An Avestan Hymn.pdf

July 31, 2017 | Author: parsica | Category: Zoroastrianism, Dualism, Religion And Belief
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This is transcription and translation of Studgar Nask which iz an Avestan hymn...


Book one. Stūdgar


Stūdgar is the first of the Avesta codex and second of the GAqic division. There are two forms of the name of the book: swtkl /sūdegar/1, and stwtkl /stūdegar/2. In the PArsIg Book of Psalms the word swtyklyḥy /stūdegarIh/ occurs three times to translate Syriac ‫ ܬ‬and ‘prayer, supplication’3. It is possible to suggest a possible connection of the name with Av. stUtO garO with the meaning of ‘the collection of praises (and) invocations’4. The Stūdegar contains twenty-two chapters. A separate chapter begins with a GAqic phrase, illustrates it with ethical and theological remarks, with sometimes allusions to the legends. A concise description of the lost Stūdegar is found in the eighth book of the DEnkird M 680 and also in the Persian RivAyats5. Dk viii M 680:

namAz Xarrah I Weh dEn mAzdesn. sUdgar mAdayAn abar Oz I abEzag stAyiSn I fradom ohrmazd gObiSn, ped menIdArIh, guftArIh ud kirdArIh, ud pahrEz I az dAd I


‫ﺻﻘﺎ ﺕﯼﺝ‬


‫ﺿﺖﺍ ﺕﯼﺝ‬


Dk viii M 678, ‫ ﺻﻘﺎﺕﺋﺞ‬M 680. ZVY 1.1, ‫ﹶﺞ‬ ‫ ﺿﺖﺍﺕﺋ‬K 27, ‫ ﺳﺘﻮﺩﮔﺮ‬MU I 3.

Cf. 122 Canon, 128 Canon, 129.2. Cf. Y 34.2 WahmE … garObiS stUtLm ‘in a hymn … with invocations (consisting) of praises’ Z niyAyiSn … [kU jAdag-gObIh …] utAn andar garO[dmAn] stAyem, Y 41.1 stUtO garO WahmVNg ‘praises, invocations, hymns (laudations)’ Z stAyiSn girriSn ud niyAyiSn. 5 Cf. the three RivAyats of KAma Bohra, NarimAn HOSang and DastOr BurzOjI (MU I 4-13), and the DEnIg VizIrgird 2. 4


Wattar pedyAragEnIdArdar6 mardOm; ud stAyiSn I hunarAn kirbag dEn I Weh hamgOhr, u-S gIriSnIgIh; ud nikOhiSn I AhOgAn bazag hAn Wattar dEn ham-tOhmag, u-S hiliSnIh. az yaziSn I menOg ud pahrEz I gEtIg amehrspend Was AgAhIh. abar xIr I menOg. ud ‫ ﯼﻏﺎﺏﺍ‬/kahWan/ bUd ‫ ﺛﺎﺏﻉ‬/+jumA/ baWed kE andar fraSegird-iz sraW. ahlAyIh AbAdIh pahlom ast. ‘Homage to the Fortune of the Good DaEnA MAzdayasni. The Stūdegar is, essentially, about the strength of the “pure praise” (= Avesta)7, the first Word (= book) of Ahura MazdA, for (our) thought, speech and action; (about) the abstinence from the law of the evil people who are obstinately adversary; the praise of the virtues and pious works which are of the same substance as the good daEnA, and should be taken; and the blame of the defects and impious works which are of the same seed as the evil daEnA, and should be abandoned; concerning the worship of the Savant Immortals in the world of thought and their protection in the world of living beings, and also much information about the things of the world of thought. About the ancient history and also that which will happen in the Renovation.’ aCvm WohU WahiStvm astI. A synopsis of each of the twenty-two chapters8 of the Stūdegar nask is found in the ninth book of the DEnkird. A formula of four words concludes the account of each chapter. The formula is permuted in the order of its words. In the first, eighth, fifteen, (and twenty-third) chapters it is written in its “normal” order: aCvm WohU WahiStvm astI ‘ACa WahiSta is good’. It recalls the name of the “creator” (daDvah-/ daDuS-, Ahura ‫ﻝﺻﺖﺧﺪﻏﺠﯽﺛﺎﺻﺖﻏﻨﺖﺝ‬, J5 ‫… ﺛﺎﻓﺖﻏﻨﺖﺍ‬, cf. ŠGV 4.74 patyArainIdAr rendered by Skt. pratighAtayitR-. 7 Cf. Bd 177. 8 fragard < *fra-karvta- ‘section’ from Av. fra-kart ‘to cut up’. 6


MazdA) for the first, eighth, fifteen and twenty-third days of the month. Observe. The following statement of the contents of the Stūdegar is taken from the DEnkird, except where otherwise noted. Words in [ ] do not belong to the transposition of the Avesta text, but are glosses or explanations of the tradition-unbroken (≈ Skt. akhaNḍita pramparA). Words in parentheses ( ) are added by me to complete the sense of the “translation”, or they are merely explaining of those which precede or follow them.


Ch. 1 YaqA AhU VairyO (Y 27.13 ; Dk M 787-788). The YaqA AhU VairyO (formula) is at the base of the daEnA (= Avesta), and from it is the fashioning forth of the twenty-one books (of the Avesta)9. [The existence of the ×threefold science (gAqA-, haDa.mLqra-, and dAta-)10, the foremost and uppermost of other sciences, has been shown in its proper place.] Here (In this chapter) it is said about the strength (ama-) and valour (Wvrvqra-) owing to a recital of the YaqA AhU VairyO formula at the beginning of each action11: One (YaqA AhU VairyO is to be recited) when one wishes to say something (to any one); one, when one wishes to request something (of any one); one, when one goes for “work”12. Two (YaqA AhU VairyOs are to be recited) when one wishes to pronounce blessings (AfriWana-)13. Four, when one celebrates the Gratification of the Ratus (ratufriti-) [i.e. the ceremonial of the GAhAnbAr]14. 9

yaqA-ahU-WairyO ped bunIh I dEn, u-S brihEnIdagIh I naskAn aziS. Cf. Y 19.3 ahunahe Wairyehe: ahunWer … [hAn menOg kE dEn raWAg kuned kE hAn dEn az ahunWer brihEnId ested]. 10 × ‫ ﻏﺐﻏﺐ‬/ si/ dAniSn. Cf. Skt. tri-vidyA- ‘threefold knowledge’, tray vidy

(i.e. Ṛgvedá, SAmavedá, Yajurvedá). 11 Cf. ŠnŠ 19, Persian RivAyats MU I 13-14. 12 ka O kAr SaWed. Cf. ŠnŠ 19.2 ka-z kAr-E WizAred ‘when one goes to discharge his natural functions’? Pers. kAr WizArdan ≈ Arab. ،‫اﻷﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﻮط‬, cf. Dk vi M 568. Cf. also Vd 2.18 Z pEdAgEnId kU kE XESkArIhA ped kAr-E be kAmed Sudan a-S si gAm O rabihWindar rOn SaWiSn, u-S yaqA ahU WairyO-E be gObiSn ‘it is revealed that: he who dutifully wishes to go for a “work”, he shall advance three steps to the southerly state, he shall recite a yaqA-ahU-WairyO.’ 13 Cf. Y 8.4 Z yaqA-ahU-WairyO biSAmrUdIg guftan, PeymAnag I kadagXadAyIh 1 XAnend harW do mobedAn yaqA-ahU-WairyO do guftan. At the beginning of the ĀfrInagAn I dahmAn yaqA-ahU-WairyO do bAr, aCvm WohU si bAr.


Five, when it is for the removal (niZbvrviti-) of the Lie (druj-) 15 . Six, when (one seeks) strength and valour in battle16. Seven, when one (goes to) the ceremonial of the Savant Immortals, or when one wishes to perform the ceremonial of the Savant Immortals17. Eight, when one (goes to) the ceremonial of the fravaCi of the truthful ones18. Nine, when one wishes to scatter seed into his land19.


Cf. the beginning of the ĀfrInagAn I gAhAnbAr yaqA-ahU-WairyO cahAr bAr, aCvm WohU si bAr. Cf. also Y 9.14. 15 panz ka O druz be-bariSnIh.Cf. Vd 11.3. Yt 11.3 mLqrO spvNtO mańyvWIm drujvm niZbairiStO ahunO WairyO WacLm WvrvqrajLstvmO ‘the Savant Formula is the most getting rid of the spiritual Lie; the Ahuna Vairya is the most obstruction-smashing of words’. Cf. also the beginning of the Petit: yaqA-ahU-WairyO panz. Five yaqA-ahU-WairyOs are to be recited in the ceremonial of SraoSa, and in the Visprad service with the xSnuman of SraoSa. 16 SaS ka O amAWandIh, SaS ka O perOzgarIh kArezAr. Cf. ŠnŠ 19.6 SaS kE O amAWandIh XAstan SaWed ud O kArezAr, dA perOzgardar baWAd, MU I 13 ‫ ﻭ ﭼﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﺮﻭﺯﯼ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺷﺶ ﻳﺜﺎ ﺍﻫﻮ ﻭﻳﺮﻳﻮ ﺑﻪ‬،‫»ﻭﻗﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺟﻨﮓ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ 17


haft ka O hAn I amehrspendAn yaziSn ka yaziSn I amehrspendAn kAmed kirdan. Cf. ŠnŠ 7 haft kE O yaziSn I yazadAn kirdan SaWed, amehrspendAn O yaziSn pEStar resend. Seven yaqA-ahU-WairyOs are to be recited in the ceremonial of NOg-nAWar. 18 aSt ka O hAn I ahlaWAn fraWahr yaziSn. Cf. ŠnŠ 8 aSt kE O yaziSn I ardAy fraWard kirdan SaWed. Cf. also the beginning of the ĀfrInagAn I GAqA: yaqA ahU WairyO aSt bAr, aCvm WohU si bAr. Eight yaqA ahU WairyOs are to be recited in the xSnuman of the five GAqA-days (panz gAh, ἐπαγοµένων). 19 nO ka-S tOhm O zamIg kAmed abgandan. Cf. ŠnŠ 19.9 nO kE O jOrdAy kiStan SaWed ‫ ﻏﺐ‬E rAy cE gObed cE jOrdAy ped nO mAh be rased dA jOrdAy pES rased, ud xrafstarAn zyAn kam be kuned, MU I 13 ‫ ﻭﻗﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭﺧﺖ ﻧﻮ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ‬،‫»ﻭﻗﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺨﻢ ﺩﺭﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﮐﺎﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺨﻤﺮﻳﺰﯼ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﮐﺸﺘﮑﺎﺭﯼ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‬

«.‫ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﻪ ﻳﺜﺎ ﺍﻫﻮ ﻭﻳﺮﻳﻮ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﺲ ﺗﺨﻤﺮﻳﺰﯼ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‬،‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪ‬


Ten, when one wishes to release the male animals (for mating)20. Eleven, when one goes to seek a woman’s hand in marriage21. Twelve, when one wishes to go up on a mountain22. Thirteen, when one wishes to go to a district23. Twelve, when one goes away from the right path; or, when one wishes to cross a ford24. For the smashing of the DaEvas, one has to first recite the YaqA AhU VairyO. (Before) all the good material creations there was a requisite Word to be recited, (that is) the Ahuna Vairya25 which assembles the whole (sacred Formulas), which (Ahura MazdA) did declare to ZaraquStra.26


dah ka-S guSn kAmed hiStan. Av. WarSni.harSta- (adj.) rendered by Pers. kE guSn-hiliSnIh [pediS andar Ayed]. MU I 352 (Dhabhar 314): «Bahman Punjya: In India the priests who perform the Yasna service of the lord Ahura MazdA or recite the ĀfrInagAn (in His honour) recite ten yaqA ahU WairyOs (in the xSnuman-formula), but at no place in the RiWAyats written by the DastOrs of Persia we have seen that ten yaqA ahU WairyOs are recited in (their) writings, seven yaqA ahU WairyOs are ordered (to be recited).» 21 yAzdah ka O zan XAstan SaWed. ŠnŠ 19.10: 10, MU I 13: 11. 22 dWAzdah ka-S ped kOf-E ul WarraWed Sudan. Cf. the beginning of the ĀfrInagAn I Rabihbin: yaqA ahU WairyO dWAzdah bAr, aCvm WohU si bAr. ŠnŠ 19.12: 11, MU I 14: 12. 23 rOstAg (< qraotO.stAc-) rendering Av. SOiqrO, cf. F 5. ŠnŠ 19.13: 12, MU I 14: 13. 24 dWAzdah abErAh be SaWed, ‫ ﺧﻘﺎﯼﺍ‬/+ayAb/ ka-S ped hAn I AbAn Widarag be kAmed Sudan. ŠnŠ 19.14: 13, MU I 14: 12. 25 Cf. Vd 2.18 Z hAn abestAg I yaqA-ahU-WairyO az ahunWer pEdAg ‘The Avesta of a YaqA-ahU-WairyO is manifest from Ahuna Vairya’. 26 dahiSnAn I Weh abAyiSnIg uSmuriSn soxan ahunWer hangirdIgIh hamAg O zarduSt guftan. For translating this passage I follow the thoughts in Y 19.


Through enunciating (frasrUiti-)27 [with a virtuous mind28] every single word of the Ahuna Vairya a daEva is disabled, and (there is) protection of person and property from the adversary29. The twenty-one books (of the Avesta) are classified according to the first, second, and third verse-line 30 of the Ahuna Vairya. The “abundance”31 of the creatures is more owing to the thought, word, and deed of a “caretaker”32 who is unmarried33 [celibate]; and more “reverence” (aCi-) is to be shown to him; the constant “contemplation” of Truth, and the existence of its recompense34. aCvm WohU WahiStvm astI.


ped frAz-srAyiSnIh. Cf. Y 9.14 ahunvm WairIm frasrAWayO … +xraoZdyehe [fra]srUiti: ahunWer frAz srUd [kU-t yaSt I nAWar kird] … ped xrOZd frAz-srAyiSnIh [tuxSAgIh]. 28 ped frArOn-+meniSnIh. Cf. Y 35.9 Z. 29 pAsebAnIh I tan ud XAstag az pedyArag. Pers. pAsebAnIh rendering Av. spaxSti- (f.) ‘watchfulness’; Pers. tan rendering Av. tanU- (f.) ‘body; self’; Pers. XAstag rendering Av. aWarvtA- (f.) ‘object of value’; Pers. pedyArag < Av. paityAra- (m.). 30 gAh rendering Av. afsman- (nt.) ‘line (of verse)’. 31 abzOn rendering IZA- (f.) ‘milk libation’. 32 2 ‫ ﺟﺨﺖﺍ‬/ rAd/ rendering Av. rADa- (m), cf. Y 9.23 haiqIm rADvmca baxSaiti: hAn I ASkArag hAn I rAd baxSed [kU-SAn SOy be pEdAgEned]. 33 ‫ ﺧﺪﻏﺠﺎﺏﺍ ﻏﺌﺠﻔﻞﺕﺍ‬/+aGrav [a-grift]/ rendering Av. *aGru- (m.) ‘unmarried’

(Skt. ágru-), aGrU- (f.) ‘virgin’ (Skt. agr-). Cf. Y 9.23 aGrWO: agrift [kU nE gAd estend]. 34 hamESag menIdArIh I ahlAyIh, ud astIh I-S pAdASn. Cf. Y 35.9 aCvm manyA (+manayA?) WahehyA fraWaocAmA ‘we wish to proclaim with better contemplation (zeal?) as truth’ Z ped ahlAyIh menIdArIh I Weh frAz gObem [ped frArOn-meniSnIh].


Ch. 2 ACvm VohU (Y 27.14; Dk M 788). The second chapter is about the reward of the praise of Truth – [the reward of] the daEnA–35; and the punishment (pvrvqa-) of (its) want of praise. Well-being is through Truth36. aCvm WahiStvm WohU astI. Ch. 3 Ye?hE HAtLm (Y 27.15; Dk M 789). The third chapter is about the making of men for a long +life37, and when they live on for fifty (or, seventy)38 years, they become dust (pLsnu-) for a long time; the coming of death (aoSah-) even to a man who lives more tranquil than (others), at the end of his life39. The good things of this world are passed by, except the love of Truth40 which is given to the worthy.


stAyiSn I ahlAyIh dEn mizd. Av. aCO.miZda- (adj.) ‘having Truth as reward’ rendered by ahlAyIh-mizd, cf. Y 55.2; Av. aCO.stUiti- (f.) ‘praise of Truth’ rendered by ahlAyIh-stAyiSnIh, cf. Hn 1.6. Cf. also Vd 19.22 satvm aCO.stUitinLm upa.stWOiS ‘you should pronounce in praise a hundred praises of Truth’ Z E-sad ahlAyIh-stAyiSnIh abar-stAyiSn [aCvm WohU]. About the connection of ACa and daEnA to the (best) reward, cf. Y 49.9. 36 az ahlAyIh pedIxIh. Cf. Y 28.1 spvNtahyA aCA ‘holy through Truth’ Z AbAdIh az ahlAyIh-abAgIh [kU-m pedIxIh ped frArOnIh dayed]. 37 *‫ ﺋﺌﺞ ﮔﻐﺌﻔﺪﻏﺎ‬/dagr-zăyiSnIh/ rendering Av. *darvGO.jasti- (f.) ‘long request’? We can read /dagr-+zIWiSnIh/ rendering Av. darvGO.jIti-/ G darvgO.jyAiti- (f.) ‘long life’. Cf. Y 1.6 hujyAtVe ‘good living/ subsistence’ rendered by *‫( ﻭ ﮔﻐﺌﻔﺪﻏﺎ‬corr. *‫ ﻭ ﮔﺜﺎﻓﺪﻏﺎ‬/hu-zIWiSnIh/). M ‫ﺻﻘﯽ‬, K ‫ﺿﻘﯽ‬. ped brIn I-S zIndagIh. Pers. brIn renders Av. qBarvsah- (m.) ‘cut, end’, cf. N 40; zIndagIh renders Av. jyAtu- (m.) ‘life, living’, cf. Y 31.15. 40 ahlAyIh dOSArm. Pers. dOSArm renders Av. cinman- (nt.), cf. A 3.7, P 43, F 19. 38



An opulent person, who gives nothing to a worthy “suppliant”41, shall propagate the law of daEvas42 and give strength to the daEvas43. aCvm astI WahiStvm WohU. Ch. 4 YAnIm.manO (introductory formula to the first GAqA, Y 28.0; Dk M 789-790). The best long +life44 is, firstly, when (one lives) +till the Final Body45; secondly, when now one possesses intelligence (xratu-), bound tongue46, diligence47, and endurance48, which are the factors of life; and (when) one is devoid of these five which make (life) ineffective, (that is,) greediness49, sloth50,


taWAnIg kas kE O arzAnIg XAstAr tis nE dahed. Cf. Y 28.4 isAi taWAcA ‘I shall be able, and I shall be capable’ Z XAstAr ud taWAnIg ‘desirous, and able’. 42 hAn I dEWAn dAd ‘the law of daEWas’. Or, we can read hAn I dEWAn-dAd ‘what is established by daEvas’. Pers. dEWAn-dAd renders Av. daEWO.dAta(adj.), cf. Y 9.5. 43 dEWAn zOr. Cf. Dk v M 465 zOr I dEWAn. 44 *‫ ﺋﺌﺞ ﮔﻐﺌﻔﺪﻭ‬/dagr-+zISnIh/. 45 ped tan I pasEn. 46 *‫ ﻝﻧــﺖﺍ ﻭﮔﺎ ﻭ‬/frahAd-uzWAnIh/. Av. hitO.hizWah- (adj.) ‘with bound tongue’, cf. Y 65.9; Av. hita- (adj.) ‘bound, harnessed’, (m.) ‘draught horse’ is rendered by ‫ﻝﻧــﺖﺍ‬, cf. Y 9.22 aurWaNtO hita taxSvNti arvnAum ‘the fleet coursers who run, harnessed, along the race course’ Z kE arWand hend aSAn hAn I ‫ ﻝﻧــﺖ‬tuxSAg kuned [asp]. Cf. also Dk iv M 411 frahAd-uzWAn. 47 tuxSAgIh rendering Av. qBaxSah- (nt.). 48 ‫ ﻝﺕﺍﯼ ﯼﻏﺠﺼﺪﻍ‬/pettOkkArIh/? Cf. Bd 119 tuxSAkkArIh. We can emend the word thus: pettOggArIh ‘endurance and upright action’. 49 AzWarIh. Ant. XAbarIh, cf. Dk iii M 327-28; connexe (brAdarod) tuxSAgIh, cf. Dk iii M 289. 50 XaftagIh. Ant. tuxSAgIh, cf. F 25.1; connexe hWansandIh, cf. Dk iii M 289.


indolence51, ridicule52, and unlawful (sexual) intercourse53. DahAka possessed these five defects, and ΘraEtaona who was devoid of them became dominant, and conquered him in revenge for Yima. About the gravity of these four defects54 which make life grave55, that is, drunkenness56, evil companionship57, heresy58, and self-love59. Yima removed these four defects from the world of living beings, and afterwards he was able to prepare immortality60. About avoidance of a person who is violent in words and thief (/ evil) in spirit, and association with (a person who is) firm in words, of a good spirit, and friend. (Or: About avoiding him who is inimical in words, thief in mind, and not keeping company with a person who is stubborn in words, and not being friend to him who has no ahu.)61


aZgahAnIh. Ant. tEzIh, cf. F 25.1; connexe hWansandIh, cf. Dk iii M 53. ridIh ≈ rihrIh, connexe rAmiSn (I pAk), cf. Dk iii M 289. 53 abArOn-marzIdArIh, cf. Petit 3.1 abArOn-marziSnIh, AVN 88.4. 54 grAyIh I En cahAr AhOg. Cf. Dk iii M 235 grAy AhOgAn, opp. pahlom hunarAn. 55 *‫ ﺋﺠﻮ ﮔﻐﺌﻔﺪﻭ‬/grAy-WizAyiSnIh/ ‘grievous wrong’, or /grAn-+zISnIh/? 56 mastOgIh. Cf. DD 50 hudEn I srUd gAhAn I husrO kE-S mastOgIh nE pEdAg. 57 * ‫ \ﺍﺍ ﻏﺸﺨﺪﻏﯽ‬/duS-hamxAgIh/. Av. haxAy-/ haxi- (m.) ‘friend, companion’ is rendered by Pers. hamxAg; xUb-hamxAg rendering Av. huS.haxAy- (adj.) 52

‘being a good companion’. The form ‫ \ﺍﺍ‬is found in Dk iii M 205 ‫\ﺍﺍ ﺱ\ﻓﺪﻭ ﺍ‬ (Av. duS-manah-/ G duZ.manah- adj. ‘having bad thoughts’ rendered by Pers. duS-meniSn, cf. Y 49.11). 58 ahlemOGIh. Av. aCvmaoGa- (m.) ‘heretic’. 59 Xad-dOSagIh. Ant. dEn, cf. Dk vi M 474. 60 amargIh SAyist WinArdan. Cf. RP 62.14 amargIh WinArdan ped rAh I AStIh SAyed-bUd. 61 This translation is not satisfactory.


