt`ry hlydkm ` hrilg prlg`al, `km tfly mim kdt hleik td `ppl`r uktic tfirtllk yl`rs `lr H`zik’s ml`tf. Ik n`ky a`sls, tfl tlxts `ppl`rike ik tflsl lmitidks, hleikkike witf tfdsl prlp`rlm hy H`zik hlgdrl fis ml`tf gdr ikacusidk ik Pu’  Pu’lst-al lst-al qul cl aikén`4 , wlrl `hrimelm dr rlvislm vlrsidks dg wf`t fl drieik`ccy wrdtl. Dlk tflsl drieik`c  vlrsidkss f`vl g`cclk  vlrsidk g` cclk iktd dhcivid dhcividkk ik i k Grlkaf, `cdkesim `c dkesimll kunlrdu k unlrduss siekiffa`kt tlxts wfiaf f`vl klvlr hllk rlpriktlm dr wlrl aut grdn  Pu’lst-al  Pu’ lst-al qul cl aikén`4 ik ����. Nuaf dg H`zik’s vdcunikdus dutput w`s lpflnlr`c ik fis dwk cigltinl: it w`s dkcy `lr H`zik’s ml`tf `km hy rl`mike  Pu’  Pu’lstlst-al al  qul cl aikén`4 tf`t Ol`k-Cua Edm`rm, gdr lx`npcl, misadvlrlm (`km n`rvlcclm `t) tfl jly l`rcy tlxts, ikacumlm flrl, ‖Dktdcdey dg tfl Rfdtder`pfia In`el’ (����) `km ‖]fl Qailkal Qailk al Gicn? Af`kal Af`ka l Hl`uty’ (����)”`km tflk dkcy ik vlrsidks mifllrlkt grdn tfl drieik`c. ]fl f`ccn`rj dg tfl prlslkt lmitidk is tf`t it ikacumls dkcy tfl drieik`c vlrsidks dg H`zik’s tlxts, `s tfly wlrl ffrst puhcisflm `km hlgdrl `ky rlvisidk dr `hrimelnlkt hy tfl `utfdr dr fis pdstfundus

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lmitdrs. Ndst dg tfl lss`ys ik tfis vdcunl `rl `ppl`rike flrl ik tfis drieik`c vlrsidk gdr tfl ffrst tinl sikal tflir ikiti`c puhcia`tidk”gdr tfl ffrst tinl kdt dkcy ik Lkecisf hut `csd, ik kunlrdus ikst`kals `km td tfl hlst dg tfl tr`ksc`tdr’s jkdwclmel, ik Grlkaf dr `ky dtflr c`keu`el. @ctfduef ik alrt`ik a`sls tfl c`tlr rlvisidks ik Grlkaf  wlrl `reu`hcy nikdr nikdr,, ik dtflrs tfis is n`kiglstcy kdt tfl a`sl, `km hy tfl tr`ksc`tdr’s adukt dkcy ffvl dg tfl twlkty-six tlxts ikacumlm flrl f`vl lvlr hllk rlpriktlm ik Grlkaf ik tflir adnpcltl, drieik`c gdrn (dkl dg tflsl ffvl, ‖Kd Qaript gdr Ndksilur Fucdt’, sufllrlm ` af`kel dg titcl). ]fl tlxts ik tfl prlslkt vdcunl `rl tfus tfl  vlrsidks  vlrsi dks dg H`zi H`zik’s k’s wri writike tikess wfia wfiaff fis adkt adktlnp lnpdr`ri dr`rils ls rl`m `km misausslm. @ky slridus `ppr`is`c dg H`zik’s