An Integrated Approach to Intermediate Japanese

September 3, 2017 | Author: Lorenzo Marino | Category: Grammatical Gender, Linguistic Typology, Semiotics, Syntax, Grammar
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Copyright

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2008 by Akira Miwa and Naomi Hanaoka McGloin

reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, sto¡ed in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

All rights

First edition: J¡ne 1994 Revised edition: July 2008 5th printing: September 2009

Recordings: Kazusa Amagai, Takaomi Ashizawa, Takeshi Maruyama and Kiyoko Nagaki Illustrations: Seiji Okada and Shizuo Okuda Layout and Cover art: Hiroshi Ueda+Z'ebra

Tlpesetting: Soju Co., Ltd.

Published by The Japan Times, Ltd. 5-4, Shibaura 4-chome, Minato-ku, Tel: O3-3453-2013 http://bookclub japantimes.co http://ij japantimes.co

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ISBN978-4-7890-1307 -9 Printed in Japan

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108-0023, Japan

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Meeting Someone in Japan hen you meet someone in Japan for the first time, you bow as you say either ft UtD t U( or ¿)ê &Zt (, or both. You also exchang" ä#|J (cards) if you have them. tn

Japan, everyone other than children, students or full-time housewives is expected to carry them. Sometimes even university students choose to carry them for prestige. How low you should bow depends on who you are as well as whom you meet. ln general, women tend to bow lower than men, and if you meet a person whose status is higher than yours on the Japanese social scale, you should bow lower than the other person, e.g., your teacher, a friend's parent, etc.

lntroducing Oneself or Others elf-introductions occur quite frequently in Japan. At a reception for new students, for example, you may be asked to introduce yourself in Japanese. State your name, the name of your home institution, your majoç and end it all with ¿iä&ôt-,( and a bow. When you introduce two people to each other, the rule of thumb is to introduce the person of lower status to the person of higher status. lt would be nice to also add a comment or two about each person, as lkeda does in âãÉ 2 of this lesson.

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How to Address Someone

lTt he most common way to address an adult is "last name plus ûfu," but don't overuse û I Ívl To address people who have titles such .r #H (section chief), $bH {aepartment chief), iiH f.o*puny president), etc., use the titles instead of ðfu. To address teachers, always use#Eä. Above all, avoid usingõt*lc. lt could be quite insulting. The use of first names is limited in Japan: they are used within a family, by higher-status members addressing lower-status members (e.9., parents addressing children, or older siblings talking to younger siblings), or they are sometimes used among close friends.

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42.Æ) This radical comes from Å and is used for characters representing human conditions, activities, etc.

t{ l t_{Ft fæt rd¿

| o' V (plain past) Wlrrúl ='have just done something; have just finished doing something'

lãffil >¿.t >>>t#trÀ:tcøn'o] [a*r >¿.6>>>4#t lrmao]

a)

/tSl:l\e

t¿I{lt,

rr

li¿.

à. +^ffir" L ¡ i "

(Since she hasjust entered college, she is probably 18.)

b) Ê/\/¡ |ffirI) Èà. ò. þ/J7)r)ì¡'z lf t.T.-l-. (I have just eaten, so I am full.)

c) FIA^?|:Étfá'tlo)¿ ôùt. Elaffi¿ì*rà.È r¡ ( tËb * L/¡" (When I was a newcomer to Japan,I had trouble understanding Japanese.)

2rr, öO)

lãffit >t.ts>>>øo2=zt*l

Both ô o) and 4 0) canbe used with the meaning 'that -' when an item you are referring to is not in sight. ó Ø is used when both the speaker and the hearer are (oi are assumed to be)

:*iftupeiro¡'or',ihittÉ-

,.,:,f

- - tinl"ftËh, y

,:"Wmun.j'.'l. 4, 2,ø.sttòùta 'usea.,ln,tllis,:passage, theuse !L and * r u ù are familiar with the class.

a)

A fú¿ì4 *

i¿Ì¿ Ø ùlHÛì ¿ r.- i

ñít'f

trp

oi,t

ttø

o¡_$e'fr9"g,3f.¡s.¡4¡Il4iar,,

inAicat"q,¡f¡-a,ttop,A,úftì:

.

(The town I was born in is calied Täkayama.)

B

?OtrJù* Ð.å,/¡ffiJÍ"Tå." (What kind of town is that?) È

b)A

ÈØ

I

lÂ.1

i. *+BAffiØ2 iziJ!.r¿)

4 )vã

À,1:àt.* Ll¿À.

(Yesterday, I met Lyle-san, who was in our Japanese class last year.)

bb- troL.

B

(oh, how is he

[:

¿"

7 Lf t. * Tå."

that personl doing?)

lãe;z>t.tz>>>RffiËffi2&ãrra2rcl J oot V(plain) &51¿l¿â ,, s a ch3r-rge ,which has ¡akei ÈJgÞ,9,þ.i..wrill place. fusr as -{je.èii¡rtr /¡å; * i,r!:,is,ins-9,$,... ',,',1 ,:. .'',,t,'.,':.t,..t'r-':..',l. ¡¡,i:;..l¡,l.tir r,.

.,.

¡'

,n9,'r,*ittt

a

) Bä^ffic -C.tt, ù. Bft:@ffiþ#2 J ä E t¿ú) * I,t¿"

àti a

(I came to have an interest in Japan after I went to Japan.)

'ìt'lù U

l.LÀ:À,

b) W+þffi\frLlr ùlft¿Ì. BAffiØtrHÈì#ö 6 ea EfÍ/r t, *Ëtu" (Unless you study kanji, you won't become able to read Japanese newspapers.)

13

*l 1 *,,,,, c) .0)c67, yr^ù è Laç¿ iÀ?Ê^6ea|.;ftt1*.t,t¿" (These days,{mericans also eat sashimi and tofu land this is a changeJ.)

{rrr,

lã:lË,z > t. z s >>> z ã

-tã,í6

?ÈãLì v

eaøl

::':.1ìr' ..: :r .. : :.'... This is a sentence-final particle of exclamation. It rS geñgrall¡ us"¿'¡u',s1¿1e, one':s feéIin€, II. ;,.:e-mþhæicall,y oi onè's wish èrnótivêly. " :

a)

Woftt¿t>" (I don't know what to do!)

b) -Êr7 Y rtnTr->1,ô.r¿!-/Jó. (I wish I could go to Africa once!) i e,, saying something.without an addres¡æ iñ..mind',.s&en.itis.said.wjth.¡ur.:intèntioi..of..gètting..a:.iesþonqé.'fr.omanaddresSee,-'jó This.'e¡pres.sr9¡,ha,s.'a,flavor.'of'l,mo.aologlte:

-

..,.

c) ôð LJì b Tìt¿õ" (Long time no see!)

d)

ÈÈfl ( Sc/¿/¿ó" (You did WELL!)

$ ',' V(plain) ¿¿â

[âff :

>z.e >>> Ra

xt zænuctl

l

iåÌrneañs, som .l,-,trit:. ,-,tlv-(p.l a) t, x ) пl'rÈ. qií*zl â ¿zôrÃÅ,("Tàì- t'? L J ù: å: f'TÈ."

l:,- :lil.r:..',:1.:rili : i rr. r':., :: , ):. , ...::l ,i : . : :. :. -: :. ), :;: .: :., :):,:.:a. ! .:.::r t:il::a _ rJ'r.r: ì.::ii,ti : :. 1,

preqehÐ È

(I am aboat to eat right now, so why don't you join me?)

b) 4t, ¡ i

ÐËá'tt

6¿zôîÃ0)î- ø¿-eH#vL*T.

(I am about to go out, so I will call you later.)

c) z{ttt,6Ê,\ã

¿zôît.

(I am about to eat.)

d)

âÊ¡È

e)

âÊ¡lurã

¿ Z ôl¿"à. 6 SálJ È.llT (I have just eaten, so I am not hungry.)

-

L.( !' * riÂ,"

å. ò i ,)l-'Æc t

e-eKøCl lngrwcitt

( l¿'-ð 1.. (I am lin the midst ofl eating right now, so please wait a little.)

¿Zôl¡"È.

.

,,,,,#i

Ê^ã ¿zôTT

¿ZôTt

Ê^/c

^l

Ê/s?rrã ¿zôTT

$ "' V(plain) Ztl=l¿clürä='be

expected/supposed to; it is a rule/custom that -' lãff: > t. 3 >>> 1fr:.ã t

V(plain) ZëJ=t¿clc='it

has been decided/arranged that

¿tra

a

zrrtË]

-'

l#aryz > ¿. z >>>iÉÞ>>

Eât*ttJo>>>>ffi^

10 *'Sr/cå.

Sz='when sr, 5r'

læaø

>

t,t a

*n

r*,u

nzo >>ËÉuzr,rrra]

...'I4e4:t¿6",clause,islfollowed,by,a sentence,,'(JSlin,,the.þäSiite-nse, it means lwhel.',The

,tsé¿o¡¿ìse-¡ten¿

ùatt1'rysSes,an.lg

t or stare you did

¿ l, ¡ù'lù

a) È Ø i ElÉßH^lip t¿à- 184.ì:âür* L/¡"

I

-*t "@..tt:,tr,.'.rr

.

fr

(Yesterday, when I went to the library, I saw my teacher.) ù, ë<

b) E#ØXffi,.-î)xô^+tlþHct¿ò.

lvtade in Japanl ¿ Êt,\( t>cl¿, I found that it was made in Japan [, and I

(I bought a present for my Japanese famþ, and

was

surprisedJ.)

This should be distinguished from the case of V l¿ È followed by the present tense form, as in Eä^frc t; Eäffiål#rù â ¡, ) lJrà 6'e L ¡ Ttris is thc casã of sà-called "condi?u.sç . o{'ltË;,and it méanp',if tor gq.f-,qil. ,','.'.,..,,,.'

i. ,,oi,'

å.

'. tió

11 *' ëT *¿ '.

I¿ül='can't possibly'

/¿

(

Ë

. : ì:'..'rir:a lr.':rr:.:r:.1.

À,ù>.>(.

¿

(t,Ê^Ðtt*.Ë

>zz

lffiaø

r

t >>> eztËã.r*ur]

.t::r:..:1.:;::r.r:t.::..-i,r:.!r.:ii1.:r:r:1:r1:.:r:r:r.::i,..:.-:rr:t

This phrase expressés a very strong form.

a)

lqÞ{,..|.!,

verb is usually in þotential

lv"

(There is so much that I can't possibly eat it all.) r,¿

ã- * Ë /v" house in Tbkyo.)

b) HÉt'¿* ET bæ.r¡ À,ù,H (I can't possibly buy

12,*V

a

(stem) T ='*^rof - ing'

lV(stem of * i--form) ù'À'

+Ë]

V

a) Ë?¿l- -to) ò ø¿: (Kanji are difficultbecause

È¡

læ¿¡ry¿>

t.zz>>>zzÈl

expresses 'the way of doing somèttring.' ltt:

ffiðrã'àr/¿ ( Ë 1,,ó

Ut"

6o)î- ffiLt."

leven] one kanji [often] has a number ofreadings.)

b) *átÌ L Ø#bXZW.Z( ( Èð t.. (Please teacTrme how to hold chopsticks.)

13 *r ^, å Lüf ='it seems that; evidently' ;.t: !,.ì,e4presses oners,couj-ectures, .qan,bÈ,,attahle

l#atw

fò.,¡o-u¡sr(e6:¡1á

> t. z z >>>

Ëà 5 t,tì]

.$¡,[1,),;.s-t9rnS

of r*-adjectives (e.g.,L1'å.à Lt.),piaúfonns of t.-adjectives (i..g.,ftu, à Lr..) *apfui" forms of verb s (e.g., n < q L r.'). It tends to be used when one's conjecture is based on what one has heard.

17

'l **-' a)

Bä^tÌ.

#r,-taÀ ôùtff* å L[r.

(It seems that the Japanese people iike hot baths.) À2 ,'

b) RË¿r. +rJ{ffiùtä (

(.

{Ìar: ( t. å Lür"

(It seems that Tbkyo is a difficult place to live in because eve4rthing is expensive.)

c) 7 t r r-c-.|,l. +Æ.trtft+.þ7 r

-z i.-À(.&Jìå Lü\. ¡.

(Evidently, students call teachers by their first names in America.)

14*,V l¿ t - .?&!;.ÆL ( 34 (Ë-#eF,-C) ù>o- /tÆÈ. + < 11ìt'/¡.t. ¿ ffiXù:E{vt' + i " B

flr

È)

.

irÀ. fl-. H,I¿? ì-- l¡À"'a" I¡FÎ.

FÑZ 7c

i

"

Là. {> -t'^-+¡'-K

b

"

l'Ì'-'v--[ãbl o-c? /çñ:(t'i ¿ ¿" ÑàrTC(Wolâ" i--> ! u.SÈ/¡ ô" +- ,åu.f'âù. È>fttr:Tt ( *t" ) À.,- D+. *,1¿1þ11t.

D

>>>>>

e Ä . ) = ü y, h.

E+fr0)ËE-HtJt.+

r,

7/

lcEtOldffiä"

À

ey ð. Ì,/^ C}ð LÀb



üiÂ, å ù:.

A

t-'>*I¿0)"



frìEüËu.tùSå.b"

À

4 ) zJ'" e ylrtR.6;

^ Bß

5¡.

t.

t

l-.

¿\ärË+lE+{v-

E6g+ t,

!

!

!

¿

ù1.

tù À,t¿

Ì:Ëf,r.tf[

o"CI¿ ùl

å'- !:?_*aþ:Èþ:

Èt/¡ ( -C"

10

Éß Þ

à

I' 15

t

^0)./

Ë[

A ) À," u.:à.ËtñÌ:ft/¡ ¡.

/^

ilù" T-^4t#=-Câ?

à Ë[

l.

l-

À

HI t

-)v7 r^ vzàlâå. å z¡ ( t_ , -)vl[ÈtÃzl.cI¿À,1ì" !.[.]- L.L.}" {.'. Ð:¡,:lÈA"tâø" :'п,.

/uzC-=l[.iff" bb- 2uzC-lJt*Eo{ó" ëùt7.,3- l. l:{¡¿1"5"



20

tzctâ) " -Ê[Jtt

õLìË?Ei*

¿^

2

L- L. 6ä¿x 723-345-2433" lxør -, 4 o)æEtt 555-347-4167" D ç. âE€ffLt" ) À,"

i lu" D+. */¿.

27

-12#>>>>>

:,:2:f i4n¡Jili:}'i1.i1jwlsgffi ü:ìi:izi';rti¡¡1?5r:r?¡5ràv.3i*tr{:? |.! ?:;.1:1 |.. :.|: ;:'

::

:.:

:.

: ;: ;| :::.'1. :: j.. :..j

: ::. : :|.!:|

EIA^åì7

)

'

rt Lr- À ( Ëf,à.i'r'cWâHPãø-'t ¿:. "FIow

are

yov?" tt EAffi

É : ¿.. å u. j Ølrtb â " 6 t, ô¿,Eäffiù: ò [¡.¿.¿sa"j-¿..1 ¿ ¿. [*áñ-.{-,(. Tå.1 /¡ å" å r. i Ë#¿l b âù:- f ç.¿.¿sa"-¡¿.1 t*&ilffiTmØÅ¿:ã i øìt:À-t ) Iì .(..{ú

¿

L. ltÐúamî'Tþ.)

ù*

L ¿f 6 ( À b

ícàc ÈÄl:

þ_¿'_Ëà_/_4__!:_"

?_È

,., æEã1

^

ù: [¡.¿r¿;a.j¿.1 Lù. liÐüÃ,("1å.j LÊ) L- ]FHt-Ær¡þ!ll_Þ_â" EIA¿* 7cØl\,bb t:'F:F.ø#þT â ¿ f ¡ìes¡-rìô ) o l!.l..*ax-xrïdal ¿ È. fær.'e T del å È.-

7c

ùì

j r...

¡ñ.*o\zcJ*n r-z ')Eøx-x,l;4 "-Ç-r;A::?Få oo*ave anice day !" -t u.:@iríæmt"t4 ¿Ëi à.. ¿ Ëf,å.tr1ã.òù E6. ElAffi tt:tå7c {u!;Ylç,_aË#¿sz¡ r.È. à 1b â" ¿ EIJ/"Lâ ffi¿: ¿*,- fË+årElt'{-. ói?,ùå" l{.. to ^ z¡ÐåËi/a'ùITìô)o "IIl.ave anice ¿*. ftTLL*Tl- EÃ'eóþùf lDç. *l¿l

ft(

day!" ?Haffi¿:-mRl,'(.ÛF.-r¿erfrÆ.*'å. L!.o 7 / y r^Ù*. 4 )\- i#,wþrÃ< LrÆr¡ffikî 6àì. Fù*. BA#¿:trtã>="ci€ffi¿:/Ju.ór.ðr=i#ò/¿ ( ð A,bâ0) Lr(

Ù'

l:t,4 ið*t'Ll¿l |rt4a) ¡. ¡.ffJlì" EIä^àìÉ1h\Øxþ fr6 ffiù:É i l'{to -c È * Tl. 4lt"t:Nl,'Cxffi.a) Ê) lTt.< 6ol'ç!'l- Kn'\fr:(ÈÈ,'\Øãilf¿Èt'* ) ,7cØWXffiøãi l*a I¿"ffilL¿f'. ê+ØÈiø

lu.l;ÈÈ*Tl.

ÈHø1A.ø

XLv^

/¡åu.l /¡ Ð å t,iù>ì,.ðrò j€ffi¿:¿t/J!.o ElaÅ¿*_ hnÈi¿:â:tÅü:*/¿ Èkc't *i L. iftBùi,¿i ö j t ðt.årf âa L¡tesç-o *ffit"ò. "Thankyouforthe other day." å à. "Itwasgoodto seeyouthe other day." /¡ å" åãLt¡t'¿ ¿ ù1,/J !.åì- EA;ãø lftBùÈ Ð i òl øt i r¡iF* ¡tât.ù1,/J.,l!./rr.'o .r,rf"Lzt ìï------------ xr:' b E^ffiØfr¡:þu'lì {. ô t'ð ?Æ#ùÌ. lft* bXE!:TÃ'>I¿ -ftËÉ!¿:=r'" '€ffiJ /¿ffi. z Øtrlù' ô 1 " l:t-lrJù.btl âm. ât¿-äå*u-q-rc - EttØ+ffiøftÐ,râr ,ffib

¿'i r. ) ffi¿:fnJ Lã't

l¿ à J

u.à.ÈìlÂ*:{!.{. 4fLþH,ì-6l)lrt, X+t¡hä##

t"åË:.6òlt_Iìô)" r:,'L-L{O Ü't6')åÜre-l-È fi ,t ¿o1. f r:r"

iL aît! t' ) € t¡'tYaf t: fl', 1 tt * f

-t,zÞT>>>>>

rttrtôtìð?=Hl

-lz#>>>>>

32

,,,,, õrìÈ2=*

There are three different types of predicate

endings-tT. * j--forms, lì-forms

and

t

|

ù¡ 6 -

forms. So, the idea that Tanaka is a Japanese can be expressed as HFð /L¿t EA^f.¿, B1+ ð /t Ìt BA^/a' or EIF Ë ¿,li Hä^-e ð å. The styles which use f.T.* T-endings, lìendings, and f ã> â -endings are called f T. * T{õ, lì{6, and {" ó å {ô, respectively. While -c'' b 6l# is mainly used in writing, both 'C1. * T{f and È{6 are used both in speaking and writing. In speaking, ('.T' * T{ô is used in formal situations such as any formal meetings or in addressing strangers, acquaintances or people to whom you feel respect is due. Ìì{6, on the other hand, is generally used in informal situations, such as when you are talking with your close friends or family members. È6 can also be used toward someone for whom you feel respect is not due (e.9., children, one's subordinate, etc.) In writing, lì{ð is normally used in newspapers, novels, scholarly articles and essays. Letters and memos are usually written in (.' T' * T6. îb â{16 is very formal, so it is generally used for formal writings such as public documents and scholarly articles. ,,a.:f ..$',f

ff ,(pôlite;form)

Ì;--6 (plain forúr),

{.þ,6

ffi ' (exnosiøqy,form)

EIAAT.l

E^^/.'

n#/\'e b â

Ea^{$H}a I *nia

Bä^{E'å}n...

BA,,\(.t*r¡u'

fdK/i:

Íffif1-T¿

rffi{f$}ó È

b

*ÈÂ,(.1/¿

+t+{3H}

ãr--e 1

å

tur.r..

Í.{"dl.lù> ->t¿

rÃù"ot¿

Èi¿t./¿

Ì¿!.(.-î

åd,¿r,.{3'å}ób*ÈÂ,



{3'å} nr.. äl'

* (Tt ( l¡'|¡ Ù)

Uses of both strongly masculine and strongly feminine sentence-flnal particles have been on

the decline. In fact, younger men and women hardly ever use these strongly masculine and strongly feminine endings anymore. Women these days generally use moderately masculine endings in casual conversations, and thus there is not much gender difference in the use of sentence endings. Older women, however, do still use strongly feminine sentence endings. Furthermore, in comics and anime, these strongly feminine and masculine endings are used to create certain character identity, and hence it is good to be able to recognize gender characteristics of these particles.

,,,,,6rìË2=*

1 "o V/46r1¡='without V-ing; instead of V-ing' V lr

.

t-Í",

[âtr1

>2. l-:

>>>Ëtrrãurc]

gne éf the negatiu" a-¡9rms of a verb, is .oftén fðllowed by another velb:

a) Eärtr.

Lr(

{EI

ö

t,

ltu

Éþfrt,rêFàrâÐ

|

*d

6Ø¿tft+Lt¿"

(7n Japan, it is bad manners to begin amea\ without saying anything.)

b)

ffiÆþ L/¿¡,rÍYüt,..)R6Ø¿l,J ( /J!-. (It's not good to come to school without having done one's homework.) ¿ L r))'L

c

) ElÉÊH^lîrt'ts,L\Tx.1fu,ifrt

6ä4

å.

Ù t. (There are students who study atlnorne instead of going to the library.)

,, V',/J 1,. {: often c-arries ,a conno-tation,.that one didn,lt do Whatone- w4s,expæçted, fo .do. $o, b), one is expected to do homework before coming to school bw helshe did nol

f ,r, Vltülürø)fi='You

should

-

Uit.,lt would be good if you did lã#.z

,:

ihislexpression,rsusually used to suggest the opþo.sþof.whæ,

a)

ù -r

> t. z

fo

,

-)'

>>>EnHurrøtc]

hÈ,oüeiipç ìslg¡qg

or

h

åF( Ëftlt'trl,rc)[;.

(You should go to bed earlier.) Ì)

b) tllr.t,

/Ju. å ¿

ôt|ftæ.t:ËI[tlt'trt\ø)Í:"

(You should ask your teacher about things that you don't understand. lSaid to someone who is hesitant about asking the teacher some questions.l )

J a)

'ot t*LlZ='moreover; besides'

HÉt*. )¡þìþt"-t-. Znt;WlffiùÉr.ØT-_

lemz >¿.a]

ÍÈ.a¿ (

!.{.1.

(tUkyo has a huge population, and, moreover, prices arehiglr' Therefore, Tbkyo is a difficult place to live.)

b)

A: +H¿*ñfiàräå a i

t¿ia"

(You don't look well today.)

B

:i

ô':l

t.È

À,- EÈìtË (

(Yes,

h2 (. zirE#tò Ë ¡ a Lb6 À,î"

I have aheadache, and I also have a slight fever.)

A: D+. + 1,ffi-tcffiÀ,ÈlÈ¡U-U.ca" (In that case, you should go home earþ and rest.)

35

.lz*>>>>>

,..,O!heqgonjunctions,which,areoflen,usedinclûde Z,fuf" 1the.ré.f,orç;'1u,,,kLt* iand;,and..thên;, and also,' 4 ùt lt, b 'after that.' 4 L'C. is the most general conjunction meaning 'and.' 4 ÌLlr, ù emphasizes that an event follows another event in time, and 4 fLî emphasizes "causal" relation between two sentences.

c)

ÈØ? t*Hr-þt,,rftÈ* Lrr"

ô*n'lfr'tfÈ*LÈ.

XæøXØÅ-î¿ _,nft-ct. ä+rc¡

IÍt+:'\

(I went shopping yesterday. After that I went to apar!y at a friend's house and came home about ten at night.)

4 ùLlt, ì, and 4 l-î arcfine. Howev er, 4 lt'ìt à emphasizes the fact that it was after the shopping that the speaker went to the party. In some cases, therefore, 4 trù, Ù and 4 l,'C. arenot interchangeable.

In c), both

d)

ÈØ

i ùÌ. EAf{ËE^Tt-rI¿"

Z

l,T ( 4lt ¡t'È,) þ-f L ?ê-rÌ¿.

(Yesterday I went to a Japanese restaurant and ate

sushi.)

[* mark means that it is ungrammatical.]

e) ÊìË¿lAffi¡ôãn*.1¿" ZVT (41¿ù'à) /\ffiðóffi->lc" (My friend came to my home about six, and left about eight.)

4

f

)

tL'C'presents a reason or cause. |9å

À

+r(

gÈìKb * LTc" ? fr?'. ftõffiàrìEi¿/c À'-et" (It was snowing. The flight was delayed because of that.)

4rrrlålrl8,lDr^,/Cüf ='not

easily'

lã*i2>¿.8>>>ã/rìfr/r,Kt¡aaczl

::::

¡ ,,

/f'È.i¡¿:, when used with a negative, means that somethiniis noüeasily'$ne.,r,orftat,ittakes

ù,tvu åtd a) Ë?¿rr¿Ðâ,h'Ha-ànl¿( (-

(Ifs terrible because it takes

a

;*

W-t.C

L'*T.

long time for me to memorízekanji.)

b) =- E, -þffi.À,ìØ(". /J?)'/c?)'ËË*ù:f {f ¿t(" L/¡. (I had coffee, and so I couldn't fall asleep easily ITtad a hard time falling asleepJ.) [i.e.,

!

>>t

QUeStiOn WOrd

+-ùtïïùtå/¡ür

[âã:>¿.g>>>ur2r*ãt]ìâaaat.s>>>uanvll TT tt" (Thafs why she speaks fluent Japanese, right?) ù>

o)

)'ì*9*'.-ü fr È. ùt /J l-îrumtl'È' b L f

u'

* T"

(He studies all the time without even going out.)

B

j(-eÈ6þtt6ù'

rñE B¿à €l øeããxã bEËJl

" ùlù

å- ffiLr,-"

(Characters for names are difficultbecause there are readings such as those that even Japanese can't read.)

39

-lz#>>>>> i

a) "o EL¿,Aãffi ¡pb: *

'>1." t'^À 7c {Lì,tjÑ;Ærì ->l¿tt"

2:-

1,, ? {LI= is used to give an

additional reason.

È

b:

1 ,r"

1:

HE¿ila'Èr,

@b

r9

>>>>>[âtr2]

E!-lVJVl

à ^.7 -

. -ÄlÌ BA#Ø+4.. ð i -^¿l EÆ#Øft+J: t¡ b /J ð l,'o +IJ.++0) Mø-e , Yä¿*Lls.å ( Àb ¿:frä¿=Éårt (frâ 1:tobumpinto) L.ô-c'T" ft ù:



b

1¡2

ãÈ.Ð iìr,- HffiaH,¿ i /ì=/¿å.. ft4.1:Ëf,åäð \,o 4l-'(ãttØHÍtat:?!.( ft4.1=#L/JðL'o zc {LtrtKbot¿ 6- ++.2 PoÌ¿)x,ùtftäù: ä b. tÈ+.V P':> l¿ÅÈìYå.,t:t¡cLö t *ËlEl Dâtr?ffiË L/r ð L'" Jó

f

,,, EI-IVJV<

e ":7ù:r¡ b. -ÂütEAffiØ+ä- ò i-^ùÌEã/\øts.Ét:t¡ Ø1 LlEltiâff?. ( Ètll:EAffi

(informalJapanese)

b /J

ð

!'o

Q

t-a- L

t.L/Jðt'.