He who propagates evil “commands”62 in the world gives courage to Lie (druj-). About the complaint of a complaining63 poor (driGu-) for a best remedy (*darmAn-), and owing to the complaint of the complainant, the offender64 is pressed back, rejected, untrustworthy and “deprived”. About the connection of the “judges”65 from the lowest grades up to the highest adjudicator66 who is Ahura MazdA, to the complaining of a true and reasonable complainant and the reasonable complaint of the true complainers. WohU aCvm WahiStvm astI.

abar pahrEz I az Oy kE ped gObiSn ‫ ﻏﮕﺨﺖﺍﺍ‬ped ‫ ﺧﺪﻭﺍ‬duz ud abAgIh I staft gObiSn I ‫ ﻭﺧﺪﻭﺍ‬I hamAg. ‫ﻏﮕﺨﺖﺍﺍ‬

rendering Av. hazah- (nt.) ‘violent force’ (rendered, elsewhere, by

stahmag)? Or, /a-rAd-Wan/ (Skt. arAtI-ván- adj. ‘hostile, inimical’)? ‫ ﺧﺪﻭﺍ‬/ox/ < ahWA-/ a$hA- (f.) ‘spirit’? ‫ \ﭺﺍ‬/duz/ ‘thief’ rendering Av. tAyu- (m.), cf. Dk viii M 721 duz-meniSnIh ‘thievish mind’; ‫ ﺿﺖﻝﺕﺍ‬/staft/ (Skt. stabdha- adj. ‘firmly fixed; stiff; proud; obstinate, stubborn’) rendering Av. staxta- ‘adj.) (≈ Pers. saxt ‘hard, firm’)? ‫ ﻭﺧﺪﻭﺍ‬/hvox/ < hWaMhu- (adj.) ‘with good existence (/ spirit)’/ or /anox/ < an-aMhu- (adj.) ‘having no ahu’. 62 framAn rendering Av. mLqra- (m.) ‘formula’. 63 mustomand from 2must ‘complaint’ < *musti-, cf. Dk vi M 478 must ud gilag. 64 mustegar from 1must ‘offence’ (opp. AzAdIh), cf. ŠGV 14.37 must ud abEdAdIh, ŠGV 11.17 must ud stahm. 65 dAdWar rendering Av. TkaeSa- (m.) ‘teacher’. 66 WizIrgar, cf. Dk iii M 161.


Ch. 5 XSmaibyA (Y 29 ; Dk M 790). A father may forget his son, a son his father, a brother his brother, a friend67 his friend, a husband his wife 68, a wife her husband, at the time of satiety and opulence69; but the Spirit of the GAqAs70 never forgets the “reciter” and chanter of the GAqAs at the time of pressing the Haoma-juice (in the morning)71. About the complaint of the Spirit of the GAqAs when a scholar priest (aEqrapaiti-) [a high-priest]72 passes away in a foreign country73, and the body (kvhrp-) of that man does not come back to his own land (bUmI-); because, without that (body), there will be the engendering and oppression74 of heretics in that land. 67

dOst rendering Av. urWaqa- (adj.) ‘friend (by vow)’ derived from an old *urWaqa- (nt.), cf. Yt 1.24 (opp. duSmańyu- > Pers. duSmen), or frya- (adj.) ‘friend’, cf. Y 43.14. 68 mAnbed O nArIg. Av. nmAnO.paiti- (m.) ‘master of the mansion (/ house), husband’, nAirika (f.) ‘woman, wife’, cf. H 5.1 nAirika WA nmAnO.paitiS WA ‘the wife or the master of the home’ Z nArIg ayAb mAnbed [I kadag-XadAy]. 69 andar zamAn handAziSn ped sagrIh ud hang. Pers. zamAn handAz- ‘to cast the time (/ horoscope)’, cf. KAP 4.6; hang ‘great capacity’, cf. ŠGV 4.81 kam-nerOgIh ud abE-hangIh. 70 menOg I gAhAn. Cf. Bd 180 menOg I gAhAn yaziSn. 71 hAWanIg uSmurdAr ud srUdAr I gAhAn. Pers. hAWanIg renders Av. hAWani(adj.) ‘connected with the hAWani (the time of the haoma pressing)’, cf. N 47 +hAWaninLm gAqanLm. Pers. uSmurdAr renders Av. marvta- (m.) ‘mortal, man’, cf. Y 29.7 marvtaEibyO: uSmurdArAn [hErbedAn]. Pers. srUdAr renders Av. sraotar- (m.), cf. N 21 upa-sraotArO: abar-srUdArAn. Then, the correct transposition is: hAWanIg mard I srUdAr I gAhAn ‘a man who chants the GAqAs at the HAWani watch’. 72 hErbed ud dastWar. 73 ped uzdehIgIh. Av. uzda?hu- (adj.) ‘who (/ which) is outside the country’, H 9.4 uzda?huciT: ped uzdehIgIh. 74 zAyiSn ud stahmagIh. Av. zLqa- (nt.) ‘birth, engendering’ is rendered by zAyiSn, cf. Y 48.5. Av. hazah- (nt.) ‘violence, violent force’ is rendered by stahmag, cf. Y 33.12.


About the superior power75 of the Spirit of the GAqAs, and also that of generosity (rAiti-) to save the soul from hellish existence (daoZa$ha-). WohU WahiStvm aCvm astI. A passage of this chapter is quoted in the ŠnŠ (SAyist nE-SAyist):

9.2 AsrOg kE ped uzdehIgIh be Widered ped +grAn dASt estE. ud ast dastWar kE jud-dAdestAn, ast kE Sahr I anerAn gObed. 3 pEdAg kU ka zarduSttom-E ped uzdehIgIh be Widered ahlemOG-E andar mAn be zAyed. En grAnIh EWAz ped zarduSttom guft ested. ‘The priest who passes away in a foreign country it should be considered as grave. There is a high-priest who is of a different opinion; there is a (high-priest) who says it is about a non-Aryan land. It is revealed that: when a pontiff (zaraquStrO.tvma-) passes away in a foreign country, then a heretic will be born in that house [this gravity is only mentioned as to the pontiff].’ ≈ Dk M 790 ka hErbed ud dastWar ped uzdehIgIh be Widered ud kerb I hAn mard abAz O XES bUm nE rased hAn rAy cE az hAn be andar hAn bUm zAyiSn ud stahmagIh I ahlemOGIh I ahlemOGAn baWed. Ch. 6 AT.tA.WaxSyA (Y 30; Dk M 790-792). The foremost of five “boons” are: the first through righteousness76, the second through good offspring77, and the third through the land (where) grow (plants)78, the fourth through flocks of sheep79, and the fifth through “preparation for duty”80. 75

abardar-zOrIh. Cf. Dk iii M 129-130 abardar-zOrIg-iz Xarrah I Weh dEn. pahlomIh … AbAdIh … ahlAyIh rendering WahiSta-, Wohu-, aCa-. 77 frazend I nEk rendering Av. frazaiNti- srIrA- ‘good offspring’. Cf. Yt 13.134 WaMhuyl frazaNtOiS. 78 zamIg I rOyiSnomand. Cf. Y 10.4 staomi zvmO +yaqra raoDahe hubaoiDiS aurWO … ‘I praise the earths where you grow, fragrant, O fleet courser!’ Z stAyem zamIg kU rust este [hAn gyAg ped nAmciSt] hubOyIh ud 76


About the distribution of fortune to the diligent, and of poverty to the indolent81. About the finding of Fortune, singly sitting82, two-fold going83, threefold rushing84, fourfold running (on foot)85, fivefold riding a horse86, six-fold driving in a chariot87, seven-fold by acquaintance and resolution (of a legal case) in a trial (or, in understanding and interpreting the law)88, eight-fold by “good

arWandIh, Vd 19.18 urWaranLmca uruqmyanLm ‘to growths of plants’ Z O urWar I ArOyiSnomand. 79 ramag I mESAn. Cf. Yt 10.28 gVuSca WLqBa ‘herds of cattle’. 80 frahAdIh I ped XESkArIh. Cf. Y 9.22 aurWaNtO hita taxSvNti ‘fleet coursers run, prepared, …’ Z arWand hend aSAn hAn I frahAd tuxSAg kunend [asp]. 81 baxSiSn I O tuxSAgAn Xarrah, O aZgahAnAn SkOhIh. The word Xarrah (< Av. Xarvnah-) is interchangeable with XESkArIh, cf. Dk iii M 394 Xarrah XESkArIh-iz baWed. Cf. Dk iii M 294 taWAn I tuxSAgIh ped XESkArIh (/ Xarrah). Pers. SkOhIh (< OPers. Skauqi- ‘poor, weak’) renders Av. ainiSti- (f.) ‘inability; inactivity’, cf. F 7. Cf. also Dk vi M 563 az aZgahAnIh a-hunarIh Weh-duSmenIh, az Weh-duSmenIh a-XESkArIh, az a-XESkArIh SkOhIh … 82 niSIyAn rendering Av. lMhAna- (ptc. from Ah ‘to be seated, sit’), cf. N 37, P 10. 83 raWAn-z rendering Av. a-yaNt- (ptc. from A-i ‘to come’), cf. Vd 6.26 pADa ayaNtvm ‘walking, going on foot’ Z ped pAy raWAn. 84 tazAn rendering Av. tacaNt- (ptc. from tac ‘to flow, run’), tacan- (adj.), cf. N 37 +ayO WA taca WA, Vd 6.26 ayaNtvm WA taciNtvm WA: raWAn ayAb tazAn. 85 ‫ ﻧــﺖﺍﺍﻭ ﭺ‬/daWAn-z/ rendering Av. *daWaNt- (ptc. from du, Skt. dhAW ‘to run, flow, go quickly’). 86 barAn-z ped asp. Av. barO.aspa- (adj.) ‘riding a horse’, cf. Vd 6.26 barvmnvm WA Wazvmnvm WA: ayAb barAn ayAb WazAn [barO.aspO WazO.raqO], cf. also N 37. 87 WAzAn-z ped rah. Av. WazO.raqa- (adj.) ‘driving (in) a chariot’. 88 ped dAdestAn SnAxtArIh ud WizArdArIh. Pers. dAdestAn ‘law; legal process; legal case and its resolution’ < *dAta-stAna- ‘law-court, lawsuit’. About the knowledge of legal matters (arvqra-) see F 5. Pers. WizArdArIh ‘explanation; resolution, rendering a decision; remission (of sins)’, cf. Dk iv M 426 fraSn pursIdArIh WizArdArIh.


protection” of wealth89, nine-fold with expert industry in the cultivation of land90, and ten-fold by teaching the Savant Formula91. About the grievous regret of an aged man92 owing to his indolence in youth93. There are four things which when a man has amassed in youth, he becomes more tranquil in old age: first, correct instruction94; second, property which brings revenue95; third, a virtuous wife96; fourth, an inhabited mansion97. Five boons are best to be amassed98: “duty”99, “diligence”100, contentment101, presence of mind102, and “applying a remedy”103. 89

ped hubAnagIh I XAstagAn-z. Av. hvapah- (adj.) ‘artful, artistic’, (m.) ‘artful work(s)’ is rendered by Pers. hubAnagIh, cf. Y 37.2; Pers. xUb < hvapah- (Skt. svápas-). The correct “transposition” may be: ped xUbIh I XAstagAn-z (aWarvtA-) ‘by artistic work on objects of value’. 90 ped SnAsagIhA tuxSAgIh I abar WarzIdArIh I zamIg. Cf. F 3.5 +AzaiNtiWaitIS: SnAsagIhA. Av. qBaxSah- (nt.) ‘diligence, zeal’ is rendered by tuxSAgIh, cf. Y 33.3. Av. WAstrya- (m.) ‘forager, herdsman’; farmer’ is rendered by WarzIdAr, cf. Y 51.5. Cf. also HAM 123 Warz I zamIg kun! 91 ped hamOzgArIh I mAnsrspend. Pers. hamOzgAr ‘teacher’, cf. PXA hamOzgAr ud rad, Dk iv M 412 hamOzgAr I frahAd-uzWAn, ŠGV 1.44 pAyag I hamOzgArIh. Pers. mAnsrspend/ mahrspend < Av. mLqra- spvNta-. 92 zarmAn mard rendering Av. zaurura- nar-. Cf. Vd 3.19 zaururO: zarmAn [Sast sAlag, pES ud pas]. 93 ped jaWAnIh. Av. yavan- (m.) ‘youth, young man’ is rendered by jaWAn, cf. Vr 3.3. Cf. HKR 20 andar jaWAnIh. 94 frahang I frArOn ≈ frahang I az dEn kirdan, cf. ŠnŠ 13.29. 95 XAstag I baromand. Cf. MHD 342 XAstag I O raWAn dahend agar baromand … 96 zan I nEk < GvnA-/ nAirikA- srIrA- ‘beautiful woman’? Cf. HP I 5 zan nEk. 97 mAnd I AbAdAn. Pers. mAnd renders Syr. ‘sanctuary’, cf. Ps. 96.6, and ‫‘ ܕܪܬ‬enclosure; court; homestead’, Ps. 96.8. Cf. also M 853 Was mAnd ud AWariSn. 98 panz ‫ﹰﺎﭺﻓﺪﻏﺎﺍ‬ ‫ ﺛ‬/+handOziSn/ I AbAdIh pahlom. 99 XESkArIh also is used for Xarrah < Av. Xarvnah-. HVfp 1 tuxSAg baWed ud kirbag handOzed ud az XESkArIh be nE Warded.


About avoidance of keeping company with drunkards104. One should not drink an intoxicating beverage105 in the pleasure of the Yazatas106, (for) he becomes, by drinking intoxications107, with a twisted mind108, “violent”109, and annoyer of people110, and misbehaving with others111. 100

tuxSAgIh renders Av. qBaxSah- (nt.). Note too the use of tuxSAgIh to explain rAy < Av. rAy- (m.) ‘wealth’. Cf. Y 60.4 rayLmca XarvnaMhLmca ‘of riches and of Fortune’ Z rAy ud Xarrah [I ohrmazd XESkArIh ud tuxSAgIh]. 101 hWansandIh rendering Av. usan- (nt.) ‘wish’, cf. Y 45.9 usVn ‘at will, at liberty’ Z ped hWansandIh; and Av. saDa- (m.) ‘appearance, look’, cf. F 12 +saiDe: hWansandIh. Cf. also Dk iii M 312 hWansandIh ud XESkArIh ud tuxSAgIh ud baWandag-meniSnIh ud Sarm … ud abArIg hunarAn. 102 *& ‫ ﺍﺋﻨـﺖ ﻭ‬/WigrAd-uSIh/? WigrAd ‘wakeful, vigilant’ (from gar ‘to be awake’, Pers. Wi-grAs-: WigrAd ‘to wake; rouse from sleep’); uS ‘mind, intelligence’ (Av. uS-i). 103 cArakkarIh. Cf. Dk iii M 182 kirrOgIg cArakkarIh. Av. carvkvrvqra(nt.) ‘hymn of praise, laud’ is rendered by cArakkirdArIh, cf. Y 29.8; Skt. carkRtí- (f.) ‘praising’, Fars. ‫ ﭼﺮﮔﺮ‬/cargar/ ‘singer, minstrel’. 104

pahrEz I az niSastan I abAg mastOgAn. Cf. HAM 21 abAg mastOg mard ham-XariSn mA bAS! 105 mayEniSn XAred. Cf. Dk viii M 730 gOSt ud pEm ud nAn ud mayEniSn-z, M 735 XAriSn I mayEniSn. Pers. mayEn- renders Av. maDaya- (caus. Pres.) ‘to intoxicate’, cf. N 30 maDaite: mayEned. 106 ped dOSiSn I yazadAn. Cf. Y 33.2 ahurahyA zaoSE mazdl: ped … dOSiSn ohrmazd. 107 ped mayiSnAn XAriSn. Pers. mayiSn renders renders Av. maDa- (m.) ‘intoxication’, cf. Y 10.19 fraKa frayaNtu tE maDO: frAz franAm Ed I tO mayiSn. 108 abArOn-meniSn rendering Av. araqByO.manah- (adj.) ‘whose thoughts are not according to the models’, cf. Y 61.4 drWatLm araqByO.manaMhLm: drWandAn abArOn-meniSnAn. 109 zadAr renering Av. aka- (adj.) ‘evil, bad’. 110 bESIdAr I kasAn. Pers. bESIdAr renders Av. TbiSyaNt- (adj.) ‘hostile’, opp. rAmEnIdAr. Pers. kasAn ‘(other) people’ (opp. XESAn). Cf. Dk iii M 234 abar kasAn ped rAmEnIdArIh, N 40 ped hAn I XES … ped hAn I kasAn. 111 ‫ ﺍ ﺿﻞ\ﺻﺖﻏﺞ‬I kArAn. 1/+dabEnIdAr/ = daftAr, from dab- ‘to be coarse with somebody’ < *zab. 2/+WEbEnIdAr/ ‘shaker; who commits pederasty’, from WEbEn- < vip.


The food (Xarvqa-) which you eat, you should deserve it112, so that what you have eaten may become light not heavy [that is, when you eat, do good deeds, and abstain from sin]113, so that what you have eaten (may make you) immortal (anaoSa-) and comfortably well-off (KyAta-) [that is, share it with the poor, and the poor will bless you]. The poor who follows the “righteous law”114, his blessing (AfriWana-/ AfrIna-) is best. WohU astI WahiStvm aCvm. Ch. 7 TA.WV.urWAtA (Y 31). The seventh chapter of the lost StUdgar was itself an Avesta commentary on the GAqic Yasna 31 (TA.WV.urWAtA HAiti). ZaraquStra, as a seer (vrvSi), inquires of Ahura MazdA “about the things which are coming and may come” (Y 31.14 tA … yA zI AitI jVNghaticA). The idea of the four periods, in a millennium, was re-interpreted by Persian magi, in the Sasanian time, to fit the Mazdayasnian version of the Perso-Aryan history. There are two versions from the PArsIg Commentary (zand) on the seventh chapter of the StUdgar. One is found in the ninth book of the DEnkird, M 792:

The seventh chapter is about the exhibition to ZaraquStra of the four kinds of period which are in the millennium (hazaMrO.zyam- ‘a thousand winters’) of ZaraquStra: First, that of gold (zarvnaEna-), in which Ahura MazdA revealed the daEnA to ZaraquStra; second, that of silver (vrvzataEna-), [in which VIStAspa accepted the daEnA from Pers; kArAn ‘others, (other) people’, cf. KAP 10.1 Sahr I kArAn. 112 arzAnIgIhA. Av. han ‘to deserve; gain’ is rendered by arzAnIg bUdan, cf. Y 54.1. 113 hAn I-tAn XariSn Xard A arzAnIgIhA, ud kU-t Xard sabuk baWAd mA sangIg [E kU ka-t Xard kirbag kunend ud az WinAh pahrEz]. Cf. Y 8.2 Xarata narO aEtvm myazdvm yOi dim haMhAna aCAca ‘eat, men, this ritual meal, whoever (among you) has gained (/ deserved) it by truth’ Z E Xared mard hAn myazd kE hAn arzAnIg ped ahlAyIh [kU-S kAr ud kirbag XES Oh baWed]. 114 driyuS I ahlO-dAdestAn rendering driGu- aCO.TkaESa- ‘poor, whose teaching (/ teacher) is Truth’, cf. Yt 10.84, P 44.


