Anatomy 102 practice Exam #3
Anatomy & Physiology II Practice Test Questions...
Practice Test for
LECTURE EXAM #3 Sample ONE Read each question carefully before you answer. Choose one best answer for each multiple-choice type question. For true/false questions, mark (A) if the statement is true, or mark (B) if the statement is false. 1.
The female zygote receives chromosomes from: a. the mother only. b. both the mother and father. c. the father only. d. None of these is correct.
Human egg and sperm are similar in that: a. about the same number of each is produced per month. b. they have the same degree of motility c. they are about the same size. d. they have the same number of chromosomes. e. All of these are correct.
A human egg or sperm contains 24 pairs of chromosomes. a. True b. False
The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through: a. mitosis. b. meiosis. c. cytokinesis. d. DNA synthesis e. All of these are correct.
Meiosis: a. produces haploid cells iron diploid cells. b. is found in procaryotic and eucaryotic organisms c. is a function of asexual and sexual reproduction. d. is characterized by all of these.
The adenohypophyseal hormone that triggers ovulation is estrogen. a. True b. False
Fertilization generally occurs in: a. the uterus. b. the vagina. c. the fallopian tubes. d. the ovary.
The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the myometrium. a. True b. False
A scrotal muscle that contracts in response to cold environmental temperature is the cremaster. a. True b. False
LECTURE EXAM IV Page 2 10.
Which of the following are unpaired in the male (i.e. there is only one of them)? a. the vas deferens b the seminal vesicle c. the bulbourethral gland d. the prostate gland
The female hormone corresponding to the male ICSH is LH. a. True b. False
In the human male: a. sperm are stored in the epididymis. b. spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous tubules. c. a vasectomy is performed to terminate the transport of sperm out of the body. d. following castration, the accessory reproduction organs decrease in size. e. All of these are correct.
The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems. a. True b. False
All of the following statements about spermatogenesis are true except: a. b. c. d.
the spermatogonium forms the primary spermatocyte. the primary spermatocyte forms two secondary spermatocytes. the secondary spermatocytes each form two spermatids. each spermatid forms two sperm.
The secretions of the bulbourethral glands neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse. a. True b. False
Characteristics of the mature sperm include: a. the presence of X chromosomes in approximately half the sperm. b. the presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm. c the presence of an acrosome. d. All or these are correct.
Neither tetrads nor crossovers are seen during meiosis. a. True b. False
Functions of testosterone include: a. facilitation of muscle and skeletal growth in mass. b. loss of facial hair. c. growth of the breasts. d. drying of the skin. e.. All of these are correct.
Failure to attain erection is called impotence. a. True b. False
LECTURE EXAM IV Page 3 20.
Effects of estrogen include: a. increased oiliness of the skin. b. deepening of the voice. c. proliferation of the breasts. d. growth of the larynx e. All of these are correct.
Secretion of progesterone stimulates: a. preparation of the mammary glands for lactation. b. contraction of uterine muscles. c. secretory activity of the uterine myometrium. d. development of the female secondary sex characteristics. e. All of these are correct.
Ovulation occurs at the midcycle of the ovarian cycle. a. True b. False
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen. a. True b. False
All of the following about the human female process of reproduction are true except: a. the monthly discharge or the uterus (menses) is initiated by the fall in secretion of female hormones. b. ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses. c. rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin. d. fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube.
The first sign of puberty in females is budding breasts. a. True b. False
A low secretion of leutenizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause a. decreased testosterone secretion. b. excessive beard growth. c. increased spermatogenesis. d. shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland. e. All of these are correct.
Normally menstruation occurs when: a. blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease. b. blood levels of FSH fall off. c. blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase. d. the corpus luteum secretes estrogen. e. None of these is correct.
The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is: a. during spermatogenesis two more polar bodies are produced. b. the mature ovum is N while the sperm is 2N. c. in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced and in spermatogenesis 4 mature sperm are produced. d. spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis but oogenesis involves meiosis only.
None of these is correct.
LECTURE EXAM IV Page 4 29.
The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called: a. sustentacular cells. b. spernatogonia. c. spermatocytes. d. interstitial cells of Leydig. e. None of these is correct.
Which of the following occur(s) after ovulation? a. The corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone. b. The endometrium enters its secretory phase. c. The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is inhibited. d. All of these are correct.
All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except a. FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium b. Estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle. c. The corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation. d. A fall in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstruation.
The hollow ball of cells stage of development is the morula. a. True b. False
Which of the following is not a germ layer? a. ectoderm b. mesoderm c. epiderm d. endoderm
A zygote is usually formed within a uterine tube. a. True b. False
The embryonic stage lasts until the end of the eighth week. a. true b. False
The embryo is directly enclosed in and protected by the amnion. a. True b. False
In fetal circulation, blood by-passes the non-aerated lungs by war of the ductus venosus. a. True b. False
Failure of the foramen ovale to close at birth results in: a. direct aeration of blood. b. mixing of oxygenated and non-oxygenated blood. c. edema of the extremities. d. no blood circulation through the body. e. All of these are correct.