3,'* trL.-rVJVl e ,{7¿:r¡\Ì¡ð!.. tÂt*Ë7g.c"j-. */\ùtfiax-,ùl/Jð¿ it¡ø'c{à,HÈ/¡a \-o 4l-'c., EA#f#L/JèI.O

71."rì4 Ã

þUr¡ðì,.. [-¿¡ì,.t.Øl:)

ò i-^r)ì¿.i L þtfr.o'c._ ( /¿'ùl/¿

ttrt' õtìÊ?=g€

{rr,dVv-, e "{7¿: t¡b, T-t 4 i:rt.'C.0)f 4 7ùy/ =yþt,t¡ð,,.. fiø ¡ir^EffiZtâ

I

L

l. L.o

a) T-^ 4 þt#c{1.åà.. fSr(!./¡¡.fro b) Ð i L{ffi.o 1 t- âØlt,- I#o{!./JL.ØÐ.o c) ,-r4¿rffiÈà.. È6!.å.o d) E i U{ffå TÃo)tt,- È à r,.t¡.o)ù,o e) T-, 4 þ{fr.i ØÌ1. Ê#þù.tl âffi/ìùtà.- üJ,Ð.0). Lù:ffi.i ¿ ¿ ò ù:âù," Þi¿¿*'. ù ) 7 {úÈ t -,4 ùt ¿¿,4. ¿ ¿:ffà âÌ¿ô itr." (ffi!: *á!. L ¡..rzqÉ?'¡¿Ét:&. k6o)

\

!,,, fFI e

'Éma¿:

r l. {Élî++

(' à t,. ØlFxþE* /J ð !.o *É*a

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l- ôù.->l¿: ¿ /¿" ùlËùï

It"Ì t"" räir lfr ØHl

arJ

frtÀùrE;ffir>i:-ift!ffi=-z-á -)"'TtÈ * L/¡o : z--a-rî¿*. Èiü:{È¿,-cì,./¿ a ¿ Ø Þ â a B v ¿ 7x+ùt ( nrf-tr 4*. L t:. tytÌÈi ¿ lEl D j i r" L/¿¿ì. t+Ø ¿ ¿f

øË¿*. ai.t¡Éirå¿: rÃoÍ!./¿ø)t-'. cÀc ( b L* L/¿" -ìEFÆ@E. Ë)s Lt.ôt-ô t¡FfrþF,I¿ b - vz | 7 vîiôu,t-u-PVlþÈ^l/¿ b -6'È{. ¿ { ò }å.c/¿îf"

*t p/v' ^ì-r-àì. € Èt' *r v ^ A:cÊtlJftä¿:âr,.* * Ërt E L ttÌ'rùr-'o. FÆË." { r.trL¿å-'x ?Ãful¡ u."

L/¿. cD zEf,r. r- jÃ.øxn;

ð

0 a)

@

K

p tvlt1Æffi0)ffi#^f-r < L.\tt"

* t rr,,yt*. c) âEûtËl-t-4 )î'1.

Õ b)

X

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d) e)

E:IJJt+.å ùa

ò tED+/¡ù.d)ù1. ÈØ

i

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õ2

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ò *á ¿ ¿ r,. ò, iÉt-zï.-cf¿ ù

U!.Í.--fo

41

-lz#>>>>> I

lt)

I

w

t¡'

Ëfå. t'- Hlfrat-tÃ.'tI¿Ù=-e-7^-ffô-ù:fiått't u'I J-tvþ ö à:t" ðËf¿Ì7, y ùþ*'t'F,l¿

za¿-a-2

ù:lÈ{-r+¡7 ¿*. EÆØÊ.Løð

i" +litrt=z-3-r+^*.þ. = z-a-rãt'tÃ0)î- i¿a -2 0) a L r¡ 6Í¡!'eö j ( îno|-L.6o ð Èf¿¡= t--a-V "'ftï: t'. EH :

å¿¡/¡1.

È,

ì..

t¡ffiþuìéuì 6F,Èr óül'J ) L7"1vþ(FoI¿" +T, It - ð ËÍàìË u,IciÃ.øEØÉE+ ( È. à - ? v,' v I v þÆl]L{Ët'l¡. *f p v 2 7 -7 -'+v l -- , 4 ¿^À'7r Ù -7 - rYÅy' 7'71- l" C,'v t¡EþF,'C. {¡ 6cl¿" 4{t'þ,à. 2001 +9H 11 BØtrl-C.+È'þ'f¿Z-¡vi'^'l' r,,- 1.".+vl -åìlE:f !.tDtr'-ìBfutu'( å. ðËfÌÌz,&'U7€ )l¡ffikF'ÈI¿.

Èfàr-#F=7'f¿Ø¿t, 'L v | 7 )v't*-rî, zþF'f¿ffiÈ:t. lbb, 7):þ¡.¡'J LÉo'C.- y 7Ø4^ÊþÈ ( ð À'L l il DÐl¿. 4l-r lRËc¿*- ¿ ð

z L ò = l-ù.F,È, {t t¡!.à. à : *

I

t)

#;ñ-f a È'

Êc1.\- â

aln Ø'¿ã¿#,tu:c.

u

:

/"h

L

t,.

sad

¡E¿'

ÉS ¿.þ¡J¡. 4H

to show someone around

t-

to be standing

to show joY cute

+rv À,

pictuer;photogfagh

ff UUnHO. råË:Curnldx €^nHÈuì.

a) ðËfÙ*. Èiü:= z-3-2 Ù:*/¿. Lùtbâ" b) +)^, I*- .13- = -21Æ.*.{tl¿"

E c)

ð

K e)

RË¿: {¡ '/ x ¿s/; ( ð ¿,1,'å

D

t,..l ffi oI:"

¡{t¡

squirrel

Z

¿t¿atl.

M

å /¡

È+lå. Hifraøffit:*'T7 t=) -)vþ#.2l¿Ølìô i d) ðËÍ¿f. +v | 7 )v'tï-/lrt.-&Ã,t:),.o1¿" "

Ëü {(oË

"

¡1jii !11:

ilirl lrili 1,1¡ì tilt)

rl

rìi¡r lìljii iliilt ilittr

iitli,t !,1 tlllrirI

l

Ft¡ f¿ø)

. €,5-?Ðffi_LlÞ_løãfo: . ËiøElrÉlfêtf?ttfclÊ ã

:il

TL\tttutiÀå

r iÉ'#itt erì (

. Ð5:(ËE(

r r tefÉ

If r{

r

" ""

""""""'>Ê#2 :.::"""" """" " " """""""'>Ê# 3 q.

URE No a

c o o o

Asking Favors (e.9.,

Would English T ust as you would try to speak very politely when you ask a favor inpolite when asking a J yo, ... please?, Would you mind ...?, etc.), one should be extra favor in Japanese. Japanese speakers often deliberately start out hesitantly by saying Ë *: ¿tiffitìi5ìõ âfu7c| û ¿....'- (tit.,l have a small request but ...) instead of a more direct 5*:

¿öffit\7:TõDt3-. Negative forms such as ttfclÊlJtttfuD and U\lclilJtdUìC U t f 75\ also occur frequently. ln more informal speech (e.g., when asking a favor of a family membeL a friend, etc.), one would say Ð òì-fåV\?, >>>>

T;.t or American students who have taken only one or two years of Japanese, it is virtually I impossible to attend lectures for native speakers and expect to understand the content. Much as one might wish to experience authentic college life in Japan, that would most likely be beyond one's reach. lt would be more reasonable, therefore, to attend a university that has an international division geared to foreign students. Toward the end of the year there, when one's proficiency in the language has improved considerably, one can perhaps receive permission to visit classes for Japanese students a few times to "get the general idea" about Japanese college courses.

c c o o o

I I I I I I

trrtt Eäro)El#



*vn lL .

*r uP

=

10

El:

EÄ#ø=frft#ØffinEÈa.ll("

^-¡-.

-ffift+., L¡-> ¿sáD+*L*T" ùå t .. fn¡a"-¡¿..

4Iutv

ùt

=

4 )fTìt'" L

El:

ð Øæ#-effiffiþ

T a*,-ri.{,-C" L È"

=

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t-

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u.

-> "C.

b

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*ìi À,tr. ffiØB å u. 7 ¿. ls Eløz_Kffi

El"C'-f dâ"

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45

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ç

ó.

46

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b

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l.À E ¡II

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<

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J.

t

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ttt t Eä^øg+l

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l'¿ s _ Ë[ l.À BI

¿-Êß. #EeftÈh\Ä:

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+.

L À,ü'>[frÌ- ¿Ì ?

ì- l"e¡:c ð ËùrË

r

." È

ô/a'" -aÊ.t-'c ( Ù¿l¡ r,. ?

l.-U.Jo

brùtL)"

l'¿

I e+"8)b ¿tþD. FåF>r>r

ott

f

VtCül?

a)

ù¡Ur¿ffioc

<

ÈË¡.isoftencontractedtoV/Ât,'-e.

[it] tomorrow, OK?)

,,, V (causative) Tltï¿låll /¡ür?

l¿

xöltt lâ#l

>

t. t q >>>EtJËtt(trtctittrdtr-ë

"itié,it'a¿,r;Cô¡ldl¡o¡rcg'.e.!þ,árravor of your retting *é,. a

)

b)

,,',"',, .

âøþ,E,nâürfde.

(Please don't forget to bring

f

I

I

l*#1>t.z>>>ËnãrìEl

hqu*¿conversation,Vät,.-e (

.

EôrOEl#

ÈiØ B ¿=#r#¿Élf ð rf

(

,1,:

tr

à är]

¡.ã,,v.¿ú;jplite

)

ür/¡ Ë tt /c rru. t, ¿ tt," (Would you please let me take the exam one day earþ?) zÀ'À:¿'

ft+.ØffiX.þffñ* (

Ëf

ür/: Ë tf

/J

trr U * Ò tt, "

lspeaking to a professor] Would you mind letting me read your paper?)

c) ftæ.. ffi#þ{t * {f ( tt/¡

/c

tt

/J t,r ?.

l, ¿ Ò lt' "

(Sensei, would you please iet me be absent from class?)

d) # ftæ., ffi#þfrlvT' tr È Ë tt /J tr (. l, ¿ Ò lt'" (Sensei, would you be absent from class?)

Sentence c) is the correct request. nòìtus¡rry'ap,prgiiatè. . :, .'. :

e)

ftä.

t€ffif* En'ÈT

tt/¡Ëlt/Jtr(

l, ¿ )lt'.

(Sensei, would you 1et me say it in English?)

f)

,b4Ê.

t€ffit"Ec( tt/cËtt/ctr("

l. ¿

)h,"

(Sensei, would you say it in Engiish?)

53

.l¡

ËÊ,""

; by the end of

9Etrr t -pþ L( ( Èð t.. (Please

a)

e-mail sometime today.)

+ÈÀ

b) XÊ.å (

[I]

- 9Æ + {:fÄi, r¡ ll È¿lf'¡¡ å /J !'.

have to pay the rent by t]re end of this month.)

4rr, -t{-l*Ë='The

more/less

-, th€ more/less -'

lffiuv¿

> ¿. t

t >>> ãttnHårìE¿]

il,rg,sn: +.V..é,i,6l"

dl.tg4

f.

¿ *á 6 l' ô ( tÌ â L.BL- * nl;{tuffiï HAffi¿å. (I think that the more you study Japanese the more interesting you will find it.)

6lf

ffi#t

b) ++.trtt| n$g;tril ¿. ¡É¿*'f¿ 6 ø) àìffi L t -"

(The more students there are lwho applyJ, the more difficult it is to be selected.)

c) !.!.vz l-TvTttn\ibãÍf ¿Ët'. (Better restaurants ate more expensive.)

d)

#,ïÃIt

lt'Ì"t¿lvt 6nlìt,

ã fÍ E !'!."

(Simpler explanations are better.)

e) BÄffil*- ffirÂu/cttftrt'L /Jtrlf ¿+ìtr. à /¡ ( /¡ b *'f .

(The less you study Japanese, the less you will begin to understand it.) Lr tfür

5 "o Nl;JrþA,/t)lft fi='other than -; besides -' a

)

Ittc ã

ttu

È¡i å¡ Ll tr

ártt

#ffiøUlø t*. äñ+Ët:tflE

ôHi

lffiaø

> ¿.t s

>>>ffial

=¿'l.Y*ø]

Øtrtb â

ôu" (at ttre beginning of the semester, there are so many things to buy besides textbooks.)

ù¿t,

À à' ,r( L¡i

L¡iåt(

u'

l>

å¿,

b) ÍtrÊt+€r\r+oæ+#ö ó b * T"

(There are otlter scholarships than that from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Tbchnology.)

_

ütå

necessarily mean that...' $ "' ülVþ-El,tÖ*ltl?f*t¡t,t='it doest. not >>> s €EuäøH{ütlr€52ã¿uìãþlttËãtr] ütt lffiañ¡ >

a

54

)

t

btt?'f *öt) *Ë

lù" ¿: rà 6 ¿tr ä goes to Japan.) (It is not necessarily the case that one's Japanese improves once one

'x,T v €' B;6^lÍùt ll'Eäffià¡.h.f

,,,,, Eä^øE#l

b)

ù'll, úËl-

ö

c)

ar.ltlclf át,ì.

Øàlr,.L.¿ur

(It is not necessarily the

case

that expensive things are good.)

út t €, Elä^rra ¿,dÃ,ßÏs-¡t¡WÈ (/¿) ¿ ür i t,ttrtttru *Ë Á.. (It is not necessarily the case that

r> NI{'}U='nothing but

l

a77

Japanese like natto.)

-'

l#úvt

>

t.zs >>>E+ËtáDþl

].::r:],.,]):.:,.::::.:.]:...:..':::.

æl expless"s the,idea that there

:., '[,X.l$¿¡lb

a)

1 w èØ=

are so muctr'X that¡ráþþ'eæi:a¡

ii

ànill

x

"*iuÀ,

z- 7llt.f/¡ =z-Zlt'rt'úJ1*- t..ç t'at¡.â "

(TV news is nothing but bad news, and it's terrible.)

b) Bä^fjo

ll,lJÐo) a ô ¿i-



l, L ô !.

I

Ìi:

å lÍ'7t'U

/¿"

(When I went to Japan, in the beginning I had nothing but interesting experiences.)

..Iná),thereisofcou,r¡,e

ei'f!,

onif,,,g.b eié.i!'s.òm,uc.$

there were nothing but bad news.

.:,,

1,;ittìì

c) î

:

l:ü_-fui1r""-saiif

àiso¡e used in combinarion wiúriri¿:t:i!id1¿f1.¿.+È¡ii.:':',],ìi..

v ¿'þ F,'c tlfii tl !' 6 ¿ fú,Ífrc

È

*

..'',

,:-,¡i' .1, ¡'.,:''"

rù.1,.

(If you watch TV all the time, you can't study.)

$ rt t¿ã^( a) #æl)rl--e (It

\4¡i11

='as

-

as possible'

læatø>t.zal

ù. /Jãc< HÆffiþfficl¿ãàrl-!.t..Lr r.

be better if you speak Japanese as much as possible even outside of the classroom.)

zl

b) ffiE¿x. /r õ^ ( h.øB ¿:t

Lf

( /¿"Ë r." (If possible, please hand in homework the next day.)

9 -'

V

(plain)

^(ä ='shoutd; ought to'> lffiatvl

¿.

ze

i ''T:þis,,is,afÒrrn,deriyed..fr.orn$e1âssical.,ãuxi1iery.,t'.'ê

>>>

iF- Lzi- 1 èr

^&

Ë

t. 3 3

>>>Ën õ

*Utrft'¡@ws.theplaþ

xËe *r¿ur] f

pre¡ent tg4¡e

form of verbs and caries the meaning 'one should do i.'When the verb is Tå, both T-rÈ and T a À * are used. Thé negæive form of ,s È is .ì È tl t i. rathèr tnan * A r,. -r È f¿-

f

a

)

b)

t,À,Åtù

B

ä#Ø#H

ù;-#,ô.tc ìt, -; rc r,

ù,L

.

t:

Æ# þ fuiñr Ø) d ã t¿"

(Ifone wants to read Japanese newspapers, one should study kanji.) L. ttÀ

¿i¿.Ø^ØÉE(opinion)

ö Ë:<

¡tã/¿".

(One should listen to the opinions of others.)

c

)

h4

ffit,.ËËøËE

ùÌfå <

^

Ë (" ùt /J

!'.

(One should not listen to the opinions ofbad friends.)

55

.l¡=#,,,,,

1¿O

a) ,,, frfrL=ffiü(1)

>>>>>[âffi1]

1:When you have something to

t. fÊ,+., b * c¿ +JFttrÏó â ll,acttt ¿

+*.

t*t.. {4f'L¡ l"

ft+. ++. ft+. ++.

L

ITI"

trøÒ. .r*XìEØmt#ø z¿r¿lv1., ò t -EffiË L /J Ë !'. l'rÈìftKb

Q,,,,

iV-rZ þ-ì77

e

)tø/. y-7"þlFor- W+t-l¿t.Yäàsft+¿-ffi#¡ þåffi.

=

e*

lut¡¿

trL6tr.ëì-lJÈ !.o ìp-/ícärñþ=)lF]| /Jè !.o E{FË¿ìf È/¿ à, ttctJ¡i t' r,=ry¡¿ (to present) L A ð !'o

J,.,

=4t: l,'y rt IþlrJ&ù,Ël¿Tü:fS:I!-: tÌi ) Èì1.!.'CjÀl å u. j Z 1.",ì 4 lùtã>->T¿" I ¿ i L({"Tà.. fÁ¿lÈffii ¿ v / -þLfr. t,.*Tüf àl È)=-tåìË) L- tr+.åK,o'C- l4)Df /Jt.'À,11 i."

)r#ø14 vùtùt---,,{-ìùtv ö 1.."7 4>>>>

hen you are doing a homestay, ask questions whenever you don't understand something, e.g., how to use the toilet, the bath, the washing machine, etc. Japanese people love electric appliances, many of which are quite different from, and frequently more complicated than, their American counterparts. The bath water might scald you unless you know how to regulate its temperature. Modern toilets, so-called "wash-lets," might completely puzzle you. Also, never assume it is all right to do something without asking permission. Eating things in the refrigerato4 bringing a friend home, coming home late, etc., might all upset the family's plans. The safest thing would be to ask permission. More will be said on this topic in Lesson 1 1.

Talking About One's Family doesn't do it here, when Americans 1 n âËÉ 1, Jason talks about his family. Although Jason "brag" often about them, as the woman their family members, they I talt about

mentioned in ffia*r) in Lesson 1 did, saying, "l have three beautiful daughters." Japanese don't do this because they consider their family members as extensions of themselves, r.e., just as it is in bad taste to brag about themselves, it would be in poor taste to brag about their family members.

Writing E-mails and Letters hen you are writing e-mails and letters, first write about the recenVcurrent weatheL inquire about the addressee's health, and touch upon your own health. Then pro-

to the main body of the text. lf you are making a request, explain the nature of the request here. lf the purpose of the e-mail or letter is merely to talk about your current activities, describe them here. Lastly, in the concluding portion, write Clt. ¿iZ &ô L < ôßH U\Utl if it is an e-mail/letter of request. O,therwise, just write so-and-so f-&ã tJ>>>>'¡F-

l:771

ev /u'?^E#*9 11 v !, jF- Å,77 1 ftØðÊlðtu¿# t CUlõ. *aËð Â,

:

Ð-4Yv *áËð ¿,

:

æffi.ØEHffi-c'Câ?

zì-- ð b *T" L ¡o åEttð 6r{ò!.1.? --.ffi.b b * Tùl ¿" ì-À:-" (4HþWfiù, òHL¡¡¿,-t)

9-4/Y *á&ð ¿,

:

¿

d't¿l*ó1ã À,?

àÀ. Î-c"T"

ìt4)Y táËð

)-4Yv-

:

'l,

Tu.sôÉØÉr,.äda.

tol-+60). )\+îffi.ì-{ t,. * i-" l4l,-c

ì-4/Y JóËð

:

'l,

924/Y S'á&ã.ì,

:

Ðt4)Y t5

JáËå ¿,

:

4 i " ltrJØftH"

7trùøÆF"el" 7 t y h*-¡a"......*ôËðôðËÈìHt.de" å å. Èå. 61Xò ÉÈìÉ ( /¡-IT¿ À.Tì å,8 t,. * T. 4 {11- táË ð À, fr lrl?r,tt$ L f t -c t- + 6 0) ?

9-4)Y

Ëù*f#+("T"

táËð Â, :

.', Z o

9-'l/Y

ì-

i-"

7,

y z,

I: ti.f1[*.Øft#tn¡sa\,-

E!l_t!::.ÞU <

Þ_

Þ

0) ?

å_gô.

1

È&È.1,:

!'-4

Y

*a&ð Å,

v :

" 4 {L'f- : d'tåìtárilð ¿, ¿ffið A,tJ" þnð.t,ò X 4,t Z i-- nttlËJ b -?t.l¿"È. à. ü , X++#{*îùl ¿" 7c

)

ffið

Â,¿Ì ?

ù-4Yv ffi¿rëJ *aEð Â,

:

lz4/Y JáËË

'{,

=:Tr.

ãffi.ØW+4r"î.

*áËð A't:lÞ)Î6 *t" 7c

:

b

)'CllJ."

L o'C ö È.d2 !'L.o

63

ev

lu h L&#frl-+ì

*ó1ð

Â,

7-ìv idlð l', z-+lv

v. fr- /J,77 1 ftøô1Îë 7-Tvù;ä*dr./¿ØùlÐ:.

4.*ù¿l¡Øüi,:

=:Øffiù:, 4øù ¿ zr

i"

ZL. ù ¿ zsvvvØ,Itläßî'î"

*á1È

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¿,

T¿A""fT

+

1220+) alFI"

22nØ.

L

?

b- -f r)*È¿,. FåËà* L/¿. 22nîî"

*r1ð

+. b À"*. b xÈ t.FJD ç /J L.dâ" -r" ð. ù .t z y = !y'cùÈ-ÉElù:tå r.¿,fTÌ.

¿,

tdlð

¿,

7-qìv *áJèã ¿,

D

,"-å. *ËÅÈ u'Øå?

\tvù t-*-'Cf" bb, ltvù ¡.-*-È.. è-¡vtH&t¡" ï-------------

7-+ìv Sá1Ë.â,

7-+ìv jdlË

Â,

7-+ìY

î. -"14 y vl tIrØTto"C.âù å d'¿u. l¡Ffr?

àå. ùl ¿

$á1ð

Å,

7-+)ìv

"

f å t. È ¿,Hu. * T.

7-1ìv

7-ìv

64

:

+lÈ.A,îr.åEtrÌÌ. -ct_ t..¡.Ef(,.T .k" {¿tær-trT/"Lå". æå.åÐt*-e

{ ò Ètr1r.'cf ¿Sà L!. ¿,8t. *i-"

) À," -F.11 c'c. ¿.Ì¿u'

l,.:å.ÞÉð .4,1t,. et -c l- p

/J óo -c"C.

( È"ð u."

>>>>>

¡F- L7- .(

a7-+l>. iF- /\77 1 ft 0) A)ËÈ tu l¿ ã+EI ä *Þ â . if',- i¡.77 4 ftØ#..ltERr)r 5 5 * : ë Ëu t. 7-tÌv rrËÈ ¿,. ! r : ¿,ERÈi* îEâ\-+'ntt:lrå l¡ r.¿,f"T üt ¿. ÉffiÉffi b ( ò L.

*r&Ë

Â,

[.("Tå.o

!. !.-C-l-

j

o

z-qìv

4 {Lù.6......o

SáËå rt,

{4"

z-+)ìv

7

rá&ð ¿,

" [.?È. r r. ,:ìEdz{ È /¿ t. Â,-cf üt ¿". [. Ì,.'c- L ] ) È.. !. [.{"1}. {4{ L. i Ä" - ì Ì/ -'c"Cu, ) À,f,'1. BAÂøKl:-pl>Tr-cl¿: å àì/Jt.'r¡À,-Cã-t

to X-clv táËä

À,

z-+lv ts JdËð

¿,

r

'

ùØx+ØËì€-e. âHHît€#þw.ì-(r.6^ù:. *0)i{Effiâ,

I¿

À,1T

-C

* L/¡.

Dtó.

Ð

AY¿: !. !.{*1å.o 6 t, ô.4," Affi¿:X( ò 6 ->I¿ c, E i

"

ù>l,I¿9È.ù:*{ò 6:/¿à ,B={u.i?å aôlì7r.6"

)"

^LÀb

z-+lv

r ì I - ù*^ffi * fft$/¿':'C.ã ={ L.l¿È. à.

$áËË ¿,

t..r.("T

J" D ç.

z-+T'v

brtrt

):ð"u.*T"

å

Äffi#-t-;--Þ_-{-1. ¿

2.

ù:Tåf

t, þr

^H+#t"

Èl;l=zÀ

i

¿

} [. * rl.{,à..

*t,4u,,.,,

t

O

!

- 4 v v.

V )r

U

h

Ø^VeEä#ääi^. Tþ 5 =f¿=EftËl-X- lbã.ï

6"

=frîà+. ò

t+E ø*.t:z¡ b * Lt¿È;. RH¿**ÈFF¿. >>*Ë,¡- ¡.2]

s

-lt'X t-

v1i

,rÍl

v'/u

ti

g ^t] l¿-luì1, tÈ¿?

¡:

[r¿ ó'

tr fñËà a

t+'x./

&

population

f

fall

to make a mist¿ke 16r'

frft(t¡)

winter

¡l¿

spring

(tÈ l')

second (largest)

Really?; Gee!;You're ¡

lake

¡.,p.

æ

kidding. ,9ti ó

governor

{f¡a 21 ltr

L:

state capital

if I remember correctly [>>>*;tz- t.¡]

6

t3 -æEl¿:

rc

ßm+

¿

ffi

*

(- ù: ) FÀl t' 6 to resemble (-) ¿.þ¡J¡. cute; lovely

lawyer

^ta

ttlt,

(one's own) older t:-

tL

7'yùF.

(someone else's)

brother

one's height

t

(someone else's) older brother

younger sister

wallet

EI

?

r[i¿

6æ.

ôt,.

Je!

18

rL

picture; photograph

¡ Wfr ¡[.

16

*ár¿È

Èå

L +'L lu

n'ru

îiI.

permission

Êf

jß-L771

famous

[>>>*Ë./-t'4]

,ì,

,, 24

T'lr-'à

út

Êã À,

L,-r,-

wonderful; terrific al1of you

*14u,.,,.

b¿

t *o6 .ì,

to request; to ask for

rz

(-¡11¡ 6

train station

EF .f

¡:V/¡L¿ôÈ

far

l8l' Y7¡,v+

z Éffi4 {Ef*

by chance

t¿

("t¡,

7 10

things like

À,1



Ét/o

L

i

f.Yt: ro f:i L- * tiÂ,

ù,f

to borrow

have just done

something

bicycle

ffib

to decide (on -);to have/take (-) [>>>*iÉl- l''s]

[:

rea11y;

truly

it's all right; one doesn't

mind

r¡ å à ]

,ptiL¡( 12



dinner llit., evening meall

¿¡t¡

Ll,À:

for the first time in long time

b

a

î'ìt

3^ ôht '

E

u u-Zo) S¿: ¿. before I knew it.

end pieasantly warm [with reference to weather]

àttn'

[>>>g;t,/-

a

t¡D

summer

H.

NØJ atcãl-

i

¿:

like

N

[>>>gitz-¡e]

ð'à Ì.

i

4

#f#

s

fi¡.

¡¡51

long

r

.Jìè

Ì¿T 6

to neglect to write for a long time; not to correspond for some

time tí

a Ø'æ

since I saw you last; since that time

interesting experience

Ètç'

Ët" ?

fa1l colors (ofleaves)

t'

ffiffi ¿r¡,¡1.