vilws kllms td t`jl tflsl drieik`c vlrsidks iktd `aadukt. Dg tfl dtflr twlkty-dkl tlxts, slvlr`c `rl kdt rl`micy `v`ic`hcl, f`vike klvlr hllk rlpriktlm ik Grlkaf dr f`vike hllk witfmr`wk grdn tfl aurrlkt lmitidk dg  Pu  Pu’’lst-al qul cl aikén`4 H`zik nlrelm, aut mdwk `km rlvislm gdur dg tflsl tlxts ik ���� td arl`tl twd adnpdsitl tlxts: tfl gdur drieik`cs `rl puhcisflm flrl, rlpriktlm `km tr`ksc`tlm ik tfis gdrn gdr tfl ffrst tinl (`p`rt grdn tfl ���� puhcia`tidk hy tfl prlslkt tr`ksc`tdr dg tfl tlxt ‖Méadup`el’). Hihcider`pfia`c ikgdrn`tidk gdr l`af tlxt a`k hl gdukm `t tfl lkm dg l`af af`ptlr, eivike tfl ikiti`c titcl `km tfl m`tl `km pc`al dg puhcia`tidk `cdke witf ikgdrn`tidk `hdut c`tlr rlpriktikes ik Grlkaf `km ` hrilg ikmia`tidk dg wfltflr `km td wf`t lxtlkt tfl tlxt tr`ksc`tlm flrl mifllrs grdn tflsl c`tlr rlpriktikes. ]fis lmitidk ikadrpdr`tls, ik dkl gdrn dr `kdtflr, lvlry tlxt ikacumlm ik tfl tr`ksc`tdr’s ���� lmitidk dg Uf`t is Aikln`4 ]flsl tlxts wlrl rlvislm gdr rlpuhcia`tidk flrl, ik p`rt td adkgdrn td tfl klw dre`kisike prikaipcl dg usike dkcy drieik`c vlrsidks dg tfl tlxts `km ik p`rt sinpcy td rlvisit tfl tr`ksc`tidk td pdcisf tfl prdsl, a`st dut E`cciaisns `km `wjw`rm turks dg pfr`sl `km ffx tr`ksc`tidk lrrdrs. Gdr tf`t rl`sdk `kydkl adnp`rike tfl vlrsidk dg `k lss`y ik tfl prlslkt lmitidk witf tfl vlrsidk ikacumlm ik tfl ���� lmitidk dg Uf`t is Aikln`4 sfducm hy kd nl`ks `ssunl tf`t lvlry mifllrlkal hltwllk tfln is tfl rlsuct dg c`tlr af`kels n`ml td H`zik’s tlxt ik Grlkaf hy its `utfdr dr fis pdstfundus lmitdrs. Acdsl lx`nik`tidk dg tfl rlsplativl vlrsidks ik Grlkaf is rlquirlm td n`jl suaf ` mltlrnik`tidk.

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@ kunhlr dg dtflr nikdr iktlrvlktidks ik H`zik’s tlxts sfducm hl kdtlm flrl, lsplai`ccy `s tfly `rl gdr tfl ndst p`rt ikvisihcl td tfl rl`mlr. H`zik, ik tfl f`stl witf wfiaf fl wrdtl `s ` wdrjike odurk`cist `km kd mduht witf fis f`km furryike td jllp up witf tfl iml`s rukkike tfrduef fis fl`m, r`rlcy p`im nuaf `ttlktidk td tfikes suaf `s pukatu`tidk dr p`r`er`pf hrl`js `km r`rlcy ig lvlr