ZaraquStra]; third, that of steel (ayaMhaEna- XaEna-), the period in which was born the director of Truth (*aCa.rAza-) [i.e. ĀdarbAd son of Mahrspend]; fourth, that of a rusted iron (*ayaMhaEna- upa-irista-), the period in which (there will be) the proliferation and domination of the heretics and other evil ones. About the destruction of religion (daEnA-) and of royalty (xSaqra-), the enfeeblement of every kind of good thing and good wish, the decline of morale and rationality in the Aryan lands in this (fourth) period; about the reckoning of many hardship and the transition of the period115 and the gravity of the life of the good ones [who will be in need]. WahiStvm aCvm WohU astI. Another exposition of the seventh chapter of the StUdgar is found as the “first chapter” of the Zand I Vahman Yasn:

cOn az stUdgar pEdAg kU: zarduSt az ohrmazd a-hOSIh XAst. pas ohrmazd xrad I harWIsp-AgAh be O zarduSt nimUd. u-S Wan-E bun pediS be dId kE cahAr azg pediS bUd: Ek zarrEn, ud Ek asEmEn, ud Ek pOlAWadEn, ud Ek Ahun abar-gumixt estAd. EgiS ped Ed dASt kU ped Xamn dId. ka az Xarm be bUd +a-S guft zarduSt kU: XadAy I menOgAn gEtIgAn! nimAyed kU-m draxt-E bun dId kE cahAr azg pediS bUd. guft-aS ohrmazd O spitAmAn zarduSt kU: hAn draxt-E bun kE tO dId hAn cahAr azg hAn cahAr AWAm ast I rased. hAn I zarrEn, hAn I ka an ud tU hampursem, WiStAsp [SAh] dEn be pedIred, [ud dEWAn kAlbod be Skenned, O WirEg ud nihAn-raWiSnIh estend]; hAn I asEmEn [XadAyI ardaSEr I kay SAh]; ud hAn I pOlAWadEn [XadAyIh I anOSag-raWAn husrO kaWAdAn]; ud hAn I Ahun abar-gumixt ested [duS-pAdixSAyIh dEWAn I WizArd-


‫ ﮔﻐﺶ*ﺿﺖﺍﺍ‬/zAmIhistan/

I AWAm. Pers. zAm-: zAft ‘to lead, send’ < gam ‘to



Wars I ESm-tOhmag], ka +nOhom sadOzim I tO sar baWed, spitAmAn zarduSt. ‘As is manifest from the StUdgar: ZaraquStra asked for immortality from Ahura MazdA. Then Ahura MazdA showed the omniscient wisdom (xratUm WIspO.WIDWlMhvm) unto ZaraquStra. Through it, he saw a tree116 on which there were four branches (*azga-): one of gold, one of silver, one of steel, and one of rusted iron. Thereupon he considered that he saw it in a dream. Once woken from sleep, ZaraquStra said: «O spiritual (mańyava) and material (gaEqya-) lord! It seems that I saw a tree on which there were four branches.» Ahura MazdA said to Spitama ZaraquStra: «The tree which you saw . The four branches are the four periods (aiBi.gAma-) which will come: That of gold, is that when I and you hold a conference, [king] VIStAspa accepts the daEnA, [breaks the body shapes of the daEWas and the daEvas resort from publicity to flight and concealment]; that of silver [the reign of ArtaxSaqra of the Kavi-dynasty]; that of steel [the reign of Xusro (Χοσρόης) of immortal soul, son of KavAd]; and that of rusted iron [the evil rule of the daEvas, having dishevelled hair, of the seed of Wrath], when it will be the end of your +ninth century (°satO.zyam-), O Spitama ZaraquStra! » Ch. 8 XvaEtumaitI (Y 32; Dk M 792-794). One should avoid men who do not profess the daEnA (‘religion’)117 on account of the performance of the sacrifice for 116

Wan-E bun. Pers. van-bun = draxt-bun ‘tree’; Fars. ‫ ﮔﻮﺯﺑﻦ‬/gOz-bun/

‘walnut tree’. Pers. van < Av. WanA- (f.) ‘tree’. 117 anAstaWAn I dEn. Av. an-AstUta- (adj.) ‘without having praised’ is rendered by Pers. anAstaWAn, cf. Vd 3.40 AaT yezi aMhaT anAstUtO WA anaiBi.sraWanO WA daEnLm mAzdayasnIm ‘but if he be not having praised or


AMra Mańyu (‘destructive spirit’); who are un-girded with the dAta (‘law’)118 on account of the performance of the sacrifice for INdra and Saurva119; who walk “with only one shoe”, on account of the performance of the sacrifice for Taurvi and Zairi120; who deny insincerely on account of the performance of the sacrifice for AkataS (‘evil-fashioner’)121; and who follow the law of not

not being taught the daEnA mAzdayasni’ Z agar ast anAstaWAn [kU agdEn, u-S ped kirbag uskArd ested] ayAb-iS anabar-aSnUd dEn I mAzdesnAn [kU Weh dEn ped XAhiSn ud pursiSn, WinAhgAr ped abEgumAnIh kirbag-meniSnIh kirdan]. 118 anebyAst dAd. Cf. Vd 18.1 anaiByAstO daEnLm ‘not girded with the daEnA’ Z anebyAst ped dEn [kU-S yaSt nE kird ested]. 119 ‫ ﻏﺎﺋﺞ‬/indar/ < Av. iNdra- (m.) / Skt. índra-. ‫ﺿﺪﻏﺎﺝ‬

/sAval/ < Av. saurva- (m.) / Av. KarWa-. According to the BundahiSn, the business of INdra is this : «He instils this into the minds of men that they ought not to have the sacred shirt and gird.» And the business of Saurva is this: «Misgovernment, oppression, injustice, and violence! » Cf. Bd 182 indar dEW kAr En kU meniSn I dAmAn az frArOnIh On afsAred cOn snixr I xUb-afsard, En O meniSn I mardOmAn abganed kU: SabIg kustIg nE abAyed dAStan. sAWal dEW kAr En kU duSpAdixSAyIh ud stahm ud adAdestAnIh ud mustgărIh. 120 ‫ ﺕﻏﺎﺟﺼﻞﺍ ﺍ ﮔﻐﺠﺼﻞ ﺍ‬/tarviz ud zariz/ rendering Av. taurvi zairica, cf. Vd

10.10, 19.43. Av. taurvi- (m.)/ Skt. trvi-; Av. zairi- (m.). Bd 183 quotes from the Avesta this: tarWiz tarWEnIdAr zariz I zahrgirdAr ‘Taurvi is overcoming (taraDAta-), Zairi poison-maker’; this also: kE tis O mard dahed kE gObed kU +mOg Ek abAyed dAStan, u-S E-mOg-dWAriSnIh ped dAd nihAd ested, EgiS tarWiz ud zariz SnAyEnId baWed. 121 IziSn I aktaS rAy ‫ ﺛﺎ& ﺍﯼﺋﺠﻐﺜﺌﺞ‬/duS-nigIrAygar/. Pers. nigIrAyIh ‘an occasion for refutation, denial’ from *ni-grab ‘to hold down; restrain’, opp; xustOgIh, cf. Dk vii M 718 nigIrAyIh pas az xustOgIh; Dk iv M 421 gugAy … xustOg … nigIrAy. &‫ ﻏﯽﺕ ﻍ‬/aktaS/ < Av. akataS-. According to the Bd 184 AkataS holds back men from proper thing. It cites from the Avesta this: kE tis O hAn tan dahed kE mardOm az tis I frArOn nigIrAy dAred EgiS akataS dEW SnAyEnId baWed.


(having) a serpent-scourge, on account of the performance of the sacrifice for VIspe DaEva (‘all the daEvas’)122. About the small-mindedness123 of him who eats and drinks chattering124, and the delight of the daEvas on that account. The admonition as regards not uttering words while eating and drinking. The thanks and gratitude to the Yazatas before eating and drinking, and also the praise of Truth (aCO.stUiti-) after finishing (meals) and cleaning mouth.125 He who “does not follow a religious authority”126, owing to his not being connected to the deity (Ahura MazdA)127, even if he yaziSn I hamAg dEWAn rAy ‫ ﻏﻤﻘﺜﺠﺜﺎﺍﺻـﺖﺍ‬/a-mArgan-dAd/. Pers. hamAg dEWAn ≈ Wisp dEW(An) rendering Av. WIspe daEWa, cf. Y 9.15 ≈ Skt. WiKWá-deWa-. Pers. mArgan ‘serpent-scourge’, gl. of xrafstargan < Av. xrafstraGna-, cf. Vd 18.2. Bd 185 cites from the Avesta this: kE tis O hAn tan dahed kE dAd En kE gObed kU +mArgan nE abAyed dAStan EgiS ahrmen abAg harWisp dEWAn SnAyEnId baWed. 123 *‫ ﺋﻔﺪﻏﺎﯼﺍ ﺳﺜﺎﻓﺪﻏﺎ‬/giSnag-meniSnIh/, ant. Wazurg-meniSnIh, cf. Dk iii M 293. 124 kE drAyAn Xared ud XAred. Pers. drAy- ‘to speak (daEvic)’ < *zrAd (Skt. hrAd). Cf. ŠnŠ 5 (vinAh I) drAyAn-jOyiSnIh. 125 ped spAs ud stAyiSn I yazadAn pES az XariSn ud XAriSn = WAz griftan ‘to recite “grace” (in a suppressed tone) before taking meals’, Guj. (Parsi) bAj dharvi/ levi, as below: ped nAm I yazad iqA AT yazamaidE ahurvm mazdLm yV gLmcA aCvmcA dAT apascA dAT urWarlscA Wa$hIS raoclscA dAT bUmImcA WIspAcA WohU (= Y 37.1), aCvm WohU (3). pez pardaxt ud pAkIh I dahan u-S ahlAyIh-stAyiSnIh = WAz guftan/ WizArdan, Guj. (Pars.) bAj melvi/ mukvi. One should pray, after washing hand and mouth, as below: aCvm WohU (4), yaqA ahU WairyO (2), aCvm WohU (1). ahmAi raESca (… = Y 68.11), hazaMrvm (… = Y 68.15), jasa.mE aWaMhe mazda (= Y 72.9). kirbag mizd. 126 dastWar nE dAStan. Cf. ŠnŠ 12.2 hAn I a-srOSiyAr mard [kE dastWar nE dAred] ‘a disobedient man [who does not have a religious authority]’, F 3.6 122


performs meritorious deeds, he does not attain to the Best Existence (WahiSta- aMhu-)128. The watch129 for the ceremonial (yasna-) of SraoSa aCya is mostly in the course of the first half of the night130, and the celebrant131 announces his watchfulness132 against the spiritual Druj (‘lie’)133. The watch for the ceremonial of RaSnu and ArStAt is mostly after that, in the period of USahina (‘dawn’)134, and the celebrant announces the abundance of grains135. dvrvtO.sraoSvm : dASt-srOS [kU ped dastWar kird ested] ‘resolved on hearing [that is, done according to the authority]’. 127 ped yazad-nE-XESIh. Cf. Dk vi M 532 tan az XESIh I yazadAn be nE bariSn, CHP 2 yazadAn XES hom nE dEWAn. 128 A similar passage was to be found in the uSkAdum, cf. ŠnŠ 12.2. 129 Pers. gAh ≈ Av. ratu- (m.) ‘model; time period; judgment; judge’. Pers. gAh = Av. gAtu- (m., nt.) ‘place’, (‘time’, cf. Vn 99). 130 ped saziSn I fradom nEmag I Sab. 131 yaStAr. Av. frA-yazvmna- (adj.) is rendered by frAz-yaStAr, cf. Y 68.12, Vr 12.5; Av. a-yazvmna- (adj.) is rendered by a-yaStAr, cf. Vd 18.5. 132 pAsebAnIh. Av. pouru.spaxSti- (f.) ‘much watchfulness’ is rendered by pur-bAsebAnIh, cf. Y 57.26. 133 About the opposition of SraoSa and Druj, cf. Yt 11.3, Y 57.15. 134 az hAn pas ped ‫( ﻏﺎﻓــﺪﻍ‬K ‫ )ﻏﺎﻓــﺪﻏﺎ‬/+uSahin/ radIh. According to Y 1.7 SraoSa, RaSnu, and ArStAt are connected with the USahina watch, the daily time period preceding dawn. According to Vn 108 the celebrant should recite SraoSahe aCyehe at the time period of USahina. Cf. also Bd 38 uSahin O srOS ud raSn ped hamkArIh WinArd ‘He assigned USahina to help SraoSa and RaSnu’. Av. uSah- (f.) ‘dawn’, uSahina- (adj.) ‘connected with the watch of Dawn’, (m.) ‘genius of Dawn’. Cf. Bd 159 az nEm-Sab dA stArag abEdAg gAh I uSahin ‘from midnight upto the time when the stars become invisible is the period of USahina’. Cf. also F 27.2 bahr I sidIgar uSLm sUrLm uS I abzAr XAnend kE uSahin pediS andar Ayed ‘the third part is called uSLm sUrLm “the morning dawn” (“the strong dawn”), with which the USahina commences’. 135 Cf. Y 1.7 niWaEDayemi haNkArayemi uSahinAi … niWaEDayemi haNkArayemi bvrvjyAi nmAnyAica … ‘I announce, I enumerate (the Yazatas in the ceremonial) for (the watch of) USahina …, I announce, I enumerate (the


The watch for the ceremonial of Miqra vouru.gaoyaoiti (‘contract of wide domains’) and RAman XAstra (‘peace with good pastures’) in the world of thought is mostly in the period of HAvani (the time of the Haoma-pressing in the morning)136, and the celebrant announces the herds of cattle137. The watch for the ceremonial of ACa WahiSta (‘best truth/ order’) and Ātar (‘fire’) of Ahura MazdA is mostly in the period of RapiqBina (‘noon’)138, and the celebrant announces the herd of Truth139.

Yazatas in the ceremonial) for Bvrvjya (‘worthy of esteem’) and NmAnya (‘related to the home’)’ Z niWEyEnem hangirdEnem uSahin … niWEyEnem hangirdEnem ‫[ ﺏ ﺍﻥﺛﺐ‬I menOg-E abAg uSahin hamkAr, ramag I jOrdAyAn be abzAyEned] ud ‫[ … ﺍﺳﻐﺎﺛﺒﭻ‬mardOm andar XESkArIh I dAdWar]. Pers. jOrdAy ‘grain, corn’, cf. Vd 5.52 yaomca aCvm ‘barley flour’ Z jOrdAy-iz I ‫ ﻏﺎﺕﯼﺍ‬/Ardag/. 136 Cf. Y 1.3. Av. hAWana- (m., dual) ‘(pestle and) mortar’, hAWani- (adj.) ‘connected with the time of the haoma pressing’, (m.) ‘the genius of the HAvani watch’. 137 gOspendAn ramag. Cf. Y 62.10 gVuS WLqBa upa WIranLm pourutAs ‘a herd of cattle with a multitude of men’ Z hAn I gOspendAn ramag ud hAn I WIrAn pur-raWiSnIh [mardAn I guSn]. 138 ped ‫ ﺟﻔﻞﺋﺌﻔﻞﺉ‬/rabihbag/ radIh. Cf. Y 1.4. Av. rapiqBA- (f.) ‘midday, noon’, arVm.piqBA- (f.) ‘noon, (time) fitting for the meal’, rapiqBina- (adj.) ‘noon (time), connected with the noon-time’, (m.) ‘the genius of the noontime’. Cf. Bd 158-59 hAmin … bAmdAd gAh I hAWan, nEmrOz gAh I rabihbin … ped zimestAn … menOg rabihbin az azabar zamIg O azEr zamIg SaWed ‘in summer the morning is the period of HAvani, and the mid-day is the period of RapiqBina … In winter … the spirit of RapiqBina goes underneath the earth from above the earth.’ F 27.2 ped zimestAn bahr I rabihbin abAz O hAWan gumixted ‘in winter the RapiqBina part merges into the HAWani’. N 49 rabihbin andar sAl-E do bAr Oh yaziSn: Ek, hAn kE andar Ayed; Ek, hAn kE be SaWed ‘One should celebrate RapiqBina twice each year: once when it comes in, and once when it goes out.’ Pers. rabihbin I fradom ‘the in-coming RapiqBina’ (Petit 9). 139 ahlAyIh ramag < *aCahe WLqBa.


The watch for the ceremonial of the exalted lord ApLm NapAt (‘grandson of the waters’), and also of Āp (‘water’) established by Ahura MazdA, is mostly in the period of Uzayeirina (‘evening’)140, and the celebrant announces the teams of men141. The watch for the ceremonial of ACaonLm FravaCayO (‘the engaging troops of the truthful’) and ΓnA (‘divine women’) who have teams of men, the yearly HuSiti (‘good dwelling’), the wellfashioned and well-shaped Ama (‘offensive force’), VvrvqraGna142 established by Ahura MazdA, and the +conquering UparatAt143, is mostly in the period of AiBi.srUqrima (‘watch for listening and chanting’)144, and the celebrant


Cf. Y 1.5. ped ‫ ﻏﺎﮔﻌﺠﺊ‬/uzerag/ uzerin radIh. Av. uz-ayara- (nt.) ‘the day-light day after noon’, fra-yara- (nt.) ‘the day-light day before noon’, uz-Irah- (nt.) ‘afternoon’, uzayeirina- (adj.) ‘of the afternoon’, (m.) ‘the genius of the Afternoon’. Cf. Bd 38 EWArag gAh I uzerin menOg ‘the watch of evening (is connected to) the Uzayeirina in the world of thought’. 141 WIrAn ramag. Cf. Yt 8.15 WIr(a)yLm IStIm WIr(a)yLm WLqBLm ‘wish for (having) men, a herd of men’. 142 perOzgar-z ‘and the victorious one’. 143 WAnIdArIh-iz I ped abar-raWiSnIh rendering WanaiNtylsca uparatAtO, cf. Y 1.6. 144 Cf. Y 1.6. Av. aiBi.srUqra- (nt.) name of a part of the night, cf. F 27.2 Sab az cahAr bahr: bahr I fradom hU frASmO.dAitIm … bahr I didIgar vrvzaurWaEsAT … En do bahr aiBi.srUqrvm ‘night is divided into four parts: the first part is called “sunset”, the second part “evening”. Both these parts are counted in the AiBisrUqra’. Av. aiBi.srUqrima- (adj.) ‘belonging to the AiBisrUqrima watch’, aiBi.srUqrima aiBigAya- (m.) ‘geniuses of the AiBisrUqrima watch’. Cf. N 51 +aiBi.srUqrimanLm gAqanLm … haca hU +frASmO.dAtve maiDyAi xSape pairi.sacAiti ‘the GAqAs of the AiBisrUqrima watch … passes through sunset up to the middle of the night.’ Bd 38 ‫ ﺧﻞﺧﺖﺻـﻞﻏﺎﺍ‬/abAdyAbAn?/ ebisrUsrim menOg ‘late evening (is connected to) AiBisrUqrima in the world of thought’, Bd 159 ka stArag O pEdAgIh mad dA nEmSab gAh I ebisrUsrim ‘(from the time) when the stars have appeared up to midnight is the period of AiBisrUqrima.’


announces all boons [origins] whose “manifestation” is righteousness [produces]145. aCvm WohU WahiStvm astI. Ch. 9 YaqA.AiS.iqA (Y 33 ; Dk M 794). About the daEva-hood146, the state of a man whose Fortune is blighted147, the much pollution, the grievous stench148, the heavy sinfulness149, and the torment of all spiritual and material goodness [that of a sodomite]150; the absolution of the heavy sinfulness, the appropriation of great pious deed by him who is « hostile »151 to that sinner, and the tremendous sinfulness of him who is his propitiator152. Seven evil ones are accounted comparable to the Destructive Spirit (aMra- mańyu-) in vileness153: AZi DahAka in witchcraft154; 145

harWisp AbAdIh [bun] ud harWisp ahlAyIh-pEdAgIh [bar]. Cf. Y 8.5 WIspa WohU aCaciqra ‘O all boons whose seed is of Truth’ Z harWisp AbAdIh [I ohrmazddAd] kE az ahlAyIh-pEdAgIh [bun ud bar]. 146 dEWIh. Cf. ŠGV 14.2 bazagIh ud dEWIh. 147 zad-XarrahIh ‘mis-fortune’. Cf. VAM 69 zad-Xarrah ud nifrIdag. Pers. zad-brihIh ‘ill-fatedness’, cf. Dk vi M 565. 148 pur-rImanIh ud grAn-gennagIh. Cf. Dk viii M 736 rImanIh ud genn, ŠGV 15.37 rImandar ud gennagdar gyAg. 149 grAn-WinAhIh ‘grievous sinfulness or corruption’. Cf. Dk viii M 716 grAn-WinAhIh I anAStIh-XAhIh, CK 2 grAn WinAh. 150 kUn-marz, gl. of mard-WEbIg (rendering Av. +narO.WaEipya, cf. Vd 1.11). Cf. Petit 3.1 kUn-marzIh WinAh. 151 ‫ ﻏﺎﭺﺻﺖﻏﺞ‬/OzIdAr/ ‘remover’ from O-zin- (Av. *aWa-zyA, Skt. aWa-jyA ‘to spoil, deprive of by conquest’), cf. M 9 II harW do tArIg ud adAn ud OzIdAr. 152 SnAyEnIdAr. Av. xSnaoqra- (nt.) ‘satisfaction’ is rendered by Pers. SnAyEnIdArIh. 153 az haft {I ped} Wad I abar WattarIh hAWand gennAg menOg uSmured. Cf. DD 71 az haft bazakkar I … O ahrmen hAWand. 154 az I dahAk ped jAdOgIh. Cf. Dk viii M 747 (BaG nask) meh I ped WinAhgArIh cOn az I dahAk ped stahmagIh, DD 71 az I dahAk kE-S fradom jAdOgIh stAyId, u-S hAn I duS-pAdixSAyIh XadAyIh kird.


the horned Dragon (aZIm srvarvm) in oppression155; ‫( ﺍﺕﯼﺍ‬haotă-, DahAka’s mother?) in producing evil progeny156; TUra of 157 ‫*( ﺏ ﻧـﺖﺟﺎﻏﻔﺪﻍ‬brAqrO.IS?) in killing the truthful (ZaraquStra) ; and the heretic in +falsehood158; and he who suffers pederasty and he who commits pederasty159 in grievous sinfulness. WahiStvm asti aCvm WohU. Ch. 10 YA.KyaoqanA (Y 34; Dk M 794-96). The Fire in the world of thought (Atar- mańyava-) did complain to Ahura MazdA against men with respect to seven subjects160:


az I sruWar ped stahmagIh. Cf. Dk viii M 747 sruWar gaz ped jAdOgIh, DD 71 az I sruWar kE-S andar gEhAn hAn I samgenIhA rAhdArIh ud rAh bEmEnIdArIh ud asp-ud-mard-ObArIh kird. The horned dragon was killed by KvrvsAspa, cf. Y 9.11. 156 ‫ ﺍﺕﯼﺍ‬ped Wad-hunuSakIh. Cf. DD 71 ‫ ﺍﺕﯼﺍ‬I dahAk mAd, Bd 229 az mAdarAn dahAk I ‫ﻏﺎﺕﯼﺍ‬. Cf. also ch. 19. 157

tUr I ‫ ﺏ ﻧـﺖﺟﺎﻏﻔﺪﻍ‬ped ahlOganIh. Cf. Dk viii M 747 tUr I ‫ ﺏﻧـﺖﺍﺝ ﺟﺌﻔﺪﻍ‬I

karapan ped +ahlOganIh, DD 71 tUr I ‫ ﺏ ﻧـﺖﺟﺎﻏﻔﺪﻍ‬karapan I duS-dEn I jAdOg kE-S hAn I paSom az mardOmAn margEnId. Av. (tuiryO) *brAqrO-IS- ‘seeking brother(s)’ (or, *brAqrO.raESah‘fratricide’?). Av. aCaWaGnya- (nt.) ‘harming of the truthful’ is rendered by Pers. ahlOganIh, cf. Vd 5.14. Dk v M 437 Ozadan I tUr I ‫ ﺏ ﻧـﺖﺟﺎﺟﺌﻔﺪﻍ‬O Xad zarduSt, cf. also Dk iii M 334. ‫ ﺧﺪﻏﺠﻪ ﺍ‬/+ahlemOG/ ped grAn-WinAhIh. Cf. Dk viii M 747 frEftAr ahlemOG ped drOzanIh, DD 71 Ek hAn kE-S ahlemOG … ped frEftArIh WardEnId abestAg ud zand az XES Wimand. 159 ‫ ﺍﺿﻞ ﺕﺻﺖﯼﺍ ﺍ ﺍﺿﻞﺕﺛﺎﺻﺖﯼ ﺍ‬/+WIftag ud WIftEnIdag/. Cf. Vd 8.32 arSaca WIptO arSaca WaEpayO: guSn I Wiftag ud guSn I WiftEnIdag, DD 71 Ek WIftag nar … Ek WEbEnIdag nar … 160 Cf. RP 18d; Saddar B 18. 158