LECTURE EXAM IV Page 5
Maternal changes during pregnancy include all of the following except: a. b. c. d. e.
weight gain. increased renal function. increased blood volume. increased cardiac output. decreased sexual desire.
Cleavage as part of embryonic development is distinctive because it involves: a. b. c. d.
the fusion of gametes. meiosis. cell division by mitosis with little or no growth between successive divisions. All of these are correct.
Implantation involves: a. fusion of egg and sperm. b. embedding of the blastula in the uterine wall. c. formation of germ layers. d. placenta completion. e. All of these are correct.
The placenta and its attached fetal membranes are collectively called the afterbirth. a. True b. False
The umbilical arteries carry: a. waste products to the placenta. b. oxygen and food to the fetus. c. oxygen and metabolic wastes to the placenta. d. oxygen and waste products to the fetus. e. None of these is correct.
The correct sequence of pre-embryonic structures is: a. zygote, blastocyst, morula. b. zygote, morula, blastocyst. c. blastocyst, morula, zygote. d. None of these is correct.
In the fetus, the ductus venosus carries blood from the: a. pulmonary artery to the pulmonary vein. b. liver to the inferior vena cava. c. right ventricle to the left ventricle. d. pulmonary artery to the aorta. e. None of these is correct.
During pregnancy, the corpus luteum normally produces estrogens and progesterone: a. only until the implantation of the embryo. b. until the eighth week of pregnancy. c. for about 12-13 weeks. d. for the entire pregnancy.
LECTURE EXAM IV Page 6 47.
Which of the following definitions is(are) not correct? a. Pregnancy refers to the events that occur from the time of conception until birth. b. The gestation period is approximately 180 days. c. The conceptus is the developing offspring. d. The embryonic period is from the second week to the end of the eighth week. e. The fetal period is from the beginning of the ninth week until birth-
Derivatives of the ectoderm include: a. serosae of the ventral body cavity. b. epithelium of the reproductive tract. c. nervous tissue. d. connective tissues e. All of these are correct.
Changes in anatomy and physiology during adolescence occur primarily by the inf1uence of: a. hormones b. diet c. nerves d. none of there
Derivatives of the endoderm include: a. epithelium of the respiratory tract. b. synovial membranes of the joints. c. blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid tissue. d. organs of the urogenital system. e. All of these are correct.
Chromosomes which are not directly involved with sex determination are called sex-linked. a. True b. False
Hereditary characteristics are transmitted to offspring by genes. a. True b. False
Alleles may code for alternative expressions of a genetic trait. a. True b. False
The diploid genome contains chromosomes from: a. the mother only. b. the father only. c. from each parent and synthesizes others. d. from both the mother and father, but only portions of the genome from each.
Sex chromosomes of a normal male are: a. XX. b. XY c. YY d. Any of these depending on the father.
A Punnett square is used to figure out the possible combinations of genes for a single trait. a. True b. False
LECTURE EXAM IV Page 7 57.
In incomplete dominance, the heterozygote has a phenotype intermediate between that of homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive individuals. a. True b. False
An individual who is heterozygous for a particular trait, yet expresses both alleles of that trait, is an example of: a. b. c. d. e.
dominance. recessive inheritance. incomplete dominance. sex-linked inheritance. None of these is correct.
A mechanical device inserted into the uterus as a means of birth control is the: a. b. c. d.
“morning after” pill. lUD. condom. minipill.
Which of the following statements about the mammary glands is not correct? a. Mammary glands are present in both sexes. b. The biological role of the mammary gland is to produce milk. c. The entire pigmented area of the breast is the nipple. d. Cancer of the breast is a leading cause of death in adult women.
Which of the following is not a phase of the ovarian cycle? a. follicular b. uterine c. ovulatory d. luteal
The prostate gland: l. secretes about 30% of the volume of semen. 2. secretes an acidic fluid that helps activate spermatozoa. 3. is about the size of a pea. a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 e. 2 and 3
The seminal vesicles: 1. produce a yellowish fluid rich in fructose. 2. produce about 60% of the volume of semen. 3. encircle the upper part of the urethra. a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 1 and 2 d. 1 and 3 e. 1, 2 and 3
LECTURE EXAM IV Page 8 64.
During metaphase I of meiosis: 1. tetrads line up on the equator. 2. homologous pairs separate. 3. chromosomes condense. a. l only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. l and 3 e. 2 and 3
During anaphase I of meiosis: 1. tetrads line up on the equator. 2. homologous pairs separate, 3. chromosomes condense. a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 3 e. 2 and 3
Place the following in correct sequence. 1. corpus luteum 2. primary follicle 3. Graafian follicle 4. growing follicle a. 1,2,3.4 b. 2,4,1,3 c. 4,2,3,1 d. 2,3,4,1 e. 2,4,3,1
The ovarian cycle includes the: 1. follicular phase, day a to day 10 2. ovulatory phase. day 11 to day 14 3. luteal phase, day 14 to day 28 a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only
1 and3 1, 2 and3
The diamond—shaped area between the anus and clitoris in the female is the perineum. a. True b. False
During which stage of labor is the fetus delivered? a. dilation stage b. expulsion stage c. placental stage
LECTURE EXAM IV Page 9 70.