f`m `k dppdrtukity td prddgrl`m fis wdrj. Ik `mmitidk, sdnl dg tfl odurk`cs fl wrdtl gdr wlrl ruminlkt`ry `fl`irs, witfdut tfl prdglssidk`c pr`atials `km cddj dg tdm`y’s plridmia`cs, `km dkl susplats tf`t n`ky dg tfl cittcl `kdn`cils gdukm ik tflsl drieik`c tlxts  wlrl mul td typists `km typlslttlrs wdrjike hlydkm fis adktrdc. ]fl tr`ksc`tdr f`s tfus t`jlk tfl cihlrty dg ikvisihcy adrrlatike nikdr typder`pfia`c lrrdrs, nissplccikes, lrrdrs ik m`tike ffcns `km tfl cijl `km dg hrl`jike sdnl lxtrlnlcy cdke p`r`er`pfs `s tfly `ppl`r ik tfl drieik`c lmitidks iktd ndrl n`k`el`hcl clketf gdr tfl rl`mlr. Ndrl slridus e`flls dk H`zik’s p`rt `rl kdtlm ik ` tr`ksc`tdr’s kdtl, sfducm it hl dg `ky v`cul td safdc`rs td jkdw, gdr lx`npcl, tf`t ik tfl lss`y ‖Méadup`el’ (tfl prikaip`c gdukm`tidk gdr tfl adnpdsitl tlxt ‖]fl Lvdcutidk dg Gicn C`keu`el’ C`keu`el’ dg ����) H`zik mim kdt jkdw ik wfiaf Qdvilt ffcn iadkia stdkl cidks g`nduscy risl up ik rlvdct (` nist`jl tf`t w`s kdt adrrlatlm ik ����). Dtflr c`psls ikvdcvike nlrl nisrlnlnhlrike dg ` p`rtiauc`r salkl ik ` ffcn elklr`ccy p`ss witfdut adnnlkt: rl`mlrs sfducm aflaj H`zik’s mlsariptidks `km `reunlkts `e`ikst tfl ffcns hlike misausslm. Uritike ffcn odurk`cisn gdr innlmi`tl adksunptidk h`aj ik ����s `km ��s Gr`kal, H`zik `km fis lmitdrs glct cittcl kllm td mdaunlkt fis rlglrlkals dr sdurals dr td prdviml `ky ndrl tf`k tfl Grlkaf rlcl`sl titcl dg tfl ffcns fl misaussls. Ik tfl prlslkt vdcunl, l`af ffcn’s mirlatdr is imlktifflm `km ffcn titcls `rl eivlk dkal ik tflir drieik`c c`keu`el `cdkesiml tflir st`km`rm Lkecisf titcl `km m`tl dg rlcl`sl. ]flrl`lr, tfl ndrl adnndk dg tfl twd titcls is uslm? tfl drieik`c ( Cl  Cl Odur sl cævl ) dr tfl Lkecisf (]fl Xucls dg tfl E`nl). Ik `k lfldrt td `vdim kllmclss acuttlr, fdwlvlr, ik tlxts wfiaf daa`sidk`ccy rlsdrt td cdke cists dg ffcns kdt misausslm suhst`ktivlcy ik tfl `rtiacl, suaf `s ‖Aikln`tia Xl`cisn `km tfl It`ci`k Qafddc dg tfl Cihlr`tidk’ `km ‖Gdr `k Inpurl Aikln`? Ik Mlglkal dg @m`pt`tidk’, sdnl dg tfis ikgdrn`tidk is dnittlm. ]fis ikgdrn`tidk a`k hl gdukm ik tfl ffcn titcl ikmlx.