[>>>g;tz- ¡z]

(time) passes

lt['rt¿

hot lwith reference to

even

ã-

EîÉ

weatherl zti

lic *o-1, L

l-.8]

fast; quick !

++ffi

s /¿i.Jì r¡['¿'z

this semester

fairly well; to alarge extent; pretty much

ålÉ

life

(-ù:) t¡'tiâ

to be accustomed (to

-)

[>>>E;Ê/- t"9] tÈ.

st(t s'È.\fr')

rr [J"f¡.

ya-y2

to be useful

terrible;awfu1 shock

>>>>>

11

,-

tJ I \

{.#f

ü'

to get by without - ing; to come off without -

[>>>gitz- ¡ lz]

(t L' È

12

l.cìÀ t)

ffiffiEE, tr #æ

ú. æ L+ FEI

Itr

14

(-t:)*6 #1,ù'¿: )-t

lIc Ètf

to ride (in/on

15

-)

intently; eagerþ to type (messages)

'

Ws¡t'â

v'ru¡ru

19

cell phone

ia1.LL

tLw.

Buddhism ?-

t:

trHËúF

newspaper articTe

¡Çn v

tratn o)'

-1"È¡t 18

Ë+

Chinese c]naractet

21

-ft t't" ¿l¡

- each

22

-E] ç', ¿

per occasion

-TSa

to do something too much; too -

t tli

f[

to be saved; (something)

¿'.È

tt

ÊÊ

t.

ffi r[.uçi t7 l+É Æ.h6

cooking; cuisine

[>>>*;É,2- l-.1¿]

Ebâ zo (- ¿;; fr,þ ) Èt

body;health (body) weight

to change lu.i.)

[>>>g;Êz-¡l:]

lar -er;by far

helps [u.i.l 76

iF- L7- 1

to be sufficient ì

â to pey attention to; to take care

t)

r?Èì

zz (-¿¿¡ J. ô1, ( *âffiå ( he1lo (to

/ìå t. say -) for me.

69

*14n,.,,, h'

r.5Ë

2.7

) ,) rtÊ.

g. EU ù:

a.tôfr.,ã

ø.fr'

z.lDj

â

e. ,I[l

q.

ÉlffiF zs.A5

tg.ffi b â

zo.Æluâ

* zs.âYffi

zs.H-

rs.*6

s+.1+

zs.Æ.h a

gs.Ë#

¡s.-El

+0.ãW

17.

zt.9È.

zz.hLÀ'b

zo.Eu,

27.

Ë l.'

zs. ìIft

tt.tV.rfc

sz.

tÉrF

zø.ll¡W,

¡2.ffiffiñüS

ra.

s.

f;flS

s.Eã

À,

ro.

re.

ñ'IF

ffiÊ

t,.

rs.ffiffi

^ FI J.

o.âf¿\

z.'Illffi

t2.ffiffi zz.lEÊ

zt.WJ

¡0.41É

q.fr#I

z.Mñ

ro.lË{r

!.

24.

Jtl

r.ÉîEI

['

HIËà å

ts.fr)<

to.,FÃ

t2.lFÈ"

ro.

^El M.#

rz.lffi

rr.{Ef*

s.ffi

r¡.4

tt.Hñ

r81¡-

À,

r¿.

re.Hl,ù'ù:

tg.tlc

zs.Æ.b â

zq.E,L â

s.Þl-t' *u)

6

zo.#lÊfl

This radical comes from ñ and is generally used for characters representing kinds of trees. wood products, etc.

[eJ [ôÍt fffit fd¿

70

>>>>>

| "' Êili t^,r¡ül)

a) ftE.

2

17

V

lã#t > t

='not particularly'

t

ìF-/Å7- 1

e >>> ÊtJI¿ u



t.s >>> l¿ tyr)r220f

'>

lnaw > t.s >>>

Ëå.='even'

EIo)& ã

t¿*urEtza

o

*E]

,

,.],.,,.ð.å

mostno.rmallv,follgws a no¡rn (or a s-.énjence+.,-,.è

least expected

9'

g on the most unusuar,,or

Case.

1( a) Eiløñffië ã-#Û/¡l'Åù*¡þt¡ l.t



i.

(There probably are very few people who cant even write their own names.)

b) Hl*ffiffiøÈilt- +4ållfËL ( f . €6ffiHlê Lbb *.ÈÀ'.

(Students are so busy before final exams that they don't even have time to sleep.)

74

>>>>>

c)

¿

å ¿ *H.øJ

i

¿:ãr,-Hð

iß- L7i1

åó b *T.

(Some days, it's even as hot as summer.)

d) EäØH-ìJ.E ( (Ifs

so

r. [Eþr¡!.1t ëi-b b *f.

hot in the summer in Japan that there ate eveî times you can't sleep.)

$ ttt (,1?O¡lE#='before

one knows iü before one realizes' l#a#l

>

¿.

s >>>

tì?ú)t

l¿tlr= à tr €]

a) $á#¿lrr?o* l;árä ( t¡o-c. L * r.*T" (Money is gone before you know it.)

b) tl¿lrr?o*E7t'ffi \t¡-;1r,-*

L/¿.

(It had gotten dark outside before I real:øedil.)

$ trt -lZt8,t¿6='be

used to; be accustomed

Ttrigptuaie.f.o.l|o.wd?:1r'g

a)

BAØ4iÉtiânT

È

*

to'

diÍ¡...' .-nr-¿'S.¿41êlô-ç

lffia¡vt>t-e>>>Eão+iÉr-ãncÊtutcl

d;,þ,,ì

{:

LÌ¿"

(I have become used to the Japanese way of life.)

Itr' ;

t . A L'^¿ì+'+'+.u' !' * ò ffiffi ?æ ) (Even among the Japanese, there are many people who are not used to using honorifics.)

b) BA^-c"

øl=t¿lt(

T.

a) l¿t.JìBAØ4ÊIÉE/J nT ä *.1't¿" (I have gotten accustomed to the Japanese way of lífe quite

b) BÄffiÈrÍ¿t-ÀffÈ 6 J. )

I=f¿

a

bit.)

cT ã * L Ê"

(I have come to be able to speak Japanese a lot better.) E À, E À,&.þe(ür < (" (Our life style will continue to change rapidly.)

c) ft¡I¿t"ØiLiÉli-

Lr

i.

75

*14*,,,,, 11 *, -þtl?l*/J!l='¡1does -*rùf

f

not mean that ...i it does not foilow that ...' lffiaÑl >l.l

O

>>>y

='tthtt¿h\2i?lrtfeeøa*Uru]

lÈ/¡ù- negates what ohe would generally conclude from previor.rs statements or

situations.

a) ð * b yeffi?mL*riÂ,Èr. (

[I] don't speak

b) 7 t y ù1)x++.tt/¡ ô

ú)



i€ffi¿scÈ /Ât. r.ItTItôúJ

English much, but that does not mean that

[I]



11,"

can't speak it.)

( ð À,futâL/Jùttrrd'r'ùt*ùrLÈs.

f¿dÊùt'È. b

L'c.t.6btt?.tt

/ù"

('A.merican college students have to study a lot, but that does not mean that they do nothing but study.)

In a) above, if someone does not speak nnglish, we generalþ conclude that he/stre does not know English; this conclusion is negated.

12*,V/¡t,rjfi6 V,

!n .:,:(ne€alive doilÈ,V,':'''ì'r:'::l

a) ElåßH¿:ä¿ìó e /¿ Øt''. HT2/J trrifr ,t *, t t¿" (Because the book was in the

lhrary,I did not have to buy

1t li.e.,I got by without having to buy it.J )

fìf )Rl¿Øf. * îtl:/Jrrr.;Ëa *

f ô b L /¡. (The bus came right away, and so I did not have to wait too long.)

b) tì;4,

ÈÀ

cÊF.þ tEå ä rr r;Ê ü ¿ !- !. f*T dâ. (It will be nice if we don't have to cook every day, don't you think?)

c) EE

13 *t ^,fp='each;

at a time'

l#aw

> t. z

î'c

t

>>>

is used after a number (usualty, number + coutter) or limited q"*tity (e.g., indicatesthataquantityisdistributedequa1lyamongtwoormòreobjects,time,erc. .-- - -.-J -

a) b)

áØ

)

t¿lùYti

6

ttts;Ê7)ffi+.E

tì:

õà,

l¿Ø(.'- ff!..,ì

i

L¿v2

0).,t, þìs4.Tcó

qi.dl-Ètl

flæE-e9J+

ll

L#êþfrffi,f'zHr. * L /¿. ')rÈ

ù\tu

U

) fÁùÌ68Ë+þfr-tTcH,Zâ. å l: L{L-*1" (As a rule, I memorize five kanji every day.)

d) 76

ùL)

ù1"*

fÁØ Häffi¿*ü

Ll2 Lf

:f

r: z¡ È /¿ å,Bu(I think my Japanese is improving littie by little.)

* 1.

and

Lt¿.

(Yesterday was my friend's bitthday, so I gave (him/her) red roses and pink roses, six each.)

(I bought five each of stamps and postcards at the post office.)

c

EË-Ër4+:l

>>>>>

e) -)v*&.ïcBpî(

iF-L771

lìË u'"

(Please take one sheet each.)

14*"

V/Ad¡ (stem)

däã='tos -; do something too much' Lffi¿¡M >

,;i$ix6È¡,

Á4,e,ø;i;'.:r,:,,',-lãl:.,ú .,,Þi:å,,i::¡¡:ffi,ù,i.

t.zs >>>v,bt\l

.:Ér€- i:ir,lió,: ã;i

t.tuutae]

ú:#ø¡,f.,8'*,¡.-,

a) Ê^Täã ¿. *r/JÈì¿ìtË( r¡ b *f l.

(If you eat too much, you will get a stomachache.)

b)

ù .t z3

yvvu!.t'EFt.l¿ì. ä¿tHtå":rl.

(Wisconsin is a great place, but winter it too long.)

15 *r -IIJL='more a

7 t t) ù LW++.tÌ. ) (American

than

-'

l#uv>t.zz >>>cnu-Et*]

BAt'¿ÌìE¿: =ffiFñt)t LæffiþW.Z/¿ ¡.;þ¿ì¡' ¡..

students should not teach English more than three hours a week in Japan.)

b) -+tr¿:+fiH{ül:tl,m6 LNÆrì å ,E|t,. * Tår. (I think it will be hard to carry mote than fifteen credits a semester.)

77

*14*,,,,,

a) "'d+îIã#,b6

>>>>>[âff¡]

I : Generally you provide the rea-

z-+ìv | +7 r

ù øËì#¿sEIAù:Ëûìi:X{Lrâlv

TTli '¿ 1. -E: : ^äElt( ã ( €' ürür(' l, ¡ i lt'2"

tá8ãlù

: ù\!ì{'Tl.

t _öÈ a "" 7'LJì b ¿:TÈt'åù: L ¡ ) ¿Bp( ó t-¡¿U'á.¿X(û å ct¿à

urÉå ¿6lilt,b4"

z-+lv:

ùl

r..

U

*HÍ¡

à'.

2: When you want to ask permission, use expressions such as Í ò r.r.-6.-j- Ð'or -/cr..Â,"c|

j-

,r-t.t.'el, ¡ )lt.

3: Suggestions can be made by

(right away) ËìS¿:Ëã# L

¿-+t

L 4ÀX 9

son for asking permission with an expression such as À'î'l û

o

sayingVl¡Èå:1L¡iå.in i or

formal style, and V/¡ 6 Ð Y lc È, ? in informal style.

4: This expression - È E: f t'/¡ L a ôIÌù' ò carì be used to give a reason

1 ,r,

e

for your suggestion.

El-llsJVl LPLh

ì'æffi.ØEHkf#-c"c. å /¡ ð !.o,.s 7 ù- tÃ. t

. -^¿l

- À 7 7 4 þ l-'c. t âw++^ ð , -^ùl'h-À 77 4 frØ*á1ð À,,/t6&ã À,t:t¡. * T" H++.1!, E ' E ?8,ì¡ /¡ ås 6 ffiffi.þ ffiHà L /¡ è r,. (ØJ : I : t} ù*1'(.' i-. I ¿iâll :gJ Ð L r,. * î I ). ,Ì-À 714 ftØì6'Lã À,,/ìô&ã A,tt, ( /¿"tlÌ¿ BAffi?&!./J ð t. (ffi|: l{4 t r,. j Affiî-tù,1 ("lt/¡ ( {. lffiru. iñffi] ¿Éi). X7J.

BA"c,l1

¿

tr- HYä.þ I,Tc)r,ù:la'yìã À,,/16&ð ¿,ù: ä b. *r1ð l',/*6Ëð À,þ U /¿Ååsg+äit /J : t. ò' -ÆffiË L /J ð r,.. Wb->I¿

>>>> 7F-

/rrr4V2-, e,{7 ü: r¡->f., fEf l:lù¿)

(partner) Ø)vå

ÐØ (" à !.à.,

^uùi

J>,, jv-27

|giôr'

Hîã&ù'rÃ

ÉtâøFl¿:rì,'-C#L'ât'

/J ð

!'

(å.

:

l¿77 -(

t: ù: â¡t'-

E)"

h-177

äè r.o fr -^Ar ¿ Z'Møåffiü:. fr-À 77 4fûØlô&ã À, t:t- ôt- ôt¡=a44þ {¡ à r,.I¿ù,->t er- E l"l¡Hrñþ Ll¿ å r,. t-ù.þ4L'c., ìv-/ lHYñþ-'>lF\ t¡ð !'o f-'1 {¡ !'!'{..Tà'l f-{ ò å'* !'*'t}Â,¿'.J f-l¿!' À'îT ¿ì. ['!.{'l- x i ù,) þ-É-f^c (once each) ffit./¡ð t.. HFåàs("å /: 6l ,70)L tt2ú f¿t' t:## (to present) L /J ð !'o

e =Løltv-/t-t¡ Èl

b

''

r)

{",,

rD-J2-?

e Hä-cfr -^714 þ L/¿ ¿ t Øbâ)r.þ-)yf't/"tv-7't:^{L'C, 40)/\t:'Jr-ÀÃ 7 4 I:-tì,'{ù' ztr"' ôHÈ r¡ ð t' (fiJ : I À't¡*ffi1" Ll¡å'l ¡êS¿X Ð i 1.' L/¿å'l)" ¿*

$,,, ? rv_Jz_? e

BA^ff=/¿ ¿ [ 0)bâ++^þ*LT'clv-/t:)vl¿-c, EÆnT¡or¿W7)ù /=y2tr='tt.{Ef,åäðì,.o

tvlr'

$,,, Ë 'F"*fu 6 Èii:

(

u-7)-tvl,: ) 9-4/vùìÍffiØ.6 ) 9- 4 y vtr:Xþ \ t¡->1.ù,b

(

Ãb * L/¡.

80

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ð !."

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mat for room

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URE No c o o o

o

Advisors t American

to an academic advisor. This might not necessarily be the case in Japan. Some institutions that have an lnternational Division (known as EHäËß or E#äElil) may have an advisor system as you see in âËÉ 1 in this lesson, but that is rather rare. Even at such universities, a ryuugakusei is expected to choose his/her own courses and then go to see the advisor just for formal approval. lf a student has serious problems regarding course work as in âãÉ2 in this lesson, he/she should discuss them with the teacher concerned. For other types of problems, one can go to the æ++ffi as you will see in later lessons, e.9., âËÉ 3, Lesson 8. colleges and universities, each student is assigned

Extra-curricular Activities apanese colleges/uníversities have all kinds of clubs

for extra-curricular activities.

Some

are sports clubs, 7-7Ëß, etc., whose members play against teams from ".9.,#ifr$i3, other colleges/universities. These varsity players engage in their sports throughout the year. Baseball players, for example, practice all year round. Their practice sessions are often Spartan, and those who miss them for no apparent reason are likely to be severely criticized. The language used within these sports clubs is often very restrictive in that koohai (younger members) must use keigo toward senpai (older members). Students who hate this regimentation yet love a particular sport often belong to a less restrictive group usually referred to ur Ëiiä, i.e., a group of people sharing the same interest. There are fJ' ¡li f ël¿iDLr also all kinds of non-sports clubs ranging from E55 (English Speaking Society) to trffiHlEtrâ (kabuki club). There are many students who seem to spend more hours on extra-curricular activities than on course work. This situation, which most Americans find hard to understand, is possible, of course, because Japanese professors are generally far from demanding.

o o o o

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l::it :i:1¡1.r;:.-jj:;::i,-..:t

14

kk¿

inviting someone to join (a club)

17

a)

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in the middle of doing something

-Ëtr

club

21

22

Well [used when looking for a right expressionl Oh, rea11y.; Really?

À,

r' tfr' s

EWE Lã¡: p.i

Japanese style pub

tr.

ffixE

new student

¿,t¿ryl..¿'¡

ffiìEâ

u'*-

Ë. t0 F'

f

member of a club

welcome part5r

island

f

trL

Hey! [a way of getting someone's attention]

l¡'ø-l:

in order to [>>>*iÊl- l''s]

i: pri ,t

( L tLt

_ì ^+ilffi

\,. L ¡

erltnarrce examination

prepare students for college enúance exams

s ,,i 7!

a

f¿

L rTÀ,

-Lii Æ. Ij.tu) t . very hard in the future {$x l'tBtqi first-rate -lñ,ø Lþti Lr

g (ilffi1:)

61.

(

ffi ffiT6

to get

a

job

È

70

XorY

XÈrY ô-i

t,

L

tE^

le.g., at a

unemployed samurai; a high school graúa.ate who is spending ayear studying for a college errlrance examination

s

activities'l +ìr.

^Fvf

student; pupil

tEa¡" '

tÉ6T'

6 to increase

[u.1.]

rt¿tci

Íffiffi.

ËìE

recentþ

r

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lwritten form of

[>>>*iÊl- t'7]

certainly

ffià'¿:

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t['+o

13

tØ(¡¡) ¡ti ¡ ffiä

imporLant

È

u pr(

ä

tendency

¿

fFra ¡[.*¿

of course r,.{..l

^.Ø+ lrt.

r trl

(-àì)tËå ù,rL

the following year

11

¿

+æ.

to fail (an exam)

lu.i.l

club activities lin the ens e o f 'ex tt acurricr;l at

flrÉÐï

to pass (an exam)

#t' a

firml ¡.¡1c t i

t'

after-school school; cra:rn.rrring school school designed to

14

t5

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6

survey; investigation ¿

according to

-

[>>>*Ë/-

t'B]

,,,,,r#.1

20 27

ffi<

to

b'þi

[flÉ

24

tÍ"

.

decrease in the number of children due to 1ow birth rate [>>>g;Éz- ¡s]

few; 1ow in number

')t¡,ur */¿

also

ffiu.

26

-ù:H ,nl

¡f¡,

# (r¡) :ti å'

ffiæ

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mark; score; grade;

point vsr)



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i

4(¡¡

i.'L.¡¿

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33

TI

34

,r1-þ, Y a'

important

-

first

every year

percent

i)

strong

socialization; friendship; association

concerning

to decrease [u.1.]

easy; comfoftable; leading an easy life

age; period

)i

25

2s

É

[u.¡.]

ïeason

L ¡' ,, ¡t'iÜ +lv

ft(

like

lecture

35

fúÈ.âr,.

92

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)

b)

zrn

-'

='to notice

lã#l

Ue.used ei1!r-e1w th a noun or aphraçe (se1te¡ce

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ñ,$2ËttttuE Ltc]

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o(å.à/ì:tc.

pát(

lãeíz

t.+å*,'(,,¡¿i"at c

lt,

(

lF -t 1,

>

t.s >>>tf

:lrr( Eär*t¿ nrfnol

has been done. with,a greát deel,

,ttrat

-somethirrg .Ery.àþ[email protected]@a:c.s!'aç''..].:..

b)

>>>

¿ t:ã,r)t.?ttï¿1)¿t,. ffi#r)ìfå* (It was after the class started that I noticed that I had forgotten my homework.)

ffiÆþ!,_{tI¿:

i

)

t

I

FÊlËr,. i:ã,år? * *Ë lvT, L t¿" (I wasn't awate of my mistake.)

),r,

a

> t. t

t#.

(

f¿ /¿ fi-lÊt 3

ê-r

somèône

'àf,trog,oþ,,ttrat

r¡ I. Ø ¿t

(It's impolite not to eat food which someone has taken^+LÈ" the trouble of preparing ^Èìtt Ëclt'( Ëa/¿Ë#¿ÌËl'u/J!' J i ù: L* L ¡ i.

for you.)

(Please try not to forget kanji, which you have spent considerable time and energy to learn.)

J ,,, V (plain) þtt6f*trrÞ/¿t,r [v'',(þ!aù;þ.r.é$é.gj;,,af. ,:

lã#,z

> ¿.t

s >>>ruHU(LìõatttcauuS.r*ur/ttr]

:l],!,: ¿å11.,ÈÌlj:l lJ..means'th4t:qr.te ca4¡toÍ:,do'eertainrûúigq,,f

:,sciaiaUmtirallSituátional rêasons,

a) ËìÉø7, y rtØ¡s-7 ¡ -rcEÄffi?ffiîbtf l:Íf trZ¡ËËlu" (\tre can't very well speak Japanese at an ordinary American parby.)

b

c

) )

ll.tt, o) 3

-

7 Øffiffi 6 b â

o)

¿ lLttt ft,+.o)^/a'¿.

È,

-

br¡

(Since this is my teacher's book,

',.

1.

B

Affi ùl'à'

b ffi1fr,L

( u' â b Ll l; lÍ

l,

t

ä *, Ë Á, "

(Since I have to study for other courses also, I can t spend all my time studying Japanese.)

lttt

l¿ ù:ËTÍr tt l; ë *Ë lv. can'tvery well lend it to you.)

I

l*!,.àr/e,urr.ûrq,m,ê41i1g is,affir-mative :S.mq¡fhe:.negatii.eÍorm is used with ir ùlì:

...tiæ@Seú¡è'óf

-'i.e,,,tt

:eanttåelry,Ao'.-;t,O.ne, ,nothavê.aiy,o Choi""::"r ::,'r '.:

:

93

.l 5

#>>,>>

tt -

d) ð

L /¡ afiffiåt õ> â 6 +vnfuffi L /J r r þ tt t: tf u r ä *. Ë lu " (Since I have an exam tomorrow, I cannot help but study tonight.)

r

rrþtil:

får,r ä *, Ë tv" L ( ù Ë/J (Even though I am busy, I don't have any other choice but to sleep.)

e)



{r> Zöп,æcT='but;

and yet'

l**z>t.tsf

This phrase is used to quality the preceding statement. It is often followed by -Èr lt l: lt /J

t., -fi ùtt

¿ltJ

t.,

ì..

à.

etc.

a) 7 t y ìiØft++.trJ ( øÍñT âùr- Z )lt'ë:=cTfu1frtj'å" b L1\-â bùltüÌ/Jr,-. (American students study

a lot,

but that does not mean that they spend all their time studying.)

A: FØê=Ft**îr'daå"

b)

(Dormitory food is bad!)

B

: i À,- -e Ù. z Ò r)'¿Ëz(ê,s/Jr.òùt¿; {, ¡.¿rl¡¡. l. (Yes,

"'

$

but we still have to eat, so ...)

V(plain)

l¿Ü)JZ='an order to'

lV(plain, presenÐ l¡

a)

u)

t:]

l#aM

> ¿.

t >>> *#trÃõ

fcrD

tc]

indicates a purpose for one's áction.

aØcôtåü,s¡ÉötZ7 tvÅ4 | þ1 â+äù &t,Q

itì"

(I hear that these days there are marry students who work part-time

so that they have money for

tun.)

b) * t

i

rr /vùt$ à t¿ü¡(=ft+.ØffinEn'ft ct¿" (Carol went to her teacher's office in order to ask him,/her to change an exam date.)

c

)

ilmø Ezg.àT

P{f ã Êe)E€B)EgJþ

l-t

t. * T.

(I am exercising every day in order to lose weight.)

'lVhen l¡ Ð is followed by Ø, the phrase moditeÀ a following noun.

d)

HAØH&41Ì. tYl:J\

â

t¿bofuffiþ l-t¡ ùlÈ¿lx'r¡

(Japanese high school students have to do la lot college.)

e)

É*É¿*.

ÉFØËffi?ffi^ð

ofl

t¿ütØ ù ØÍ"1.

(A dictionary is a thing yolr use to look up meanings of words.)

94

å /J u'.

studying which is lnecessaryJ for entering

rtrtt t+E

$ ttt -?t

lffiafil

> t. z >>>

E#ÈtKtr : u €]

[ViAdj ( ( -form) + {, ] means 'even when -' or 'even if - .' With the sense of 'even whe¡/ :.,,,'i .,the.main',senteuçe:is,".ouUyìo,,[email protected]!' Ñoú ana,t¡.à¿jectives can take the forrnto' ..'l:51;;:,a:6,5.t:$(àg.¡, L'î¿tr*ó.;r,,¡r.,,,,$æ b;; t,þ11,q ar.g,uqq4lly "onq4qtqd ..;.:c-,,,,'Lf,ì!.f.,ò,,#S3*.Þ)..... t-...... ..¡..rt¡riaria".'i,-a*.,r:l:

a)

BA^ffi ( Èi¿: BAXIV\:';t,.cfutfi,L tåÉùtÌJ!.("L¡ i.

(Ifyou study

f

sd ùt

rl'- Bä^îip

< $ù

¡v1r

-!

'

/

ay

Japanese culture before you go to Japan, you won't have culture shock even when you

go there.)

b) 7)yrtv7

y 1.,$-zvlå. grìEã?(t,çâ4itt" r9å

(I hear that they play football even when it snows.)

c

)

BAF*Êflùi. /¿ (

À¿

Ë

¿,Ê^f úzt 6 /J t. ? i îî.

(I hear that with Japanese food, even if one eats a lot, one does not gain weight.)

d)

HH þ"-À7)ìð

â ù.

ç

ÈÐi

t. ñø ErûÐffi¿rf* å * T"

(Because they have Tbkyo Dome, they can play baseball even on rainy days.)

7

a)

"'vT

7

t y rf':+fñHä¡#Øfú,1fi,þ L( t. ->lcØ1- ô Ð t.,

î f BAØälÉl:äÈt* ErudÊî 6

-!

av2



Etf T.

L/¿.

(Since I had studied Japanese for two years in America, used to life in Japan quickly.)

b) Ër

)v1 !

Llñfr,t:ÌÃ6îl-

¡,

i

I did not have much culture shock and got

"

(If you study without sieeping, you will get sick.)

$ trr NEåã¿='according to -' ,,::.Thisiexpression iò:usèd.1o. indþatè¡-â 1s.o'urcþ.óf,j-nfffi¿Uô-¡:a-¡¿tS expression such as tv(plain) 4 ) l¿l indicating hearsay.

I rri

a) XftÍ#

(weatherforecast)

Ei6 ¿- +Hùf+æñ¿ìK6

lãatvt > t. t s >>> aaffi etr *

a

tl

gèhèìmytilcidê y an 4

)fì"

(According to the weather forecast, it will rain this afternoon.)

95

-ls#>>,>>

b) +HØffifÃI=&,6¿. Èø i ù r 7 t )v=rctrH

(earthquake) ¿ìô

'>l¿4

itì"

(,{ccording to today's newspaper, there was an earthquake in California yesterday.)

9 ttt ^,{E

l#ary¡>t.zz>>>9+1zf

this suffix utt""n"r mainly a

)

r̿1,

J

*t:

/j a or -l:T

â

.

ltürJà

BA¿åf

r. Ji,'LË¡i+{Yl-

l¿ " (Since the wa4 Japan has become quite westernized.)

Hlæ

b)

to kanji compounds and expresses the idea of

irr ,¡r

Ll

i+?

[*E{Lã {t I¿tJtffitt&t-" (There are rrraîy novels which have been made into movies.)