First, (the complaint) on account of the domestics161 considering it as contemptible162, lighting it immoderately163, and making use of it with unwashed hands164; and of the damsel (kainikA-) trampling it under the feet and breaking up live coals165; and of one who brings a weapon (snaiqiS-) into its glitter166. Second, the complaint on account of those who bear fire167 from the house where the care of the fire is according to the Law (dAta- = Avesta)168, to the house where the care of the fire is not according to the Law; and there, owing to the arrival and secretion169 of the DaEvas, it is lying stunned (stvrvta-) like a


kadagIgAn. Pers. kadagIg ‘household; domestic; tame’, AtaS kadagIg ‘fire of the house’, cf. Vd 8.78Z, Dk viii M 736. 162 ped XAr ud ‫ ﺧﻞﺍﺋﺼﺪﻍ‬dAStan. The word ‫ ﺧﻞﺍﺋﺼﺪﻍ‬is an adjective, meaning ‘despised, degraded’, cf. MX 15.31 kAr ud kirbag ped ‫ ﺧﻞﺍﺋﺼﺪﻍ‬dAred, 54.2 AfrAh I dAnAgAn ud WehAn EdOn ped ‫ ﺧﻞﺍﺋﺼﺪﻍ‬dAred kU aWiS hamuxtan duSxWAr, Dk iii M 333 ka pedIriftArIh pESgAh ‫ ﺧﻞﺍﺋﺼﺪﻍ‬u-S handarz agAr. We also find ‫ ﺧﻞﺍﺋﺼﺪﻍ‬/abandIh/ rendering Av. a-paNti- (m.) ‘pathless state; deviation’. 163 abeymAn ‫ ﺟﺎﭺﺛﺎﺻﺖﺍﺍ‬/rOzEnIdan/. Pers. rOzEn- (Av. raocaya- pres. caus.), rOzEnAg ‘illuminator’, cf. M 39 (Parth.) Afrid baWAh pad Was AfrIWan O rOZEnAg rOSnSahr yazad; rOzEnIdArIh ‘illumination’, cf. MX 49.24 rOzEnIdArIh I gEhAn. 164 a-Sust dast kAr pediS kirdan. Cf. Sad-dar B 18 ‫ﺩﺳﺖ ﻧﺎﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﭘﻠﻴﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻦ ﮐﻨﺪ‬ AtaS andar azEr pAy ‫ ﻏﺎﻏﺌﺞ( ﻏﺎﺋﺞ‬J5) kirdan ud Xarg Skastan. azEr pAy renders Av. haxa- (nt.) a part of the sole situated between the heel and the beginning of the toes, cf. F 3.7; cf. also Vd 8.69 aDairi haxvm: Er hax. Av. Xah ‘to grind’ is rendered by XAh- (xohEn-), and glossed by Skenn-, cf. Y 57.10 paiti.XaMhayeiti: abar-xohEned [kU-S andar Skenned]. Pers. Xarg Skastan ≈ Sogd Grwy wySkyrD-. 166 brAh. Cf. Y 1.2 AtaS … [Xarg ud brAh]. 167 burdArAn I AtaS. Cf. F 7 Abvrvtvm: Ab-burdAr ‘water-bearer (priest)’. 168 ped dAd. Cf. N 52 ped dAd ud zand. 169 rasiSn ud peSSinziSn. 165


youth who is “scab”, feverish and “frostbitten”170; and its cure from that “sickness”171 is by offering to it their pure urWAsnA, or vohu.gaona, or vohu.kvrvti, or haDAnaEpătA, or whatever there is of the most fragrants of plants172. Third, the complaint on account of the (bad) woman (jahI-) who, when the menstrual period comes, brings the stench and


‫ ﺍ ﺧﻞﺿﺪﻏﺠﻐﻀﺖﻓﺪﻏﺎﻏﺎﻩ ﺉ‬  ‫ ﺍ ﺕ ﻝﻓﺪﻏﺎﻏﺎﻩﺉ‬ ‫ﺋﺠﻐﺎﻩﺍﺉ‬.  ‫ﺋﺠﻐﺎﻩﺍ ﺉ‬

/garromand/, Pers. garr

renders Av. garvnu- (m.), cf. Vd 7.57; Fars. ‫ ﮔﺮ‬/gar/ ‘scab, mange’.  ‫ﺕﻝﻓﺪﻏﺎﻏﺎﻩ ﺉ‬ /tabiSnomand/, tabiSn renders Av. tafnu- (m.) ‘fever’, cf. Vd 7.57 tafnuSca: tabiSn [tab I garm].  ‫ ﺧﻞﺿﺪﻏﺠﻐﻀﺖﻓﺪﻏﺎﻏﺎﻩ ﺉ‬/afsArastiSnomand/; Av. sArasti- (f.), cf. Vd 7.57 sArastiSca: sard-astiSnIh [tab I sard]; Av. sArastya- (nt.), cf. Vd 20.3. Cf. also Yt 13.131 garvnAuSca tafnaoSca naEzaheca sArastOiSca. 171 *‫ ﺧﻘﺎ ﻅ‬/xEndagIh/ rendering Av. axti- (m.) ‘pain’ (Skt. KIrC-aktí- f. ‘head-ache’, Armen. axt ‘disease’), cf. Vd 7.57 axtiSca garvnuSca: xEndagIh [WiStagIh], garr [ASnAg]. Pers. xEndag ≈ Sogd. Gyntwh, Armen. hiwand ‘ill’. Pers. WiSt-ag ≈ Armen. viSt, vSti ‘pain, suffering’. 172 ‫ ﺟﻐﻔﺪﻏﯽﺍ( ﺧﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻏﺎﺛﺎﺍ ﺧﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻏﺎﯼﺟﺼﺖﺍ ﺧﻘﺎﻝ ﺧﻘﺎ ﻝ ﻉ‬M) ‫ ﺟﻐﺼﻘﺎﺍ‬ayAb kadAr-z-E hAn I hubOydom az urWarAn. Cf. Vd 8.2 urWAsnayl WA Wohu.gaonahe WA Wohu.kvrvtOiS WA haDAnaEpatayl WA kLmciT WA hubaoiDitvmanLm urWaranLm: ‫ ﺟﻐﺼﺪﺛﺎﺍ‬ayAb WohugOn ayAb ‫ ﻭﯼﻧﺖﺍ‬ayAb ‫ ﺧﻘﺎﻝ ﻉ‬ayAb kadAr-z-E hAn I hubOydom az urWarAn. Av. urWAsnA- (f.), Fars. ‫‘ ﺭﺍﺳﻦ‬Inula helenium, elecampane, scab-wort’, ‫ܪ‬, see BerOnI, Vestiges, 9.43 about the feast ĀbAnagAn: .‫وﯾُﺪﺧّﻨﻮن ﺑﯿﻮﺗﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺮاﺳﻦ ﻟﯿﺴﺘﻠﺬّ اﻟﻤﻮﺗﯽ ﺑﺮاﺋﺤﺘﻪ‬ ‘[The Perso-Aryans] fumigate their houses with juniper, that the dead may enjoy its smell.’ Av. vohu.gaona- (adj.) ‘blood-coloured, blackish’ (or, ‘having good colour’?) rendered by Pers. syA-mOy ‘of black hair’, cf. F 3.2; (m.) name of an odoriferous plant, cf. Vd 19.24 vohu.gaonanLm baoiDinLm Aqre frabarOiS ‘you should bring the vohu.gaona incense to the fire’; cf. also Dk iii M 166. Av. Wohu.kvrvti- (adj.) ‘blood-bringing’?; (f.) name of a fragrant fuel plant. Av. haDAnaEpătA- (f.) ‘pomegranate’. Syr.


filth from the menstruation to it, and its “sickness” and “stunned state”173 resulting therefrom –as written above. Fourth, the complaint on account of the (bad) woman who is allowed to set foot (lit. ‘knee’) to the fire-place174, and she dishevels her locks175, and the falling of damp and moisture from her head with the hair and filth from it on the fire; the swallowing of it discontentedly, and its “sickness” and “stunned state” (resulting) therefrom. Fifth, the complaint on account of the father or guardian176 of a child of not keeping the child away from the fire, and the fluid filth177 and other unlawfulness which come upon it from such children. Sixth, the complaint on account of the smith178 who pours upon it impure metal179, and blows it with his mouth180, and becomes “peerless” in putting it to use181. 173

xEndagIh ud stardIh. Cf. Y 71.17 axtinLmca astarvmanLmca : xEndagIh ud stardIh. Cf. also RP 18d10 ka-m jah I drWand ped daStAn … genn be aWiS rased u-m WEmArIh baWed ud rImanIh Xarem. 174 jeh kE SnOg ped ‫ ﺧﺖﺍﻓـﺖﺍ‬/AduSt/ andar hiSt. Cf. RP 18d 11 ka-S jah I jAdOg ped ‫ ﺧﺖﺋﻔـﺖ‬/AdiSt/ andar hiled. Cf. also DD 47.13. gEs WizAred. Cf. RP 18d 11  ‫ ﺍ ﺻﺪﻏﺼﻖ ﻏﺎﺟﺎﺛﺎﺉ‬ ‫ ﺍﺟﺼﻖ ﺍﭺﻏﺠﺜﺎﺉ‬/Wars WizArend ud +gEs +rOnend/ (cf. MHD A 14.16 Wars-rOniSnIh ‘pulling out of hair’). 176 sAlAr rendering Av. harvtar- (m.) ‘guardian, watcher’, cf. Y 57.15. 177 hixr < Av. hixra- (nt.), Vd 5.14. Cf. Rp 18D 12 /xayOgIh/ ud rImanIh aWiS abganend. Sad-dar B 18 ‫ﺧﻴﻮ ﺩﺭﻣﻦ ﺍﻓﮕﻨﻨﺪ‬ 175

Cf. also Vd 3.14Z kE hixr O Ab ud AtaS bared EdOn baWed cOn ka-S nasA O mard I ahlO burd hE. 178 ‫‘ ﻝﺻﺖﺧﺪﻏﺠﯽ‬smith’. Av. pisra- (m.) ‘smithy’ is rendered by ‫ﻝﺻﺖﻏﺞ‬, cf. Vd 8.87 yO Atrvm pisraT haca: kE AtaS I az ‫ﻝﺻﺖﻏﺞ‬. Cf. RP 18d 13 ka aWESAn ‫ﯼﻏﺞ‬


ayOxSust I rIman abar barend. 179

‫ﻏﺎﻓﺪﻏﺼﺪﻏﺌﺌﺞ ﻏﯽﺻﻘﺎﺍ‬

/+a-yOZdAhr +Ahun/. Cf. RP 18d 13 ayOxSust I rIman. u-S WAd I dahan abar damed. Cf. RP 18d 13 u-m Wad ped dahan damend nE ped dam. 180


Seventh, the complaint, which is more tremendous and graver than others, on account of those who falsely use it as an ordeal (varah-)182, and when the acquitted and convicted are made manifest thereby183, they will disagree. In its complaints there is one as regards (those who) bring upon it that which is polluted with that which is pure, and kindle it with them; who burn and kindle it indifferently for lawful and unlawful work, as though both might be necessary; it combusts and blazes reluctantly and forcibly, it consumes polluted matter discontentedly by burning it, and it is hurt in those unlawful works (e.g. theft helped by its) blaze184. (The Fire in the world of thought) says this too: «Let me not be here, let me go from here, from the earth up to the sky (asman-), I who am your son (AqrO ahurahe mazdl puqra), I who am more (requisite)185 than any other creartion (dAman-)! » Ahura MazdA said: «So you, O Fire, be established in your function, carrying that club (vazra-), the +most strong (club)186 in the world of thought, which I give you, and you swing it in the entire osseous existence (WIspO aMhuS astWl), the endless light (anaGra raocl) as well as the endless darkness (anaGra tvml)187. » He who shall take proper care of the fire, will have paid the greatest reverence towards Ahura MazdA. The satisfaction (xSnaoqra-) of the righteous is the best, and hostility (TbaESah-) toward them is the worst; when satisfied ped kAr framUdan ‫ ﻏﺎﻏﺸﻐﺞ‬/an-hamAl?/ baWed. aWESAn kE-S ped drO War abar Warzend. Cf. RP 18d 15 ped War I pesAxt. 183 ka-S {ped} bOxt ud Eraxt pEdAg kird baWed. Cf. RP 18d 15 ka-m bOxt ud Eraxt pEdAg be kird. Pers. bOxt ‘acquitted, innocent’, cf. F 16 buji: bOxt. Pers. Eraxt (or, andraxt) ‘condemned, guilty’, cf. F 9 urWiDyeiti: Eraxt. 184 Cf. RP 18d 8. 185 frAy < frAyah-. Cf. RP 18d 17 Weh ud sUdomanddar. 186 ‫ ﺧﻞﮔﻐﻨﺖﺍﺏ‬/+abzArdom/ rendering Av. *sUrO.tvma- (superl. adj.)? 187 Cf. RP 18d 22. 181 182


(xSnuta-), the Yazatas further the world188 [that is, they increase], when antagonized (TbiSta-)189 the DaEvas hurt (the world) [that is, they decrease]. astI aCvm WohU WahiStvm. Ch. 11 Yasna (HapaMhAiti, Y 35-41 ; Dk M 796-800). (Ahura MazdA convoked) an assembly with the Yazatas in the world of thought190 considering the complaint of Fire. The fire said, in its eloquent191 complaints, this too: «Let it not be that I remain here, may I go from here, the earth, up to the sky, and there I will shine on the seven continents (hapta karSWLn) of the earth (zam-), like the moon (mAh-) and sun (hvar-), and also the stars established by god192 that shine with their own rays of light.»193 The discourse of Ahura MazdA about the rightful complaint of Fire, and the impossibility of keeping the fire free from adversity194 in the mixture of the creatures195, and the 188

frAdEnend yazad gEhAn. Av. frAdaT.gaEqa- (adj.) ‘furthering the world’ is rendered by frAd/yAdAr-gEhAn. 189 huSnUd … biSt. Cf. Yt 10.87 xSnUtO … TbiStO. 190 hanzaman I menOgAn yazadAn. Cf. Vd 2.20 haNjamanvm frabarata yO daDWl ahurO mazdl haqra mańyaoibyO yazataEibyO: hanzaman-E frAz burd kE dAdAr ohrmazd [kU zamAn be kird] abAg menOgAn yazadAn. Cf. also RP 18d3 pEdAg kU ohrmazd abAg amehrspendAn hanzaman kird, ud AtaS-iz ped hanzaman bUd. 191 hanzamanIg rendering Av. WyAxana- (adj.) ‘able to debate, challenging; eloquent’, cf. Yt 13.85 AqrO urWAziStahe spvNtahe WyAxanahe ‘the Holy and eloquent UrvAziSta-Fire’. 192 star-z I baydAd. Cf. Vd 19.23 yaT hE stArLm baGO.dAtanLm aiBi.raocaylNte ‘so that the stars established by the lord (or, god) may shine upon him’ Z kU Oy star I baydAd rOSnEnend. 193 Cf. RP 18d16. 194 abedyArag. Av. apaiti.vrvta- (adj.) ‘unimpeded; free from opposition’ is rendered by Pers. abedyArag, cf. F 3.8. Cf. also ŠGV 11.142 apatyAraa. 195 andar gumixtagIh I dAm. Cf. CK 45 gEhAn I gumixtagIh ud WizAriSn.


impossibility of the creation of the creatures in the world with adversity +without (the coming of) Fire (to that world)196, (and the fact that the material creation) is better than the non-creation and the freedom from adversity of Fire197; (thus,) He contented (Fire), and revealed the care (of it)198. The fire said: «If there be not that mode, as I have requested [that is, I may shine (as a luminary in the sky)], O Ahura MazdA, “you know, among the creatures”199 [that is, I cannot be established in this way], then take me, O Ahura MazdA, then establish me there in the middle of Airyana VaEjah (the homeland of the Perso-Aryans)!» He took the “prosperous” Fire200 –which is from the creator Ahura MazdA – and established that “without negligence”201, in the house (of the sacred fire)202, by aid of collecting (things required for a fire-house)203. Then He said thus: «Thus you who are my fire, may you kindle204, in every house (nmAna-/ G 196

Cf. RP 18d17 an dAm (jud) az AtaS be O gEtIg dAdan nE taWAn. Cf. RP 18d19. 198 pahrEz pEdAgEnIdan. Cf. Sad-dar B 79 ‫ﭘﺮﻫﻴﺰ ﺁﺗﺶ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬ 197


ohrmazd AgAh he andar dAmAn. Av. WOistA ‘you know’ is rendered by Pers. AgAh hend ‘they know’, cf. Y 28.10. Cf. also Y 57.2 mazdl dAmLn ‘MazdA’s creation’ Z andar ohrmazd dAmAn. 200 AtaS I abzOn. Cf. Y 17.11 Atrvm spVniStvm yazamaide ‘we worship the most holy Fire’ Z AtaS I abzOnIg yazem [hAn I andar garOdmAn pES ohrmazd ped menOgIh ested], Ny 5.6 AtarS spvNta raqaEStAra ‘O Fire, holy, warrior’ Z AtaS abzOnIg arsEStAr. 201 ‫ ﺏﺍﻍ ﺻﻘﺎﺕﯼ ﺍ‬/be-sUdag/ = a-sUdag. However, Av. aipiKUiti- (f.) is rendered by be-sUdagIh ‘with negligence or indolence’, an-aipiKUiti- by a-be-sUdagIh, cf. Y 19.5. 202 andar mAn dAd. Cf. RP 18d19 u-S andar mAn WahrAmIh niSAst. 203 ped ham-bariSnIh ayyArIh. Pers. ped … ayyArIh renders Av. aWa?he, cf. Y 4.6; Pers. ham-bariSnIh renders Av. hLm.bvrviti- (f.) ‘collection, maintenance’, cf. Vd 8.85. 204 ‫ ﺟﺎﺋﻔﺪﻏﺎ ﻏﺎﺋﻔﺪﻍ‬/+rOSnEnES/? Or, /+man ud +yazadAn XES/, cf. CHP 1 ohrmazd XES hom … yazadAn XES hom. RP 18d20 ped mardOmAn nEkIh kunES.


dvmAna-) where you come, in every village (vis-/ G WIs-), every district (zaNtu- ≈ G SOiqra-), and every country (da?hu-/ G daFyu-), then Water (Ap-), Plant (urvar-) and the FravaCis of the truthful will exalt you by praise, when men bring unto you a libation (zaoqra-), which has been transferred205, when they offer to you dry firewood, which is inspected in the lights206 (of day).»207 And He said thus: «This is the fire GuSnasp (‘with male horses’)! »208 About the equal reward of him who sows timber209, of him who hews (or, cuts) firewood out of sawn timber210, and of him who kindles211 fuel; when all the three discharge their function for love of Truth, they are equal212. About the reward in kind213 of (an Asnatar-priest) who washes (the ceremonial utensils and requisites)214, and (a frabvrvtar205

be ped abespAriSnIh. Cf. Y 65.11 nisrIta ‘has (been) transferred’ Z ped be-abespAriSnIh [ka-S dAriSn be aWiS kird hAd]. Av. nisriti- (f.) ‘act of restoring’ is rendered by be-abespAriSnIh, cf. H 10.1. 206 Esm frAz barend huSk I ped rOSnIh-nigerId. Cf. Y 62.10 (Vd 18.27) yO ahmi aEsmvm baraiti hikuS raocas.pairIStL (Vd raocas.pairiStvm) aCahe bvrvja yaoZdAtL Z kE O Oy (Vd AtaS) bared Esm (Vd Esm bared) I huSk I ped rOSnIh-nigerId ahlAyIh dOSArm-ArzOg (Vd ArzOg rAy abAyist) [I O kAr ud kirbag rAy] I yOZdAhr [kU pAk]. 207 Cf. RP 18d20. 208 Adar guSnasp < *WarSnaspa- (Armen. vSnasp); or, *arSnaspa- (Yt 14.31 aspO arSa, Vd 14.11 aspahe arSnO). Cf. Ny 5.5Z nAm I En AtaS Adar guSnasp ast, ud kAr I En AtaS artEStArIh … pES ohrmazd nAlId ud frayAd kird En Adar guSnasp bUd. Cf. also RP 18d19. Ādar GuSnasp was one of the three great fires of the Aryan Land. It was made for the station of warriors. Cf. Dk vi M 536. 209 ‫ ﺋﺠﺎﺕﻏﺞ‬/drUdAr/ = drUdgar, durgar; Sogd. (B) Dr˒w ‘carpenter’. ‫( ﻝﺟﺌﻔﺪﻏﺼﺖﻏﺞ‬S ‫ )ﻝﺟﺌﺼﺪﻏﺼﺖﻏﺞ‬/friSIdAr/ (friSn/ fraSn ‘stick’, dandAn-fraS ‘tooth-pick’)? 211 rOSnEnIdAr. 212 dOSArm rAy kunend hAWand ahlAyIh hend. 213 cihr-mizdIh. 210


priest) who cleanses and purifies the corners of the fire (stand)215, and of him who brings forth fuel to the fire216, and of him who performs ablution217, and of him who lets a fire go out218, and of him who takes fuel away …219; and the sin of him who shakes (the fire)220. About him who does evil to the corners of the fire (stand).221 About him who brings on damp firewood (to the fire).222 About the blessing of the fire (AqrO AfriWanvm) upon men by whom it is satisfied.223 About the counsel of not bringing on to the fire the libations (zaoqră-) which are procured through theft (tAya-) and violence (hazah-)224; and the heavy punishment of him who carried polluted matter to it225; and the hurtfulness of the fire, whereas it