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]fl titcls dg hddjs, pc`ys `km `rtwdrjs rlglrlkalm hy H`zik `rl eivlk ik Lkecisf dkcy, witf tfl `utfdr’s k`nl, usu`ccy dnittlm hy H`zik, `mmlm. Girst k`nls, `csd usu`ccy dnittlm hy H`zik, f`vl hllk `mmlm, witf tfl lxalptidk dg fistdria`c dr `rtistia ffeurls (Qf`jlspl`rl, Ria`ssd) elklr`ccy rlglrrlm td tdm`y hy tflir c`st k`nl dkcy. K`nl `km titcl ikmlxls `ppl`r `t tfl lkm dg tfl vdcunl. ]fl lss`y hy O`aquls @undkt `km tfl Ecdss`ry dg ]lrns `rl kdt ikmlxlm. Uitf rlsplat td tfl puhcia`tidks `km `utfdrs H`zik qudtls, rlglrlkals dr p`r`pfr`sls witfdut mdaunlktike fis sdural, tfl tr`ksc`tdr f`s `ttlnptlm td ffkm tflsl sdurals `km prdviml tfln ik tr`ksc`tdr’s gddtkdtls. Uflk Uflk it f`s kdt hllk h llk pdssihcl td imlktigy suaf ` sdural, kd gddtkdtl `ppl`rs. Ikgdrn`tidk `hdut tflsl sdurals is  wlcadnlm  wlca dnlm gdr guturl lmitidks. Ik tfl iktrdmu iktrdmuatdry atdry lss`y hy O`a O`aquls quls @undkt, tfl `utfdr sdnltinls qudtls tlxts hy H`zik wfiaf `rl `v`ic`hcl `v`ic`h cl ik Lkecisf tr`ksc`tidk ik dtflr vdcunls hut kdt tfl prlslkt dkl. Ik suaf a`sls, tfl tr`ksc`tdr qudtls grdn tfl lxistike tr`ksc`tidk wflk it mdls kdt hltr`y H`zik’s nl`kike, hut dfllrs fis dwk tr`ksc`tidk ikstl`m wflk it mdls hltr`y tfis nl`kike. Ik sdnl a`sls, tfis a`k cl`m td qudtike ` p`rtiauc`r tr`ksc`tidk ik sdnl pc`als `km kdt dtflrs. Xl`mlrs wicc rln`rj `s tfly n`jl tflir w`y tfrduef H`zik’s tlxts tf`t alrt`ik tlrns `ppl`r `pp l`r ik a`pit`c clttlrs. ]flsl `rl uslm td rlglr auridus rl`mlrs td ` Ecdss`ry dg ]lrns `t tfl adkacusidk dg tfis  vdcunl. Qlvlr`c ecdss ecdss`rils, `rils, ik g`at, tfrll dg wfiaf aducm hl ndrl `aaur`tlcy mlsarihlm `s hrilg tlrnikdcdeia`c lss`ys dk jly tlrns ik H`zik?  méadup`el, ndkt`el `km  g`it , `km tfl v`ridus Lkecisf tlrns uslm (`km kdt uslm) td rlkmlr tfln flrl. (]fl ffrst ecdss`ry mlffkls ` glw rlaurrike elklr`c ffcn dr auctur`c tlrns wfiaf n`y hl ukg`nici`r td sdnl rl`mlrs”`atu`city ffcn, @nlria`k adnlmy, hducl v`rm tfl`trl, adnnlmi` mlcc’`rtl, mlcc’`rtl, ffcn m’`rt   `km r`pprdaflnlkt .).) m’`rt  `km L`af dg tfl tlrns ik tfl Ecdss`ry `ppl`rs ik a`pit`c clttlrs tfl ffrst tinl it `ppl`rs ik ` af`ptlr. ]flrl`lr it `ppl`rs ik rdn`k typl dr, ig ` Grlkaf tlrn, ik it`cias. Ik tfl a`sl dg  g`  g`it  it , wfiaf is tr`ksc`tlm v`riduscy tfrduefdut, mlplkmike dk tfl adktlxt, hy tfl tlrns lvlkt, g`at, f`pplkike, mllm `km g`it `aadnpci, wfiaf `csd f`vl lvlrym`y usls, tflsl tlrns `rl pc`alm ik a`pit`c clttlrs l`af tinl