1O

-" Causative-pass¡ve: HþËftã='be made to buy'

l#atry¡ > t. z e >>>

form duplicates

a

)

b)

l¿

r.( r,-*YÐlù:* zt*2#Y.vÊh'ë nâ

" (In general, we ate made to write at least one papet a semester.)

Ëu'FËlf;F/:Ë

ttðØll/ìÌ¿-c

$

!'t/i".

(Nobody likes to be kept waiting for a long time.)

96

¡.

(e.g,,

tc

ffã È

( ËÅ,ËibË{'ttc

ÈrlrL6

b

is not

]

a) ,* ftËJzZ hf/ff

vr t'àÖ

lã*,bâ,/Vl:tflzã >>>>>[*#z]

++.

,Ê+.. b ¿. ¿ ¿ffi#u t¿ttz +Jô L!.f'1, !. )ù."

ft+.

!.!.{.fÌ"

++.

bØi, L0)r 7 7 riÈ å 'c LffiLTÈ" â0)î, T

ft+.

0)

v.t)v o),

TT hr2, 4 ilTù'"

7

1, ¿ hï ü, â tvT'T ht

7 fúol¿Ë¿ìr,.

f"ò.

7'v 4 7 J v I

ã'tfürur¿,Bur *TLI ¿te ++.

z7-. 7ct,4. üi¿.Ø 3-7

ft+"

4 i fTzJ,"

Dçó-

ì,. år ¿

I 7 | Øffi.ffi.

3"

ò'lÉL (

f

LFf, t.f ð È r.È r.ffi,àló 6 Â,Ètl

t,

etc.

2: Here, you are offering your opinion in a non-assertive manner. à. in this expression makes it indirect, with the sense that 'I think it might be bener ro . . .' 3 : When you give advice, you can use expressions such as -ã'Èl

"

ò t -ìEûFåffi*þEt¿à

Ò

+Æ.

E,a lv

1

E

t.t. ¿,8ù.*T, -I¿ t ¿'- i (ff -l¿ à ì,. ì,. ¿ Hr., * f

à.) or

.

4: When you want to offer a different opinion than what is suggested, you preface your remark

with àà,f t), 4fLÈ4 il¿tj E , 4 ILIÌiJù, 6 tl å- -C l¡ , etc.

1 ,',

E-rVJVl

e,{7ù:r¡ b. -À¿åg+ä. ò i-^ù*E+0)x+0)gffiHt:r¡., /Jè ì,.o H#*.t-t¡ :

/¿ÄùÌ. Eø z ¿ ? EA#t.'=iru.ä ð t'"

97

.l s a) b)

#,,,,, Have

just arcivedin Japan today.

Would like to see the academic advisor tomorrow,

+ffiF-trrtÃ.

) d) c

-cl¿Ått. &.ø ¿ ¿ ? EÄffi{.Éìu.

if possible.

A ð r,..

The faculty members are not there this week. You cannot see your advisor until you have taken the Japanese language placement

test next Monday.

t:

/¡u\ùt$ffiF-t:Ì¡ , - +ffiRþ P -> t¿^¿ÌB+4ü:



b_ -Ât*g+ä. ò ? EÄffif"É1. /J ð !.o

i-^ùrEÆ#o)ftHt:l¡ b /Jð !.o E++.å4Ø.

L

? {Lrltft&b of¿

-21-

U

È', ø++.þ

t-FffiHL/Jð!.o

f ,,, trl-rVJyl e,1.

ù

i

-ËffiHL/Jðt,'"

J',, E-lVJVl e 's7 tl=Ì¡ b r¡ ð !.o -Ä¿åff L r'.8#ä(.. t+{.'fi|ù.Øt- 2 .tvI-\ b /¿ t. å,Bz ( r,.*T (xX-yfË#¡¡ å'Ør,. ô\.4Ì¡t-)tv0)it'ù, å. mÉ4 it¡ø?ìE¿tl¡¡ ð !.)o ò i -^¿l- 4 Ø+T- 2 tvØffi; (older member) ¿: /J b *-1, B+4.ti. frË t:7c 0)+T- 2

)vtt:ti.{Ef, È.



ù'7.-ù /¡ ¡.¿. ?lFÐ *

T"

lF*:/¿ à. H++.þf :/:,,\ÐsftË¿:t¡ b. ft#þf :/¡ÀàsB#ä¿:ÌÃc'c., -Æñ-FBL/Jðt.o

98

Ù

i

,,,,,**.1

Q,,,,7V->7 þ-172t e EA^fTc{.

7)

t)

lt

îtX

t:2t,.LAnBÅUt¡trld'utx'z¡ 6Ì¡ìt ->l¿ t. ¿.t Ì¡ : L þ d¡ã\.^lù-7'þ(F-c1T 4 î¡ 7 3HL-âr.. y Z lþlF

I i ù'" yz b /Jèr,.o þål{"È/¿6. ,7 ;.o)l :I¿t"Ù-'##L/Jð!.o

Ê-cÌc 6 !.!.-c'L

5 -'fFT A

-

Êrrl7))\+t:rr,.tãHEÆT âlFXþãå ä ð l... Fð Ì*tr^E++ (. 6 t."

e E+ftØfr+î. t ¡.41vùr*++.fÅ (onein chargeof foreignstudents) Ø/'L#L { t. * T. cD àHL.{. iË L t.É*3^d'ra ð r,.o a)

ì-4rvttt, ¡F7l7r ì r-¿

!': ( t'* T, t-

b) ÉElð À,Øxffitt.- g,À,t¡

c) ÉHð À,Øæo)ÈHtt,

BAË[æ{.T"

d) HEÈ lùØæ"etÅ,

e)

) - 4 f Y ¿i. mE¿ìê-ì

lùÈ2

ffi+ilcî.

ffiEàìru * T" à

{Lâ tI {L E* t)

4får'òób*ìi¿,.

99

.l s

(+#ñlåõ þ tutu. fl SldtìHñ¡5rõ : ztr.

#,>,,,

lFõt¿få )

) -4



t,läl

:. y -Øsó&ð A,ùt- wØlÊ. 'Jrx l. 7 r Lel:¡\, ë!' ¿:iÉù¿{ r,. -r î ( þ,1¿" ffiø ¿.È,,\¿*Zq+ffi f à t,' Ø

y y¿sElaù:Ër.r¿8.0)8.

ffi¿ ¡,øX^- þ ç. ð : ¿

Ëuì

fcu\ËHðtââ\õltÉe?-D 5. ffi/võA< < fËütl.

âlfE-c". 7./ y ùtt:f1Jff.ð{ÈÂ,tu.l:l tårô b. i€ffizlìt+/¿". {Ëffið.â, årt€ffi("- ì -4 y v¿¡BAffirfff å u. I *aÈ" L/¡âffi¿: TÃ.->I¿o ) -4 / v¿s{Ëffið À,ø##¿'Å,'úur lù>'at¿Øt€ffi¿å-b.+r"îdeå.1 ¿Ë, L- lÊ ffi ¡ ¿ ¿* L ¡ -> L \,, p rÃffiþ t- l¿ " th'A'h - /^ 7 7 4 ftøX'x,R -: 1 ù" t - t -4 / vültá&ð14,ù:. IElIø,,\¿: [ó¡¡/¿J /¡À'1¡ÉoË+/¿-Ð] å*a¿ bþ,r¿" 7cØîþ., -4 / vl*- Ba^Øâffiþ !. ( Ëf, ( j ) t:l,/;È¡. a5ù: U'clfr.blnulju.Èùt{"r¡ (. ËrË¿ËÉTffi"c"ö ö* b{Ë b{tt¡1. t r,. i a LÈì. ÈÅ,Èfui}ù;o{Èl¿. Là.L. I -4 y v¡ts lù>r¡ È l klfr.*>/Ju.("Fu.âff¿st"å 6 J ) ù:/¡ 6 Øt:ü*- -+16 ( à.å.:{ L *

lô¡¡/¿l li,El-tt:f,f

+-

2lço

e;Ro$ãffi,tue.

jE U

|tn HO.

F5Ë p

Ettftlt x ä^ftl+Ë

Ur"

-4 / vI*, ), )l("{Ëffið À,cà'>l¿r. trtbâ L!'o n a) ì¿ø{äffiðÀ,t*_ÆI+.îb6" n b) I t4 y vtt: lù>t¡T¿øF;ffiIt-b'+{.'TdeÀl tÉ, ¿. 'fäffi¡ À,åÊlú u )È [ó¡¡t:.1 Lt. )ÉHþ{F.i : n d) )BA^¿r n e) ¡-4 f vÌt. â-("¿* lótr¿) þffi.b11:f6¿sa'-¡ 6. 7

å

6

¡õ:

c

(was glad).

å

ùl¡}./¡r,."

)

tÈI16 5tñtolv

. &!4^ë&. . = h = - o)tÉ tìø ä < t¿Ëi9ràr.l = ..

-:.-::.::!/:1];.]'.''

:

:. ..a:::,a.a:.:::::l:a.:i4

â

o

¿¿of*.

.1,...,,..,......,..........,....>âFf; 3

LT IJRE No a

o o

c o

Restaurants eople in Japan love to eat out. Basically, there are three types of food: Japanese, Chinese, and Western. ln big cities like Tokyo, howevel there are all kinds of ethnic restaurants, such as Thai, Korean, and lndian. ln Japan, there are probably more specialized restaurants than in the United States. For example, sushi restaurants serve only sushi, tempura restaurants only tempura, eel restaurants only eel, etc. Although there are lots of restaurants that serve all these items, such restaurants are usually not considered first-rate. This is perhaps due to the faith in specialized professionalism that is shared by most Japanese, r.e., they believe that no one can surpass the quality of food prepared by specialists, e.g., sushi made by chefs who have prepared nothing but sushi alltheir lives.

D I

inexpensive restaurants such as noodle shops, whenever it gets crowded,rYou will be asked to share the table with strangers. The waitress will say something like, fEffiäiffitl t t d (Please let another party sit with you), and there is nothing you can do but nod in

At

agreement.

often have food delivered, too. ln America, very few places other than pizzerias and Chinese restaurants deliver food to homes, but in Japan, in addition to those, sushi restaurants and noodle restaurants regularly offer delivery service, and you don't even have to tip the delivery person! Besides eating out, Japanese

o

o O

e o

>>>>>

v7tsate

e Eäo)â+ll-ÐÐ.

+ò ØEU Ì ) à./J"

i ¿,8:{ â À,.c-r "

o'c. ?

ilTù'"

þ

*TÌ.

{"ò1XùlXÐ.t

¿:

a aØùå. *á!. Lt..:{t.. i#.C"T}.

I,li6 * *T.

*** Ë E: tÉ¡

ffi:

fFJ¿:

¡¡ ð [.

* Tà."

fl,ùÌHf$áffiu.L*f.

Ir,2ì-Y

fl'¿*X ¿Å,.

Ë þ:

lÌt.. Hf

¿Xп,-¡"-¡da"

*** É þ:

ffiT LX t"¿,. +"f#t¡Ì

Hffi,/U, ì-Y:

É

ffi:

El2l-Y

L * L l¿.

bblrtLi"

: tr¿¿¡#,f{"T .k " ffiL u. i 0)¿*7+ vt

t"

,êÈìtF34.{.f å. 6. Ér)ì#,(".



6 tå

É

t.îTÈr.

D

s b.

+ÊÈ.-ì{A* f

_

lå u. ) O)ttt[tà À,tt "

tFÈìÍtrr {

t,.

I btTic lù'" ffi

"

103

,

e :'ç#0) ftE-

,ÉE

E# +r+ s ffi

ffi

+# trffi

uErEtÊt¡ :r= < " 9#ttñ+{t0)*,1Ë,

{Ëffi

l*^+ltú)E{s.

^ïtr !. 6 : Lçl,.*È. tá-Äfficî¿." : Ë t'nE ) 4'" (Wþt¡Il /¡à¡-6) o Z i rLÀ,î* Tdâ" ì:2, ¿ ¿ ¿ltár. L r,. å Êbil,'c ì..6 ØT.. r.:*{ ò¿¿,t'â À,11 k" 4 iîTtr." *n, *ìlÂ,"C L/¿. tLl"-eâ L_ rt g vì _1"ê^ì Èr{tt¡ ( _C,t * å /¡r,.l"f il. 4 i 1 I tJ" fÅ ò Jáî l' þ ffi='C â Ø þ R'Ì¡ ¡; 6 ê'ì å Ø ÈìfF È Í" de" trT

âJ#ält:(( õ" tál** b Í.Tà.. ¡Ëtr E TÊ8.

10

lÊ #

îl^tr*ffi.þ-'c"

+]+

fÄ¿*¿

¡åE

ùû-:.

Èt

l-þ--ttaffiu' L * T. L t' l,*c11+1"

þffi.rlW\*?

+#

fú ¿Ì

ffi.ffi

-f_

_Ir

¿^

. rà+

f UÊØh¿Jv9-

3

trt

t5

*ô#/a' ùll:_!:.!_:_l:

è-tvù.lr,Jn.A L_tàì b * Tà."

è-tv

åãr,.1¿1. å aôTÌI' Ð.

âBùt J-ltù,6ffiXÈ¿.àf

e) ¿ È

*T"

o-+tj'É' Êdßþa(""" taL. Lå.: /¿{t-Tda" ffiffi

+#

4

ftffi

fl,¿:fÁbt{ ( l;"ð r.. !.!. å. L.: ð ftÆ.t:*;l:{ ì..Ì¿/a'( ¿ t. , b ùt Ù: ù*t. È * ÈÀ,1t.6, +

+++

ifTtr. Dr.

4ô7cô^b * Lr )ù'" frLò-ffiå'È,t9.XùtbâØ1.

B ¿ifÅ¿s.

ffiffi

104

7ciîTù." D+. ctr4)ù:r¡ b*1.

>>>>>v7n=r.l

o I t 1 y !. Ë^ú)ttlJfiÊ-¿t+ú)ì7r Ì -4 y v : *á/JårrìTu./¿ /J ó"

D

äÐutcu\õ.

-: 4)IìtJ" ËòF^:(Èl;Ì" ì-4/v: " 9-4 Yv

7

.16#>>>>>

( I Lì !r

{L 4 H A È, lH 7 ¿l à þ À L\ {L fr [r.C âo {L þI â 1H Ë L ð )V B ly M È, o \ Èì )v ù: l,J '(" ¿S /¡ ü: I A + ù: ff â ê I tù Ë v 7" {L H ffi Ìå â #ñ. * e ffi ^ùr U ffiis+ y {L < 7' ^åì U- ,2, v É {L ÊË I ø 7 Èì I {:i þ 7" ¿f /¡ L H./ 7 ù: ù* t: Y 1r^ 1 ffi *t¡ v 7 {L ffi È' iÉ / E ¡rEË l. â r;" 7"7 * rur * 0) ç ^'lH v ù þ L\ v b k {L H + " a) v {L /¿ t.\ ùS'[H ¿ ÈriL fr o | âffi. l. ç æ, T [r I {ú Èì þ' +1 W, t_ )l^+ tr ffi +Ì àì r, IKFtJU â r/r {" v E4 û iÉ i ^ j v l{ 4 b z'c ù I 4'EØ +^+Ðrr "c.. {" Ø 7 Ø ) | f ( ¿: 6 ù$ffi 1ù: v *¿å-ò ù:þr{L Ë[Èii''1Þll iL . E lÉ É +F+(" .¿{ þ ù:i Æ. Ì¡" â 7" 'c. ry 7c {úi'elì I t E I ¿ ùr * D h n v Ì =-t t È' Ø Ël É l. 4 (" ìE Ë ù. Æ L\ {.' ò t, Y {L ,fr òi Ð v }." ffi ffi e' D i /¡ 1v 7l- +T ù: H l. 6 ffi 1v t( 7 t: +rJ +, 6 ü: ¿itH ¿: ö þ ¿: , ¿ L\ 7" iy u ' ¿* /¡ I /J 7" {L I I ìE I y ¿ å: {.. lft ( o) Y

* ¿*i b 1vbtL c Ð7"c) mâ 7" Ì¡ /¡ Ft ò "C. È, "

À' Y -cI þ {L Y Y ("/ / HXùlf È, ò þ,1r

-)

6ÈLrvT¡{Lt¡þ

) àl !\ 7 â'c 7 Ð + Øi8 l' / ¿ l. -c'i ¿ ã ¿ â l,ù'¿{ Ë 1Ë, v Z v ¿*i Ø ù Ht E U+ ð f 6 f /Ã: ("'¿Ì/¡v I

{LØ"ffi[.i ( t ËHEà.i B ^v "c. ù:i7 Ø t ò A HA L\ 0)Ø+f {" 7 !\ L¡ t

fnr /¡ +rJ I ,ù\ I l. ì.. j c ÉÉ v I o) ii Øitr,. -c'i ¿ fffi åì 7 ü:7 v ¿* å.i

I

iti tHr*/¡þf - â fÁffiüi/¡i ¿t,!\ L.i ,Ëi10; 7 þt b E À, + r¿"i ,liL ¡ ð t¡ {''t,{ ôtù:i ¿tyuL\1)l v ù: + ii*n 7 rt {L L å.i er/å/¡+f7"by "{Lrtrlnrlþbl' lrt-ìz)ìC{fLåìû:i L\("'C -7if¿ Li t¡ ò {.rieB åì o) [r ll f.r ã l-t i: " ii. H ( " ñ ôiØ ¿.i {Hn ^

t' g-i

l, lu

116

lÈ f-_

9lBj- 6

like fried pork cutlet or fried shrimp, etc.l

to order (something) I B/,

to quote

a ðâE

Eribri IEI

ffi

t''h

u

colleague; co-worker

Ëffi

lfamily namef

da

lfemale given namel

ä t$E

noodle shop

rr t

s L'À,rty vtc¡:c u æqÐ ÍrÀ,t,

16

22

IEE

clerk; shop-employee

patent

#,

egg

l

ã

menu

'FI ä6¿t¿

EÀ.

òØ

lname of dish;bowl of rice topped with things

Ë.

i'

ätf

to lay (egg); to

-

sushi rice covered with small slices of fishl

l:E.ÊEl

tfamiþ namef

t5

p.i È1.

Ðr

b

El-Llrtâ

â

in one's fifties ì

:.L

a Mþlt,trJ â

16

[polite form of ð Å,]

:

+-ø a

/ffiril

ìtî 6 ù'ùvrT

'1

sпÈ*.f

t,.1i-Æ 6

to be crowded

*1.

19

counter

l:-È

I,þEâ

*a t['¡ryi

ê,r



a

(green) tea

+ag€

ì¡t¡^

10ffi

lcontraction

-ing

[u.f.]

ofSÐ(*;

È*11 [humble formof 'n â)

ffi*É

to make sushí by hand

tÈ+

a *aÆ

to refrain from

trt

¿f

(/X

bill; invoice to treat (someone) to

(something [usualþ food or drinkl )

(sushi serving oÐ

medium quaTity/price

tl

[honorific form of

F.f

zffi

?

givebirth

to lu.t.l

r.

tu

see.

chicken llit.,birdl

.õ9

(

lunch

I

¿tt

[type of noodle]

Lr , üÞt, Eê r.? +# ; l1+ft

actual thing

*F¡l-.

shop; store

)=z'

pork cutlet

¿u

¡"ts

at+.

Ë

cooked rice



t2'61¡

[a kind of sushí; a box

of

z¿ CLQ)tt:t¡,6

to be treated by someone

.lo#,>,,,

108

h

r.lÈx 6.*w

L+# 16. FE

6

2.wÐ â

s.

*r,É

4. ..ßE

7.JËtr

o.





q.HÉ

12.ffi 17.

H,lH

sá#

s.H+ Ì,.

IO.Eê È

o

14.ffi

--

LB.Mfr

le.Æ D 6

20.ÆlÆ

13.

I5.TÉ6

21.

iHT

zz.WdILÐ 6 ß.ffiffi

24.ffiÌÉff+

25.ffifrh,

26.

ËlÊflE

zl.tilrF-

28. /ù\EÉ

29JH{Lâ

30.

2.lEtffi

7.ffiâ

3.Éffi B. lû

r1.ffi*Ë

12.æ-

ß.ìub

14.W.

15.ffiêJ

16.w b â

17.ìEffi+

IB.ffiW

le.ìÏEJì

zo.frlr|tT â

2r.êË

22.ffiilF

æ.âû

24.=â+H

2s.ffiÊ

26.+æw

27.Éß

tL^ì å

3L.qrJlffi

1.

ãIÆ

6.Æ

4.#6 o) s.yF e.El- Llrt 6 ro.+â

This radical comes from the left half of lT and is often used for characters representing kinds of roads or types of walking.

l'rjll'till'É)te¿

109

i

rt,tu¡

:.

ffiæffi (t[r*bl"

rot'n)

I

â)

*a->l,+â

ft<

t.à:L+6 l.àoL+t.*f

+ L-hÙIå F L-hùr'* T (H-LØX.*7 't 7.\) {Eti.1Eh-*T

*a

t.à?L+å !.6:L{"t.*T

fÉr. * T

$aa

L+t-*T

ñ)

*6E,ì-l:tÌ,6 *aEåù:r¡ b *T

r.å

îâ

ê':a

ãLt.åsb Êßü

+o .J

*T r,-È/ì ( t,./¿/i'È * I r./¿È (



äL-hàrb *-l-

r./¿/¿'È

*T

x*i" r.*T ì ¿+ lr8.9

t./¡î t,.È

t,-l¿ L

AU-Ltr:7a

fÍÈ *-r-

.2>.ò

t.l¡f

AU_Eùì â

*!.

ló0

4.C.ã

Ðõ

Éir.*T

L*f 8a +b *T âb *,-r

!.6pLsó t-Ùol,{'!.*T /Jðt.*T

FT

H

L*T

t'/¿lì

(

t./¿/ìÈ * T

t.lc/¡'( r.ÈtìÈ * f

*T

ê^ì*T ffi,r)*.f

t6ffi.a"1:TÌ.â

F,a

ffi(

þffi.aYr¡ b *f ðHI:/J å

:Ht:ä b *T iáEf, È

l:



t*h

ttÀ

#Eî

F,*r

â

trF,L*T

6

IÃJ

tdFf,Èt:¡¡b*i-



)

fflr. * T

*T

TáEãÈTå

bffiÈ

*)

fdâì,. ù: /¡ å

táf r,.l:r¡ b *T

L*T

*ó El ¿: à'à.6 *á El ù: à.à. b *

*rât.T

âr,. * T

-l-

å

#âr.L*T É,a

Æc1,\'â Nta(N is usually

Ë*T

i6i+rlLte.â *61*^.;r¡ b *-¡ ðæDr¿

ðFD("7 N-f t. à ol,+ â N-C"t.àcLçt.*T

FD-hüt'( t'6 FU.hùl"f *a t å¡-

EDtu- â ËD(*d b *T Nt'äå"t'* T

filrf L-*T Nf.T

a name.)

btTâ

tdó¿t'ù:ä 6 r¡ b * *áö 6t.ù:/J6

+óó ùt'û:

üà? <

'I 10

ÌL6

f

*áùàr-¿:r¡b*'1 (r¿ð6 ( /dðr.*i-

ã LóÙI'6 Ë

Lóùl'*f

r,. t¿ lì ( r.tc/iå *T

ó

¿1.'*

I

ò å t.*1

(

I'r*T

>>>>>

#ffi#

vTntr.l

(respect form) is used when you are talking about an action or state of someone to

whom you have to show respect. So, when you talk about the action of your teacher, for example, you use ëötffi. IJ

LYI1 T

ffiæffi (humble form) is used when you are talking about your own or your family member's action. There are two types of ffi#ffi-l and fI. Type I is used when you (or your family member's) action directly involves the other to whom you want to show respect (e.g., visiting a superior's house or helping your superior with his/trer luggage, etc.) By humbling your own action, you are in effect showing respect to your superior. Type II, which is called iH# (courteous form) is generally used when you want to talk about your own action or state in a humble manner just to be polite to the addressee. TEÉffi is used when your action does not directþ involve your superior, but most likely the person you are talking to is your superior or someone to whom you want to be very polite. So, if you are going to your superior's house (or officeJ,, you use ñ i . If you ¿ue reporting to your superior that you went somewhere, then you use * â (see illustrations in (1)). Similarly, if you are asking your superior to let you or" HHf å. If you are telling you superior that you went to see a look at his/her 91gF, Voo movie, you say 4E?8,* Ll¿ (see illustrations in (2)).

(1)

(2)

.16#>>>>>

T€ffi

(polite form) instead of TÉffi (courteous form), but use of f !Éffi is much more polite. So, if your superior asks you whether you play tennis or not, you can either One can use

7=7þ

t.l¿

L*T

or

î=zþ t*1. TÉffi

is very polite, and you probably won't be using it in your daily conversations, unless a situation calls for very polite language (such as in job interviews, in business situations, etc.). say

ff there ble

are no special respect forms, use [*aV(stem)

forms, use [*a V (stem) ¿ gç /u,lc L * T]

l: r¡ b * T] . If there are no special hum-

.

¡:,,:..: i r:J:.:,:li.:i::itii;î :Iì.¡¿' :;:'. j::f-:r1jt'

:Ir

:..¡,,r:.jlr ,..:.,:il,l: r:li¡,::r,:,.i1':1. :i:il:;.trl:l.:i:.;:. :,::tj:t,i

1*

ÉÉ9

Ê,ffiþlr,tl6

táffLù:/Àå *rffL¿:/J b *T

ffi#þt6ìr,IJtt¡,6 Ê,#þf6ù'tÌt:/¡ b *T

Iôffi\-T6

#ffL L*T táffiLr.l¿L*'f Êffiþt6ùùTâ trúþt6l¡Iì1,*1

ffL*T Ëffi?à.ùl*T

Ê,#Zt6ù,1,J\'.1¿L*f

lFa

112

iõlF b ì--tà â

i6(ÊrT â

ta(çb¿t¡b *.7

L*.1 sdfFb r-/¿L*1 t6{Ft¡

lF, *.1

>>>>>

1 ttt -cT

v¡n=r.l

lâ# "t > t. z >>> ä)ÉetutÉ : (]

a) (I hear winter in Tbkyo is not too cold, lis that dght?] )

b) BA^fr

ùl tÈ,-

#æVffi,ì- â 7 tv,,s 4 l' /¡

6 /¿

( Ë'Ló 6 p (Ff,

*

È

L /¿"

(I heard that there are lots of part-time jobs teaching English once you get to Japan.)

/r,, -¿¿lt(-rf)

I.-adjective Veib

:

Ùlù

:

l*#l

> t.¿ >>>

l#uM

> ¿. t

t

ôuìt/Lr.¿ttöu utì5 Ltì]

>>> rfl

5nã¿ ¿Bn 5nõtil]

æt-¿¿1*ær,'-07

ê'¡a ¿¿Ëê'\*'f

¿t' ,t

a) lfiU ¿ r- i H*Ett*EÎËr,.¿ ¿ ttÉÉ!-åf. Ë ¡ a åËf å-å. (The movie cal7ed"Røn" ls interesting, but ifs a little too long.)

b)

EAØÉæäùirudÊT âz ¿ lÍ L * 175f. h tl¿, ^+Éilwøt¿ÐØfutfrttì,tr. 0)Ê.8" (opinion) þ{Fâ l¿Ðù:åîË.t:fr-o{L'/Ju'l i '6.T.

b

(*Tìr.t- âtl'

(Japanese high school students do stttdy a lot, but since all they do is study for entrance examinations, it does not seem to contribute to forming their own opinions.)

c

) l1'þæ(

¿ ¿ f*ãr./¿ár. fñËt.Èìå¿'->l¿Tìô

i

¿,8.

i ¿. dbç'¿r l,¡.o

(I didwrlte a composition, but I am sure there were lots of mistakes, and I feel embarrassed.)