‫ ﻏﺼﻘﺎﺍ ﺕﻏﺞ‬rendering Av. Asnatar- (m.), cf. Vd 5.57, Vr 3.1 Av. snA ‘to wash’, A-snA, fra-snA; Pers. AsnAy-: AsnAd, AsnId ‘to wash, bath; cleanse’. 215 pAk-ud-pAdyAb-girdAr I hAn AtaS sraxt. Av. sraxti-/ qraxti- (f.) ‘corner, edge’, cf. N 74. 216 Esm-abar-burdAr. Av. aEsmO.bvrviti- (f.) ‘offering of fuel’ is rendered by Pers. Esm-bariSnIh, cf. P 23. 217 frAz-AsnAdAr. Av. fra-snAtVe ‘to perform ablution’ is rendered by Pers. ped-[gOmEz-]frAz-SOyiSnIh, cf. Vd 8.98; cf. also NM II 3.2. 218 frAz-girdAr I AtaS. Cf. N 70 AtaS … frAz kuned. 219 be-burdAr Esm I grAn framUd dAdIg kAr sag ud kudAmag. Pers. kudAmag ‘lump of earth’, cf. AVN 41.1 dEWAn ped sang ud kudAm hamE kObend. 220 u-S WinAh I Oy I jumbEnIdAr. 221 zadAr I hAn I AtaS sraxt. Av. aka- (adj.) ‘evil’ is rendered by Pers. zadAr ‘who strikes; destructive; hostile’. 222 burdAr ‫ ﮔﺼﺖﺝ ﻏﺼﻘﺶ‬/+hAn I tarr Esm/. 223 Cf. Y 62.10. 224 Cf. P 21, ŠnŠ 15.12. 225 : ‫ ﺋﺌﺠﺎﺃ ﻏﺠﺎﺍﺕﺍ‬: #‫ ﺍ‬: ‫ ﺍ ﺋﻨﺪﻏﺎ ﻓــﺪﻏﺎﺍ ﻏﺎﺛﺎﺍ ﺻﺪﻏﺎﺍﺕﺍ ﻝﺍﻏﺞ‬/ud grAn puhl I +Oy I burd AlUdag/. Pers. AlUdag ‘polluted’, opp. AsnOdag, cf. Dk iii M 321. Pers. grAn puhl < *grAuna- pvrvqa-, cf. Dk iv M 429 grAn bIm ud puhl. 214


was fit to be treated well226 became thus from the stain227 of the daEvas. Owing to not taking care of the fire228 (it would so happen that) when a woman is followed229 by the “state of conception” (or the “time of bearing a child”)230, they will not grant to the progenitor a child, at every menstrual cycle. About the “atonement”231 for the blowing out (of a fire)232 and other iniquity with respect to the fire. About the person who has attained to the trusteeship over a (privately) instituted sacred fire and does not lawfully act as a trustee233. About a counsel to ZaraquStra as to consecrating (yaz) to the Yazatas whatever one would eat, and as to not eating what is not consecrated234. The will of ANgra Mańyu is this that no one shall perform worship and praise235 to the Yazatas, and people shall not possess


hu-bariSn. Av. hu-bvrviti- (f.) ‘good treatment’ is rendered by Pers. hubariSnIh, cf. Y 60.6. Cf. also Dk vii M 655 ul uzed hAn AtaS hubariSnIh ud ul hAn mardAn I ahlaWAn [kU-SAn pahrEz nE kunend …]. 227 AhOgEniSn rendering Av. Ahiti- (f.) ‘stain, pollution’, cf. Y 10.7; cf. also Vd 5.27 Ahitica : ud AhOgEniSn [agArIh]. 228 AtaS abahrEziSnIh. Cf. the PArsIg Commentary on the ACvm VohU formula 3: duSWarSt abahrEziSnIh Ab ud AtaS. 229 abAgEned rendering Av. hacaite, cf. Y 27.6. 230 1 * ‫ ﻝﺍﺻﻖ ﻧﺖ‬/pus-+WardIh/? Av. Warvta- (adj.) ‘in rut’. However Ward(ag)Ih is used for female animals, cf. Bd 109 zan daStAn, gOspendAn WardagIh. Or /pus-radIh/ ‘the time of (bearing) a child’ (from puqra- ‘son’ and ratu- ‘fixed time’)? 231 tOziSn rendering Av. ciqA- (f.) ‘fine, penalty’, cf. F 19. 232 ‫ ﻝﺟﺎﺏ ﻓﺪﻏﺎﺍ‬/fraWiSn/ (from Av. fru, frava-). Cf. Dk iii M10 fraWiSn-z I AtaS az hAn tarrIh; Dk viii M 729 fraWIdan I AtaS. 233 sAlArEned rendering Av. niShaurWaiti, cf. Y 57.16. 234 ‫ ﻏﺎﺋﻔـﺖ ﺍ‬/an-yaSt/. 235 yaziSn ud niYAyiSn rendering Av. yasnvmca Wahmvmca, cf. Y 72.6.


a lord and a religious authority236 [that is, they may have no desire for any uprightness]. About a counsel as to the worship of the Yazatas, with the sacred girdle237, with the best worship (yasna-), that of a priest (AqraWan-/ aqaorun-)238 without sin, with the average (worship), that of a priest whose sin is not more than one arvduS which is not to his account, and with the lowest (worship), that of a priest whose sin is not more than one Xara which is to his account. Whoever, in a village (vIs-) of MazdA-worshippers, has failed to recite the GAqAs239 after the age of fifteen, is in sinfulness just like a dog to whom they throw morsels240; the sin of speakingwhile-eating will be to his account241, and his soul will not be welcome by MLqra SpvNta (in the world of thought). AstO.WIDAtu (‘partition of bones’, the dismemberer-DaEva) comes, at all times, to mortals (aoSa$haNt-) whom death (aoSah-) has reached, or whom it has not yet reached. About the idea of the lieful (drWaNt-/ G drvgWaNt-) that the best existence (WahiSta- aMhu-) does not exist, that the renovation (fraSO.kvrviti-) does not occur, that they do not resurrect the dead body (irista-)242, that (the existence) does not reach the turning point.243 The lieful (ones) teach the false (teaching), since the 236

XadAy ud dastWar. Pers. XadAy ‘lord, king’ renders Av. ahu- (m.) ‘lord, master’, and Pers. dastvar ‘(religious) authority, high-priest’ renders Av. ratu(m.) ‘judge’, cf. Vr 2.4 ahUmca ratUmca: ox ud rad [kU XadAy ud dastWar]. 237 ‫ ﺧﻞﻏﻀﺖﻭﻩﺋﺼـﺪﻍ‬/+ebyAstomandIhA/. 238 ped hAn I pahlom yaziSn hAn I AsrOg (I a-WinAh, ud meyAnag hAn I AsrOg kE-S … ud nidom hAn I AsrOg kE-S …). Cf. Dk viii M 734 abar hErbed ud peymAnag I AsrOg I pahlom ud hAn I meyAnag, hAn I nidom. 239 a-srUd gAhAn. Cf. N 103 gAqanLm asrutvm. 240 cOn sag aWESAn pih abgand. Cf. Dk viii M 725 pih I sag. 241 WinAh I drAyAn-jOyiSnIh O bun bUd. Cf. Petit 10. 242 nE rist ped hAn ul ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ ﻏﺎﺿﺖﺛﺎﺛﺎﺙ‬/estEnend/. Cf. Bd 220 rist … ul hangEzend. 243 nE hAn WardISn rased. Pers. WardiSn renders Av. urWaEsa- (m.) ‘turn, turning point’, cf. Y 51.6 apVmE aMhVuS urWaEsE ‘at the final turn of the


best existence does exist, the good renovation shall occur, and they resurrect the dead body, and thus (the existence) shall reach the turning point. About the counsel as to not making lamentation and mourning244 over the departed; and, after the passing away of a +companion (haxAy-) one is not to augment wailing to his mind (/ heart, manah-)245; and the affliction of HadiS (‘house’)246 in the world of thought because of making lamentation and mourning over the dead. The fravaCis of the truthful (men and women, aCAunLm fraWaCIS narLmcA nAirinLmcA) demand after (death) the ceremonial (yasna-) and blessing (AfriWana-) of truthful men (narLm aCAunLm), and not lamentation and mourning. In every one the body (tanU-) is not of the same dsire (kAma-) as the soul (urvan-). Food (Xarvqa-) is the desire of the body, and so also the accumulation of wealth247; (whereas) the act which makes (the soul) truthful is the desire of the soul, and so also the gifts (dAqra-) which they +obtain248 (from the truthful)249. existence’ Z dA O hAn I abdom oxAn WardiSn [kU-S dA tan I pasEn]. Cf. also AVN 61 … ped bUdan I ristAxEz ud tan I pasEn gumAn bUd hend. 244 SIWan ud mOy. Pers. SIWan renders Av. xSya- (m.) ‘lamentation, weeping’, cf. Y 31.20 xSyO: SIWan [kU-S ped raWAn SIWan baWed]. Pers. mOy(ag) renders Av. amayaWA- (f.) ‘distress’, cf. Y 71.17 paitiStAtVe xSayasca amayaWaylsca ‘for withstanding weeping and distress’ Z ped abAz-estiSnIh I SIWan ud mOyag. Cf. also AVN 16.4 Was ars … I mardOmAn az pas I WidardagAn az caSm be hilend ud SIWan ud mOyag kunend. 245 ‫ ﺻﻘﺎﺍﻏﻔﺪﻏﺎﺍ‬/snOhiSn/ O meniSn. Av. snaoDO.manah- (adj. cf. VYt 31) from snud ‘to weep, wail’, snaoDa- (pres.), snaoDaNt- (act. ptc.), cf Yt 19.80 tl (jainIS) snaoDvNtiS gvrvzAnl ‘these weeping and complaining (women) ≈ Dk vii M 633 ped hAn snOhiSn garzId. 246 menOg-iz I xAnag. Cf. Vr 1.9 hadiSaheca: hadiS [menOg xAnag]. 247 XAstag-iz hambAr. Pers. XAstag renders Av. SaEta- (m.) ‘possession; wealth’, cf. F 5, and also Av. aWarvtA- (f.) ‘object of value’; (piece of) possession’, cf. F 20. 248 ud dAsr-z I be dahend. Cf. Y 31.14. 249 Cf. VAM 42-43.


The truthful ZaraquStra asked: «Who it is who has “removed”250 all goodness and excellence from himself, but yet thinks he has not “removed” them, and does not feel regret for that loss (zyAni-)? » Ahura MazdA said: «It is he who has damaged251 his own tongue (hizU-), for the saying forth of words252 [that is, through telling lies, he has become guilty on a capital charge]. » (He said) this also: «He is the smiter (snaqa-) of the Destructive Spirit 253, that man when, with “perfect-mindedness” (spvNtA- Armaiti-)254 and with “hold”255, and also with the enfeebling of the Lie (druj-)256, (at a time of) fury does not give (lieful) reply257 [that is, he may not tell a lie on account of fury]. »


appArEnId ested. Pers. appArEn- ‘to remove’ renders Av. apa-rud ‘to exclude (from service); leave out; lose’, cf. Vd 7.78 aCvm apa.raoDayeite ‘loses Truth’ Z ahlAyIh appArEned [kU-S appAr baWed]. 251 zinEnId ested. Pers. zin(En)- ‘to damage’ renders Av. zI (OPers. dI), zinA- (pres.) ‘to take away, deprive’, cf. Y 11.5 yO mLm taT draonO zinAT ‘he who deprives me of that share’ Z az man hAn sUr zinEned. 252 ped soxan frAz-gObiSnIh. Pers. soxan (< saXar/n-) renders Av. vacah(nt.) ‘word, speech’, cf. Y 19.1, and also Av. uxDa- (nt.) ‘utterance’, cf. Y 19.15. Pers. frAz-gObiSnIh renders Av. fra-WAka- (nt.) ‘proclamation, expression’, cf. Vr 15.2 yasnahe haptaMhAtOiS fraWAkaEca : ped yasn I hafthAd frAz-gObiSnIh. 253 gennAg menOg sneh rendering aMrahe mańyVuS snaqvm, cf. Vd 10.16. 254 baWandag-meniSnIh spendarmed. Cf. Y 37.5 ArmaitIm: baWandagmeniSnIh [spendarmed]. 255 XadAyIh rendering Av. xSaqra- (nt.) ‘command, (ruling) power; hold’, cf. Y 9.4. 256 druz ‫ ﺍﺧﺪﻏﺼﻘﺎﺍ‬/nAyEn-/ OzIh. Av. nAidyah- (comp. of Adra-) ‘more lowly, weaker’ (rendered by ‫)ﺍﺧﻘﺼﻘﺎﺍ ﺻﺪﻏﻔﺪﻏﺎ‬, opp. aojyah- (comp. of ugra-) ‘stronger’, cf. Y 34.8. 257 grAn-meniSnIh rAy nE pasox. Cf. Dk iv M 419 rAst-gObiSn andar-z grAn-meniSnIh, Dk vi M 482 andar grAn-meniSnIh-E rAst-guftAr. Pers. grAnmeniSn ≈ grAnmAn rendering Av. gramvNt- (adj.) ‘furious’, cf. Y 9.28.


One who is an unqualified person258 and performs the office of the chief officiating priest (zaotar-)259, before him who is a wise libator, worships the DaEvas with a thousand-fold libation (zaoqră-)260. «You should establish261 for the office of libator (zaoqra-) one qualified in rituals (dahma-), and not one not so qualified, for thus you go forth262 to the House of Song (paradise, garO.nmAna-). » To have a wicked libator263 is worse than (not to have) any libator264. One who does commit a sin265, first it is the good thought (vohu- manah-) which will be withdrawn from his mind (/ heart, manah-)266, then mercy (/ pardon)267, then shame (fSarvma-), then listening (/ obedience)268, and, afterwards, through the sinfulness of deception (druj-), he becomes a contract-breaker (miqrO.druj-).

‫ ﻏﺼـﺪﻏﻢ‬/a-dahm/ < Av. a-dahma- (adj.), cf. Yt 10.138 zaota anaCaWa adahmO ‘a libator who is not truthful, who is not expert’. 259 ped zOtIh ested. Cf. Vr 3.7 tUm nO Aqraom zaotastE ‘you, priest, are present here for being our libator’ Z tU az amA AsrOg ped zOtIh est. 258


ped hAn I E-hazAr ‫ ﺕﻍ‬/tAg/ zOhr. Cf. Vd 18.72.




/+estEnES/ opt. s2. frAz-rasiSnIh rendering Av. fra-gaiti- (f.) ‘going forth, advance’, cf. F

27.2. 263 264

duS-zOt. Cf. VYt 12 afryO.zaotArO duSzaotArO: adOst-zOtIg duS-zOtIg. × * ‫ ﮔﺎﺕ‬/ a-zOtIh/.

Oy I WinAh-‫ ﺧﻘﺎﺧﺖﻏﺞ‬/AyuxtAr/. Cf. Dk iii M 6 WinAh-AyOzIh I mardOmAn, M 68 AyuxtArIh I mardOm O WinAh. 265

M ‫ﻝﺋﻔﺪﻍ ﻏﺎﻩﺕ ﺳﺜﺎﻓﺪﻏﺎﺍ ﻏﺎﺧﻞﺻﺪﻏﺼﺖﺍ‬, J5 ‫ ﺍﻏﺎﻩ ﻩ ﺳﺜﺎﺍﻓﺪﻏﺎﺍ ﺳﺜﺎﺻﺪﻏﺎﺍ ﻏﺎﺧﻞﺻﺪﻏﺼﺖ‬/pES Wahman az meniSn AnAbIhed/. 267 M ‫ﺧﻞﺍ ﻏﻔﺪﻏﺌﻔﺪﻏﺎﺍﺉ‬, J5 ‫ ﺧﻞﺍﻏﺼﺪﻏﺌﺼﺪﻏﺎﺍ ﺙ‬/+abuxS(Ay)iSn/. 266



M ‫ﺍ\ﯼﻓﺪﻏﺼﺖﻏﺞ‬, J5 ‫ﺍﺛﺎﯼﺻﺪﻏﺼﺖﻏﺠﺼﺪﻍ‬. Cf. Dk vi M 586 Widarag niyUSIdArIh.

They shall treat well (hu-bvrviti-) every man who has +abandoned (his country)269, and also any priest who is +qrAyaWan270, and even any priest who is in the country271, and any priest who is out of the country, and any priest who is their own relative. «Thus I say unto you, O SpitAma: Never break a contract (miqra-), whether you conclude it with lieful ones [that is, you make an agreement, and there is not any great accordance with the law in it], or with the truthful ones who follow your own religion [in any case, of great accordance with the law]; for the contract applies to both, the one who is lieful and the truthful one. »272 astI WohU aCvm WahiStvm. Ch. 12 UStavaitI (Y 43; Dk M 801). About the exaltation of ZaraquStra for his satisfaction of Āp (‘water’)273, and the hope of the whole creation (dAman-) in him.

M ‫ﺟﺌﻔﺪﻏﺼﺖﻏﺞ‬, J5 *‫ ﺟﺌﻔﺪﻏﺼﺖﻏﺞ‬/rESIdAr-+deh/ rendering Av. da?hu.iric(adj.) ‘who abandons land (/ country)’, cf. Yt 10.75. Cf. also Dk vii M 655 rESIdAr-deh AsrOn. 270 ‫ ﺋﺌﺠﻐﺌﻔﺪﻭﺍ ﺧﺪ\ﺧﺖﻏﺞ‬/srAyiSn-AyuxtAr/ rendering Av. qrAyaWan-/ qrAyaon(adj.), cf. Yt 5.86, Yt 14.46. 271 AdehIg ‘belonging to the country, countryman’ rendering Av. A-daFyu/ da?hu- (adj.), cf. Y 26.9. uzdehIg ‘belonging to a foreign country ; exiled’ rendering Av. uz-daFyu-/ da?hu- (adj.), cf. Vr 16.2. 272 EdOn O tO gObem spitAmAn kU mA mihr abar druzES mA ka abAg drWandAn hampursES [kU paSt kune ud meh-dAdestAnIh andar nE hAd] mA ka abAg XES-dEnAn I ahlaWAn [ped tis-iz meh-dAdestAnIh]; cE harW do mihr ast drWandAn-z ahlaWAn-z ≈ Yt 10.2 miqrvm mA janyl spitama mA yim drWataT pvrvslMhe mA yim XAdaEnAT aCaonaT uWayl zI asti miqrO drWataEca aCaonaEca. Cf. also AVN 52.3. 273 ped huSnUdIh I Ab. Cf. MX 1.55 ped huSnUdIh I menOg I xrad. 269


About the recitation of the Formulas (mLqra-), not correctly274 [that is, one who utters the formulas (of the religion) not according to the canon275]. The Formulas (recited by) a defiled man may bring injustice to an undefiled place.276 This is revealed that: «A greedy and glutton man277 +who278 cares only for the “rejoicing”279 of the body, every sin has a tendency to him just like a +ditch280 to which (comes) every filthiness (by) a slope281. » Vayah282 drags (or, puts in pieces)283 even those [that is, it kills them] who have been thick-waisted, who (have been on the side of) Āzi (‘greed’) established by the DaEvas284. The invocation of the Yazatas285 is “efficacious”286 (when) thinking (agrees) with speaking, speaking (agrees) with acting, and acting is without deceitfulness287. 274

nE abEzag uSmurdan I mAnsr. Av. vrvzWO ‘upright(ly)’ is rendered by Pers. abEzag, cf. Y 9.13. 275 ped dastvar. 276 mAnsr I mard I AhOgEnIdag ‫( ﻏﺼﻘﺎﻏﻔﺪﻍ‬J5 ‫ )ﻏﺼﻘﺎﻏﺼﺪﻍ‬/a-dAdestAnIh/ O hAn I anAhOgEnIdag gyAg bared. Pers. (an-)AhOgEnId(ag) renders Av. (an-)Ahita- (adj.), cf. F 5. Pers. a-dAdestAnIh ‘injustice, impropriety’, cf. CHP 1. 277 mard I AzWar I ‫ ﻏﻔﺪﻏﯽﺱ ﺏﺍﺍﻅﺍ‬/eSkam-+bannag/. Cf. MX 2.56 AzWar mard. e Pers. Skam-bannag, Fars. ‫( ﺷﮑﻢ ﺑﻨﺪﻩ‬lit. ‘slave of one’s belly’) ‘glutton’. 278


/+kE/ rendering Av. yO. rAmEnIdArIh ‘merriment, giving of joy’ rendering Av. rafvDra- (nt.) ‘support’ and rafnah-/ G rafvnah- (nt.) ‘id.’, cf. Y 41.4, Y 51.20. 280 ‫ ﺻﺪﻏﺞ‬1/dAr/ ‘wood, tree; gallows, gibbet’; 2/dAr/ ‘edge, blade’. Faute de 279

mieux I propose 281









/kandAr/ ‘ditch’.

/+SEb ?/ I harW rImanIh aWiS. Cf. Dk vi M 584 ‫ ﻓﺪﻏﻀﻞﺍ‬aWiS baWed.

/WAy/ < Av. vayah- ‘age; time (of death)’.

/varzed/ from Av. varc ‘to drag, put in pieces’. Az I dEWAn-dAd < Av. Azi- daEWO.dAta-, cf. Y 16.8, Vd 18.19.