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tfly `rl uslm td tr`ksc`tl  g`it , sd tf`t tfl rl`mlr a`k mistikeuisf  wflk tflsl tlrns `rl uslm u slm td tr`ksc`tl  g`it  grdn   grdn tflir ndrl wdrj`m`y daaurrlkals. Ik tfl Ecdss`ry dg ]lrns, rl`mlrs wicc ffkm misaussidk dg ` tlrn gdukm tfrduefdut tflsl writikes wfiaf tfly n`y, fdwlvlr, klvlr f`vl lkaduktlrlm hlgdrl? méadup`el. (Dr `hdut wfdsl nl`kike tfly n`y ik tfl p`st f`vl hllk clm `str`y.) @t tfl s`nl tinl, tfl Ecdss`ry `aadukts gdr tfl adnpcltl `hslkal ik tfis tr`ksc`tidk dg H`zik’s writikes dg tfl wdrm lmitike, wfdsl pc`al flrl is elklr`ccy t`jlk hy tfl tlrn `sslnhcy `s ` tr`ksc`tidk dg tfl Grlkaf ndkt`el. @atike `csd `s tr`ksc`tdr dg O`aquls @undkt’s iktrdmuatdry lss`y td tfl vdcunl, tfl tr`ksc`tdr gdccdws adkvlktidk`c us`el `km tr`ksc`tls ndkt`el `s lmitike. (]fl upplr-a`sl clttlrs uslm gdr ecdss`ry tlrns ik H`zik’s tlxts `rl kdt uslm ik O`aquls @undkt’s lss`y.) lss`y.) ]fis lmitidk dg H`zik’s writikes, cijl tfl tr`ksc`tdr’s ���� lmitidk dg Uf`t is Aikln`4 , is n`ml pdssihcl hy A`k`m`’s adpyrieft c`ws, ukmlr wfiaf ` wdrj elklr`ccy g`ccs iktd tfl puhcia mdn`ik ffy yl`rs `lr `k `utfdr’s ml`tf. Uficl tfis uslm td hl tfl ukivlrs`c adpyrieft tlrn wdrcmwiml, ik rlalkt mla`mls it f`s adnl ukmlr ikarl`sikecy iktlksl `ss`uct hy c`rel adrpdr`tidks, hleikkike ik tfl ffcn `km lktlrt`iknlkt husiklss. Ik nuaf dg tfl wdrcm, tfis tlrn f`s ikarl`slm td ‖ml`tf pcus slvlkty yl`rs’ `km hlydkm. Gdr tfis rl`sdk tfl prlslkt vdcunl is uk`v`ic`hcl, gdr lx`npcl, ik tfl \kitlm Qt`tls, tfl \kitlm Jikemdn, tfl Lurdpl`k \kidk `km @ustr`ci` `km a`k dkcy hl sdcm ik A`k`m`, O`p`k, Afik`, Ikmi`, Jdrl`, ]`iw`k, Klw _l`c`km `km ` glw sn`cclr n`rjlts sa`ttlrlm tfrduefdut @si`, @gria`, C`tik @nlria` `km tfl Nimmcl L`st. Ik `mmitidk td tfl aurrlkt rlstriatidks dk tfl s`cl dg tfis vdcunl, `t tfl tinl dg writike tflsl cikls A`k`m` `km tfl \kitlm Qt`tls `rl rlkledti`tike tfl Kdrtf @nlria`k Grll ]r`ml @erllnlkt ( [email protected]]@) `t tfl iksistlkal dg tfl \kitlm Qt`tls, witf cdum mln`kms gdr adpyrieft tlrn lxtlksidk hy tfl c`ttlr `s ` adkmitidk gdr ` klw `erllnlkt. Ik `mmitidk, tfl kdw (tlnpdr`ricy4) (tlnp dr`ricy4) sauttclm ]r`ks-R` r`ks-R`aiffa aiffa R`rtklrsfip (]RR) tr`ml ml`c, td wfiaf A`k`m` `km tfl \kitlm Qt`tls wlrl siek`tdrils, wducm cijlcy f`vl ikacumlm adpyrieft tlrn lxtlksidks: sfducm tfl `erllnlkt hl rlvivlm, `s is aurrlktcy hlike misausslm, adpyrieft tlrn lxtlksidks ik A`k`m` `km tfl G`r L`st slln ndrl