J

"o N?t,lül?T,/N|'"Ii?¿ÖTT='N will do; N wilt suffice' > t. s >>> ätñt¿ttttìtìe3-D lã#z

a) É*ãl*- -{mTtttrT'1,

¡ )lt'"

(would one dictionary do?)

b)

¿+

i;#Tll cZ aTT "

( lGreen] tea wouidbe fine.)

t

¿]

.16ËR,>>,>

Qrrr, ^" ëUffiå/¡lr='¡1 is not necessarily the case that -'; 'it does not mean that -' lÈF3 > t.zo >>> Eäo)Êt-Èôã ¿mF SeUr] a) (Ifs not necessarily the

case

that all Japanese high school students do nothing but study.)

b) Hä¡ffiþMffi L -C t,. 6++.ùt aÀ,¡¡ BA,..ã ( ¿ rf E å

/J ür. (It's not necessarily the case that students who are studying Japanese will ail be going to Japan.)

t:

1',.,,1¡¡!iexpi$iq.q.istgft enusedrwith.;an¡adv.e4b-'d_'.f.:L.t,,

:;ì;

'.

c

)

5

:.:.i-

I

r,. L l*F å {> ØlJt,Z.l l, $ Z¡À,t¡ (Expensive things are not necessarily good.)

Ér..

tá (

:

-,1

::ìi:.:.

=,5.tore -,/atter n/when n,

-' -ÈtJi,/-ö¿rc),/-Ê(E¡

BA^lï (ffit=&frtlvfF->î

:ì l'l::i.ii.t.

:::

/¡ t,\.

lffia¡M

a)

:.

ËÈri.r.f..L ¡

> t.

s >>> g

t y -ãwD ãffit¿

l.

(It is a good idea to have your cards made before you go to Japan.)

b) ilffiàrff&þ ct¿ü>å

(('),s-

î't -þlr*,1- ¡ ) "

(Let's have apar!5- aÍter the exam is over.)

c)

BA^ll<

E+(E)zsZ;ti- þ årr. b * (You need a passport when you go to Japan.)

T.

d) : øriä¿x. BA^tîcÉH(i:)Hr- * L/¡" (I bought this dictionary when I went to Japan li.e., while I was in Japanl .)

e)

¿

ØÉ+É¿*.

BA^ll< E+ft;)Hr.* L/¡"

(I bought this dictionary when I went to Japan [before or on the way to JapanJ.)

f) ñ*Él*. BA^lîe /:E+ (E)Hì,. * T. (¿s for a dictionary, I will buy it when I get to Japan lafLet I get to JapanJ.)

!. 7

>>>Hi:'uaËtc]

>>>>>

6 -t lEü*COunter Ë='mâ¡1y æ' a ) EA^lllif Ë l¿ft-> l¿ i. å Èìó b * î.

lffiañt>t.s

vTntr.l >>>f,íJE€]

(I have been to Japan many times.) llL te) ù,

b) +#F+4E¿åfirff€'ôb*î"

(There are many Chinese restaurants.) :l

ãt

cf. 'lE[t{ü

-*

ò

'dozens of volumes (lit.,tens of volumes)' negative 'not even one' {¡

*

counter

tf¿1,t(

c) ffiil?T6^li.

u LÌ

ñ+É¿fir+ffiúffiu

Íl'6

4 iÍcî"

(I hear people who translate have dozens ofdictionaries.)

d)

H#nTt-z È r, È ¿t.

-Eú ð b *ÈrT.

(I have notbeen to Japarl, even once.)

a)

1vz"þ-|fr^.,{-tv t EUe,2zJr-i*ut-tv l.l;Ueah'L,ù'ÉÉL/J ( f !.!.. (One does not have to worr5r whether to Teave a l5o/o tip or a 20o/o tip.)

b)

i6T Lf; L J

i

á'XJi

È)

Et, e a

fr,L

#.

/c.

(I had trouble making up my mind whether to have sushi or tempura.)

$',',-OzcJ*t¿(,tt l, * ölI [email protected]!Í*t¡[rl¿âÖltr I ='l think it might be the case that-, ) '"'@!tfl¿t't7)t 1

¡1,,

lffiarø>t.zz, zef

jË-,ð...t¡,ü,,,1.r,,..\.t',@1.i1,e,Ìå,:].å.!$è ¿lz'"¿il¡1.'Èå

å l¡¡ ìc rrcaÁ hcra lrc¡

(I wonder if ifs all right [I think it's all right] not to leave

b) ff;Í

(reservation) 3 ¿1 ¡rf:/J

a

tip when service is bad.)

t' È, - Ãi¿l¡ t.ø)Í.1ÍlJ t\li ô ) ñ,"

(I fear we won't be able to get in unless we make

a

reservation in advance.)

115

.16#,,,o,

c) 7.' y rtLt

+Ê.E;F^tl ( Â,f'Tàr. fiîtv

¿ffrÊHå

ÐaËØËÈìr.r,.f"LJ )z)..

(I'm going to Japan. Which do you think would be better, to stay at hotels or at Japanese inns?)

Bä^

d)

U

r /¡ rr(.

L¿

)

(I think Japanese inns would be more fun.)

1v/þil;i>/Jr. å t_e-z¿¡ffi( (

e)

| ffiffiØfr ùìffi É t./ù



âoT

tt'

"

l*/Jt,r7r,

å,ù,EtLÍ!.å.

[He] is worried service might becomebad tf [he] does not leave tips.)

ñì8. H4ffiØt. å âU-EI,LötËà"cÈf t,âc)T|*t¿t\lr¡ ¿,8'!.*T" (I think the number offoreigners who can speak Japanese has increased recently.)

$ ttt tì[¿ã='rather'

lffiaw

b. 7 )

a) !.Ë^ä

y rr-6nßffiþffiúfrlt¿7

Ð?i ( N->L t.6Øf.-llät-liå i

¿ro

case that Americans who study Japanese Japanese youth, are better able to use honorifics.)

tl ( l.f:

n s >>> ö LãururèEzã]

) y ù Ll)frtrì, t; t, ôWffiØæ

(I wonder if it might be the

b) Eà.rì'¿*+ØÈ.ül b t;l,a'#u

>

in America, rather than the

t- Rþcùt( ( /a'Ë r-.

(A summer cold is even harder to get rid of than a winter cold, so take care.)

c) âffi¿x,. H#æØfrtrìt€ffi1

b

t'tåçÈ

L!-Ð"ö Ll¿ljr,-"

(As far as conversation goes, actually Japanese may be easier than English.)

ÍO -t

Ëfl.E='more/less

-

than expected; contrary to one's expectation' lffia*¡

a) +Ê,Ø#,WlrËflE+

ð Lå.a /c"

(The exam this time was easier than I expected.)

b)

EÆnTr < ffifttffiØi/lå¡*anrä ù,2tco (The air ticket to Japan was cheaper than I expected.)

116

>

t.zs >>> Ëtttrfit 5n>>>>

a)

*'ZIfiEl" låtr

:

f4¿: z¡'ð

>>>>>[â#r.âeÉz]

!. * 1à.o

L:f f r. ft4.2 : fÅll1Ji ù i E'4,ù: L * T. IåF : rt y t* Â, ¿ XJi È, Ð À,1-l *J" Þ4 t61+t' ( /¿"ð t." (ê+'/)ìf*i? 'c1ù't)

ft$.t:

vTntr.l

When you place an order at

trLI*7, Y ¿¿,+JFt,r

restaurant, you say

-ÌdÆt.

L

a

*

9.

ØL1trle)

ft+.t: +E|ttl\o)åÐrJ Tïìr. à. fÅEüAþü(

,>dvV-, e -s7ù:t b. ( Èül/¡É#þífr.o'C - tØ3 tfiül

5',,

i .s/ t, C-C'F,/¿ ¿,/¿ ùf ¿'" B: ilv" A : È o) i 3 I ¡ t v øffiilr¿å¿i i B : ì--c I u'f /ì/¡ó" A:

¿

lElL:À

) z¡âff? L/Jð r..

ù9

ù;),,-ct¿ À,Ii

c1

"

**.

e âtìØtr* ÌÃv 7 | 7 vt:r!.(- =H+(. 6 r,.ØffXþE*/Jð !.o

118

{. üi

>>>>>

e fDl\ùtT -c

t-F.t:Ê#þ ù.ù -c ì.. *

-f o cD

3Hr.

(-

v7n=r.l

,^øX¿tff L ùl d"rtå-'o. F6Ë:

l'i'tlÌ'x þal'l /J ð !'o

tr a) TUÊo)&ffiå, l^.t,îLl f.T" * T" tr b) :- Øf(Øl\o)åÈi¿*. tr c ) .0)f.0)¡*t*- Êiù: ò ØT uÉØ-t LzïiiL/¡: ftÁ+È ¿ ù. r,.

¿

å

àìð

b

*'t-.

n d) aØRØL0) i È{"¿i. aØt6Tl-þtfr,:.ÊEù:ê-: âØî1, ¡ 1" n e) ffirÊEÌl^ffiîl-ti"

119

(+#tftõ

.16#>>>>>

þ

ät¿tu. fl 5rÁrì+#¡ïõ : zÐ. liur õ. ffi tutAt< < l¿ðtì. )

fcLìffi ffi ¡t6¡t6lå3'eÉD

Y?J

I liì

Wrî rt Ø,!+îffi1fr|.{ L. å é.èfØDf^.

¡;. &årËr-I¿EØW. åðf ùåËþãñt¡v-7 - t"ø v7 | 1v^yÈ.¿:rgfi. 'C!.:/¿. -ÂÈìlÈXtñ{*r 6 L- þlÐtr:Åv L+T7lù:T¿ ( ðÅ,H{Èl¿" 7c{LkÈ.':Ì¡ù:Èr1#->(!.6 i Ë ¿:- 'Hrt 4 v=-ÃÈìH(È/¿" ËùÌ [f u. ÀÅ, È ( ð l',del L Ê orA-.ffi ø /¿ å¡. T C tá /J þ:þìçr : ùf L' ù- /J : f ê^ra Øþf È)-c t-*:/¿" âð+¿Ì. Lù$6 ( àrÅ,Ìx*':>(ê^ìt¿s. +ät C 0)Èrt-îRo( L* ->l¿" ô.ã+trt 17, Y h^¿*. âtrê^¡àù¿/Jt. L, ffib k 7

'

y

El^È. à&¿¡ãüdat

A\ô

È

æ.t-^{t'< ö 6:"C*ntro'C'LfrâÀ"1ìh'à. fÁtt'64it-li kJ Lãi ¿. Ëùå lBaD ,,4A,î¡:¿LlJr,.jl ¿ÈzI¿" ô.ðf¿ì lrtrrDf. Ètrr{"òî6Â,fì}l åË-r-C ð. Ëùå l4 À'r¡¿ å L/¡ ( /¡u'.i å à' [t,'

-Cå{L*:l¿.

t¿t¿

e;RØgã#,tue. iEt ]tllldo. HË:cttftls

l

n tr n n

tr

x

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) aã+ØÈ|l. åèf t t. -> l, ¡ t:7 ) t) ù '\XI¿" b) að-1ØEi*. usy 6+Tr r' Ì¡ê-lz¡ù,-tI¿o c) AðÍØEÌr. Aðfås+Ðâ}- b+(. ê-:¿øþ*u)t¿" d) Að+ØË¿t, t 4 Y a -7þb*. bê*¡¡ù''>I¿o e) EA-(.'¿t. ó* b t'"{-rìv lþffi.*>/Jt' à Lù'o f ) Að+ùt l'"S-,r v lþ {> 6 : l¿. a

oz

g¿. cã

##nL, #Oñ

Aã,=JÊÖ ðz

.

þ tÞi

(Efr*o)

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,

õ. < 4 7 vyØ#,ÈþF,ù:Tr (.4,{"Tüt Ð

e E6#ørJ tfôftfr r)T,, 70)#Ëlc5 ãSffiØãfiÊlcËñ: =

d\fa(f)

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drf



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r.+. flffiþHo{

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ât}ícfr1afr'Cr¿ldùl{"ïùt ¿" ". Z. lt* A, å ¿: u. t. Ë(" T Ì dâ. 1X {> : .t, /¡ 7 ¿ - rt -'&U !' /J ó o ã/rì'a(Fâfrìrtä) ¡ r T: åãt,. L. t,.!'ð Øåì{" È *TJ. 4 ) r¡À,fîtt." *Fffi¿* Ð: ("+¿:^*t,â À,112J."

:

fÁ ùÌ u.

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frt#Ft"1¿.. LZ- +ØËt./\¿:

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zlr.Y4l

t'- âÉØBffiB . -ffit:ç-¡ È *ìÌ'{,å'. ù*t.. lì'Õt r-ffiðìl-C ( Èå u..

ilJ EI: ,fY4 b

f/k#tr* f" ¿ i F -c'c11 < ù'tìù. b * Tå.. ¿tr.- Èiü:-ÊFÊLTt-t /¿ : å ìrtbll * T.

Lì-"

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HH,FRå.6

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124

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)

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i,ì-" D ç- 7c i l-( ( È"ð u'. Dç. XL^tt:L{t'*T.

>>>>>

OÐt1t æ -: ì¡.4/Y æ -: 9-,llv Æ -:

7

. È.^Ø^tlJfiÊ-t-mEtrãÉþf1õ nÃEøW,- ERÉ¿-li¿

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ê¿s/¡ t,0)? Dsä ( ffiFåÈr/Jr,.Å,È.

{-

óð ""(ØËA*ffiFåEl¿: HA-#Øilffi ùr ü; âÈ. à. ry E Øfrfr]!fuãfi L À ) å,8,c { /¡ Â,/¿' J. 4 À,/¡6+Êfrfu4frL ¿ tt¿å-? ËÈ'={. ôå:-CØ#frð /J È çä å ä t,.r.. ¡li- l.¿ìó âù.ù, +Êhlffi&{"Ér.È+*a) å,8,:-c.âluiì" 4

Ðz4Yv 7c ), D ç. ÆL+EfrfuifrT â l" æ -: t LØ ffi I rà À,1 ù) -> r¿ ¿: ç 6 /J U. .{, l¿'à. à . *È ffi ¿: _ã /¡ È t. ù-4/v ) À,- l;ç. fi(. 4{Lî, п.c"âi" Æ -: tYùvÆffio'C.â? ùz'IlY ) A,- ffit:"ÊTr -t l¿ å" 6 . Ë -: Dç, -{:ffi#t:tt) ùvffio16.c"â*ái" È.'åt ( ð lrfr.À"îâLE,) ùl Ð. ùÌ- Èr. D r i ÀÈdâ" =+h'ffit:TrI| -hffi#¿:* t) t vl$016¡¿6" D ç. * /¿. It4)v: æ -: Ds" I

-û*>>>>>

þ Í"è. ìE ¿: þ f+ Ù: ER. + H ffi ^ T + EåE ffiX ¿: ÐfÉØ â å å. À"f:/¡TT^oL'Èt (" Èr â â â

åìF r lR 6^ä¿"7cÍryf 2 ò !r ry fu EI ¡* tþ, A "o /¡ Þ t ffi þ {.'tÐ tul z.r¡:kF,0)ù:0) U r¡ x Æisf +, ,ì.-" ( t -C. 'r;

I /J ùå åì â *: ìE : ("Y !r t !\ Èt ¿Ì bi (* "Æ.â

/# â æ ;¿* & HÉñT ';Y, W ä&h' T¡ +^ /¿ âìEu Èì FÆ

Ffi ? l. Ø

ii ?èå.{i lr ù: lËMÊEl.FmËnv2ur--r=>l

)v H I È' È {Éla¡; ¿" y ¿ ¡fi È tälò7bt"ôv¿åì7àrH 7 þ Ji, L y ./,) h {Li I-ì ¿: ¿ /:'^ tt) A T¡ . ) Lr ffit 0 # ¿,' v :, a i Ì: t rt -#¿Ì^ E y rt -CÐi = 'i. -) T " o) r" + +:. /¿i î. L ./ ^EflC 'c i ft Ø'1" I' H B ¿t ¿* ñ ^ ^ ^ni

''/v Ffiù l¿;ÈifÉff * by¿ì e'4 -ñ,þ ' *..-+TY'c.ùtþ: b7 â ^+ e, *n Ø,T 4',i ü: â ù È il' T +n e)tr^ù m'È*r Øul6o7 J f,...âB: !i â. ^i:), L\

k A ô'f 1- {L tr' ffi-.rù:rîo)t')Ìr¿ry+'cy i ^t B T,) Ì¡ 4 â t 2 ._ Ë ¡fi + !r o) !r .c" T Ø l: i i W " ry j {L ffi t L\ . !r ^u)ù)7J+l¿ðl;'kD/.Ì¡ô ùi- ÀI 7" o yY l¡isI ¡fr þt'C ù: ¡* E ¿ ù* t¡ô L t¡ !r t- Èi ¿ tr ^ !rù-ryvbtl¿râl¿o)/¿w7. Lr ¿å ¡* -o)

7c 'À

Ø7 àì iæ -\ I + {e, t þtlo)rLA.)r,, È ffit^ Ð . åì tlr + /r Ð

lr &

" o)

àìÞ*,li

Ì¿ ) < tÌ/\ E t¡ /\ t H ô y ffif C 4+ t: "m ¿t !r + )v 0) ry À" I

127

tl*

wl t)a-!aY I

recreation

5

#i

to invite (someone to do something with the

7

[*+u

9

lfamily name)

',Jr fA ftå"i

ÐÞ* L

baseball

tó,'

ilâ

14

¡'Í' t >

#F

15

Giants lname of a baseball teaml

section chief

Greatl

-ffi rr'lt

-

saðflr,-

celebration

years old

n ffift(r¡)

,tt

rcgrettable

t¡5' u

.ih

the past; the old days

El ¡t¿,

¿r¡

manufacturer; maker

L 1.1, - øtr¡,t

as-

tLl¿ trñ

¿

å /J

!. not too good; not great

È

parts f

to assemble; to put

together

&l-lr-

çt*

tlt+ffi

1' f,k#lR

ls rúLÊ->A

t

savl

rapidftaín orbus ercand; things to do

it-r,

JR ffiÈâirrl *t

[>>>*,Ë/-t.t]

r,J

Japan Railways

t)

to arcange to meet

B

ffin

undeniably; no doubt; by any account llit., no matter what others may

lname of a train linel

t:

--¿

ct(

second

<

Æs

f61 _; fs _

t

HiF¡FJLffi Lti

[place name]

-ì-- L cA

=CH rt['o¿¿ iu>

a

lctåEa?t='undeniably; no doubt by any account' l+#z>t.tsf lxaø>t.tsl ( åãltôèt ( ûr¿ ¿r. ¿r EÄØßEffiËø+-e ñ È>ãñt¡Ø lÌ. litr EÉc ( ÚRÌrRHÆ/¿"ô ) .

tot

I

)

b)

à.,1,¿

('Ihe most famous movie director in Japan by any account must be Akira Kurosawa.) È!.a

(

BÄ¿rffiffi^Elù: /¡l¿/¿Ølr. fi[¿ ÊcT

$r t

y

rt

ØiltÌIlrìô

)

(No doubt it was thanks to America that Japan become an economic power.)

/r", -l¿clt,Ztå,cl|

lãffi2

,nl,.;r,ll¡,

,iËfi.Ìn'ìÈ

.: .L'

.,j'l

:',"ffifi

ffifi,

lJ;.Ìi.e',Ii

,¡r,,,, r,... .,iEi¿;';::,ü

i,lr,

*,fi:,¡jj, j|¡j,

.;.¿:iÈ l

,::,,',-,4i

a) *+ØH-ðEä'ct¿ctt't" (I seem to remember that it was also hot last summer. Am I right?)

c)

ct¿clt" (*ìEfì:

ül is acceptable.) (I seem to remember that the exam is next week. Am I right?) ' ffiffiøÈi¿:¿' y y v 7 v F' ù¡ q L t¿ c tr'l " (Is there a service station in front of the hospital? I don't recall [seeing it].)

ì

d) ilffi¿*t,tP T I't¿clt

t >>> - 2Eîc úIc c ll

*

" (I don't remember when the exam is- \Mould you tel1 me?)

"'Lit¡:r..ùl *.,þÈ.a..,ù¡,t

-:À,:,Ê l¿e:trj

::al::l:a

b) ffiffiflrFiflË

> t. z

A¡Èâ:ii:¡þ:ìlïj,:i,:Í

'fto,,|.c,a-.,trI,

lr.,.,..r.',t

"

'.

?

f

>>>>>

a) HA#ltæHffiffit áe)t=1,,< (

liå

lt2t)l-!=!

r.."

(Please try to study Japanese every day.)

j

r'*

7 tv¡s4 l. Í..á¡tf C ä l=l,T T. (I make a point of earning my spending moneyby working part time.)

b) ËÀ+râù1.

Qr,,, V (stem) ff A)ã a)

fÁ Èr B

ä#

¿ rün v'H u> tØ

(It was ayeat

ago

y

b) :

=.Oeg¡n v-¡ns, ùr

-+Èif.

l#æpt

>

t.g >>>ËlrnËÞrcl

T

" that I started studying Japanese.)

^7can't -Ìt. (You stop reading a mystery novel once you start reading [itJ.) ffi,rr#bã ¿ çe) t,lL*.ÈÀ""

[V(stem) Wb .

â]

indicates 'finish V-ing.'

:

I

.

i +m=m,-;; ¿?åi.và,*,wii,,i ,r." (i finalþ writing

,'.:

finished

$ '''

51 V

.:;:..;

apaper at 3 a.m.)

(stem), S,

l#aw¿>¿.n >>>la1 !-17 >>>lFD r.34>>>#tD l.j5>>>&HÈn]

(They formed aleam by gathering good players andplayedgames with the American team.) ¿i L itú

b) & I øt -ÀÈìF+Etr:*Ë (A

fJ. :ìEHØ F -)-

number of teams gather together at Koshien for

$ "' Question word

a

t y | þT â"

two-week tournament.)

* -?ú

r:-Qüé[email protected]: t. t s >>> friJËH:

no>>>^-7',1,-zäÉÞl

,.',,.'--i':r

'...æ,.'..S:OhraSè..inÈ,ó. ,ótliouÈ "¡mÞtê,;ãs'io,,tlt a) T ) y r("¿1, 7 v l rÈ-tv¿'ffi¡f,- .,ìz I v I - 7 4 7+'v I- t¡ ¿^øz;r:-y Uffi¿ (..T.

b)

(In America, sports such as basketball andice hockey, not to mention football, are popular.) t,tù ( åäi2ôåå ðtitr 6 LriL¿ù lÉLt z¡ ¿^_ &>>>>[âffi2]

ìry 4 |ftE., âÊ_ø*.8Bll*áftLt.f.'j-

:

you want to invite someone to do something, you use

1 : When

Èto

expressions such as

-rill

úBt:

À. EIJ ùt. D ç. j B ^.ütlf;ür

*,/

ó.

zf

!.

V,l

4

L.

ób¿så

å -2 L r¡ ¡,r *,Ël.'ù'1"

,¡Èr,'*T. Ìôt-u,À,tT

Èto

úBl:



¿

*v'l (â,

,.,Jr,

ì-, Xfr t) -Êlô,+.t: *dât. L /: t,. lvl Ê ->"c t. 6 rt-cf I " Ztùq 4 ilTtt " D+. ËËr¿>>>>[âfft]

1

¿ -ùs

ù>

â l"rì



Ð. lr

?

ÍreHùÌËJ cEao /f-11-I*äålr?5 ÈÈi.D+/¡t.¿r¿" ffitf;årlt Lt,t ? 5

iÀ,- t' J:ådâ, D ç ó, ftËl¡ r,.da" i 1", cÐlùtr" ltclt, å implies that you can't comply with an invitation.

it is polite to ask this type of question, which would make it easier for the ad-

5:Oftentimes,

dressee to refuse your invitation.

6:When you can't accept an invitation, make sure you give thanks for the invitation and ask to be considered for another op-

pornrnity.

135

-û#"o"

1 ,r,

Êl-lbJvl

- -,,\¿ÌB+ä. ö i *^ùÌ E##øfeE-tt-t¡., /J ð L'o B#äl*. ãilø 7,3- l. r',{- I ¡ -þ-l â Ø:c- ft+.þiä?$ tr" invite) L * T. 'ËÉ¿*åH {u, uoo like)" ¿ØÌ i/Ã)f-1 ¿ -ù.t¿- Éâfl*Ð/Jð!.o g+ä¿*ätrþffi.) ¿L" ftätJ.+gÂ+VWfr b * T (to decline) å¡. /¡ìù'l-rùl /J i.¿.?tf ¿:#,H l-r¡u trLùl't. ùt * ì¡.t"

à "I¿¿¡. ËÌ:rf i t E â LF"crF ( HÈ.ùt'c.ft-c /¿Ø{'. r¿-þJ b ò+ (

Ëu.{L*:l¿. ffi.1}ãØffi,81:56 ð fi.6 å . ftlãÈ: l¿" /\80)#E¿: ùl- fÉr,. I - 1 ¡v åì!. ( .rl.Èn.fu. Æs L À,ù¡I¿ < ã À,ffiù'tl{[.]:o - ì ¡/ -ìJffi,þtrJì..{" _¡àì: ¡ås_ Ð J. ù:Æ-¡ /¿ à r,. t-Øù,fllt'ùt¡,ù.oI¿" Là. L. &lì-#Wt: Æa ø 7)ì¡. ¡. r¿ ô i È E,: (. ffiøFñøÈiùtÆ: t. frh''¡At:frffiËùtY ffi.

tYLH,{vI¿"Y#W.tt if-i t)-ùìÆo'c.t-âØþHâL- L¡c åô': ( b Ll¿Ì ir¡ffiþ L(. ËffiË¿:f4¿.=ol¿" TâLfrffiËüÌjLì'/-¿:. [jL

ì y-. T*r¡u.ùÌÐ. ò:

å

iÈøfr,,-¡Æ-'-c)

åË:/¿. ?l-r.

,'ì I-

ØÆ->( r.t¿- ffiøFåøÈiØffiù:- Y wt?.þÆà-rÌl¿"

ffi.^àåF-|,ù.->l¿åì-

r38



y

-ùt,/Jìi'ÉâùtgJ7r.ð d',¿tøà.-

Ð

i L{ ð

>>>>>

,jù.

È, /Ã.

tt. ->

i t:S i¡'

/¿. H El X+-cËffiãû:

t

ffi.æ.

ì

aE *1.

*r

: ¿ ¿:]F* : { r. 6 À,rì"

r¡1.

low LêËt.J

a grovp of students that meets regularly with a designated professor to study specific topics

ÆJì ¿ ,T

a smal1 cushion for

to get lost /4 \ /Á ôl

l:Æâffi¿:E jzJrt/¡!l/"1

sitting on L'

tr( 4 tot

[:ËÈìâr).

to 1ay flat (to sit on)

(

the back r,.Ffl

tl,a

,(,



appear; arrive <

to move [u.1.]

gB

Ël

the next day

Èoìi n

./\Er

lÈÉT6

eight-mat room ll2'x72'f

ìRØ9l;E#,¿-,,

e.

ff

u

uI



0)

l-

o.

FåË

:(

to caution

tr õ Ð 0) l- x ä ? It

tr a) ¿ ì I -¿tô L, 1TÈtå Êr,:ça.¡-" tr tr

rd

b) ¿ì I -ttÈiù: È>ffi.e.àrH¡¿¿ Èàìó:/¿, c) Y&wùt++,þ.0),s-1 ¿ -ù:fËlsLt:" d) :¡. ì I -àìËr,./:Ëû:¿Ì. *È/a-i.r{,*tù./J¿.r/¿o

e

)

::t

ìI

-ttJ._ ft+,ìrìÆå

[:çr1

7a)

2!

gr< ¡l u.

t¡A

Ji

n

b U¿. 6 )Ë

f

E rLâ

atatami room [:ËØËß

¡¡E u 11 E

ü

t:^

alcove

trØrÆ

È

to show (someone) the way to aplace

A

fflä

e

n0) }.

,I

i

at¿r¡-1.