About the “pure goodness”288 of the Holy Immortals (amvCaspvNta-), and the communion of their thoughts, words, and deeds289, and the prosperity of living beings290 (through) their establishment, fostering, and protection291. Ahura MazdA established (or, created) ZaraquStra with a goodness like His own. Whoever gives a thing (a fee or present) to the disciples of ZaraquStra, his reward (miZda-) and recompense are just as though he had given the thing to ZaraquStra (himself).292 astI WahiStvm WohU aCvm. Ch. 13 TaT.qBA.pvrvsA (Y 44 ; Dk M 801-802). About the strength and firmness293 of the Draonah (‘sacrificial cake’) in the world of thought. Every night the DaEvas rush from hell (daoZa$ha-) into the world of living beings (gaEqA-), for the corruption and destruction294 of the creatures; and when they consecrate the 285

azbAyiSn I yazadAn. Cf. MX 2.64. kArIg rendering Av. yAhI? Cf. Y 46.14 (the PArsIg translator of the GAqAs derives yAhI from yah ‘to strive after’). 287 ped ‫ ﺧﻞﺟﻀﻞﺕﻏﺠﺼﺪﻍ‬/+a-frEftArIh/. Cf. Y 9.18 daWLiqyl ‘who deceive’ Z kE 286

ped ‫ ﻝﺟﻀﻞﺕﻏﺠﺼﺪﻍ‬/+frEftArIh/. 288 abEzag-WehIh gl. of meh-magIh < Av. maz- maga- ‘great ceremony of donations’, cf. Y 29.11. 289 hamIh I-SAn meniSn gObiSn kuniSn AgenIn. Cf. Yt 13.83. 290 M ‫ﺻـﺪﻏﺎ ﺿـﺪﻏﺎ‬:*‫ﺧﻞﺧﺖ‬, J5 ‫ﺿـﺪﻏﺎ‬:*‫ ﺧﻞﺧﺖ‬/AbAdIh I gEhAn/. 291 dAdArIh ud parWardArIh ud pAnagIh. Cf. ŠGV 15.25 dAdArIh ud AfrIdArIh ud parWardArIh, ŠGV 8.57 parWardArIh ud pAnagIh. 292 Cf. Matthew 25.40. 293 Oz ud tagIgIh. Cf. Yt 10.140 miqrvm … aojaMhvm taxmvm raqaEStLm ‘Miqra, the strong (and) firm warrior’. 294 M ‫ ﺳﺠﺼﻘﺎﭺﺛﺎﺻﺖﺍﺍ‬/+marnzEnIdan/ ‘to destroy’, J5 ‫ ﺳﺠﺼﻘﺎﺻﺖﺍﺍ‬/margEnIdan/ ‘to cause to death (of)’.


draonah, that spirit (mańyu-) sets in motion295 to smash and keep away the daEvas, and comes down ninety-nine times every night for the combat296 with the daEvas, and it smashes and defeats them, and keeps them away from destroying living beings297 (/ the world).298 Anyone among those men who offers this Word sacrifice becomes truthful (aCavan-), except those men who contentedly and willingly bring on the badly-put-into-practice +Formulas299, who suffer pederasty or who commit pederasty300; and those who undertake (contracts) by word, (however) their evil thought (duSmata-) is more than good thought (humata-), their evil word (duZuxta-) is more than good word (hUxta-), and their evil deed (duZWarSta-) is more than good deed (hWarSta-). About the taking away of the accidental (sin) worthy of death301, and the wiping away of other sins through the “profession of faith”302, like the harsh-running wind when “speedily” sweeps the “plain”.303 295

AyOzed. Cf. Y 65.4 A … yaozaiti: AyOzed. kuxSiSn rendering Av. pvCanA- (f.) ‘battle, combat’, cf. Y 9.20 WanaT.pvCanO: WAnIdAr-ped-kuSiSn. 297 marnzEnIdArIh I gEhAn. Cf. Vd 18.55 mvrvGvNte gaEql astWaitIS aCahe ‘(Druj) destroys the osseous (/ material) living beings of Truth’. 298 Cf. Abar Cim I DrOn 12-16; RP 9.2-3. 299 hAn I duShWarSt framAn rendering Av. *duZWarStl mLqrl, cf. Y 4.1 hWarStl mLqrl: hAn I hWarSt framAn. 300 Wiftend ayAb WiftEnend. Cf. Vd 8.26. 301 jahiSnIg margarzAn ‘the one accused on an accidental capital offence’. 302 AstaWAnIh rendering Av. AstUiti- (f.) ‘praise’, cf. Y 12.9 daEnayl mAzdayasnOiS AstUitiS : dEn I mAzdesnAn AstaWAnIh. 303 WAd I Skeft-tag humAnAg ka tEz daSt frAz mAled. Cf. Vd 3.42 yaqa WAtO dvrvzi.takaqrO qBACvm daSinAT pairi framarvzOiT ‘… like the steadily running wind would wipe away from the right (/ west) the firmament’ Z cOn WAd I Skeft-tag ka tEz daSt frAz-mAled [ud kAhIzag-E (MX giyAhIzag-E) ud tis-E be bared]. Cf. also Vd 8.30, MX 52.16, 19 (Av. darvzi.takaqra- is rendered by Pers. staft-tag). Pers. tEz renders Av. 1qBACa- (adj.) ‘swift’ (Skt. tvarita- ‘swift, hasty’), 2qBACa- (nt.) ‘firmament’. 296


aCvm WohU astI WahiStvm. Ch. 14 AT.fraWaxSyA (Y 45; Dk M 802-803). Ahura MazdA showed unto ZaraquStra the soul (urvan-) of KvrvsAspa in a terrible state. ZaraquStra was scared of that terrible state. KvrvsAspa spoke regretfully concerning his smashing of innumerable men; he paid respect to those who were resolved to abstain from sin. The establisher Ahura MazdA attracted his attention as regards his having smashed fire (Atar-/ Aqr-). KvrvsAspa requested the Best Existence (/ heaven, WahiStaaMhu-) on account of his exploits, that is: He slew the dragon SrUbara, and (put an end to) the oppression of that adversary (paityAra-).304 He defeated the yellow-heeled GaNdarvBa, and (put an end to) the harshness of that fiend.305 He smote the (evil) sons of Nivika and DAStayAni, and (put an end to) their grievous calamity and damage.306 He pacified the swift wind307, and brought it back from inflicting losses on (the world of) living beings to the benefit of the creatures.


ka-S kuSt gaz sruWar ud stahmagIh I hAn pedyArag. Cf. Y 9.11 yO janaT aZIm srWarvm: kE-S zad az I sruWar. Cf. also Yt 19.40, Dk viii M 747, Dk ix M 794. 305 ka-S WAnId ‫ﮔﻐﺜﺠﺚ ﻝﻏﻔﺪﻏﺎﻏﺎﺍ‬:‫ﹶﺎﺋﺠﻔﻞﺍ‬ ‫( ﺛ‬gaNdarvBvm yim zairi.pASnvm) ud SkeftIh I hAn druz. Cf. Yt 5.38, Yt 19.41. GaNdarvBa is called upApa- ‘(living) in the water’, in the RAm Yt 28. Cf. also MX 27.50 AbIg gandarb. 306 ka-S zad hunuSak I ‫( ﺛﺎﻅﻏﺎ‬J5 ‫ )ﺍﺛﺎﻅﻏﺎ‬ud ‫( ﺻﺪﻏﻔـﺖﻏﺎﻅﻏﺎ‬J5 ‫ )ﺻـﺖﺿﺖﻏﺎﻅﻏﺎﺍ‬ud grAn anAgIh ud Wizend I aziSAn. Cf. Yt 19.41 yO janaT hunaWO yaT paqanaya naWa hunaWasca niWikahe hunaWasca dAStayAnOiS ‘who smashed the nine (evil) sons of Paqana, the sons of Nivika, the sons of DAStayAni.’ 307 tagIg WAd rendering Av. taxma- WAta-, cf. Vd 19.13.


And when DahAka will come loose from fetters308, and will rush to destroy (the world of) living beings, and will clamour the annihilation of the creatures (dAman-), KvrvsAspa would be roused to defeat that very strong lie309, and to come to the rescue310 of the creatures of the world.311 The fire set against KvrvsAspa because of the offence which he committed against it, and kept him away from (entering) the Best (Existence). (But), GVuS Urvan (‘soul of the primeval cow’) supported him, gave thanks to him, and preserved him from hell. ZaraquStra requested of the fire to forgive KvrvsAspa’s sin. Thanks to that entreaty the fire pardoned312 him. KvrvsAspa departed to the Place of Misvan (‘limbo’)313. aCvm WahiStvm astI WohU. The PArsIg version of the supplication of the soul of KvrvsAspa for admittance into heaven was quoted at length in the RP 18f314:

It is revealed that: Fire is so esteemed that Ahura MazdA said to ZaraquStra: «Whose soul (urvan-) [it is the action (= daEnA-), +vital soul (= uStAna-)315, consciousness (baoDah-) and fravaCi] seems better, if you could see it? » ZaraquStra said: «That of KvrvsAspa. » 308

pez hAn I ka dahAk az bann harzag baWed. Cf. Bd 219 pas nazd O hazArag sar uSIdar-mAh dahAk az bann harzag baWed. 309 hAn I Was-Oz druz. Cf. Y 9.8 yO janaT aZIm dahAkvm … +aS.aojaMhvm daEiWIm druj ‘he smashed the dragon DahAka … the very strong, fiendish Lie’ Z kE-S zad az I dahAk … I Was-Oz dEW druz. 310 ‫ ﻝﺟﺨـﺖﺻﺖﺍ‬/+frayAded/. 311 Cf. ZVY 9.20-23. 312 ‫ ﻏﺎﭺﺧﺖﺍﺍ‬/Ozaxtan/ (J5 ) ‘to pardon’. Cf. N31 II R pd whmn ˒wzxt nw˒g. ‫ ﻏﺸﻐﻀﺖﺍ ﺧﺪﻏﺎﻏﺎ‬/hamest-oxAn/ (J5 ‫ = )ﻏﺸﺚﺿﺖ ﻅﺍ ﺧﺪﻏﺎﻏﺎﺍ‬hamestagAn. Av. misvan- gAtu- is rendered by Pers. hamESag-sUd gAh, cf. Sr 1-2.30. 314 Cf. also Sad-dar B 20; MU I 61-65; MU29 n° 1. 315 ‫ ﺻﻘﺎﻏﯽ‬/gyAg/ ‘place’ is probably a mistake for gyAn. 313


Ahura MazdA summoned the soul of KvrvsAspa. The soul of KvrvsAspa related the calamity which he had seen in hell to ZaraquStra: «Would that I had been a teaching priest (aEqrapaiti) so that there would have been a bag316 on my back, and I wandered through the world in search of a livelihood, and the world used to be hideous to my eyes, and the world would have feared my dignity (varvcah-).317 » Ahura MazdA said: «Halt, O soul of KvrvsAspa! For you are hideous in my eyes, for you killed (my son) ĀtarS (‘fire’), and you did not take care of it. » The soul of KvrvsAspa said: «Forgive me, O Ahura MazdA, and grant me the Best Existence (WahiSta- aMhu-), the House of Song (garO.nmAna-). (For) I slew the horned dragon (aZIm srWarvm), which was horse-devouring (aspO.garvm), mandevouring (narv.garvm), and its teeth were as long as my arm, and its ears were as large as fourteen felts (nvmata-), and its eyes (aSi-) were as great as a wheel, and its claws were as great as a horn in height (or: its horns were as high as a branch)318. I was running half a day319 on its back, till I seized its head at my hand, I struck it with a club (gaDA-)320, and I slew it321. If I had not 316

‫ﺕﺍﺏﻏﺎ ﻉ‬

(MR1, J ‫ )ﻏﺎﺏﻏﺎﻉ‬/hambAn-E/.

‫ ﺝ‬: ‫( ﻩﺍ ﺟﺐ‬J ‫ )ﻩﺍ ﻧﺢﺍﺝ‬/+az Warz I man/. Pers. varz/ Av. Warvcah- (nt.) ≈ Skt. várcas- (nt.) ‘illuminating power (of fire or the sun); dignity (of a brAhman)’. 318 u-S srU and-cand ‫ ﺻـﺪﻏﯽ‬/SAg/ ped bAlAy. Pers. srU < Av. srU- (f.) ‘horn ; 317

claw’. Pers. SAx/ SAg ‘branch ; horn’ < *ćSAkhA-, Armen. c˓ax ‘branch’, Fars. ‫‘ﺷﻎ‬horn’, ‫ﺷﺎﺥ‬, Sogd. S˒Gh ‘branch’, ŠuGnI x ‘branch’. Cf. also Sad-dar B

20.6 ‫ﻫﺮ ﺳﺮﻭﯼ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻫﺸﺘﺎﺩ ﺍﺭﺵ ﺑﻮﺩ‬ 319



(MR1 ‫)ﻝﺍﺍ‬/ nEm/ rOz. Sad-dar B 20.7 ‫ﺍﺯﺑﺎﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﺎ ﻧﻤﺎﺯ ﭘﻴﺸﻴﻦ‬

gad-E O garden zad. Sad-dar B 20.7 ‫ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺯ ﺳﺮ ﺍﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻨﺠﺮ ﺟﺪﺍ ﮐﺮﺩﻡ‬

KvrvsAspa’s epithet is gaDaWara- ‘carrying a club’, cf. Y 9.10, Yt 13.61. Cf. also Dk ix M 818 taWAnIg kRsAsp gad-dast.


slain that dragon, then it would have annihilated your whole creation and you would never have found a remedy for AMra Mańyu. » Ahura MazdA said: «Halt! For you killed my son ĀtarS. » KvrvsAspa said: «Grant me, O Ahura MazdA, the Best Existence, the House of Song. For I slew GaNdarvBa who devoured twelve lands (da?hu-) at once. When I looked into the teeth of GaNdarvBa, then I saw dead men were hung up among its teeth. It seized my beard, and dragged me to the sea.322 For nine days and nights we maintained the battle, and then I became prevailing upon GaNdarvBa. I seized the sole of 323 GaNdarvBa’s foot, and I flayed off the skin up to its head, and with it I bound the hind and front legs of GaNdarvBa, and I dragged it out from the sea to the shore, and I entrusted it to ĀxrUra324, and (then) I slaughtered and ate fifteen horses, and I slept in the shadow325 of the large domestic animals (staora-). GaNdarvBa dragged off ĀxrUra, (my) friend326, and dragged off my wife and my father and wet-nurse (/ mother). All the people awakened me from sleep, and I arouse, and every single step (gAman-) I went forward a thousand steps (gAya-), and every thing that passed under my foot was struck, then it burst into flames. I went to the sea, and I brought them back; and I seized GaNdarvBa and slew 321

u-m be Ozad. Sad-dar B 20.8 .‫ ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻧﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻭ ﺁﻭﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ‬،‫ﭼﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻭ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺮﺩﻡ‬ 322 323

GaNdarvBa was living in the water (upApO), cf. Yt 15.28. ‫ ﺕ ﻉ‬/+tah I/.



/AxrUrag/ < Av. AxrUra- (m.), a descendant of Haosravah, cf. Yt

13.137. ‫ ﻏﻀﺪﻏﯽ‬/ ‫ﻏﻀـﺪﻏﯽ‬/AsAyag/. Paz. AsAeaa, cf. ŠGV 16.51 (rendered by Skt. chAyA- f. ‘shade, shady place’). Av. a-saya- ‘without shadow’ is rendered by ‫ ﺍﺿـﻘﯽ‬/+nE-sAyag/, cf. Y 57.27. 326 dOst rendering Av. haxi-/ haKi° (m.) ‘companion, friend’. In Yt 13.137 ĀxrUra is against the lieful (person) who deceives friends (haKi-dava-). 325


it. If I had not slain it, AMra Mańyu would have become predominant over your creation. » Ahura MazdA said: «Halt, for you are hideous to my eyes, for you killed my son ĀtarS. » KvrvsAspa said: «Grant me, O Ahura MazdA, the Best (Existence), the House of Song, for I have slain the “brigands”327 who were so big in body that, when they were walking, people supposed that: the stars and moon move below their (armpits) and the sun moves below their ears, and the water of the sea reaches up to their knees.328 I reached up to their shanks. I smashed them on the shanks; they fell down, and the mountains on the earth were shattered by them. If I had not slain those fallen brigands, AMra Mańyu would have become predominant over your creation. » Ahura MazdA said: «Halt, for you are hideous to my eyes, for you killed my son ĀtarS. » KvrvsAspa said: «Grant me, O Ahura MazdA, the Best (Existence), the House of Song, for I have combated with329 VAta (‘wind’) and defeated it. The daEvas deceived VAta, and they said to VAta: Of all the creatures and creation you are the most powerful! Then imagine330 that “no one is more powerful than me!” KvrvsAspa walks upon this earth, he despises the daEvas and men331, and he despises you, even you who are VAta. When 327

rAhdAr, Saddar B 20.24 haft rAhdAr ‘seven brigands’. Yt 13.136 records that KvrvsAspa smashed pitiless robbers (gaDahe … anamarZdikahe). It is possible that Pers. rAhdAr renders Av. gaDa- (m.) ‘robber’ (rendered, elsewhere, by gayag). Cf. VZ 32.4 rAhdArAn ud gayagAn. 328 ped Ed dASt kU-SAn azEr star ud mAh, u-SAn azEr gOS XarSEd raWed, u-SAn Ab I zreh dA O SnOg baWed. Cf. Saddar B 20.24 .‫ﭘﻨﺪﺍﺷﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻓﺘﺎﺏ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻫﺘﺎﺏ ﺯﻳﺮ ﮐﺶ ﺍﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﻫﻤﯽ ﮔﺬﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺍﻧﻮ ﺑﻮﺩ‬ 329

‫ﻧـﺖ ﺍ‬





/menES/ pres. Opt. s2 of men- ‘to think’. dEWAn ud mardOmAn. Cf. Yt 1.6 WIspe daEWa maCyLsca.


VAta heard this talk, it blew so hard that it uprooted all the trees and shrubs which were in its path, and it trampled332 all the “lands” which were in its path; and darkness arose. When it came to me who am KvrvsAspa, it could not lift up my foot from the ground; I arouse and I set it upon the ground, and I stood with both feet upon its neck333, until it made a pact (*paSti-) (saying): I shall go again below the earth; I shall do what Ahura MazdA ordered, that is, “support the earth and sky”, and I shall not abandon (this duty). If I had not done that thing, AMra Mańyu would have become predominant over your creation. » Ahura MazdA said: «Halt, for you are hideous to my eyes, for you killed my son ĀtarS. » KvrvsAspa said: «Grant me, O Ahura MazdA, the Best (Existence), the House of Song, for it is thus revealed in the daEnA (= Avesta) that when DahAka will escape from the bonds, no one except me will be able to seek a remedy against him. For that reason grant me the Best (Existence) and the House of Song!» The Sad-dar B 20.37-46/ MU29 10-11 substitutes a legend about the gigantic bird Kamaka: The soul of KvrvsAspa said: «Grant me, O creator (/ omniscient) Ahura MazdA, the Best abode as a reward for this that when AMra Mańyu established the bird Kamaka334, it spread its wings over all the living beings and 332


‫ﻫﺎﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ‬

/+pay-Xast/. Fars. ‫ﭘﻴﺨﺴﺖ‬. Saddar B 20.31 ‫ﻫﺮ ﮐﻮﻫﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‬

*‫ ﺳﺞ‬/mulA/ (< Av. mvrvzu- m. ‘peg; vertebra’) rendering Av. manaoqrI- (f.) ‘neck’, cf. Vd 13.30. Kurd. mil/ mul ‘neck’. ‫ ﺳﺠﺼﺪﻍ‬can be read /marS/ < Av. marSU- (f.) ‘belly (daEvic)’ (rendered by mulAn, cf. Y 11.1). 334 ‫ ﯼﺳﯽ‬/kamak/, cf. MX 27.50. MU29 10 kamak hAn rAy gObed +kU abar 333

+hAn I gEhAn ped +andakIh baWed. If we accept this “explanation”, then ‫یﺴﯽ‬ /kamak/ < kamnak < kamna-ka- ≈ Fars. ‫ ﮐﻤﮏ‬/kamak/ ‘few, scanty’.


overshadowed the earth, and (the mist and) the rain335 which rained fell on its wings and was again poured by its tail into the sea, and it did not let a single drop fall on the earth. The world of living beings perished through famine and “drought”336; the people died; and the springs, rivers and fountains337 dried up. It ate up men and cattle as if a bird picked up grains of wheat. Nobody except me could find a remedy for this. I took up my bow and arrows338, and seven days and nights I shot at its wings with arrow-shafts like the falling of rain; its wings became so weak that it fell down. Many men fell down beneath and were killed. I bruised its beak with my cudgel (vazra-). If I had not done this, it would have annihilated the world and no one would have survived. » Ahura MazdA said: «O soul of KvrvsAspa, go away! For you have killed ĀtarS; you appear hideous in my eyes and you have made ACa VahiSta, the Holy Immortal, your enemy. I will not grant you the Best abode. »

(Again, the soul of KvrvsAspa said:) «If it is not possible to grant me the Best (Existence) and the House of Song, then give me back the strength (ama-) and victory (WvrvqraGna-) which were mine in life. For if you give me back that strength and victory as were mine when I was alive, I shall slay AMra Mańyu with the daEvas, I shall eradicate darkness from the Evil Existence (/ hell, duZ-aMhu-), and I shall make it beautiful (srIra-) and light (raocah-), and I shall sit and walk alone within it. » Ahura MazdA said: «This I shall not give you, O soul of KvrvsAspa, for men commit sin; and until men commit no more sin, it is not possible to make you alive again, nor is it possible to make any other men alive again. For there will be the resurrection of the dead when all men become quite sinless. When men die, and their souls are lieful (drWaNt-), they leave all 335 336 337

‫ﺳﮕﺎﺍﻏﯽ ﺍﺟﻐﺎﺍ‬.

Cf. Y 10.3 maEGvmca WArvmca: ‫ ﺳﮕﺎﺧﺪﻍ‬/miznAn/ +ud WArAn. ‫ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‬/niyAz/ (sometimes) rendering Av. haEcah-. ‫ﭼﺸﻤﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬, MU29 War ud jOy I nAydAg ‘lakes and navigable

rivers’. 338

‫ ﺗﻴﺮ ﻭ ﮐﻤﺎﻥ‬/tigr ud sanvar. Pers. tigr < Av. tiGri- (m.) ‘arrow’ ; sanvar <

Av. qanWan-/r- (nt.) ‘bow’, cf. Vd 17.9 qanWarvca iSaWasca ‘bows and arrows’.


comfort, and become exposed to all the calamity and discomfort. » When KvrvsAspa had spoken of his own exploits in this manner, the Yazatas in the world of thought and the Yazatas in the world of living beings wept, and Spitama ZaraquStra wept, and said: «Although you are not +inimical339, O Ahura MazdA, you are, in my eyes, inimical to the soul of KvrvsAspa. Since if KvrvsAspa had not existed as a bodily and living being, nothing of your creation would have been in the material state.340 » When ZaraquStra had become silent, ĀtarS got up and spoke of the sinfulness of KvrvsAspa unto itself, and it (finally) said: «I shall not let him into the Best (Existence). » In the Sad-dar B 20.54-57/ MU29 18-19 the speech of ĀtarS is as follows: The Holy Immortal ACa VahiSta, stood up and groaned before ZaraquStra on account of KvrvsAspa, and said: «O ZaraquStra, you do not know what KvrvsAspa has done unto me. In former times, there was this custom that, as they would place fire-wood and sheaf341 under a caldron for cooking food, I would send the fire, until the caldron should be boiled, and its duty should be performed, and then it would have come back to its own place. As for the (horned) dragon which he speaks of having slain, he was hungry, but the fire fell one “hour” later upon the fire-wood which he had placed below the caldron –because the wood was wet–, he smote the fire with his club, and cooled the fire. Now I will not allow KvrvsAspa’s soul to attain heaven. »

After ĀtarS, having spoken these words, the worthy of worship, GVuS Urvan (‘soul of the cow’) got up, and said: «I shall not let him into hell (daoZa$ha-), for he did much good to me. »


frEftAr ‘deceiver’ rendering an un-known Av. word. Cf. Y 49.2 daibitA ‘doubly so’ Z frEftAr. Saddar B 20.51‫ﺧﺸﻢ ﻭ ﮐﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺗﻮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ 340

ped gEtIg estiSn. Cf. Bd 239 menOg estiSn. ‫ ﭺﺛﺐﻍ ﺍﺧﻞ‬/Ezm WAf/. Pers. WAf ‘sheaf’ renders Syr. bundle; handful’, cf. Ps 125.6. 341



After GVuS Urvan, having spoken these words, ZaraquStra got up, paid homage to ĀtarS, and said: «I shall exert care for you, I shall speak of your exploits in the world of living beings, and I shall speak to VIStAspa and JAmAspa thus: Observe how ĀtarS acted uninimically (ainitOiT) when KvrvsAspa underwent penance (paititi-), and it forgave him. » The PArsIg version, in RP 18f 33-36, of the fourteenth chapter of the StUdegar breaks off at this point. It is succeeded, however, by a fragment which belongs to a different version of the legend of KvrvsAspa in another chapter of the Avesta:

ZaraquStra enquired of Ahura MazdA: «Who is the first whose corpse (irista-) you will prepare? » Ahura MazdA said: «That of KvrvsAspa. »342 ZaraquStra felt offended, and he said to Ahura MazdA: «When KvrvsAspa’s deed was the killing of men, why will you prepare his corpse first? » Ahura MazdA said: «Do not be offended, O ZaraquStra, for if KvrvsAspa had not been, and had not done those many exploits, neither you nor any creature of mine would have had existence. » Ch. 15 ‫ ﯼﻩﺳﺼﻞﺍ‬/+kLm nvmOi zLm/ (Y 46; Dk M 803-805). About the arrival343 of (the daEva of death) AstO.WIDAtu (‘partition of bones’) on the spot to a person; and from him no one of the mortals (aoSa$haNt-) will escape.344 About the desire of people (maCyAka-) for the not-passing of the mortal body345 and transient wealth346.