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cijlcy tf`k kdt. Ik tfl lvlkt tf`t litflr dg tflsl tr`ml ml`cs adkt`iks ` adpyrieft tlrn lxtlksidk ac`usl, tfl prlslkt lmitidk n`y wlcc hl gdralm dfl tfl n`rjlt, `km ik tfl a`sl dg tfl ]RR tfl c`st rln`ikike n`odr aduktrils witf tfl dkal-ukivlrs`c ffy-yl`r adpyrieft tlrn  wducm hl f`uclm iktd tfl cdkelr-tlrn rleinl. ]fl tr`ksc`tdr hlcilvls tf`t tfl ffy-yl`r adpyrieft tlrn prlslkts `k iml`c h`c`kal dg rl`mlrs’ `km `utfdrs’ riefts. F`m, gdr lx`npcl, @kmré H`zik civlm uktic tfl `el dg slvlkty, ukmlr tfl slvlkty-yl`r tlrn tfl writikes tr`ksc`tlm flrl, m`tike grdn tfl ����s `km ��s,  wducm kdt f`vl adnl iktd tfl puhcia mdn`ik ik Lurdpl uktic ���� ��� � `km ik tfl \kitlm Qt`tls lvlk c`tlr, wfiaf is td s`y ` alktury dr ndrl `lr tfl tlxts wlrl writtlk. ]fl cdkelr adpyrieft tlrn adkmlnks rl`mlrs `km safdc`rs td tfl lxistike c`nlkt`hcl Lkecisf tr`ksc`tidks dg H`zik gdr `k ukoustiff`hcl plridm dg tinl. Ruhcia mdn`ik is tfl rl`sdk wl a`k w`cj iktd ` hddjstdrl `km ffkm ` afdial dg lmitidks dg Qf`jlspl`rl, Miajlks `km H`cz`a, `km tfl rl`sdk ikkdv`tivl safdc`rs `km puhcisflrs a`k prdmual klw aritia`c lmitidks `km iktlrprlt`tidks dg tflsl wdrjs? tfl c`w rladekisls kd rieft td lxacusivl adktrdc dg tflsl wdrjs `lr ` alrt`ik plridm dg tinl f`s lc`pslm. Lvlk Lvlk ik ` rlc`tivlcy lxtrlnl a`sl suaf `s H`zik’s tr`eia ml`tf `t tfl `el dg gdrty, cl`vike hlfikm ` yduke wimdw `km ` kikl-yl`rdcm aficm, ukmlr tfl ffy-yl`r systln O`kikl H`zik, wfd p`sslm `w`y `t tfl `el dg liefty, wducm f`vl hlklfftlm grdn adpyrieft prdtlatidk dg flr c`tl fush`km’s wdrj gdr tfl mur`tidk dg flr cigltinl, `km fis sdk Gcdrlkt uktic tfl `el dg sixty. @t tfl s`nl tinl, witfdut adpyrieft prdtlatidk auctur`c prdmualrs suaf `s tfl prlslkt tr`ksc`tdr wicc sinpcy al`sl td prdmual klw  wdrj,  wdr j, dr prdmual prdmual wdrj wdrj dg ikglr ikglridr idr qu`cit qu`cityy dr `vdim `vdim prdola prdolats ts ikvdcv ikvdcvike ike ` erl`t ml`c dg tinl `km lxplksl, suaf `s ` n`odr, `kkdt`tlm `kkdt`tlm safdc`rcy tr`ksc`tidk issulm ik ` wlcc-n`ml hdukm lmitidk. It wicc `pp`rlktcy adnl `s ` surprisl td dtflrwisl iktlccielkt `km hilk plks`kt  pldpcl,   pldpcl, hut ik n`ky a`sls iktlcclatu`c prdplrty is kdt adrpdr`tl tfl hut sinpcy tfl gruit dg auctur`c wdrjlrs’ iktlcclatu`c c`hdur `km tfl tddc  wfiaf lk`hcls tfln td lksurl tflir c`h c`hdur dur wicc hl rlnuklr`t rlnuklr`tlm, lm, ik lx`atcy tfl s`nl w`y `rtists, `rafitlats, er`pfia mlsieklrs, wlh mlsieklrs, ffcnn`jlrs `km nusiai`ks `rl rlnuklr`tlm gdr tflir c`hdur? hy n`rjltike tfl prdmuat dg tflir c`hdur ik `k dplk ladk-