F'frT

¿*

{Et'-

to invite

tE'r#-T a

a â L. ËffiË

professor

afüc)e; essay; thesis

uJir.u'

{

't Â,È ùt ¿". Y ftä¿:lÈËð d'tË + : /¿ I .l

6tl,¡,L

=À+ ilüÅ

l¡ùtÆâ

-ÉHIø

È¡riuç

Ë¿:ìt

Ëf, r,.

"

Itr[ä(" Ì1. ffØFåØÈiù:. Ë ò ËÈ¿-c

â, È ffi

lt)t)I-!=!

ÌÌ1Ø

L

:_

ôt:Æ-c( !./¿o

6

trees.)

Ë

u

t.

l:4.øH)

ttFãtxT

{_EÞt4_rle_þ,-6__ã__Þ_).

No URE LT o a

o a C

Jobs

for Students

>>>>>

n the U.5., even elementary school and junior high school children sometimes work to earn pocket money by babysitting, delivering newspapers, mowing grass for others, etc. High school students with part-time jobs are not at all rare. ln Japan, on the other hand, youngsters through high school are usually discouraged by their parents and teachers from working part-time since they must study hard in and out of school to survive "examination

J I

hell." They are expected to devote their full energy to studying to get into the "right" school or college. They simply do not have time for part-time jobs. Once in college, however, things change dramatically. Since course work is not even half as rigorous in Japan as in the U.5., many college students acquire part-time jobs. The best kind of job is tutoring students from elementary school to high school to prepare them for entrance exams. They also work as sales clerks, sports instructors, interpreters/translators, or anything else as long as it brings in money. ln the U.S., one often hears about students working their way through college. That is not usually the case in Japan. Parents are supposed to take care of their children through college, and they do. Japanese college students, therefore, work part-time to earn extra money for enjoyment. They may buy small used cars, motor scooters, sporting goods, or go on trips abroad.

Job lnterviews hen looking for a part-time job, an American student in Japan may be expected to speak in Japanese, depending on the type of work he/she wants. When interviewed in Japanese, either face-to-face or over the phone, you must speak very politely, using il#. There have been cases of Americans selected over their competitors only because their ff# was better. Therefore, learn to use expressions such as tTLCdl)t and, above all, never refer to the interviewer as 6f¿f¿ !

o

o o a a

>>>>>

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t

t

=,

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å

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Hffi.oí-,

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z-g'v

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4 l' årÃ:

Í

t' * T Å.

w++ffi

t"t¡tt$("îÈ.. 1r{- l.'C- +¡ v l2 v-Zt¿tÃ-c-C < {L6LþWL{u. âÀ,'Aîùr. yt4 /v åÂ,/¡ 6ic0t b t'å,Hr,.*-l-Ì " -E-nã+H{". f^Hrãrì4 )

ìt4)v

{"î Å. L-c- 7c{Lttl l[. EEIBÈ. t&ffaf¿ù.

Ì

¡-4 YY

w++fñ

¿*

! È'

-ù'¿l'*ámt.

L*T.

- t' ¡ ) Ð Ì å.'>f¿11 tt"

I

.18ËF,,>,,

Z Xf, -?+ È /ø< 4 ù: " Ehï' 7 ¿ t" 1' i\!rf4v fr^ j tv7 l. =Hl""v år þt t /'tt + 0) ü: Inr È,

= EÈt€tf14 1o) A'# o);tÈ-þLX. ffi¿i,Ë å'e

trffi. É,Ê k+I¿.m *Ø+1L

ÐX 'c*^À,ffi lIr" Ø ri F- Ë¿ië rêËØÉi: ^ffi+b Fþü:{LT -)

'{

Ì 'c(#l.r) È H, IIJ â"



1."

o)

3

), I¿

fþtH-( b Èr Y âHffiI o 2 ^ -ñR Èì trh\t1¿,81,

FrlÉiÉ tr

=

(,

- t .u - t = ) t¿ & 2

t. t z >>> äâ.Ê< Surrttrt]

This expression is used when Y is about the only case where X holds true. X and Y are both

a)

Elã^r)ìØ À"(ìt ('.È 6Off. 7t+äØffi< årrå¡ü Ltrlcrl. (College years might be the only time when the Japanese can relax.)

b)

U-T

Eh

rF.Ràìffi21.Ì:rÌ, â

Øß_ t6ÆØ ¿ ô < àü\rr"

(,{bout the only time Tbkyo becomes quiet is around

c)

#.Lt¿fr&wt. fr7 v7

47

Llre

Bon festival.)

r"fA¿:E^ffiþw.i-l¿( åür?"T.

(about the only teaching experience [I have] is teaching Japanese to children as a volunteer.)

/r* f pHfJ t.z,lf



='as expected; also; aga¡n'

is aconversatio¡alform,of

[â#2 >r.3]

Siå,þ.,¡L¡...an

erb,ry,liich,indicp!ès,thâfwþatisbêing.

said is what is expected from our general or specific knowledge.

a) I a y . T i1

¿ ltWâ*.Tì ->T¿"'tÊ.0) ffi I¿t, ö \¡lf U&yâXl:t¡, ol¿"

(John Kennedy was a politician. His brothers also became politicians.)

b)

Ë+¿rffiÉt..6

f Èì. 1up tf U HLa Ø¿:ffiH7)rà.È. b * j-"

(Kan¡i arc interesting, but las might be expected] they take a long time to learn.)

ott

J

onlyVou

-Ëå-f{='lf

-'

là#z

>

¿.

s >>>

FFÈã

This expression states a sufficient condition for attaining a desired result. ð å

,, .r:V.(1-.€,rfeijln)'ð'å-¡,1Ùuls:'l.' .:,(:,,Tþ'þ..ffih .ë,Z,t1thlf'.'.-,,.:'.,, ¿,'¡¿',*¿, ò,,are.droþþed.,ú.hèn å å is attached; |:È ffitr¿IS;,I*Ì'is'acc itio f'o'ry, i',1i!::',i':i'¡ 'fr'P.fficles' z:t''

a

)

iÌ"tt )gú: ð 7-T n|{ffifr,ù: lJ b *-ì} ¿," (You won't get sick if only you exercise.)

b) Eë *"rftrr'Ë

b

c) 2 i

-

*

î.

(tf you only sleep, you will getbetter.)

7.¿:H( )

| þ L c'c.ë à,r,rtrft'. Ì¿r.D

I iÀfT.

(If you only attend classes andtake notes, you will do fine.)

152

L rr

*nnHl

tttrt 7rLlr{ F#U

d) Ë+ð àfr

I

i

?rrtrft'#îEflÈrffie) 6 È r,. btI {..ùtó b * È,L" (It's not the case that knowing kanji guarantees that you are able to read newspapers.)

(¡È

e)

EHðåó*11{.

Lóirl¡îî.

(The only thing I need to be happy is free time.)

.,

',In

g.orpq,capes, there-

is a chqice between,-_N.Ê-¿ Vjttr,O¡.V

.:r t.:l::;.. -: :. tì: .: ::;.:.::4.: r:r:,1r.i: .;..:

à.,l.Èu-,1È.aS.,.,,-i

$è fol.lorying

examples:

) g)

f

(TbðåÊnôfr^'. iÊb*1. >> tf : i {rrr, ^,f*l ..:.1x ,ûhictr:øèant¡iu6aa'io¡i.'èi.l.qóté.ái ¡.ãn"', conjecrure with some > t.

,

l

ã Lìuì¡ÐÊr)r E Ð

i

,cèita,inty. .It',follows INø], [/¡-adjectiíe+,rr'],;¡anOtþtain foJms gf -vgrbq anaÉ,, , a¿i uét, ' , ,,' "

a) âB¿*EEEÈ¿.6 , HÈm&aorrf r"T"

(Ifs Sunday today, and so banks are supposed to be closed.)

b) BÄt:{lÂ,t'!./¿È'6 c

)

Bæffiàì-h+/rff

f Í.T.

(His Japanese should be good since he lived in Japan.) BÐi;

FÉr¡ b*u- l*f (If it's

a used one,

f'1.

it should be

cheap.)

d) 2' ¿. t s >>>ÊâË¿

t,(]

as English teachers is increasing every

year.) tflú 3

ùr LþlJ!'" (Chomsky is perhaps more famous for his political activities than as a linguist.)

| ," N/¿Þ (lI) ='because

(of); due to'

-l¿Ð(t:) follows [Nø], lt¡-adjective*t¡1,

lffiævl > n a >>> ìEãRi¡tu rr¿ur,zu)]

and plain forms of ,-

adjectives. It indicates the reason or câuse for the following clause. pression, and hence is used in writing or in formal iitoátioos.

a)

tdtr t9 È

XÉØf¿üt7

i 4 làì*-t

-l¿

e[Þ.$, :,4"F d,.1,],,+-

fÁ6¡¿l:.ex:. Ð ::is.¿ .:.:i,, r.i :. :..: .,...-r:i.:i:.-:....::;. ,.: r t' tr:r:11::

1'::

:'.i::r',

i::tr::r

,

:ì:.:itt:,::.;:,1

Y+ tvã ttl¿"

(The flight was cancelled because of heavy snow) À(Í?

b) #?ttîFÆt¡t¿dt-

Hi¿ å ø ù:ffiFflåì7):f: fi o

(fan3i take a long time to learn because of their complexity.)

c

) #ffiø'e È 6 )BilÈìt. /J r,. É &)- #rcåftÆõEl:Æ D ( t. /¿.

(Because there was no interpreter who could handle English, the Shogunate was greatTy inconvenienced. ) (aI

rtr. å

(Because of the deteriorating economic conditions, many people havebeen laid off.)

e) E#ffiþfuúfr-f â Ëó

(E). EÄ^fra /c.

(He went to Japan in order to study Japanese.)

f)

E#ffiþfu,ffiU r¿l¡

e)

(E)

- BA^õa l¿"

(He went to Japan because he studied Japanese.)

rt

a) "'VwtÍí hO¿¿TE;ffãfâ

TrLlrr F#u

I

>>>>>[â#1]

I : In general, the party that

ffiØ^: AÊt I è)v

; t t€, t.^îìå#ãsrt þr.< uffiÉ**#og+är ?72 l. ¿ rf,

.xT2" ffiffiø7 tvtt 4 | øZ ¿Tb

* t ¿f¡íltrÉ[tÀZ"f {ÃØL: bb. 4{Lu. à'i ö" ¿

)v

answers the phone speaks first by saying ù L ò L. Some people, however, skip ò L ò L andidentify themselves by saying, for example, H+'Cî. Business es-

1"

:

tablishments normally identify

ár3"

themselves immediately, with-

ffiff-7)fråW.tåó b *-l-¿..

i.. ng¿ YEffiFÃøffiFk,r'L f : ¿ìð b *T" ¿l

/¿

¿

[

ffio)L: 4 )-AîzJ,o ?ffL{'.¿l- -EtaElù:à.à. t-C!# L !' ¿ L þ *6ffi1- Ur¿ r' t E!'* Tåì- pñHø +'{þ-W c ô aË ò ^r. 6 L.r r,./¿ lìit * 1¿.. è-)v ; iå!.. /ì1. D I i À-c. 1" f''¿t-F+ù:1Elr. * T. XôU ( *áñFt.t,./¡L*1"

outsayingtLöL. 2

:

The caller must first identify himself/herself by saying - È F L * -t-. If you forget to identify yourself, the person answering would ask ÐÈ Èffi (polite for Ètrù)'c ^TLfj'rr. L ¡ I à.. The latest trend seems to be to leave

out the latter half of this senonly trlL î l as

tence, leaving

intact.

3: Once the caller idenúfies him-

b)

'-

EgÉ?8f;fr(messase)

t t €' t.

äffiti

self/herself, he/she normally asks

for the person

l' ¿ ) lt'a" '{,OÍJÊ?' ilrBlË llr,., 4 )f-T7Jt" ù,t€ut è)v i 60 ). Èø*+ø ì 7 2 l- ¿ Ífr L :r ráf2. å*¿ 7''"rbz L+ür¡f;f 71,3" tljElË bo) i. tÞ¿ÌâÈ r e å HÈ. û'c.iô b * T¿ì. ètv:. ó. 4iîTù," lEIffi¡at6')ñ\ Í' Lt iÈ., Ùf ilrBl& )1,wc ô¿: ¿åF6 ¿,8r. * T ùl Ð. è)v i 4 ) î-rù'" 4 lLîfÌ. Tð.*li lvùr+6'lñ|' L t 2ft e,- .L 6 ^.*'€ffi ( /ìð å l i +Jlãå ètv

i

¡l.¡E ð

(to give a message) < Ë Ë l, r * TIJEIË

È)v

i

IIJH&

tf

/r, á'

5.

ti'ù'b * L/:. Eì--c*rå * T. !.ôU ( Jdß-Fì,.L*T. {'ùt. ^TLL*-1" :Ð A, ( /ìð t'"

he/she wishes to

talk to, e.g., ffirlrJhär.. ù -¡ l- + r.. * T È.. In the above conversation, the caller instead states the reason for the call by saying

¿

¿

-eÈ



å,lElì.-lc

-o) r..t,îTàr

or ? l, Èr1-þ#1.-C r,. 6 c L + â Lñ->ltØf. btãffiI.i¡ L

* Ll¡. 4: If the party that picks up a phone does not identify himself/herself, then, you can ask by saying

(polite for 8) îL ¡ i you are calling someone's

-o)*;4 Ð.

if

home. 5 : When

you want to leave a mes-

sage, you can use formal expres-

sions such as

-l ) *á6à ( ti

Ë t. *È/1,à. and - L ld6¿ ( fì ð t' or informal expressions ( f¿t¡t. ? such as

--c'C.G,Lt ard,--t1.Ê-¡ f *ót.f

.

.18#>>>>>

1 ,,,

El-)b7Vl

- ,{7i: Ì¡ b /¡ð t.. -Å¿lBä¿: ¡f - 741¡7 ?HLâr,.. y 7l7vZ"l./JðL.o ,Ã

,,

5'o O 1s6

7

Ø

lur¿L r-fr¡¿L

/J

l.¿l-c-å/¿ò.

ð !.o

4v2-?

^e7¿: /J b. âh'Ø+Xf"f"-*É#l-ù.->/¡ t. {. ffi Lât. /J ð !.o

(* /; ù*-Ér,.t/¿'o r:) T )v)t 4 l. ù::

--'

6,,, fFJt e ãlJø L/¿: å Øb67 tvtì4 l. ù:?!.(. ø(Fxþ#ä

/J

frtl^L7

tv,s4 l' J

a) ffiätt-,,,,

ti 7

'{.''r

I

'l

w

Ëril

-si 4 -àìFlai:Ë#l-r ô': ( b t-I¿ a ¿ Ø-? ¿i,. E#)yø17 y l-Í0,, lfu/¿-.lÈ. BA^fi ( ffi- 'hx l. 7 r \ t) -t:l¡lù.taâçùt"?f+r(!. oT¿fr fìlr [r È ,Hu.- tóÎð À,tt:ll, , 4. *ôËð Å,ù: ü*2. y l."rì v ì_ ?l^*l¿t, ^, ù:Ìå7 J t) hØ^+0)T !r)kHo{t..rÈo *ô1ð ¡4,L?Hr¿Èü*Ë,n (' ( Ìt Èàì. *rËð À,È.b *., l tLl- Q i t¡ffiþ Ur¡.ù.->l¿" 4 Ø.,,y t"rìy ìti- ffifrßØWØ7 - | 7 .¡-7 (.'Ë: r¿#(F b o),s v ìt- trJ.t z iHu-PVlÈ -cÌ¿lt, å. -ì7 ¿ -iÌàì: ù, b U{ L * oÌ¿" ã¡ ¿ (.. fáËð À"øt#o{ !. å ,syl"ilâJ]ü[llv t"4z¿å-'à.b/a'¿ r.) I åù:ftcu./;o ,ìv."rìùlf/J (. 17, Ã{à-ì,,v l- ty y / z¿ù1i v F-WJtrì,ù'b T¡øIì" 4Øt, | 4 vøz ,) y r* *'C Cr-;v - fi tvl"y øñø),.->f¿11 y l-tùr¡Ø{"^ìi ¿ -iÌ l. 4 vtË)yä È e¡¿: taù.t-

r

Ii

v

( AW..-C l, *. -cl¿"

.ì_ L a1-

r*frrfu

t'J<

+fF

Uit.,brand-oriented,

i.e.,Ilkingfor

narr'ebrand goodsl :-å¡i

O

hometown

-l¿

ì*Ø9ãfr,Á,e.

n ) n b) n ) n d) n e) a

c

¿s'r ¿J¡

*tg'

ffiwØw

b

iE U tìÐ ú) lr

O.

F5Ë

ô'¿:

Ttandmade

/¡l

î â

l:î-c(F.

to be disappointed

whenever

-

: Ctt õ b 0) l- x ä? Itf¿Í Ë Ur"

-ri 4 -¿*. BYî6Èi¿:,r7 | 7 z ì t/ - t,-/vÈy b þå.cÌ¿" 7 7 :. t) -ØtôËð hti.- ÊÀ,"Õ( {t,r¡zJ.-tI¿o ¿ Ø*?'Eð À"tt- blff¿Vl\t, Bä¿:Ër,. aù. t¡H,l:vVJlì ->I¿"

'hÃ

þ

¿Ø*tËð¿,ù1. ,-hà l. 7

r

11v F-pVlùt ¿ -6 ò*f å 6 L!."

ì. t) -1)X.tt:It-

I-

4 vt¿:4>l1v l'-F?Jùìù;â"

EÍTEÍ;

ürff

â/ t'àö

e_çn-.__*_l¿F-ÞA.u.1lt_il{U

vtuhb\ . tr-lvl{fr8-EÞt4SKÞ o UP. ËËfdz)

,rà h (1)

À:

40)

Ì

y

ù: l-'C.ô.1¿À'1Tùt Ð"

b- ?{Lti,(+Ø /¿

-("f "

161

.lg#,,>,,

!t1:/ vlr\æ+frffio)^¿ffucuìõ" 9-4Yv âB ¿* Ë ¡ , ¿ HFËÈìð â A"îT I,T ffiäåffit: ¿å t.. {41. t- ¡. ) ù."

O

ù-4lY

T*

"

H#Ä0)EìËØffiiÊffiffiäù:ryür-'/"vl¿ A,'aT

ù;-

Ð

i

L /¿ à u. t.. Ø å.- ð

-tIf,brllr.Èrl¡ ( {El:{t,.6 À,ícT"

w#\ffi: l¡.,lYv WY#.ffi:

t5

{4¿ìâr).

È /J u.

A,acTù'"

(.

HÄf'ffiffiF¿:ff¿ll"¿/¿: åfì/¡¡.0)1- l\tþË{u..'È àr,. ¡.. Øå. ò âà. à /J U. A,tt " 4À,T¡: å lìcÈ 6. fúò,ù'HÉ]rÌ¡ ('cl¿"t. D ¡ )À{"î t" 7-)ùÌf#: å Ù:à.

ù-4/Y

{Èr*1È." z z _ 1 ù -Ë l- ù.

H#Hffi:

{4Étj-¿."

Ð-4)v

lil&-c

EYHIÃ:

óó. frË"r"Tde. Dç. 4{LkÊîu.ùlüx*1.1.{"T}" bb, jå.:t. FË b42ltt Ð i î l- ¡ i ¿." Ela{"ùJ- wæHìËB¿sùr,a

ùr.4lY

I

u'

i Øù'-

ËEfáê?t#ol

L.

TÃ.

r.,1, (.-

1.

nary blue

4 {L þ Ê

-Cïùl

1 r. ( _+_-þ_.ftrî?_s_/_4__1¡

å. /r

Ð"

( :{Ef,r.tÅ,{"Tås. r. (

3

I v / y v ã À"ùJ,YäÈà. c, - =nH f

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162

U-t.åo ì..r{.6¿iA"

Ð

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åf$:{[.:l¿ å L.t. å

,E-)þ-&-È--I-à'.

H#*{fr:

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6 u.f" t,' L- å,8,u.

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Ì.

t ö bbt)tL i :å"r,.* LÈ.

,,,,,u0*

O

9r U-, E/\Øfr

w fi: 9-l/-

¿=ÉUÈ:àbâ? *.TìTt->/¿: È /Ju'Â,È.

{11âà.6. tE

4:

ù ¡-t) -

w

t5

f

F__Þ_f_*Et¿*Ttù'/¡

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l7)À'r¡,¿:Ë*r

i À," à" j /¿-: È"

¿fLËäF("Hr{ È I¿ù,Ù, btlâ}" t,' y -i:¿lt€ffiØilffiøÈi¿-f u.ÀÂ,äå( ò È' ol¿zl, È' - 4 øla4Lt¡À'Iì"

Ìå.:/¿J.

4)" lÃti{ð!.['?

w fi:

[.!.]o

I

ó.

È

W*:

ó. RäßørhøaÈùl Ð. 4 À,t¡tZt- ffr.i z

Ð zt)'

lfr.t

x"

w fi:

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9-.t)-

ÐtòbbùtL)"

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l¿Å,È.

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,lXdâ. ¿ Ø78û*ü:lT:{ À-

:

I

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dnut.t-/¡

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tËrÃ,-t

(å/;à"6. .{ìffi.bÈ'c

ì.'_\

ò6

i }"

.19#,,,,,

,,ì ,,ì v v vy t, 4 4 v v

i Ð 6 ¿Ì v I¿ie) Ø i: o I t" t¿i åìbb H y H7 ¿1" ¿t" a l. åì + FË â 6 (" þÍ'* b : fH ¿Ì '[Ël 1{1 11+rJ ¿+ H'hAô ^.æ l.r 7 f" )o *¡ LI /¿ I I *T ù ù1, k æù:ir U / ¿,

/¿ Ø À, ¿ 7 ô E /¡ H 0) Jy tìËffi+!r o ù: ù: +, [r rt I( ÌÌ ð lF\Ø B È" H

â 'h 7 4 l.

= v I t k(

1'7 þ FË

V

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ù: þr

B k È b FfJ{Ë b ù:åìb¿;i 1È,0)â a¿{4 ÐrWù:ry¿:at'E"AETvX t A ¿in^ '['41 â | ) r þ â l*' +I 3 v l, , ò {L i L À": ¿:iroi: t" þ /¿ I È' ^L â v I Ð È, r¡i pRi I tÌ b

t' S, l--U fBf. [\ t : !r ¿: ¡ þ h [\ ^È,i i: îi !r+¿À/¡lòH¿{"iâb!= |tþ. þt o) àl À, . T¡ È, : ði H âØôú'W kEt, Ð Æ.-c !r lX+ b't !r ØI¿ =("üt'Øþ &) +^ f *ó H H b A -t â1fr,8 -c â"E{É+âu

0)siu:|,Èìzq"*ç648ð7c Ès[]àr \ra fnr

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I

164

H

lVr t 1 vl-0)1

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L.

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Eùtt

L\{"

i lÉE ykÌ¡

¿1H{"1àì(

Lr /¡ b

aV- t-ñDrã (5HEH: +EffiHtl)

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I

7"

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15

10

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I

1

4 f+ FtJ ffi H fH 7t -ì : L\ gtÊiE ffi tr o) ¿: À,.ì_. Ø û:+¿tWL â ; í-È^ ¿r/¡'c üt')+ ùÌØ'çö^Æ

' FË Inr - !. l^tr X ¿ ffi. b ü: Ë L Ø Ø æb(^itáü:Ø^âFË,[FFË t) ffi.+rJ o) o) + /4 ¿J, ¿Ì æ Fm ^ + E:. +rJ L â,1 ¿s Ê.

Ðþ0)^L'cÌtb4åì{{ât0) Ø ;y+rJ ¿i l: o) ò I ül Ø É {-L' Æ + R ffi l¿ þt iËH 6.,r â ò Ø lir o) {" 4 Ð ? s d'r ¿: î,tH ) I : ^E ü* ) +tJ 4 ,: 0) t¿x.b ¿:1:.r Ë Ð -,t¿I t¿:ffiùtáü år/¡ òffiâþE:.Ë 7>>*rål- t.2]

navyblue

at least once

lcontraction of

*:

t6+L

[>>>*;ã.i

¿fl

pri

ìEX t¿¡

tfamiþ namel

È

-/JÈ+

b

lcounter for suitsl



¡5'¡

not at all

suit

Èr( t1

u

n- i

wedding reception

-

t'4]

-t¡I] {t

12

weekend ì

'&t ãøa

g¡ft.

of appreciation

tea cup (for green tea)

>>r>>ÊDlpÀ

O

1

season

i't ,

traditionally

*õ+fi

mid-year gift

tt, i tf ru

3+* È¡

t+t ¡

fáËffù:

#Lto ,c. ì 9 EIIâ LrJ*

ulr+*

relative(s)

I

-tr*

ffi*Jâ

14

R+h

to visit

>>EË,/-t-1oJ

-hd

sightseeing trip

original

[>>>*tÊ,/-t'e]

to exchange

37 Æ,L

loca1 product

rl¿ E r'

Æ*,0)

only

¿['o¿

e,

õfrffi¿: {¡"{¡. 22 n&. ÈtT tB WTIã) 24

30

ù'7u¿it11¿) .xt!

vicious circle

fruit

rc IËTþ,øÊVI

zo

l:HHl

increasinglyl:ò-lÈl

mffiæ

34 /C'lì

New Year's gift of cash

to invite

clearly

¿['*r; tl

New Year

*'¡-.* ¡-

búde

ttt< v vt/,,¡'lu

¡ i ¡tð

HM

rc

end-oÊthe-year gift

to deliver [u.f.]

to *á+:Ë

¿

uJit. tH'r#t 6

a'J 29 Ell å È. ¿:

to eqjoy

fá8tr

groom

28

someone iu.l.l

13

.tr-- ) #îËF ü¿s

ffihñ

/J 6 to be indebted to

t¡ro I

'¿

exftavagant; luxurious

HùR(r¡)

end of tl'rcyear tr

4 tôffi,H

tt,

ttr¡rJ< 24

25

6ffiÉ!¿: d¡"*..

6

- [: -¿lf-] g /¡ l

UùÒ

#Kl aTuL

2

fond of

-FÈ å [rt

to decide[af.]

þ

z.ffiWJ

s.fÃû â

6.grW

- æ.?

t.E a

e.Ës

rr.xfl

rz.ìEü*

r¡.Fñ

ro.EE

tz.

zr.#îBF

22.ffiffi

1.

zo.

El

taS:Ë

+.& q.ffiÍF

ß.ffi*râ

ttffi ts.tffi

zs.tEî#

z+.8Ã

r¿.

6lt'

5.7J5

ro.

-Ë'

ts.ffiIT 6

zo.õf¡,ffi zs.

ÆÂ

t'El

t.AÉ b *2J

z.iËÆ

s.WffiH

¿.#H

ø.ãø4

z.#Kfr

e.ffiË

g.ffi,ffi,

t2.ffi,ft

rs.ËlR

tt.ÉWJ

r¿.Hffiffi

s.ffitF to.RW

ts.ffi#

ñ and is generally used for characters representing god-related objects and activities.

this radical comes from l+Ll

l+tl f?fijld¿

,,,,,

1 ttt f¡äd:ð='to

go out of one's way to do something' lã#t

a) þ ä"ä ë"H¿. ù â Ø¿lt4lì7).

à.

Eãffi("ff ¿

>

¿.

¿ >>>

þdtzdõ

D

uo*

ùr¿

I

ã]

i

" (It's not easy to take the time to go, so I will talk on the phone.)

b)

Y4.: cølFX. ãÈËLt¡Ë¿ìl.t.f LI iÈ"" (Do you think I should rewrite this composition?)

ftE.: þê^bë"ËÈÉ¡r¡ ( ( ü r,-u-Â,Dsä!.fîÈ." (I don't think you have to take the trouble to rewrite it.)