Cf. Bd 220. abar-rasiSnIh ‘reaching (the destination), arrival; accident’ rendering Av. aiBi.gaiti- (f.) ‘onset, attack’ (> Pers. ebgad), cf. Vd 8.4. Pers. abarrasiSnIg ‘accidental’, opp. cihrIg, cf. Dk iii M 145. 344 a-bUziSnIh I aziS kas-iz az OSomandAn ≈ Aog. 58 yahmaT haca naEciS buNjayAT aoSa$hatLm maCyAnLm. 343


AstO.WIDAtu (binds) all mortals with terrible (fetters), and the transparent water carries them off.347 None of them can be saved from him348, but some of them can save their soul349. The soul alone350 sees the reward (miZda-) and punishment (pvrvqa-) in the world of thought351. (The soul, when it is) with body352 does not see such things. If it, with body, could have seen such as that, then it would not have performed the least sin


OSomand tan. Cf. Vd 4.50 aoSaMhaiqylsv.tanWO, VAM 76 tan I OSomand. 346 frasAWand xIr. Cf. Dk vi M 511 En xIr I gEtIg EdOn frasAWand, 515 cArag En abErdar ka mard frasAWandIh I tan ud xIr I gEtIg O XES nimAyed, VAM 77, CHP 57 frasAWandIh I xIr I gEtIg, HOD 42 frasAWandIh I tis handESIdan. 347 OSomandAn hamAg astWihAd ped hAn I Skeft ud frAz-pEdAg ‫ﻏﻔﻞﺙ‬/Ab/ bared. J5 %‫ﺻﺪﻏﯽﻝﺕﺍ ﻝﺍﺍ ﺧﻞﺻﺖﻏﯽ ﻏﻔﻞﺙ ﺋﺌﺠﺎﺍ‬:‫ﺍﺧﻞﻏﺌﻔﺪﻏﺎﺍﭺﺏﺍ* ﺍﺟﻪ‬ Pers. Skeft ‘hard, harsh, terrible’ renders Av. skapta- (adj.) ‘secret’, cf. F12, and darSi° ‘redoutable, bold, daring’, cf. Y 3.20 darSi.draoS: Skeft-zEn. Cf. also Ch. 20 bastan I ped Skeft bann. Pers. frAz-pEdAg renders Av. frAdvrvsra- (adj.) ‘transparent, clear’, cf. Y 57.27. Cf. Vd 5.8 astO.WIDOtuS dim baNdayeiti WayO dim bastvm nayeiti AfS uzWazaiti AfS niWazaiti ‘AstO.WiDAtu binds him, Vayah leads him bound, Āp (‘water’) carries him up, Āp carries him down’ Z astWihAd Oy banned, Way [I Wattar] Oy bast nayed, Ab (/ AfS) ul-WazEned [kU-S ul O sar AWared], Ab nigUnWazEned [kU-S frOd O bun bared]. 348 Cf. Aog. 58. 349 kE raWAn bUzed. Pers. bOxt-raWAnIh ‘salvation of the soul’, cf. ŠGV 1.54. Cf. also Dk iii M 193 raWAn-bUziSnIh ud tan-WinAriSnIh ‘the salvation of the soul and the recovery of the body’. 350 raWAn EW-tAg. Cf. Ch. 18 (Dk M 807) raWAn EW-tAg bAstAn O tan XAhiSnIg … 351 menOg mizd ud puhl. Cf. Dk viii M 712, 729, ix M 788. 352 tanomand rendering Av. astWaNt- (adj.) ‘having bones, osseous’, cf. Y 34.14. Cf. also KirdEr 1.21 ˒stwndy lwb˒n /astvand ravAn/.


for anything whatever of the ease and comfort of the material world353, nor forgotten (to do) good work. About the hideousness and dreadfulness of the body of man after death. Even that which is considered most precious among all requisite things is thrown contemptuously to the dust354, and the living ones, even the closest relative, (will consider it) useless355, and they will keep aloof from it. During days (asn-), the baoDah (‘consciousness’) remains near the body (tanU-)356, the dogs and birds357 go forth for the dismemberment of the body; the baoDah fears from them just like a sheep that (pursued by the wolf) is afraid of the wolf358; it disputes with the dogs and birds about the dismemberment of the body.359 (The dogs and birds) perceive the words (of baoDah, which have been pronounced) spiritually360. At first, they go back361, thinking the body is alive. Afterwards, 353

AsAnIh +ud XArIh I gEtIg. Pers. AsAnIh renders Av. KAiti- (f.) ‘happiness, peace’, cf. Vr 7.3; Pers. XArIh renders Av. XAqra- (nt.) ‘comfort’, cf. Y 8.8. 354 afrasAg andar xAk-abgandagIh. Pers. afrasAg (adj.) ‘contemptuous’, (nt.) ‘contempt’, cf. M 6032.1851-52 hmpd ˓yw ˒w b[yd] ˒frs˒g u p˒dys˒g qr(y)[nd]. 355 abAyiSnIg-tisIh … anAbEdAnIgIh ‘requisite … uselessness’, cf. Dk iii M 358 zyAn ud anAbEdAnIh … sUd ud abAyiSnIgIh. 356 ka asn-z bOy ped nazdIgIh I tan. Cf. VZ 30.32 bOy … hAn si rOz I pas az marg ped nazdIgIh I tan pAdag O kAlbod I tan nigered pediS griyed. 357 sag ud vay. Cf. Vd 2.8 sUnLmca WayLmca: sagAn ud WayAn, Vd 6.45 sUnO WA kvrvfS.XarO WayO WA kvrvfS.XarO ‘flesh-eating dogs or flesh-eating birds’. 358 bOy aziSAn cOn mES az gurg tarsEnIdan (+tarsIdan). Cf. VZ 30.32 bOy … ka sag ud Way frAz SaWend ud tan darrEnIdan kAmend frAz tarsed On cOn mES az gurg. About the fear of the daEvas from the baoDa (‘smell’) of a truthful one cf. Vd 19.33, Aog. 19, VYt 27. 359 O sag ud Way abar nE WiSuftan I tan pehikArdan. Cf. VZ 30.32 O sag ud Way pehikAred kU mA En I man kerb frAz Xared. 360 aWESAn hAn gObiSn menOgIhA mArdan. 361 abAz ‫ ﻝﺋﺌﻨﺖﺍﺍ‬/pas-raftan/. Fars. ‫‘ ﺑﺎﺯ ﭘﺲ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ‬to retrogress, go backward’.


when they dismember the body, the baoDah runs to the vicinity of the dismembered body –just like a female sheep362 when it runs near its young ones –, it looks at the body with grievous unhappiness (a-KAiti-), reflecting thus: «That body was (once) with a beautiful face363, and to what misery it has now reached!» If the tanU (‘body, person’) was sinful during life, about its not accepting in its lifetime that which the baoDah gave advice to that tanU as regards abstaining from sin and practising good deed, then (the baoDah) weeps again. And (saying) this also: «Your time of happiness was short364, but that of misery is long. » Men who live on, in the temporal existence (sti-), for a hundred years, (yet) live little [that is, one who lives on365 a hundred years, his life passes away, little by little, and his life will be finished, wife and property and other worldly goods all will leave him at once, and will come to another person]. When men even for a short voyage, on a friendly and thriving road366, select and take with themselves dispensable provision beyond (their requirement)367, then it is more proper to select, prepare, and take with themselves indispensable provisions for the other (voyage) which is eternal368. 362

mES I dEnOdag. Cf. A 3.7 maESinLm daEnunLm. ‫ ﺻﻘﺸﺼﺪﻏﺎﺍ‬andar nEkIh. The word ‫ ﺻﻘﺸﺼﺪﻏﺎﺍ‬can be read /dEmagAn/, cf. Yt 10.107 srIra … daEmAna, or smaSn < Av. *smarSna- (adj.), cf. Yt 14.12 smarSnO.daEma: nEktom-+dEm. 364 giSnag rendering Av. mvrvzu-, cf. F 11. 365 ‫ ﺟﻎ ﮔﺜﺎﺻﺖﺍ‬/+zIWed/. 366 ka mardOm nihang-iz EWarz I ped hAn I dOstomand ud pedIxomand rAh. Cf. Dk iii M 309 EWarzIgAn tOSag rAy AbAdIhomand rAh. 367 abar WizIriSnIg tOSag Wizihend ud frAyIhA abar dArend. Pers. tOSag renders Av. aWaMha- ≈ Skt. avasá- (nt.) ‘food, provisions, viaticum’, cf. Aog. 41. 368 nihang-iz EWarz … abArIg hAn I jAyEdAn. Cf. Dk vi M 548 Edar drang andak ud EWarz zUd, ud AnOh dAyWar rAst ud abAm nE Winded, HP II.2 jAyEdAn AnOh abAyed bUdan. 363


About the seven immortal lords (ahu-)369 who are placed in the (central) continent Xvaniraqa, the Fortune370 and great strength371 and also the goodness of their assistants, living (jvaNt/ jva-) and being in command (xSayamna-) in both existence: 1) VanO-WIdWaESa372 is in the Airyana VaEjah (the original homeland of the Aryans)373 on the fortunate throne374. 2) Gaopaiti375 is in the non-Aryan lands (anairyl da?hAWO)376. 3) PiSiKyaoqna son of VIStAspa in KaMha377, with banners held on high378, wherein there are a myriad believers379 who wear haft ahOS XadAy. Cf. DD 89 XadAy I ahOS, Bd 197 rad-E ahOS. abar-Xarrah (lit. ‘with superior Fortune’). Av. aiBi.Xarvnah- (adj.), cf. Yt 15.48. 371 Wazurg-OzIh. Cf. MX 57.11 meh-OzIh. 372 ‫ﺛﺎﺻﺖﺏﺋﻒﺩﻍ‬:‫ ﺍﺍﺍ‬/Wan-I-jud-bES/ < *WanO-WIdWaESa- lit. ‘defeater (and) free from hostilities’. Not to be confounded with another Wan I jud-bES (lit. ‘the tree opposed to harm’), name of a tree which is placed in the Vouru.kaCa sea, cf. MX 62.32 sEn-murW +ASyAn ped Wan I jud-bES (×hu-bES?) I Was-tOhmag (compare Yt 12.17). 373 Wan-I-jud-bES abar erAn-WEz. Cf. Bd 197 Wan-I-judbES ped erAn-WEz. 374 ped hAn I ‫( ﻝﺟﺼﺪﻏﺎﺻﺪﻏﺎﻏﺎ‬S ‫ )ﻝﻧـﺪﻏﺎﺻﺪﻏﺎﻏﺎ‬/+farroxAn/ gAh. Cf. AJ (Paz. 5) parAWLn gAh. 375 ‫ \ﯼﻝ ﺕﺍ‬/gObed/ < *gaopaiti- lit. ‘lord of cattle’ ≈ Skt. gó-pati- (m.). 376 andar anerAn dehAn. Cf. DD 89.4 gObed SAh XadAyIh andar gObed bUm, ham-Wimand I O erAn-WEz ped bAr I Ab I dAdIg ‘the reign of King Gaopaiti is over the land of Gaopaiti (≈ GAum yim suGDO.Sayanvm, Arrian’s Γάβαι) neighbouring Airyana VaEjah, on the bank of the river DAitya’. However, according to MX 62.3 king Gaopaiti is in Airyana VaEjah, within the continent of Xvaniraqa: gObed-SAh ped erAn-WEz andar kiSWar I Xanirah. Cf. also Yt 10.15 aWi imaT karSWarv yaT Xaniraqvm bAmIm gaWaSayanvm gaWaSitImca baESazyLm ‘toward this continent of Xvaniraqa, the splendid, the settlement of the Gavas (gaWa-Sayana ≈ Arrian’s Γάβαι, Pers. gObedestAn), the healing settlement of the Gavas’. 377 ‫ ﻝﻓﺪﻏﻔﺪﻭﺻﺪ\ﺍ‬I WiStAspAn ped kangdiz. Cf. Bd 197 ‫ ﻝﺋﻔـﺪ\ﺕﺍﺍ‬I WiStAspAn kE-S 369 370


(TD2 ‫)ﺕﭺﺟﺎﺳﻐﺎﺍ‬-z XAnend ped kangdiz I bAmIg.


black fur from sables380, who are hearers of the daEnA (/ religion)381, who are truthful (aCaWan-), who follow PiSiKyaoqna son of VIStAspa.382 4) FradAxSti son of XuNbya, a descendant of HaoKyaMha, who is sovereign on the navigable waters.383

Pers. kangdiz renders Av. kaMha- (m.). Cf. MX 62.13-14 kangdiz ped uSastar rOn nazdIg O sadWEs gumArd ested ped Wimand I erAn-WEz ‘KaMha is entrusted with the eastern quarter, near to SatavaEsa, on the frontier of Airyana VaEjah’, Yt 5.54 upa dWarvm xSaqrO.sukvm apanO.tvmvm (×ApAnO.tvmvm) kaMhaya bvrvzaNtaya aCaWanaya ‘at the rule-shining door, the best-welcome is KaMha, lofty (and) truthful’, OPH 15 kangdiz … haft-sad frasang drahnAy haftsad frasang pahnAy ‘the length of KaMha is 700 parasang, and its width 700 parasang’, DD 89.5 kang I raftAr (AbU-NuwAs ‫)ﮐﻨﮏ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺘﺎﺭ‬. 378

stendag-drafS rendering Av. vrvDBO.drafSa- (adj.) ‘with upraised banners’, an epithet of BAxDrI- (OPers. bAxtrI-), cf. Vd 1.6 bAxDrIm srIrLm vrvDBO.drafSLm ‘Bactria the beautiful with upraised banners’ Z baxl I nEk [ped dIdan] ud abrAst-drafS. Cf. also Yt 1.11 vrvDBO.drafSayl: stendag-drafS [kU tuxSAgIhA dArend], Bd 206 cahArom baxl I pahlom dAd nEk ped dIdan, mardOm I AnOh drafS ped tuxSAgIh dArend. 379 kE andar hAn bEWar hAn I ‫( ﺏﺍﺟﺎﺍﻓـﺪﻭ‬bwlwS˒n ≈ ‫ﺑﺮﻭﺷﺎﻥ‬, cf. BurhAn: ‫ﺑﺮﻭﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫)ﺍﻣﺖ ﭘﻴﻐﻤﺒﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬. The word can be read /+WarraWiSnIgAn/ ≈ Arab. ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﯿﻦ‬, cf. ŠGV 4.3. 380

kE syA samOr dArend. Cf. RP 49.12 peSOtan I WiStAspAn abAg hAWiSt hazAr kE +kabAh I syAW samOr dArend, ZVY 7.22 frAz raWed peSOtan I bAmIg abAg E-sad-ud-panzAh mard I ahlO kE hAWiSt I peSOtan hend ped syA samOr jAmag ped menOg Weh dArend. 381 dEn niyUSIdAr. In the Manichaean church (DEn), niyUSAg is an ordinary disciple. 382 Cf. AJ 7 kangdiz … xUb-zISn ud ayyAr Weh-dEn hend, u-SAn dAd WehIh ud dEn pOryOdkESIh, u-SAn zIndagIh Was, ka mIrend ahlO hend, u-SAn rad peSOtan I bAmIg I aSmA pus, ud XadAy ud sAlAr hOsrO. 383 ‫ ﻝﻧـﺖﻏﻔـﺖﺍ‬I xumbIgAn I hOSang pus kE pAdiXSAy ped Ab I nAydAg. Pers. Ab I nAydAg renders Av. Ap- nAWayA-, cf. Yt 11.4.


5) ACavazdah son of PouruDAxSti, who is sovereign on the highest of the brightest (land), the “plain” of PiSinah384. 6) ‫ ﺏﺟﻐﮕﺊ‬/ Bairazd/ (< *bvrvz-dA-?), the battle-maker385. 7) The best among the most386 renowned (husravah-) kavis, O ViStAspa, it is he who is called Kavi Haosravah, who “propagates”387 +my daEnA mAzdayasni388, who also is

However, according to Bd 197 FraDAxSti is sovereign in the plain of PiSinah: ‫ ﻝﻧﺖﻏﻔـﺖ‬I xumbIgAn ped daSt I ‫ﻝﺋﺼـﺪﻭﺿﺪﻍ‬, Ed rAy xumbIgAn kE-SAn bIm ESm +rAy andar xumb-E parWArd. 384 ‫ﻝﺍﺟﺎ ﺕﻏﻔـﺖﺍ‬:‫ﹰ‬ ‫ ﻏﻔﺪﻭﻏﮕﺊ‬pus kE pAdixSAy abar ped bAlist I pEdAgdom daSt I ‫ﻝﺋﻔﺪﻭﻏﺼﻖ‬/piSinah/.

Pers. daSt I piSinah renders Av. Wairi- piSinah- ‘Lake PiSinah’, cf. Yt 5.37 kvrvsAspO paSne WarOiS piSinaMhO, RP 47.10 kersAsp … abar ped bAliSn I pEdAgdom. Pers. abar ped bAlist I pEdAgdom daSt I piSinah renders (possibly) *barvziSte paiti ciqrO.tvme WarOiS piSinaMhO. Cf. also MX 62.20 tan I sAm ped daSt I ‫ ﻝﺋﺼـﺪﻭﺋﺼﻖ‬nazdIg O kOf I damAWand. Av. vairi- (m.) = Pers. var ‘lake’, cf. Bd 91-93. Pers. var, influenced by Aram. br ‘open country’ (Syr. , Arab. ّ‫)ﺑﺮ‬, interchanged with daSt in the geographical names: War I tAzIgAn (ŠEŠ 25, 52), daSt I tAzIgAn (Bd 106); *War I piSinah, daSt I piSinah (Bd 198). However, according to Bd 197 ACvm.yahmAi.uSta is in a place which is called the “navigable river” (rOd I nAydAg), and FraDAxSti is in the “plain” of PiSinah. 385 ‫ ﺏﺟﻐﮕﺊ‬I kuSiSn-girdAr. Cf. Bd 197 bairazd I kuxSiSn-girdAr. 386

‫ﺍﻏﻔـﺖ ﺕﺍﻡ‬

/WahiSttom/ < Av. *WahiStO.tvma-. raWAgIh-iz dahed. Pers. raWAg-dahiSnIh ‘propagation’ renders Av. zrazdAiti- (f.) ‘confidence, faith’, cf. Y 43.11. Then, we can translate: ‘who also has faith in’. 388 hAn I ‫ ﺟﯽ‬/+man/ dEn mAzdesnAn. 387


acquainted with it389, who “gives good confidence to my work”390 [that is, who considers my work (more) reliable …391]. aCvm WohU WahiStvm astI. Ch. 16 SpvNtA.mańyU (Y 47 ; Dk M 805-806). About the compensation (pvrvqa-) of sinners392, as it is manifest in the daEnA. It is ordered for both man and woman to perform the ceremony, and the priority of the woman over the man. 393 If one seeks to attain the House of Song (garO.nmAna-), then he should recite the ceremony-texts by himself, or he should perform the ceremony of the Purchase of the World (*gaEqO.xrItO).394


andar-z dAned. Cf. Vd 9.2 yO fraEStvm apiWatAite daEnayl mAzdayasnOiS yaoZdAqryAT haca ‘who is most acquainted with the works of purification of the daEnA mAzdayasni’ Z kE hAn I frAyist andar dAned dEn I mAzdesnAn yOZdAhrgarIh [kU nIrang dAned]. 390 kE (M ‫ )ﻩ‬hAn I man WarziSn I Weh dahed frAz-WAbarIgAnIh. Cf. Y 49.7 yV WvrvzVnAi Wa$hIm dAT frasastIm ‘who will give good reputation to the community’ Z kE-t O WarziSn Weh dahed frAz-WAbarIgAnIh [kU kird I tO ped WAbarIgAndar dAred agar hAn I XES ermAn]. 391 kU kird I man ped WAbarIgAn … (M ‫ﺋﺼـﺪﻭ‬, J5 ‫ﺋﻔـﺪﻏﺎﺍ‬, K ‫ )ﺿﺪﻏﻆ‬dAred. 392 WinAhgArAn puhl. Cf. VZ 1.22 puhl ud pAdifrAh I bazakkarAn. 393 yaSt kirdan O mard ud zan, ud zan pES az mard framUd ested. Cf. ŠnŠ 12.30. Pers. yaSt (< Av. yaSta-) renders Av. yasna- (m.) ‘worship, sacrifice, liturgy’. 394 garOdmAnIgIh ped yaSt Xad srAyiSnIg ayAb gEtIg-xrId bUd. Cf. DD 79 hAn I pursed kU: kE nE kuned ud nE framAyed EgiS dAdestAn cE ast? pAsox E kU: be aWESAn kE nAmciStIg andar dEn WizId hAn kE yaSt nE kird ested I ka-S WES kirbag pas be O garOdmAn nE rased WizIrEnId ested. En-z EdOn guft kU Oy kE-S Xad yaSt kirdan nE taWAn ka gEtIg-xrId framAyed kirdan garOdmAnIg SAyed bUdan. Ed ast Wazurg frayAdiSnIg.