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dny wfiaf lkadur`els ikkdv`tidk. Auctur`c prdmuats wfiaf `rl prdtlatlm ukmlr dur sdailty’s rucl dg c`w grdn hlike usurplm hy tfdsl wfd f`m kd f`km ik i k tflir adkalptidk dr g`hria`tidk. Ufy tfl rucl dg c`w `km tfl prlv`icike ndr`c adkalrk gdr tfl  wlcg`rl dg auctu auctur`c r`c wdrjlrs `km tflir rieft td adktrdc tflir wdrj `ppcy td tfl lktirl arl`tivl ac`ss lxalpt tfdsl wfd writl `km prdmual hddjs is ` adktr`miatidk witf kd pdssihcl ndr`ccy mlglksihcl lxpc`k`tidk. (]d s`y kdtfike dg tfl cdt dg tfdsl wfdsl ndrl wdrj`m`y civlcifddm”pddrcy-p`im adktr`at adpy-lmitdrs, tr`ksc`tdrs `km mlsieklrs: priktlrs’ `km puhcisflrs’ n`ku`c wdrjlrs `km dfial st`fl”mlplkms dk s`cls rlvlkul grdn hddjs.) ]f`t ` c`aj dg rlsplat gdr tflsl prikaipcls a`k dlk hl gdukm, `km ndst `eerlssivlcy sd, `ndkest dtflr nlnhlrs dg dur sdailty’s prla`ridus arl`tivl ac`ss is sinpcy hc`t`kt fypdarisy `km ` adkalrtlm `ss`uct dk writlrs `km sn`cc puhcisflrs. puhc isflrs. Udrsl, Udrsl, tfly `rl hlike odiklm hy r`pimcy ikarl`sike kunhlrs dg `npcy adnplks`tlm `a`mlnias `km prdglssidk`cs, sdnl dg wfdn wdrj ik tfdsl gdrtrlssls dg priv`tislm jkdwclmel, tfl lcitl @nlria`k priv`tl ukivlrsity, ik `eit`tike gdr tfl iml` tf`t jkdwclmel”hut kdt tflir dwk”sfducm hl grll. g rll. ]fl priktike ndtig uslm tfrduefdut tfis hddj `s ` slatidk hrl`j ik tfl tlxts `km dk tfl hddj’s titcl p`el, jkdwk `rdukm a`hddsl `s tfl n`afikl-`el ﬈lur-ml-cis hut ik rl`city C`kstdk gdukmry drk`nlkt kd. ���, w`s prdmualm ik tfl l`rcy twlktiltf alktury hy tfl C`kstdk ]ypl Adnp`ky dg Rlkksycv`ki`. ]fl adnp`ky w`s ` n`odr gdral ik typder`pfy ik tfl twlktiltf alktury hlgdrl it wlkt dut dg husiklss `km its stdaj w`s sdcm. Its drk`nlkts adcclatidk w`s n`ml dg hr`ss pc`tls wfiaf f`vl nir`aucduscy survivlm v`ridus mis`stlrs, ikacumike ` tsuk`ni dk Rrikal Lmw`rm Isc`km, A`k`m`, `lr tfl adnp`ky’s stdaj w`s puraf`slm hy ` A`k`mi`k typl mlsieklr, tfl c`tl Elr`cm Ei`np`. ]fl C`kstdk `rafivl drk`nlkt adcclatidk is aurrlktcy `v`ic`hcl grdn tfl R�� typl gdukmry ik Hufl`cd, Klw Ydrj.

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