(ttdþd

:är()

vs. tf ir Ë"ir ð" denotes doine something in a way that takes more timæ and effort than o"""r.ury, o,

purposely doing something that is not necessary. So, in general, there are at least two alternatives and you choose the one which takes more time, effort, etc. 'tà: È, ( , on the other hand, is used to indicate that one has spent time, made an effort, or obtain something, or to reach a certain state. It is often used with expressions such as Ø ¿: ,

and

Ì14'¿ È'.

c) Ëc/t,< BAffi?BoI¿0)ù:. æb/Jr,- å T (You learn Japanese with a great deal of effort, but

d)

(

fËþf L* i. ifyou don't

use it, you forget it very quickly.)

t2 ë"t? ð'X¡¡ ( ò L. t.f"T (You don't have to take the trouble of coming.)

J.

f ,r,Xå,Ultfrl$ftlr='1s have no choice but to -' lãffi2

> ¿. t

t >>> uflãñfzLì< e D Êãä%urr)'Ë]

T,hiç,s¡prossion, means that X,,is.notr what one normally wants :to, :do'bq1 óne hag :no, choÍce-,.. t, . r,: . ., :. rll,jl r' . . ::,r .:i.:rit.:.:r ,,r. -.:.:.,, .,ri r: 1..:.riri.J,.r.li.:..).1,r:.r:,1'.,' .:jitrll:: a:: :i': ì:ì' but to do it. ,:,:.¡.i,ì1.,1.-

a) táâÈìä t.ffiù1.

7 tv.,¡

4 t 31

â J, t)ltã'r)rr¡u'"

(When one does not have any money, one does not have any choice but to work part-time.)

b) IFàrä t'È. 6 _ Ë!.'C.ft < e ú) llfi þtt¿çt" (Since I don'thave a car,lTtave no alternative but to go on foot.) lã#: t. t >>>.'. eean*at'] J rrr Vnâ,/ önâ .' .,r¡èVd¿.á / ù {L â fonri,which is,homophonousto'lhe sivè,ffi'-ày-,bð;. ffi#t '' (honorific >

forrn),

as in the

t

following examples.

169

.lg#,,,,, a) ft+^. &þÊlt'ltt¿?

i îîtrt, t.:

¿'HH[ø ¿.7Ë(" L & ) È..

(Professor, I hear you have written a book. When is it scheduled to be published?)

b)

ft+ùt7 (

t

¡ 1tt"

tLt¿i.6lt- + T.r-Jì.LËaf

I'l¿ À,'e l, ¿ ^)Fà professor] you .{merica, things were very different from what they are When came to lfalking to a now, weren't they?)

Qr>r>

ËÐ"<

y rt

(-f*) ='at least'

lã#3

a) æ+þ /¿ ( ðÂ,Ër../¿u.Èì. FFñ¿:'r¡!.ØT'-

>

¿.

z >>>

ttþ) t. a

>>># uo a * ; tr]

tX À , t: Yl means [Y so that X]. In this constructiol, X often contains a poterntial verb, negative form or stative verb, which normally canlt be controlled by one's will.

a) r>À,tÌ.ùt*l,b

6 & a E1 a a v

- | þð

ùÌ'l¡.

(I gave lthem] chocolate so that they can all enjoy it.)

b) Ëtr/Jüt* ã llãt.t*a!.t

( /ìå u..

(Please write it down so that you won't forget.)

c) BÄ^litf6åali*õ#.þ l¡Ðf t.*f.

(I am saving money so that I can go to Japan.)

d) +æØ+å+dsr: ü,ïh,âj äEçð Lr,.ËHrÉt.(õ b *-f. (Children's books are written in an easy language so that they'll be easy to understand.)

170

*uo*

]¡?À,

e) ffiL!.HÈìF zâ e.Ò|;W#.þ Ltt.* (I am saving money

f

) ffiLt,#þHÒ

T"

that I can buy a new car.)

so

t¿ütlzw#.þ

l-( !- * 1.

(I am saving money in order to buy

,

a

new car.)

i.No,tlc-é..thatine)', th9.verblis,4po-t9nti-.yèrb, whilè in

$ tt *JZ,/ 1Eã-â='seems -; appears -'

f),

the veú!s'..an

lffi¿*t

-,,,/jiadjectives'and ,t,::adjeêtivês both:aþþearinæ;adù ial:foim

a) t., (

I

as

> t.

z

a9ti9-n,v ,..' o >>> rFñEËtcEz

az ;-e

øaf

follows.

ò fr-ã"IZE,Z6"

[Hel always

seems to be in good heaith.)

b) BA^rr+J bã>o

XåËplüY='tt's

true that X, but Y; Although I said X, Y' l#aM > æ z >>>

È

ffcf

grven to

Ìr'followslplain forms, but qualfy X.

a copula

/i

t

u

z< z ¿Ë : t æ>>> eruart;tt]

àì and ?. are.'de-letedì.whç¡.they,rare,.fqjlõ,wqd ,t:'.òtr,':\i{il :étliêrÐartiÈt,/

t:,etc., remain.

t !.!.tT"

(Any present will do.)

b) Elvr¿),.tt' å?'t,r-

¡^?ù à ) L )ttl,u,"

(It's nice to receive a cardno matler who it is from.)

c

)

Etvt¿),¿

råËìg¿:Ì¡,{Lâ^tr- i$/i.

(A person wtio canbe friends with anyone is lucky.)

d) t

¡-t¿ffi:cü.

(Any place is

a

{Èe)¿x-'ffiri"

home once you live there. [:There is no place like home.] )

]

>>>>>ÊDwÅ

a) "o #umdæt Elu

). ¿ fr. *.J,t¿ú ø u,rþ /crr/ù?.rtt



R#ßo)t6atr ùt'f.'f ËBr

Elu

HE

Eu

>>>>>[âËÊt.:]

¿

1,

you give a present, it is customary to say ¿ fuÌtl.l¿t¡o¡ D + à t..1,'e î ül Ð, ¿ Ìv.t *. tt tJ r. ò o)îT It E, ¿ lLl!.À,ØÞ

1 : When

"

b- Ðt ò. t4*.ÈÀ"" z ø)rãt\ ô t"r 6#7 z, ür È /c rr /¿ Í¡*L?" 4 À,t¡fi,þ ffr.*> t¡ ( 'c. ò I å. -z I¿ Ø tÊ , t - ì- lvØñffi È /¿' it {" j- à" 6 "

r

L'fîùl

å', etc.

2"

2: W1len you want to state a reason

for a gift, you can say, for ex-

-f t. t È"t. l¡ *¿T111, È:/c*¡lL"fTor ì,.a{¡ toËff|: t¡: .c r,. * 1o)î.

ample,

tt]:-.

-f

ù

lrrrdVv-, e

,s7ù: tÃ->f., Éâåsâ* r' ò 6 '>'c.-&) {Ll-¿.rr:ËÉ bFht=-tt.'cffLâr..r¡7" v€ y þ /ì: /: å.. /¡-tl' i {Lt-ù. oi¿ù,þffiBÃ L /J ð !."

tfiul

lf#¿*.

EL

y 7I¿Øtt:- [X0) " '&f-t*ffia+rJ ({tI¿1"1-l" r¿ÐìGmA,î ¿Ø$lLTit. ó* bt.*¿:{'. å{L./Jz).->lcurt ¿. Ë t't'&kØç-.ÆÈ¿ì¿ { rr ){Lt ( 'c. â{"ò 4{Lþxgt: L{!.*T.l

Ì¿

À,1-T

f,r,Ã-rVJVi e,:Zù:ä b. --^àìg+ä. +.ØÊHÞ{r[tJ- ( /¡" ùl t

ò i-^àì,+ BAffi ù: T 6 "

7 | 7 r I t) -0)).'û:/J b /Jð !.o a) øHY

a) EAi:Ër,./¿ ¿lÈ., Ø&++.rJt, H'ùøån. tffi-t(

å

/¿ z"

vì v | þHL{ùHT",t

{LþffiIJ !. i L l,Ì¡!. o){.'. E++.Ii þrÃü ðÈ--r_ 7cØ/wìy lt:)1.{!. ôt,ô-#,8Ã1â. b) 2 y 7-"'.0)8. ¡, 7 | 7 r ì. t) -Ø'H (ffi) ¡s7"vìv | þ < {Lâ" c)'hà l. 7 r ì. t) -l)ffi ø'#4.ä,,:- /vc¿' v I k ù)tfâ"

7|7r

i. t) -0)*á1ð Â, (*áËð

h)

ù:

?c

7(

{L

173

.lg#>>,>>

3,,"iii.7tv-J7tlcilvl,à

j

ö biZÁ,

L¡i

t¿4Ø å Èøffiffi¿:rr.{ì..ór,. ôHFãLlJð !.o (l> l-Q )\.- i++.7Jsr./JùlÌ}iå".

it

är-ffi¡fia 6.¡

It,.:6¡ * L /¿å.1 l/ìir¿ìffifF Ur¿ À,"e1 ù.)

b) EÆnTr-> /¿ L å 0)b â++.þ F,ù.ü:zJr2,,v-/þ(Fb , 4 ø44l:t: E A,T¡/ v¿'v | þ l> 6 .>I¿ù.þH7"1L

/J

BAt" ÐÂ,¡¡ffi

ð t."

4,",fF*. e 1 -c'ffi l-ã-cI¿/vë v t Ø,Hr.Hù:?r.{. I i {LU¡t .r¿Ëú¡+h) ¿ r. iffif.'ffx? ËÈ ¡¡ ð ù.o Fð ¿*

H?" 0 øFtlz !. l;

:

å

{"

Lt.

Ä/¿Ë Lå.=t¿:ff¿Sùu¡¡¡. t ffit.{HÈ d'uùsu. ùl /J u. å u.

):

å

XffiP#ffi,z¡ Ð. A5ù:lf L.H{fiØ L/;. 4{L7r'b. *6#þ++-r{l..å./Jül

Elä-c"¿x,.

*

ð. fl,¿: ttt+IJÐ'c.Øl#w'e L/¡. *ùt. xE ò E#)',øF.

)ÉØF"ffiWffiF¿:ry¿x-fr,{

r,.

â

À,11ùt. fÁùÌâsdêàìÆ. b ä ( {wo'c. !- å Ø{"-

¿i Lt

àu.r,.t'å )ù'L,E,.'{ì..*T" 4{Lù' à. -äóN: < b I-I¿øIJ'- Wffi F¿ì6{b -¡ -C'Jft 6ffi ü:. fáã ð .å,È tr zJ; Z> À,r¡ / v ë v | þ ò 6 -r È L å -C L /¡. Kn'R-'CfÃtJ'C ô-I¿ù. ã4 i ä*áXllår-fk]',"t(t,'* Lt" S olf,b T ) Y rt

{"tt. í {tù. Ùffiffiþ Lä ùttrrùx-'ä 6 /J u. Ø'a- +Hùt, : fr{"ftlLL * T. Ð i âå.tf'/¡ ¿'*áôÈ ù:/¡ à/J[.] ?. tôt$ù:/Jð o-C ( Èð t...

à.Ll lE10B

z-+fv - 1-+.>

.lg#>>>>>

.tr-

.,1 -,

a-.

-Eât,'ffi49

arranged marriage

¡{¡,aç,F. ¿ a

äì€ffi4$ .

Tove marriage

¡-ì

â,

*rm

plate

I

È.Lð

complimentary close used by women

ceremony

¿"¿dr.

Fåffi

relationship

a) 7-+)'yå.t¡ù-ãØ+{"ÌñÐ.!.-L -, -þÊI¿ b. â Øt-f zJ,"

b)

Er,.

/

v?

7þ ttti./¿ b Lf t.

7-+): v¿å. Ërf Ba^Øffi,\8tÉffiH¡Ërytå-n¿* L/;Ès. 4 øffit-, BÄ^ØffiÍl*

wffiHt:îî./¡¿ å trtbâØî-t- I jå."

c) z-+lv

E

) l,îlàtr. b *f

à..

¿ÌffiÍF=t¿:öff* L/¿å."

d)

4 {Ltt /J't}'11È."

e)

EIA1 ¿t. aØ C ô7î,ÉffiÍF ¿ -ãâç.6¡6

¿.

¿*t,

c,Øfrùìþt_a)f !ù."

T#JI6 À lþ<

+ÐffiA,:aa Èf

,lr

. .: rijtì:i:;r: ; '' ::r:,::iijl(i' : ai:.i::a::t

'.':: ::.,.::'

t:;ra;t:':;::::F!;!:

1

'L,.

I lìtq-

!tt, ,rtli1 . . :t!Þú ':!ì_r,

'1in'-

'lt''trt ,,-.., ' I' : I í"t iÌ,1

rl,rf r-r1rf q"rlr rr ':'jil

r-.t '

LT URB No a a a

a o ULþLÈL

Shinkansen (trËf,ffi)

tTt h" Shinkansen, or the Bullet Train, started as one line in the 60's, but has since I expanded to a few lines running the length of Honshu, Japan's main ísland, as well as part of Kyushu. lt is not inexpensive, yet it is a fast, safe, and comfortable way to travel. Trains are on time 99% of the time, and even if you miss one, you don't have to wait very long for the next one.

R¡okan (ffifr) here are enough hotels throughout Japan, but if you really want to relax, go to a ffiÊE, a Japanese-style inn. lt is expensive, but if you wish to experience part of traditional Japan, splurge one night and stay at an above-average fftÊE in a hot-spring town. Soak

I

I

yourself in the hot tub, eat the food they serve, and get good night's sleep on a futon. Hopefully you will feel all refreshed the next morning.

Travelling apan is a populous country and everyone loves to travel, which means wherever you go, it is usually crowded. ln the spring and in the fall, many schools have so-called iäVffii+, teacher-led trips for elementary through high school students. Although it is impossible to avoid these crowds completely, you should at least try to find out from travel agencies when the peak times for school excursions are so that you can enjoy at least some sem-

T J

blance of privacy and quietude.

a a o a

a

>>>>>tft

'

fr

EJR ØffiØA,ëDú)Htrë.

u..å,Í-f ül Ð"

C)v

ffi#ffiØqlf+åsHr.

ffiF

ã>4

C)v

ffi*tj*¿*ð

ffiË1

lñDfltØrt--br*TJ"

C)v

4i11ù'" ¿tò"

C)v

:

ffiË1

r.r-TTÌ" D+. tlJlf,þlFb *.-lþ'Èr- Ë * )Lrôß+L ( /ìèt'"

ffiF

*** ¿t,1.. ráf+/¿r L * LÌ¿. 12 H 20 E&ËÉ#

/¿

:-Øffl,ØLt:F L¿åÆf'ftàìó

dnt(.-t.

b

ÆRE

C)v ffiË1 tsC)v

ffiE C)v

* Tå. à.

ÉÈ[Å,r

t'"

L.T-Tå.o

ÆÆ¿x 6

äF

20 0) D

ffiËffi#¿*. t- 6 /J ì.- Å,{"1à.. ffiftffi#t*. {+å# å -ffi¿: ÌÌ->t ì.'* To 4 ifTzJ," EfUîTdao L'( àf'-Tà..

15 ffi



ßtìØ

(Àà.

"

.L 6 ¿l*É#(.'T"

Fl. ìEË 6,090 H. âffit' 10,580 (-ãHôL L+HtLþ-&îrùH Lf ) D + ¿ trr{""

ffiåf+ê

( Èð

*T7)'"

RHË¿s 17 ffi 13 â.

C)v

b

4,490

-nL+FltáFà.b L*T. ......t'fsÈl} L * l-T¿" 420 Høta'; b Í"-l-. Ðt ö.

Flù:

ä b * 1.

b

476 E_

-l 'lo#>>>>>

ev, It

Ë1

U z5 ät

5*x,-^tF

t lc ì 7-.

ìiE;Ñl.ffiffi E

ffiãl b6 ¿¿ l; U. JTB effiffi ú) ?fflEï

6"

---ÌÉ{t'fÊ4E^f-rÈ È t.

Â,1"Tåì.

п

z).#È.{. ó

*

b

H(

z¡ r.fRÊH

t'T l- !' i lt'"

Ùtä

&Ë1

<

[.à:L{"t,.*.tù" W B ¿. å

s +I Ëi

U

L*

*aËfiü,l

1ø-c". ,).4 i61+t, ( Èå

r,."

*** t, ¡i ¿Jð 4 ir¡Ø¿ìðð"r,.* L/¡" :EFI{..TÈì"

fË&lEàÆø KÊH"c.

:êffÈ-ÌÉ

п,äffrêË{"Tå."

ft81

õ*

bfÈr,.ffrÊÉD+ó

b

*È¿,i).6. ffiå.f"ì..u.taffif"TÌ.

HJK&){>

åt

ò[.l,.7ci1T" f[ã-("T i fi].

ft.8

Z

L- 6 t, ô A,ffiä'e ¿.ð.u. * 1"

uìà å | 4 v¿*ÉFEù:{úr.{ì..*1à."

&E ts ì 7?1 E

.

yffål":.ð'u.*j-. Dçó. 4ø#Êt: Lf ( /¿"ð1,."

ù*!.. zlÃ

1.4

{.'¿r. +/8Íft{'Jþ x{L-C &*.T Ø'e _ ++ X9" {ÈFñrr7

r,

¿ øÆ#F¿:

tañffi L :lrffiþ åffir,. L

rtî-rÐ"

+rE h'7r. b

* LÈ"

¿frtl"[.f.("l- t jù," o 3- i'CT" ,Þ4 r61+t, ( Èð u..

+rE

trI

+rF

*"f#l¿l} L * LÈo [.t.taSflffi¿lð I,l¿

2s ì 7-

180

"

¿"i ò"

r.(*r b * L r¿ Ør". T#! þ *õW,b L *

äär#Ë

lc

5 ë ff t, (

ìt4YY:41îöób*'Ù¿," d\ ff : â. ãffi"C"ti'r" ,È.ùÌ^ffiÈ4 )rìù.È,, õ ¿-ffiFåó L ¡ = ¿ tôIl,Eù:Ã:'c < 6tI Ð- r)À,/¡ å j L*-få..

b

*Tdâ.

a t È, ffi Ë¡t+ú) g +8, il,- JtlrHilJú)EË zjr ff : ô.A,t¡W.{vl¿{.L¡).

. -ffi

I

r

,R

lctl rtôft

C )v: d\ ffi:

æÙÈtrJkF,Wl-Ì¿L'("f"

c )v :

Dç.,fxð tôJÉtEi:^b *f. å¿ ¿: bâ À,'aTù". T"C"î k " frÐ LkÐùtb âù. 6. FåËå /J t.'(.. da"

zjr ffi : 10

t- Ë <

4{Lttì.- 9È.ø'tþc7>À,Ì¡{"LÌ

) å,H:{[./¿

ur

õ.

f/.ù*

A,IitJ

t4 f v : b{L ì-" -ffi D ç /¡ L'.å,{"Tå." dr ff : I v/y vð À,ttt- [.? òft#..trìoù.b " ¿ : ¿ÌtÈ u'Rffi/ìå. t, æyE L*tÐL b6 À,îT j" zjrð t'RffiDç*aÆl,tr¿s-: L¿./Ju'ül à"- 4 {L -c" òEØ^¿ 4Ø^l*. Ë) ffiFå¿: xâ 0) !" :-.0)táÆtr8ù*tÈ !.å" à9

{FJ^ö 15

l-4 ,v drffi

-l#ù-)',{v*TJ. L; +. Æ tò ì 1 v IE L-f#t-Lô i

táiÉt.Ëtt:^â^¿å.

fâæþt#o{r':(

¿\f

[tpå.j|J .'CIilfTù'" ¿i 6. : : ü: ü>aÊFltø: ¿'cTJ.

C)v

bb- I fru{'TÈ."

d\f

þB,EØoþ"a,

C)v

ù* l..o

d\f

b- 4{Lù,Èr- llv

C)v

¿

ù'tÃo

( /¿'ð u."

fu¿:ËË ì- â Lí¡fSÈ !. !.{.T Ì

tôÃ,8It+lJÐ'C.-e l,

ln {lo

o

l.ð,.4,ù*. EIAø

¡i

?

C)v

dr f^

$áJFI.EØ+îí+kffi,b/J r.{" ( Èã t.ùr.

Ð-4 ,v

æùt#.ì-* 1à. à- Èu.

D

* i :;*("T J"

181

.l

'logp>>>>

ì

4â/¡t\¿^ Ø ¿ ¿"zq#b HÌË *.JØEËbø[r

!r ü*, ç ¿: w. äß o)"à. lt,ùå#þ ËI 7C Ù: /'I't E ò ñË æUòÙ:Hç,þda T..C òA òJi"ËH(ül -{L ê&it't E, t{'-ìtþ,/¡âØ¿tËùå* "C¿:Èt^ìt'Ø 7) b FEI'å lL -c ¿ *i5H â 6 ffiuffi ð *i äß tþ,

¿

Ø

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to make a reservation

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ticket

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(ticket) window

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employee

14

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leaving Nagoya

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fee; fare

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t,"*.,1,i-Lè.

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(train) schedule

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10,000 yen

bill

to keep (something) for (someone)

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special express fare

passenger ticket

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request; application

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reserved-seat ticket

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car

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raikoad station

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bullet train

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number

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a

bullet trainl

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change; balance

b

of

money returned to the

arriving Tbkyo

purchaser

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seat

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l-

business trip

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tf

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view

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Japanese-style room

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bath

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quiet to check; to look up

Ðbø l, tl--

one night's stay; overnight stay

f

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t¡rùt

11

16

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bathroom; toilet address; place

of

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with two meals inn;lodging

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to rest Uit.,to rest one's Japan Tlavel Bureau

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place where one can be

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late afternoon, usually just before dinner time <

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private house providing lodging and meals to tourists

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$áÆ1,8

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informal cotton kimono

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kimono I

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clothes

to become tired

å

tl,

ftffir

bath

vE¡t (-þ)F,Wîâ to see the sights (of -) ¿-t¿: 9HÐ men's section of a

å

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feeling I

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comfoftable; pleasant; to feel good



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to change (one's)

20 Êæì-â

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to wash

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women's section of a bathhouse

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to b{L z

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domestic

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pass

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ø-;-

travel agency

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very big city; metropolis

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agríctslture

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to receive

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during the period (when

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horse

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rallway

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silo

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to stand; to be

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north

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south to run

frontier

sheep

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Mother Nature lli¡., mighty naturel

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scenery aru

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people native to the

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from north to south

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largest

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city; capital ¿.-f

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186

walking alone

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can't see them all

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would have to be the best choice [:-rì*

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lEÆl,I¿ [¡¿ 26 ffiYJî â 27 iv!z7Y-

(-)

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internationally

education

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ah;

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vigor; liveliness; vitality; energy

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[smallest of the four main islandsl

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castle

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Mt. Sakurajima volcano various parts of the

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hot spring leisurely

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This radical comes from # and is often used for characters representing kinds, conditions, products, etc., of thread.

tfÊt tf;ãt t_#€J rd¿

187

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to#>>.>.

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(fraption) is expressed,in Japanese bÍ l,(nùdbèi)â nùmþer)l.,Notióe' nèse; a-ile.nominator comes b.efore a numer4qg er;llir:.A ø:,1:'$};,

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)

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b)

l'.

a

>

(There are marry old temples and shrines in Kyoto.) Lþ 2b BAE¿liâ/¿tr:f ¡f Êft.å,Í.. Ë¡ *at - L (Japanese rice wine tastes good even co1d.) ¿r. ,' r¡ F,ff? ¿¡ ( . (If you go to sleep with the window open, you will catch cold.)

c) #.þlrlltt¿**86 ¿. d)

E

i ëzo*,*r'à Lf ( liÈ r.."

(Please come as you are.)

6 t6#.þlËr) É * *ìEå /J t.Ø ùt_ À ( /J !.. (Ifs not good not to return the money one has borrowed f¡om other people.)

e) )vt¡

189

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>>>>>[âffi2]

(ËÉÉ"c)

ffift+r

ffift+Í

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you are making a reservation, use expressions such as -

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or

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ffift+r

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ffift++

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l,,,HSAAU e Hê*(p.192)þEa,

wØHfñ,^æàäð !."

a) b) HH¿.6ÉåF*-r". lô¿.

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a) b)

HelShe cannot use the timetabie because helshe cannot rcadkarrl| HelShe wants to go to Kyoto on a Nozomi tomorrow. HelShe must be in Kyoto by 11 a.m.

c

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HelShe wants to know whalfiain the clerk would recommend.

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c a o

Homestays we learned in ffia¡*r) fg+,lËffi1, Lesson 3, there is nothing better than doing a homestay in Japan to understand what a Japanese family is like, to see how "ordinary Japanese" live, and to improve your speaking skills. On the whole, they will treat you well: they may put you in the best room they have, cook better (or different) food than normal just because you are there, try to take you to places they themselves may not normally go to (e.9., a sumo tournament), and they are likely to shower you with gifts. Even then you might feel uncomfortable: your room will be smaller, you might have to eat food that looks completely unfamiliar and unappetízing, go out with the family when you don't feel like it, etc. You might even resent the fact that the host mother doesn't give you enough freedom or privacy. As Mami says in âãÉ 3 of the current lesson, howeveç it is very likely that she means well, and the unpleasantness you experience is most probably a mere misunderstanding, just as much on your part as on hers. lf you come to a point where you simply cannot get along with your host family, discuss it with æ+EIft, who could make arrangements for another family or another type of housing for you. s

Making Apologies mericans and Japanese don't necessarily apologize in the same situations. Americans, for example, always say, "Excuse me" when they bump against someone. ln Japan, however, don't expect to hear lArtËlv, ft+Ltrt [,fi, etc., on crowded trains, platforms, and sidewalks although you are pushed and shoved allthe time. Japanese don't usually apologize in such cases, unless they feel they really hurt you, e.9., by stepping on your foot by mistake.

On the other hand, salesclerks and service personnel in Japan would apologize much more readily and profusely than their American counterparts, at even the smallest hint of inconvenience they may have caused you. Also, Americans don't apologize when they fear some legal or financial disadvantage that might arise. For example, in a traffic accident of which you yourself were the cause, you are not supposed to apologize in the U.S., because apologizing in such a case might be interpreted as an admission of guilt. ln Japan, on the other hand, the person who was responsible for the accident must apologize at once, to show how sincere he/she is. ln fact, the presence or the lack of sincerity could very well be a big factor when settling the issue. o

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)-

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the middle part omitted she

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to melt into; become a

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to express figuratively

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?

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actively

t;.T .

to be concerned about

ffi

thing which one has just learned [>>>*;É.2-t.tt]

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7 Æ!'

to kid each other

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lfemale given name]

tt

ô'

Àð"ù1.âi

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[famiþ narne]

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to endure; to put up

with

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to be fussy; to be overly

critical

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20

the end l:#Ki?

b

to make amoYebefore the other person does it (in anticipation of his/ her move)

r. h.,t, ¡'

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l

different culture

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sphere

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personally Llit.,with one's own bodyl

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for reasons of

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ll'.

31

to be too much (to ì

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ù,ttr â (something) bothers someone; (something) makes



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at*

to fade; to decrease

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to regret



true

ffitl

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ft tt'|

obstacle

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to weep; to shed tears

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by no means; never

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wasteful

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ill of

E4

Ji

(someone)

l+<

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[:ä*Ø]

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in whispers; secretþ

to be unsuccessful; to

¡'tru 4

i

ÆfË

days

the latter part omitted one's thoughts/

impressions l|¡"vq ¡

L:fE).

XR ¿l

æÆ

use

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to catch a cold

t' r+

29

("

rlt

[:lEIËò]

Êlla t t!.i

spirit of independence

(t'

34

many times

to speak

gradually

¿

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itt

faiT 28

[:ñ{ø ¡ l:]

cl¡rr' L.l,

lt,

to be lenient

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b

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to caution; to warn; to

critical

,

at the end

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behind someone's back o

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not at all

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someone uneasy

advice

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miso soup

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advise

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result

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without limit

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tolerate)

l:

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40

^[.+u'¿]¿+a¿

+ffi,ft+

collection ofessays first year oî Heisei [1eBe]

>>>>>

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ra.

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s.ffi ro.