If the testes fail to descend a male is infertile because sperm cell formation is prevented by a. none of these b. relatively high internal body temperature c. excessive production of estrogen d. lack of testosterone
A couple whose blood types are A and B (respectively) may have a child with which of the following blood types? a. AB only b. A and B only c. A, B, AB and O d. AB and O only
A rabbit is black with long ears. This statement is best described as indicating: a. b. c. d.
allelic pairs. recessive traits. phenotype. genotype.
Hemophilia is an X-linked condition caused by a dominant gene. a. True b. False
Sperm cells are stored primarily in the a. vasa deferentia b. epididymides c. seminal vesicles d. ejaculatory ducts
Undifferentiated spermatogenic cells are called a. spermatogonia b. spermatids c. secondary spermatocytes d. primary spermatocytes
The tubular portion of the uterus that extends downward into the upper part of the vagina is the a. b. c. d.
ostium uteri perimetrium endometrium cervix
The female structure that corresponds to the male penis is the a. clitoris b. labia minora c. vestibule d. vagina
Exam #4 Page 10
Following ovulation, a human egg cell seems to survive for a maximum of about a. b. c. d.
I hour 72 hours 12 hours 24 hours
The cells of a blastocyst that give rise to the body of the developing offspring constitute the a. trophoblast b. inner cell mass c. blastomere d. zona pellucida
The ductus venosus is a fetal vessel that functions to transport blood from the umbilical vein to the a. inferior vena cava b. aorta c. umbilical artery d. superior vena cava
The foramen ovale is an opening that allows fetal blood to pass from the a. left atrium to the right atrium b. right ventricle to the left ventricle c. right atrium to the left atrium d. left ventricle to the right ventricle
The fetal blood that passes through the ductus venosus is relatively a. high in oxygen and nutrients b. high in oxygen but low in nutrients c. low in oxygen and nutrients d. low in oxygen but high in nutrients
As a result of the foramen ovale, blood is allowed to by-pass the a. kidneys b. liver c. lungs d. aorta
The ductus arteriosus allows fetal blood to move from the a. left atrium into the right atrium b. pulmonary trunk into the aorta c. right atrium into the left atrium d. aorta into the pulmonary trunk
The placenta is composed of tissues from the a. b. c. d.
chorion only embryo only mother only mother and embryo
Exam 4 Page 11 86.
A person with type A blood could have the genotype a. IAIA or IAiO b. IAIO only c. iOiO only d. IAIA only
Meiosis occurs during a. neither spermatogenesis nor oogenesis b. both spermatogenesis and oogenesis c. oogenesis only d. spermatogenesis only
If the parent genotypes are AA and aa, the offspring are expected to be a. all Aa b. ½ Aa and ½ aa c. ½ AA and ½ aa d. all AA
If the parent genotypes are Aa and Aa, the offspring are expected to be a. ¼ AA, ½ Aa, ¼ aa b. ¾ AA and ¼ aa c. ½ AA and ½ aa d. all Aa
If a color-blind male is married to a homozygous dominant (normal) female, the possible offspring are a. b. c. d.
all offspring color-blind ½ color-blind males and ½ color-blind females all males color-blind and all females normal all offspring normal
Hemophilia is a. more common in females b. characterized by a defect in the clotting mechanism c. passed from affected males to their sons d. due to a sex-linked dominant gene
Which of the following is true regarding egg cells? a. They contain an X or Y chromosome. b. They always contain an X chromosome. c. none of these d. They contain 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Which of the following is true in regard. to the determination of the sex of a baby? a. The cells of all babies contain the same sex chromosomes. b. The sex chromosome in the egg determines the sex of. the baby. c. none of these d. The sex chromosome in the sperm determines the sex of the baby.
Exam 4 Page 12 94.
Which of the following best describes the numbers of blood vessels usually found in the umbilical cord? a. one artery and two veins b. two arteries and one vein c. two arteries and two veins d. one artery and one vein
During which stage in mitosis are genes and chromosomes duplicated? a. metaphase b. anaphase c. prophase d. interphase
When the alleles of a gene pair are identical they are said to be a. recessive b. heterozygous c dominant d. homozygous
Answer “T” for true or “F” for false: 97.
The umbilical cord contains two umbilical veins.
The fetal stage of development begins at the end of the eighth week.
The ductus arteriosus allows fetal blood to by-pass the lungs.
In a fetus, the umbilical arteries arise from the renal arteries.