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zz.'¡hw

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t+.Hffi,\

rs.ffiffiÉ!

re.ffiæl

rq.EX{LEil

zo.

zr.Ë à (" za.ÆfgXF

z+.

ffiS {r

H

zs.ffr¡,1

This radical comes from the shape of a house and is used for characters representing kinds, parts, conditions, etc., of houses.

tãl tEt fËt rd¿

207

.l t

t

#>>>>>

I

1 "' - $Lff-lrr à,/ ttOTllI à='because -'

a) ft+.

: Ði

lv-et ù."

lÈ#l > ¿. z >>> rd: l¿ Þ Hâ: tcÐrutrt' a] lÊtr¡ >¿.0 >>> e l¿ (I am sorrSr. It's because my parents called me just when I was about to

Y4. : T 6*.-r¡Â," b)

++.(*): ¿ i

Ë,oTl Teave

ñ' ò

" the house.)

Lt¿Ø" =1J¡' ùffic/¿øJ.

(What happened? I've been waiting for half an hour!)

[email protected]): ¿'п,. ðe)¿," Éc*r; à. Ë

(road) àìù

Øî¿ ( ¿.1,-ct.t¿l¿tvtitt,ò"

(Sorry! I came by car but the traffic was incredibly heavy lso I couldn't help being lateJ.)

,r, -öf,J=

f

a) #fr-o

Lã#t

> ¿.2

>>>trt

cura:ttr]

) 6l=ffiTtþ I /¿f ¿ì¡. ¡..

(One should travel while still a student.)

)

i

blifuúfrþ L'C. Jô ¿ " (I wiil get my study done while it is still quiet.)

b) #lt,t¿

c) Ët,tä bl=fi¡Ø Ll¿t.

a-

LþL'ct6 ( t

r,.1."

(You should do what you want to do while you are still young.)

d)

Bäl: ttâ

Ò

å r:. -Æååirí¿=ff b È r.- å,8,r. * I amin Japan.)

(I would like to climb Mt. Fuji while

e)

ËÉt(t"râ) ËEffi¡ñ¿l¡.

-c'c,t-

(Time flewby while we were talking.)

1.

*:È. t:

i'.W,,hèn'.9'3,,þri9,'pr,

eded..þi'a.:lê€,a-tiyq:v,,erb,'f.9,r,m;f.ex,Þ,,r-.

something hapþens.'

f ) ó* bìE( r¡ål¡t,t)b|;'1fr->/¿ã¿ìl.!.f"Lå l" (You should go home before it gets too late.)

g)

Ëù: Lz)'È'(t'f¿çtabl=ffiÆþ

L*T.

(I will do my homeworkbefore my mother scolds me.)

es the,,m.e.a.ni.

g1

,,

:befþig

itiz

>>>>>

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weighs on one's mind; to be concerned about lÈffi 't >

::r..In,,this'construction,,X'san,bê'either,á¡ôu{r-9r'a,p9n1ene.o-r1rþ

a

)

FÌñËår'ã,E r¿ú)

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(I am worried about my

b),$ (I

À

7

¡zz=u-¿ør¡m

grade

¿. t o

I

-'

>>>fl ctaa ua]

ne!|,,2-édl:b. t-4,$ry,bi+þ.Q,,,;:,

[sì.)

î 4 Ø++.ØXffi,¿. å +mÈì-iÉ t *tt

!-ø)tÏfi,Erc

Úl

*I

"

am botheredby the fact that my host studenfs family has not even written a single letter to me.)

{r'>>

¿öVTf)

lãffi

t > t.t t >>> ¿ã u(€lEnaulø*l

This phrase can be used with either a negative or affirmative predicate- In a negative sentence, .",itm .:eanl..f (iСã'-rnme.i.trow.næ. a ffies,' In an afûrmatile ltê,nce';ít..1i ,[email protected]

..ói...:.'am.l:.....:.=,:':..:...'.',.'...'.'.,.............:.:'"..'.'.i],

a)

¿a l,< $tìt),à ät'Ëll.,b4ù:Ff,t'( ( /¿ð t'" (When you don't understand no matter how hard you try, please ask your teacher.)

b) i 4It- ¿aVf

ð./¡

!'.

(I would iike to go to Japan once, no matter what.)

ott ?ü l='inadvertently; involuntarily'

lã# t

>

t. t z >>> ?trËÉ1,¿¡vu

r

:z]

fÌr.ùÌlJr,.: àì?tttlt:H6 :

¿ åló 6. ¿ (Sometimes, we accidentalþ say things we should not say')

Êo'C.

b) ffiþ l,-c, ¡.(- Pürffifñ3Ëþf L * u l¿. (I was talking and lost track of time.)

$ o" Nl¿ã,ä?Itâ='to pay attention to -; to be carefulI of¿ -'>>>.nä' añâ?lttr] lãffi

a) Eß#þ#TffiÌÌ.

7?

t

>

I

e

v l' E¡-..ä?tt( ( /iè r'"

(When you speak Japanese, please watch for pitch patterns.)

b) A: D+. ó ur¿#Wz (So,

you arc

Teav

íng tomorrow?)

B: ) À," (Yes.)

A: Ds. -flä2llTtJ" (well, take care!) 209

l

ft

is used in many'idiomatic expressions in Japanese. The following are some of the expressions containing ñ.

*. -llñ,1É?( ='to realize; to notice' (cf. Lesson 5) ¡l c) ftiñdEù:Fúo:.bârË^^ -t;fi¿t'2ã:f tf .t-6'.L/¿. (I didn't notice the poster on the bulletin board.)

d

)

*õ#.þ w L L T¿Ø l; ft ¿t'2 ¡ I /¡ Ø ùÌ, *n,lñ o 1 lt, t> -ci L (It was after I got home that I realized that I had lost my money.)

/¿

"

x V(plain) + ãEäã='to bring oneself to do V; to feel like V-ing' e ) êffi B ØW*fuffii 6*nt--r¿ t) *, Ë lþ" (I don't feel like studying on Friday nights.)

) ?ãã,l:/rftrf. mtðt.å*T. (You

f

can do anything if you put your mind to it.)

|

>,>

V

(plain) åäE*tmLrlâ,/Êö,/ffiÛ+to

ask / reil / ask lsomeone] to do [somethingl'

lã#z .

-È,

i

ù:,

".(p,

in

> t. z z >>>

ÊuìctrËå )

t¡ dtffi



t,rË'rïl

this, cgnstructÌon,: indicate!, that jt, i-s an indirec1 -q.99tg, .9[ a

prqsent)'J't ù:Ë

a) ft4t¿:fÉffi{Â?Ét.

i

J is equivalent

coryqand or

-c ù:

a requqsf, [V,,,;:

átaiitøqupi" .u-c¡;,tV,i',itt,lÉ.'

a

lette¡ of recommendation.)

þ,,t y y þ ¿* t. Ttù. t¡,t. å à {:ÈË = (My host mother advised me not to go to school wearing shorts.)

c) æ+-ffi *

¿n¿naa * : tr]

( !. /¿ È ( J à l;*¡Eur L /¡.

(I asked my teacher to wdte

b) *rË ð A, ù: y

ro.,a- nè-.w

lffiarryÀ > !. 1 6 >>>

Í+ffi,\

-

lÌÆc 1

(I was told to come home by

< 6 J. 11

ä fx É"

) t;Éttl,t"tc"

p.m.)

$ rtt V(VOlitiOnal) ¿ l¿t¿à=,when I was about to V, lãfr2>¿.tz>>>ÊÈù¡r¿ (

ðl',ó:f.

BAÀù:ð*ÉLtr< åü\('T.

(There are so many ways of reading Japanese names that they are even difficult for Japanese.)

,, Thê.,( È t . phrase.can precede, the. situ;tion'it,.isi ¿éscri¡in,ii;åi, me1!rng, however,' is the sam-e, as lX a-. fi -(, $ ¡' lÈ'1.; ",' . :',,,,'

ñ.i'Y

( "f '¡;

¡1 : 1¡¿

:

,,,

d) . Øffi,Z)+,ÃI*EF¿ìffi ( î¿ 6 < å trHË L t.-6T" (This reading passage is so difficult that lto the extent that] I almost get aheadache.)

e)

¿È

ÐåÈi¿ì8,å/¿ur< årrÑÈì(,r.¿ ( Kå: ¿¿ìó6.

(There are times when it rains

f 0 *'

V

so

hard that you can hardiy see anything in ftont of you.)

(plain past) üOlÊ='used to v' lffia¡ry¡ >

.::i:r..r..':..:

ì:.:

;r-:::

.. j'ii

:

::,:...'.,:-

..

¿.

s >>> ,.'...;t,,

ìE

e

L tE€

or¿

t. t 9 >>> È z t¿loØrê. z

tc]

:

lV(plain, past) ö ØÈ] is used to express something one used to do in the past, to reminisce

a) Íffiø: óùi- I ( # LII À,h'ãl,t¿t'øt¿" (I used to fight with my brother

a

lot when I was a child.)

b) ;l(#Ëft¿*- J ( ËÕrrl ( ruãf, Ut¿{¿Øti" (I used to play hard and study hard in my college days.)

11*' V(stem)/c( ¡..,,A¡,suffix

a

)

+

l¿t

aÉtaçhçs

lffiafi¡

> ¿. t

t >>> grìt¿,>>

Al¿ t r õ v

/

1) JJ

L&#älr ë :

etììÐr4 ¿ ¿ ä . w2

tJ

7 l-v v J l.fi¿ v\.

ffil*,ã=dfrzâ uÅluei )tf¿ V

v v v v

V V V

.

.

Ê-,!ç5ffiÞÞ-!ËSHefç&; -ËrË1 < 5 rrm¿' ajgJ_ë_$ll

.MaffiarÄ{ìËffi

_u-)fr

E-r_"

L¡(À<

..e_8Ð_4_Ë_?ÞÞ.Ë.Ë-&.¡ tt..

D

.ÊJ.çþg_çIru:r_. ô

9E¡t¡ifi[r¿är&¡rffiâËÉ

1

LT URB No o

a O

a o

Medical and Dental Care n America, when you want to see a doctor or a dentist, you first call for on appointment. ln Japan, too, it is getting to be that way, but there are still some doctors who do not accept appointments. You just have to go to their office and waít for your turn. Prescriptions are also becoming fairly common, but if you go to a neighborhood doctoç he/she might still prefer dispensing drugs himself/herself. Health insurance is virtually universal in Japan, and it covers dental care, as well. EYä, too, should carry health insurance. lf you are covered by your parents' policy in the States, however, that might cover only emergency cases in Japan. The wisest thing to do would be to buy health insurance in Japan. Most of the time, premiums will be reasonable. Before World War II, Japanese medical science was greatly influenced by Germany, but since the end of the wal American medicine has become more and more influential. As a result, you might not find much difference between medical practices in Japan and the U.S. There are, however, small differences here and there, one being that, in Japan, one's temperature is taken not in the mouth, but under the arm. The Japanese, as a rule, do not take care of their teeth as well as Americans do. Preventive dentistry is not as common, and orthodontics is not as advanced. As a result, you find few youngsters wearing braces, and uneven front teeth are not unusual. Doctors and dentists, like teachers, are always addressed ftfr. Don't make the error of addressing them X ðfu !

J I

Food for Sick People hile chicken soup is probably the most common food for people with colds in the U.5., in Japan sick people, especially those with digestive ailments, eat okayu (hot rice porridge) with umeboshi(very sour and salty pickled plums). Okayu is easy to digest, and umeboshi is believed to have all sorts of healing powers.

o o C

o a

>>>>>

e

Z-ü, . tJl.JfifräøtÉ#+

fiñl-tJ

2 rc 5

l¿ñâärE+ < fdã "

z-+lv : trH" ¡Jr ff : ti L* z-¿f v zJr

ff

I

:

L/¿È". H&¿¡Hu..C"îÀ. u9 i,{å_ ( l:€i4 þ:_z_!._¿-g!'?-.-.,ä,¿:-nr#È åìH ( rÃ':I¿ 12

À"eî.

?lLt|u.ùl* ÈÀ,tJ" L ¡ o Lfl^Øffin?ØY 7 r-'ctßÀ'fu'/¿ å ¿ir"

Tà."

z-+fv: î^*ìù¿,. o=+tì'É., zJr

ff

:

z-iìv dr ffi:

Ë#r)Tffiþ

: ffi# :Ix a ø ù* ç t

ü*!.. 4 i1â24) D

+. *af,S¿:.

ft+LL*r.

e

Ði òó bÈr¿ i :'ð"t'* Lt.

L. dâo

7--t)Èv

6"

t

e)

"c. + ( xn'!ft

->

r ffi À'íc ( /¿ ð

-llz#,,>..

Q

!-1Y v,

E ft: l-4lv

E.Ét¿fi !.!.¿,("Tåì. * ó-. =

##ø

gargle

ffi È' zJ't'-4VJlÌ tù tt: l- { *d ..'t 6 E i -c'Tà." ElA,,\¡¡ e, iazï.ùg__('_6_-u-_ù:1 â A,l¿ ùt Ð, táÈ[email protected]ê-lt

Fl Ù1.

¿bb*Tà..

l-4/v

220

4

:

l,.?å.. t6t¡.ù"?H ( L/¿ffi. ,$x l. 7 r i, -Ø*áËð À,zït(F-t ( ( frr* t-T¿" 7 / y rt D+- à.tt'?Or.l;ÂùåJ ( 7+ y 7-/þffi.a*.Tùl ¿. 4 {Lî ð !. l,.{"T }.

E fi: 9-4lv E S:

f+I|ffiÀ"/¿-Ëà¡u. r. {" L } )

9-4)v E E:

4 iîTþ'" *at$¿: "

7c

È.o

)11tr" * ó. ffiøø 6FËÌåÇ^o ( bff¿r_ù:_rul,_IC;-

¿rdâ" ("ò.

-. =B(.'T ('lå6 åEu-*TÌ.5 D+. ¿"i È)ð bàlå I :'ð"u'* Lt"

è tI Þ__b

8gi!

--'

*U,-r*r

r. U

I

e HåËÉCËf¿9 -4Y2. t äìþ):Eã UcUìõ"

*áËð/L: f )l,I¿o)" ì-4)v âB ù*{dÈ¿.ffi¿r,É ( {" b tr&Æ'

*tËË.å,

-t- Cffiträ ã A'tr:Tto /¿ Ì*. )

ffiÈ. ùl "C 7) â¿.

8il6ffif+(*T"

tdËð.å,

ó.

Ê.

ü*

Ìá&È ¿,

Ft*. i Ë"c+-^7î

tdËå

¿:Ë

ËH(":'ð"u. * Tàì.

l,'o

( r¡

¿ìrffi

{t':

.å,

| " (*'Ëð.L. ËEãð l,¿:€#T å.)

Ê

É

åìr'!' À o i t' ØffiWäð

b

4

þ L{ì,- â7

)'

ù /\ØE++åì.

âÉAå,1:6

*.l-î "

ùt l..o

bt| ù: fi,!'È./J ì.'{" L ! i ù'" 7c i 1l tJ" ó. âB t!+tLfl,i- å ùå1/¡': /¡Ë,åð Â,r)r. -^*e' {vt¡ ( ¡¡ b * Ll¿à. 6_ =H*/¡ 64r,.{ì.. * Tùl ¿.

æf,*t'T¿s. +n-Ðr u.tÈ

'1,

Ê ff:

<

(9-4yvt:) =H+Ds¿"i.

ls åáËð.1

С.4/v /¿r.DÌ iÀf'T" *á&Ë Dç. --H*¿:filt.*Tøt"- I ô1, ( *áFEt' L*f. 't, :

É ff: *áËË Á, :

:

'å,

("ü*. ØLttt

¿*" (æffiþtlJ6")

¿i

ì-4)v *a&ð

L*T"

I v ly v ë A,Tî*J" 4 {Lícttt- -ffiù: E^ ) 4--"

20 *, ff: tdËð ¿,

i6ñffitJ? I v/y v LF

:

ò bbùì- å ) ¿.ð.r,.* Ll¿" r,.[.åo .c"ò ] lt.oi¿tt. t,

¡i å*u.-C(. E[6ft+., -L+f'âf rË(

9-4)v

6. t..? ð [.n('. â Ø ! " 4 i f-f ù'"

lá&ð

I-

/¡ ¡.¿r

2s

¿4, :

4yv

ttt

-

I't À,

Lùl)Eàìt'l,'u\da"

221

-ll2#,,,..

¿

Ð dâffi(")e Ìå-'c^t- Ë¿¿ /= /i + t' å W Y € å !' F ;Y q F, Ã t -c M' tr Þ,.: ù_: i^, H À # rÊ,ffi -â {" A ri __. ñ,ü ¿å ii J F tr¿r ò) +'tu ^â h/¡-¿" åìu tñ¡' .t ffií: r. Ê "h ? A É *'ð rì k ß å å H Ë å Hå ? ã ä ÉIf5

i

l

i

;

t

iii L?

ifrräFËçä riË

$ !,É

i

i

ftËffi

t'ì,*r-årrf.Hår:'-e H5 ( À, ,ù':' r'l ç R D ù.iEØ;l t k¿E ¿:Zà-oTf¿y¿-*át'aií, r"ùit9ít Ë +tr, dat, ¿str,T+3 ¿åç* ÈrØ 6H, "z,if ,; i:\iF=;S I

û' ¿ fr

"+;;,Al.t=;q3þffi

É

')'À,À,"oÈrãoio)Jû,þtyk

rn ft ¿--

Ë u



iilt,^:_ È f:4 L ì- ¿ Ë Ð Ør: H( E !r ü* î+Ëi Lr I L o) tr ¿Ì ,{ :



L,Z' Ìa- å;/: t:iþ !rîF-tùü:iÐÉfd*dr;Þãr

"C

0)

ts*|iÏ?íå#$FðätriiEi t:. \ ul f,? +g1'H 4 ååä'g i:" É í r,gV 6+¿är¡ ffi;H f ö r; Ð k'à F i¿.à.rFt' +Èi I i Èìl-{L? É4 t ;i * ,' î 4 ( * i t 'L ð ¿i'À 9 1Ê ù:-c r,-.ù.Þ'¿äË+?, 1¿tf y ËL i.í'= kAi;';å?,€gl rZ Ë?Øful¡ dâa î''oi"i:,1^,! HLå ä i1f-?¡;Y,t:;gRgfiä 'ffi þ ?zibtrZ'î Ë'lT" ÈE;¿iþ, -

:tfr,

,

x

tùAÀ"à U â!. i) ãtâ-.C+^Iljí¡-+,¿Lãa /¡ L .¡,j ¿: S t#,! 6,1 I -r,? '-å ¿ r^ h ò þt aH a 2 ^ z Ì È L\ + ¿: r¡ ,r

1

¿ r* #'' ( I . t¡ ,Ei6¿x* =L:,¿*/¡tJlUþrÀ,¿? # r*c Èì iiÀ,!o È9#ffiF{, .Ë 9F--:- T t¡ â ¿å e' JiH Ìb t- ffiâ rr: tiFË

ê

:l

#F

¿r

:

222

ï

tr

-C"

þt

+ ¿

ð ,!'

6¡5c¿i

ffi Ðt

jtl¿

f

-

# L6 t Ã,tl ¡I¿u,a 3 ffiþ a 6'l ¡3-/¡¡È

something affects one negativeþJ [>>> JÕ'Êl- F 2]

the condition of a disease or illness

Y7T-

to complain of

-.x.1,

feeling

10

to throw up

11

E#

doctor; physician

-l

14

f26

to examine (a patient)

ruEt

map

T..u' u

Èl'

because lused when

20

somehow

13

t¡r¡a, ì

3,fEI¿ä( Èb.u'

o

rL( ,'tLç

complexion not much; not enough [>>>*t*,/- l-'1]

o)t

*aÅ=F¿:

¡1

¡i

nRH-l â

langvld

ffi,aìLlî ¡ttr u. æfrÈrî å u¡?¡ ? È.ffi llrtt STffi

rs

throat

zr

to swallow

22

i'¿r¡.

care!

to take (medicine) gargling

I

çt¡

ffiÇ¡.¡,

soft

tõ'lìtþ

hot rice porridge

to feel a chill

-aI

za

(-¿;¡¡[Ll¿¿å¿l/Jt. nothing canbe better (than -) [>>>Eiâz- ¡s]

<

>'

22s

-lni*>>>>>

TAICO

CIOl\CO Japanese has

categories:

ffiËffi

I

arich

ffiËffi

system of sound symbolism. Roughly, they can be subdivided into two (phonomimes, onomatopoeia) and ffiffiffi (phenomimes, psychomimes).

represents words that imitate acfual sounds. English has some of those, too, such as

sounds that animals make. Compare the following:

bÀ,bÀ,

Sound dogs make: bowwow

tsÂ,.l¿Å,

Sound of a gunshot: bong

¿:s-tó

Sound cats make: meow

l*-/¿

if /¡

Water dripping.' drip, drip

ü-

Sound cows make: moo

ÐL't- å'Èe

ffiw I! /v,/T ¿ lv

I{l¿Ilt¿

H eavy obj ect falling : thud

tUL,ttëc

of actions, etc., impressionistically. English has some ffiRËfl"-like words, too, such as roly-poly and shilly-shal/y. In this lesson's ffi a+n lFfl:#l,wehavequiteafewffiffi,ffi, suchas È b È b, L < L (, ¿f¿,¿flÀ",ìì4trî4,and

ffiffiffi

are words that express states, feelings, manners

Øùb>>>

t 1, * ú) (¿)tFt

fift|-fd

? f¿ 5

r< r< (¿)ffiri

Third (and this is related to the second point above), there are very often cases where, in English, completeþ different verbs are used for related actions while, in Japanese, one and the same verb will do with the addition of different ffiËtr or æffi#, as in the following examples:

tl Èrtl ÈrX,) t:*-> LK)

to guffaw to grin

tl6Ll

àt)

Í:f : ëtã

t. ¿ >>> ã <

t-ËrdD a tctùrrD]

> ¿.¿ >>> ã <

t-€t¿rûra/ettrrrtr]

This expression is always followed by a negative form of a predicate. a

)

ô < t=fut&L t¿v¡Øi:Xø¿fr'

b

Ê

i Ø¿Ì816.

(Ifs not good to complain without studying much.)

b) ffifrøffiÙf.

å

(

l¿ê^råÈ¿/¿ut.

(When yoú are sick, you can hardly eat anything.)

/rr, ^,{t[r/t-'perhaps i,

-È.

because

l.':r witlìout à.i.SrVe1 a reason or a

a) yä¿st

È /Ju.

-'

cause,i-::,i.i

lâ# I

'..,,

Øttft+.o)ËLtlì ô i tt "

(Is it because of the teacher that students don't do well?)

b)

l¡ l:¿'

ÉlâøFñËr,,þftL1)Ërrù:T â0)åJ ( /J!." (It's not good to blame others for your own mistakes.)

c

)

d)

4

ilffiÈsffiÈ.r/¿tf t,rá¡. ftfr,¿sl¡¡." (

e)

{Lltfr,ØËütlìJ.

(It's just your imagination.)

[He] looks dispirited, perhaps because he did badly on the exam.)

ffi*ilffi¿rìEL.tlürár_ ifrô.ùt&u," (There ate marry absences, perhaps because the final exam is near.)

228

>>>>>

J >o' V>> ör)ìro <

5tìl.lõ]

N'(',ì6 1., in this case, indicates that,N is thè ininimum fevel, degree, etõ¡ Gg.; eqs st,,lightest,

etc.)

f åt. isoftenreplacedby ( ài-.

a) fá/J¿.ØtË!-F¿Ì- 7-7" (åurù: L/¡ãàìt.t'f.. L I

).

(When you have a stomachache, you should limit your diet to something light iike soup.)

b)

r¡Ë# f å ttãùt /J t,. å 6l b * T. -St'Ë= (You should be able to write at least the kanji you Tearned in the first year.)

5 rrt -liff l¿t¿ZëJ*ll¡lt='¡olhing can be better

than

-'

lã#z > t.zs >>>tt{ìtrtruËi aeao *u,r,]

',r,nii

einte

is

mostftequèntry,$wittr

a) ffiftØFÌ*€ã Eru

the plarn, present

t"4tëtfUfiíof;léîti$;

l,ftz ë.l*äür.

(When you ate sick, sleeping is the best thing to do.)

b) BA#Èrffi{ù â !, i r:ä b t¿tt'->l¿ Ù. Bä^ff < Eruuf¿z t ßr¿rr ù ("Ë + À, Lfu1frl,îÌt, tft-> /¡Ëå1r.. !. ¿ ,E !. * T. * 17

t

'

¿,8i ùtþ¿.

(If you want to become proficient in Japanese, the best thing is to go to Japan, but I think you should

first study properþ

[i.¿., the basics]

in 'A.merica.)

$ ttr E åååE='as one wishes' a) fts¿*/¡f./¡¿:, , ) ea lilÌÈ. Ð 6 r¡ l. ö ØÈ"

l#aryt

(Work generalþ does not get done as quickly as one wishes.)

b)

ô t\.-Èlu

A : ffiX¿* å if.1å." låå.¿a-ct.*TÈ." (How is the thesis coming along? Is it progressing well?)

B:

äÈ.tJ7).F.ã

.|ãfg¡1/¡ ( (Elc(1.*T.

(I am really troubled because I can't write it to my satisfaction.)

>

n a >>> B ã t

ã

f

rEi*r)ìHãrì]

-lP#,,,,, | ,r, ,vl¡{þ¡-'lstend to -; to be apt to *; to be prone to -' l#æM

a) BAffiàì,,Lffir( òffia#È ¿Ìâf f.'È /Ju. Lt- i ¿

>

¿. z

o >>> /tu) 5 urlrtS

Ø¿t. t{-El^ØEÈürt)tf

tr]

bt.

Ìì"

(It is not unusual that a foreigner who can speak Japanese

b) 7 ./ r,

Í'.¿*ó

* b ÌËËrîb

t: L/¡ ¡-;þ-¿ì¡-

a

little can't read or write it at all.)

¡-o

(It is better not to be too modest in .A.merica.)

a) o," ffiträlfriñrâ 184.

:

7

>>>>>[Ê#t]

-+ vã A,, ¿^ ) U* L/¡à¡o æÉr)f#üì

Ttz'?-1"

z-i'v :

ì,9

i ^ìå ( t:€äÈ.e /¿ìl¡.¿:.

!fi7)t'ffiütr{,

Tr" z¿r#å¿ v*t2" ft\.: ffiùi ? z-+lv:mùl/J!.ÀiÍ'T" ftE. : Dr ó. âBl*+ \ XE'lñ->(fñÂ,ÈË¿ìt. l.-ÕTdâ"

z-qlv: ftL.. 4it-*.î. ftÆ.: t¡*EFl: 3.

1 : When you notice that someone is

not feeling well, you cansay W

êÐmr-'cTÈr, ñfiÈr/Jð ¿ i îT{x, Ð ¿ r.mr.¿,"cTr" erc. 2 : Some of the useful expressions for descúbing symptoms are:

-?,r4i.//,Êû (Ê, ø ¿, *r¡ É, El,

¿.,

etc.)

-àrff6 (#, Èå, ( Lç4, îî,etc.)

ùlt¡

,i

-ù¡tâ(æfr,ftåfi,Ð*r., etc.)

tl\

-þ:fâCFffi)

ffiùtb 6,167)rlì6

L¡(r(

!., ê ffrrä t.,

fifËüz)sfft' 3 : To someone who is sick, you normally say lát$ù:.

--tffiñ1.14?r'c5

|

| "' E-wJVI e

ò i -^¿È A*XøÈÆ¿: /¡ b /J ð !.o g+ät*å.Ìl'? ô âEå¿: HâØffinþffiHà L-C !. * T" *ØH#þLfr,-c ( ò À r,.,

,{ 7 ù: r¡

t.t-

b

- -Âùåg+ä.

¿tt *-

E # r' {älñ;J

head

Ø

à'

throat f f

trl

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