If one seeks the freeing of the soul from hell (daoZa$ha-)395, then he should give, for love of Truth (= desire of becoming aCavan after death)396, a rapid horse397, an arable land398, and a good (srIra- ‘beautiful’) woman399, to an +unmarried man400. And also a woman (should) give herself in marriage, (for love of Truth,) to an +unmarried man; and the caretaker (= husband)401 should increase, hour by hour402, day by day, good works. About the compensation of him who “loses” (his fees)403 and “releases” (or, dissolves a marriage)404, in the stwS405; he is like ‘Question: Concerning him who does not perform the Yasna service by himself nor does order a Purchase-of-the-World ceremony, what is then the decision? Answer: Apart from those who are especially elect in the daEnA, it is stated that he who has not performed the Yasna service, even if he has done many good works, does not attain the House of Song. This also is said that he who is not able to perform the ceremony by himself, when he orders a Purchase-of-the-World ceremony, then he can become fit for the House of Song; this is greatly rescuer.’ Cf. also Bd 227, ŠnŠ 5.6, Saddar B 42. 395 AzAdIh I raWAn az duSox. 396 ped ahlAyIh dOSArmIhA. Cf. P 43 yO aCahe cinmaWastvmO. 397 ‫ﺟﺜﺐ‬:‫ ﻏﻀﻞﺍ‬/asp I ray/. SS 17, Bd 210 ‫ﺟﺜﺐﺍ‬:‫ﺻﻘﺎﺋﺌﺼﺪﻍ‬. Av. raWaT.aspa- (adj.) ‘with fast horses’, cf. G 5.5 raWaT.aspLm: frAx sabuk asp, Yt 17.12 aESLm asplMhO bayeNte AsaWO raWO.fraoqvmanO ‘their horses are fearsome, swift, light-moving’. 398 zamIg I kiSWezAr rendering Av. zvmO karSuyl, cf. F 5. Cf. also CHP 6 zamIg kiSWezAr kirdan ud WarzIdan. 399 zan I nEk. Cf. HP I 5 hambAz I zan nEk Weh. 400 mard I ‫ ﺧﺪﻏﺠﺎﺏﺍ‬/ahlO/. We have read mard I +agraW (< Av. *aGru- m. ≈ Skt. ágru-). Cf. Ch. 1 (Dk M 788) +agrav [agrift]. 401 ‫ ﺟﺨﺖ‬/rAd/. I think it renders Av. rADa- (m.) glossed by SOy ‘husband’, cf. Y 9.23. 402 ‫ ﺍ\ﺧﺪﻭﺉ ﺍ \ﺧﺪﻭ ﺉ‬/zamAnag zamAnag/. ‫ ﺍ\ ﻍ‬/zamAn/ ‘time; hour’. ‫ ﺍﺍ\ﺻﺖﻏﺞ‬/WinEnIdAr/. Cf. DD 36.5 ‫ ﻭﺏ\ﺻﺖﻏﺠﺼﺪﻍ‬/WinEnIdArIh/, Vd 8.21 nase ‘disappear!’ Z nah [kU Win bAS], Vd 13.50 naStA.zvmanasca pairiStA.xSudrasca ‘who has lost his gains (/ fees), whose seed has desiccated’. 403


(a man) who is alive and they pour molten metal (by the ordeal)406 on his “breast”.407 About the punishment for the woman who gives herself in marriage to an +unmarried man, and comes back from him; she is like a “hedgehog” (/ penis)408 that as soon as409 goes inside her thighs410 comes out; her road to the Best Existence is cut off411 thereby. About the non-salvation of the soul of the lieful (drWaNt-) from the Evil Existence till the Final Body.412 About the punishment of the lieful: As if you have hung a sheep which is alive by the legs, head downwards, and you run, as much thick as a finger413, …414, at the nose. /hiStAr/. Cf. ŠGV 12.59 hiStAr: vimokt- (adj.) ‘who unyokes, abandons, lets go’. Av. harz ‘to let go, release’, Pers. hil-: hiSt ‘to release; discharge; divorce; leave; permit’. 405 &‫[ ﺿﺖﺍ‬stwS] ≈ Av. tiSrLm xSapanLm ‘of three nights’ rendered by Skt. trirAtra. Cf. Vd 7.52 Z pas az si-Sabag +AmAr I stwS pas az si-Sabag rOz yaziSn. cE nE dAnem kU pAdifrAh ped si-Sabag be kuned ayAb ped si-Sabag sar … pAdifrAh tiSrLm xSafnLm …, Bd 224-225 pAdifrAh I tiSrLm xSafnLm XAnend, MX 21.10 pAdifrAh I stwS, CHP 16 AmAr I ped stwS, ŠnŠ 8.5, VZ 30.43 AmAr I stwS. 406 Ahen WidAxt. Cf. Y 51.9 ayaMhA xSustA aibI ‘(by the ordeal) with molten metal’ Z Ahen WidAxt abar. 407 Ahen WidAxt ped ‫ ﺍﺋﺠﺎﯼ‬/+WarOg/ abAz rEzend. Pers. WarOg renders Av. WarO ‘breast’, cf. F 3.7 WarO: var. Cf. also Dk vii M 644 hAn I WidAxtag rOy abar War rIxtan, ŠGV 10.70 WidAxt rOy I abar-War-rEziSnIh. 408 ‫ ﮔﺎﮔﯽ‬/zuzag/ (Av. duZaka-) rendering Av. AZu- (m.), cf. Y 53.7. 409 bAstAn rendering Av. bADa- (adv.). 410 ped haxt. Cf. Y 53.7 bUnOi haxtyl ‘at the bottom of (her) thighs’ Z ped bun I haxt. 411 brId-rAhIh, cf. Dk iv M 425 hiSt-dEnIh brId-rAhIh. Pers. ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﭘﻮﻝ‬ 404


/brIdag-puhl/ ‘whose bridge is cut off; who has not adopted a son’, cf. MU I 594. 412 a-bOxtiSnIh I drWandAn raWAn az duSox dA tan I pasEn. Cf. Dk iii M 6971 (ch. 78).


The GAqAs in the world of thought are like mantle415 which is adorned416 by all sorts of marvellous things (abda-), and dressed by the truthful chanter of the GAqAs417. WohU aCvm astI WahiStvm. Ch. 17 YezI (adAiS, Y 48 ; Dk ix M 806-807). About him who, shall commit (any of) these five sins, having become apostate418, his own life and Fortune (Xarvnah-) are diminished thereby: 1) When a man (maCya-) contentedly adores a daEva as his lord and judge419; 2) When one who professes the religion420 (contentedly adores) one who does not profess the religion421 (as his lord and judge); 413

angust-zayAy-E, cf. Vd 6.16 vrvzu.staWaMhvm: angust-zayAy [angustdrahnAy]. 414 ‫ ﺳﻐﻀﺪﻭﻅ‬/mAhAnIg/ (Fars. ‫ﻣﺎﻫﺎﻧﯽ‬, a kind of stone)? K ‫ ﺳﻐﻀﺪﻏﺎﺍ‬/mayiSn/ ‘intoxication’, /mAyiSn/ ‘copulation’. We can read /+nimAyiSnIg/, cf. Dk viii M 720. 415 ‫ ﺍﺝ‬/varr/ rendering Av. WarvnA- (f.) ‘wool; covering’ (Armen. vaṙ ‘royal mantle’). varr … nihumbIhistan, cf. Dk vii M 625 u-S abar Warr nihuft. 416 ‫ ﻝﻏﻀﺖﯼ ﺍ‬/+pEsIdag/. 417 gAhAn srUdAr. Cf. Y 9.1 zaraquStrvm … gAqlsca srAWayaNtvm ‘ZaraquStra (who was) chanting the GAqAs’, Bd 180 srUdAr I gAhAn. 418 az dEn WaSt. 419 ped oxIh ud radIh. Cf. Y 27.1 WIspanLm maziStvm … ahUmca ratUmca ‘the greatest of all, the lord and judge’ Z harWispIn mahist ped oxIh ud radIh [kU oxIh ud radIh rAy az yazadAn meh]. 420 AstaWAn dEn. Cf. Y 13.8 fraorvitImcA AstaoqBanvmcA daEnayl mAzdayasnOiS yazamaide ‘we worship the (Text of) Choice and (the Text of) Praise of the daEnA mAzdayani’ Z franAmiSn ud AstaWAnIh I dEn I mAzdesnAn yazem [hAn menOg ka be dEn Ayend ud ped dEn AstaWAn be baWend ped rAh I Oy], CHP 4 ped dEn AstaWAn bUdan ‘to profess the faith of the religion’.


3) When a teacher (adores) one who is not a teacher [and is ignorant]422; 4) When one who is acquainted with the GAqAs (adores) one who is unacquainted with the GAqAs [and is unintelligent]423; 5) When one who “discriminates in giving”424 (adores) one who is squanderer [and is foolish]425. Those who unlawfully slaughter small or large domestic animals426, they also diminish their life and Fortune427. And so also those who think scornfully of Ahura MazdA428, O “pure” truthful Spitama (ZaraquStra)429, and also of the truthful coreligionists430 [your disciples]. 421

anAstaWAn dEn. Cf. Vd 3.40 anAstUtO WA anaiBisraWanO WA daEnLm mAzdayasnIm ‘who does not praise or listen attentively to the daEnA mAzdayasni’ Z (agar ast) anAstaWAn [kU agdEn, u-S ped kirbag uskArd ested] ayAbiS an-abar-aSnUd dEn I mAzdesnAn [kU Weh dEn ped XAhiSn ud pursiSn WinAhgAr ped abEgumAnIh I kirbag-meniSnIh kirdan]. 422 cASIdAr ka acASIdAr adAn. Pers. cASIdAr renders Av. caSan- (m.), cf. Y 13.3 aqaurunO … caSAnLscA ‘priests and teachers’ Z AsrOnAn … +cASIdArAn. Cf. also Dk viii M 736 cASIdAr abAz-pursIdAr. 423 AgAh-gAhAn ka an-AgAh-gAhAn [aneSnAs]. Pers. AgAh-gAhAn renders Av. WIduS.gAqA- (adj.), cf. Vd 18.51 narvm … WIduS.gAqvm WIduS.yasnvm ‘a man … who knows the GAqAs, who knows the Yasna’ Z mard … AgAh-gAhAn AgAh-yaziSn. 424 WizIdAr-dahiSn. Cf. RP 10d1 ka man WizIdAr-dahiSnIh kunem, Dk iii M 95 ped WizIdAr-dahiSnIh rAdIh. 425 ka aWizIdAr-dahiSn [ud axrad]. Pers. a-xrad ≈ Skt. a-kratú- (adj.) ‘free from will; foolish’. Cf. Dk iii M 262 axrad rAh. 426 pah ud stOr. Cf. Vd 9.39 pasWO staorAca: pah ud stOr. 427 aWESAn kE pah ud stOr adAdIhA kuSend I-SAn zIndagIh ud Xarrah kAhed. Cf. Dk iii M 216 (ĀdarbAd:) az adAdIhA kuStan I gAWAn ud gOspendAn +saxt pahrEzed. 428 kE ohrmazd tar mened. Cf. Yt 10.139 yO mazdLm tarO mańyete ‘who thinks disdainfully of MazdA’. 429 abEzag ahlO spitAmAn rendering Av. vrvzWO aCAum spitama, cf. Yt 5.89. 430 ‫ ﻭﺋﻔﺪﻍ ﺻﺪ\ﺍ ﻭﭺ‬/XES-dEnAn-z/ I ahlaWAn. Cf. Vr 21.3, P 35 XAdaEnAiS aCaonIS: XES-dEnAn I ahlaW(An).


WohU WahiStvm astI aCvm. This passage is quoted in the ŠnŠ (SAyist nE-SAyist) 10.8:

Ek En kU Skeft pahrEziSn az adAdIhA kuStan I gOspendAn sardagAn. cE ped stUdgar abar aWESAn kE gOspend adAdIhA kuSt pAdifrAh On guft ested kU mOy aWESAn gOspendAn tEG-E tEz humAnAg baWed ud Oy I adAdIhA kuStAr OzanIhed. ‘One (rule) is this: One should firmly abstain from unlawfully slaughtering of animal species. For in the book StUdgar it is said, concerning those who have slaughtered animals, the punishment is such that each hair of those animals become like a sharp edge, and he who has unlawfully slaughtered is slain.’ Ch. 18 AT.mA.yaWA (Y 49; Dk M 807-808). The daEva’s +wound431 to HaurvatAt (‘integrity’) and AmvrvtatAt (‘immortality’) through him who, in sinfulness, talks while eating, or who makes water when standing, or who wastes his semen virile432, or a (bad) woman who “chews” (omits)433 the song (of praise) after sunset (hU frASmO.dAiti-), or who pours a portion434 of food to the north, at night, without a recitation of the Ahuna Vairya435.

*‫ ﺧﻞﺍﺻﻖ‬/AbusIh/ ‘pregnancy’ rendering Av. Wvrvna- (m.) ‘wound’, cf. Vd 18.38. 432 kE Suhr WinEned. Pers. Suhr-WinAhiSnIh ‘(sin of) wasting one’s semen virile’, cf. Petit 3.1. 433 ‫ﹰﺼﺖ ﺍ‬ ‫ \ﺋ‬/jOyed/ rendering Av. aparaoDayeiti, cf. Y 19.7, or WIraoDayeiti, cf. H 13.1. 434 ‫ ﺻﺪﻭﺝ‬/danar/ rendering Av. danarv a measure of food or drink, cf. Vd 16.7. 435 Cf. ŠnŠ 10.7, 12.18, Sad-dar 30. 431


The soul alone requests often from the body, in these words436: «O perishable body437, praise (the praise of) ACvm (aCO.stUiti-) on stretching yourself in bed (/ on turning from one side to another while in bed)438, when you are sleeping439; (praise) ACvm on waking up, when you are awake440; (praise) ACvm on rising; may (the praise of ACvm) bring you, in every coming and coming out [in exhaling and inhaling the breath]441, good rewards, abundant rewards, and the reward of Truth442.» When the body shall do so accordingly, then the soul is rejoiced and shall invoke blessings on the body thus: «May you be beautiful (srIra-), O perishable body, you who have made me high (bvrvzaNt-)443, who have brought me near444 to the Best Existence.»


raWAn EW-tAg bAstAn O tan XAyiSnIg pez En EWAz kU. Cf. Aog. 25 bOy I raWAn O tan gObed EdOn. Cf. also Dk vi M 556 Xad bAstAn EWtAg.

E tan I ً ‫ ﺿﻞﻭﻩﺉ‬/+SIzomand/. Cf. Aog. 26 tanWO iqyeja$haiti. ped ul-nibEmiSnIh, cf. H 1.11 XafnADa ustryamnO: ped XAb ulnibEmiSnIh. Pers. ul-nibEmiSnIh is translated by Arab. ‫ﺗﻘﺮع‬, cf. Sad-dar B 27.7. Cf. also Sad-dar 80.8 .‫ﺁﻥ )ﺍﺷﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ( ﮐﻪ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻳﮑﻬﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻔﺘﻦ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻬﻠﻮ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻬﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﺩﯼ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﯽ‬ 437



ka be Xafse. Cf. H 1.11 aWa$habdvmnO ‘going to sleep’ Z be-XafsiSnIh. ped *‫ ﻝﺍﺧﻞﺻﺪﻭﺍﺍﻓﺪﻭ‬/frAz-+bOyiSnIh/ ka WigrAd baWe. Pers. frAz bOy- ‘to wake up’, cf. OPH 6 pas gennAg menOg az hAn stardagIh frAz +bust. Pers. frAz-bOyiSnIh ‘awaking (from sleep or ignorance)’ ≈ Skt. pra-bodha- (m.). Cf. H 1.13 nA XafnADa fraGrisvmnO frabUiDyamna ‘a man, waking from sleep, waking up’ Z mard az XAb frAz-WigrAyiSnIh ud frAz-bOyiSnIh. 441 ped harWisp AyiSn be-SaWiSnIh [ped WEn AWariSn bariSn]. Cf. F 3.4 +ANtyl +parANtyl: AyiSn ud SaWiSn I WEn, Bd 34 gyAn hAn I abAg WAd peyWast ested, WEn AWariSn bariSn. Cf. also Sr 22 Z. 442 humizdIh ud Was-mizdIh ud ahlAyIh-mizdIh baWAd. Cf. Y 55.2 tl (gAql) nO buyLn humiZdl aS.miZdl aCO.miZdl parO.asnAi a$he: ped aWESAn amA baWAn humizdIh [frArOnIh] Was-mizdIh ud ahlAyIh-mizdIh [az kAr ud kirbag] be ped hAn I nazdIk oxAn. 443 ‫ ﯼﺍ ﺕﺍ‬ ‫ ﻩﺍ ﺕﺝ ﺏﺍﺟﺎﺉ‬/+kE-t an buland kird/. 440


And when the body (/ person) shall not accept the advice445 of the soul, and says +the word “woe”446 on stretching itself in bed, the word “woe” on waking up, the word “woe” on rising, then the soul shall sob447, and shall raise its complaining voice thus: «+Woe448 to you, O perishable body, you who have made me short (mvrvzu-)449, who have brought me near to the Worst Existence. 450 » ‫ ﻭﺋﻔﺪﻏﯽﺍ‬and ‫ ﺧﺪﻏﺸﯽﺍ‬and ‫ ﺍﺧﺪﻭﭺﯼﺍ‬are symptoms of short life (mvrvzu.jIti-), and the remedy (baESaza-) for them it is Ahuna Vairya and ACvm. This passage is quoted in the ŠnŠ (SAyist nE-SAyist) 12.32: En si tis rAy giSnag-zIWiSnIh Ayed ast ‫ ﻓﺪﻭﺍﻓﺪﻏﯽ‬/SnOSag/ ud ‫ ﺍﻏﺼﻘﯽ‬/WiyAsag/ ud ‫ﻓﺪﻭﭺﯼ‬, harW Ek-E yaqA-ahu-WairyO-E ud aCvm-WohU-E be guftan, ud ka-z SnOSag I kas aSnaWed, hamgOnag guftan. WehAn ped kirdag dAStan. ped stUdgar gObed kU: “cE SnOSag ArAyed? [kU ped cE kAr Ayed?] u-S guft ohrmazd kU: giSnag-zIWiSnIh, zarduSt! cE Oy ast bESaziSnIh? ahunWar, zarduSt, ud ahlAyIh.”


‫ﹰ ﯼﺍ ﺕﺍ‬ ‫ﻩﺍ ﺕﺝ ﺍﮔﺌﺌﺊ‬

/+kE-t an nazdIk kird/. We can also read kE tar nazdIk …, cf. Yt 10.13 tarO harLm Asnaoiti. 445 AfrAh ‘advice, counsel; report’ < Av. *A-frAsa- (m.). Av. A-fras ‘to take counsel’, A-fraSta- (adj.) ‘consulted’. 446 *‫ ﻭﻏﯽ ﺟﺎﺏﻓﺪﻭ‬/anAg-raWiSnIh/ (lit. ‘wickedness’) rendering Av. aWaEtAt(f.) ‘the word “woe!” (aWOi)’, cf. Y 31.20. 447 ‫ ﺻﺪ\ﺍ ﻏﺼﺖﺍ‬/snOhed/. Av. snud, snaoDa- (pres.) ‘to sob, weep’, cf. Yt 19.80 snaoDvNtiS gvrvzAnl ‘weeping and complaining’. 448 ‫ ﻭﻏﯽ‬/anAg/ (lit. ‘evil, wicked’) rendering Av. AWOya (ant. of uSta), cf. Yt 3.14 AWOya mE ‘woe to me’, H 2.34 kaqa tE darvGvm AWOya aMhaT ‘how was your long (journey) in woe?’ Z EdOn tO dagr anAg baWed. 449 ‫ﹰ ﯼﺍ ﺕﺍ‬ ‫ ﻩﺍ ﺕﺝ ﺋﻔﺪﻭﯼﺍ‬/+kE-t an giSnag kird/. Pers. giSnag ‘short’ (Khot.

jsiNa-), opp. drAz (Dk ix M 804), buland (Dk viii M 697). 450 O hAn I Wattom oxAn. Cf. Vd 5.62 aciStAi a$he: O hAn I Wattom oxAn.


‘On account of these three things, there comes short life, that is, sneeze, yawn, and belch (?)451. Each time one is to recite a YaqA AhU VairyO and an ACvm VohU; and also when one hears the sneezing of someone else, he should recite in like manner –the good (laity) consider it as a rule. It is said in the StUdegar: «What prepares sneezing? [i.e., for what purpose does it come?] Ahura MazdA said: Short life, O ZaraquStra. What is the remedy for it? Ahuna Vairya, O ZaraquStra, and ACvm. » Cf. also RP 13a1-4:

En-z pEdAg kU zarduSt az ohrmazd pursId kU: ‫ ﺍﻏﻔﺪﻏﯽﺍ‬/WiyASag/, ‫ ﺍﺧﺪﻭﭺﯼﺍ‬ped kAr +Ayend, SnOSag hamEdOn? ud ohrmazd guft kU: kE kAr +kird ahrmen ud dEWAn zIndagIh +kastan rAy Ayed. zarduSt guft kU-S +bESaziSnIh cE? Ohrmazd guft kU ka-S yaqA ahU WairyO-E ud aCvm WohU-E abar be gObend, a-S tis-iz WinAh ud zyAn kirdan nE taWAn, u-S sUd nAmciStIg aziS baWed. ‘This also is manifest (from the Avesta = StUdegar) that: ZaraquStra asked Ahura MazdA: For what purpose does yawning come, and belching (?), and likewise sneezing? –He who does so, AMra Mańyu and the DaEvas come for shortening (his) life. ZaraquStra said: What is the remedy for it? Ahura MazdA said: When he recites a YaqA-ahU-WairyO and an ACvm-vohU, then (the DaEvas) can not do any sin or harm against him, there will be the special advantage from this.’452

When you squat to make water, (first) recite the Ahuna Vairya, and the ACvm, afterwards, when you get up, so that any daEva or druj shall least spoil you. When you go over to (your) wife (nAirikA-)453, first recite the Ahuna Vairya, and the ACvm, afterwards, when you go into (her) thighs, for so you shall make him who will be, (i.e.) your son, more truthful and more victorious owing to the ACvm. When you enter a house, pay homage to and recite the Ahuna Vairya for the Spirit of the


In the Persian RivAyats we find these three things, that is: ،‫ ﺁﺭﻭﻍ‬،‫ﺣﻘﭽﻪ‬

‫(ﺧﻤﻴﺎﺯﻩ‬M 55 fol. 6). 452

Cf. also Sad-dar 7. ka O nArIg abar raWe. Cf. Vd 15.9 yO kainInvm upAiti: kE O kenIgAn abar raWed [kU-SAn hO gAyed]. 453


House (hadiS-) and the whole household of the truthful ones454 who are and were and will be. The ‫( ﺕﺍﻓـﺖﺍﺍ‬+force) of the lieful ones, as well as their “meal” 455 are allotted not through (his) “right” power456. WohU WahiStvm aCvm astI. Ch. 19 KaT.mOi.urWA (Y 50 ; Dk M 808-810). When the souls (urvan-) come together, they exalt by praise the soul of the « one in authority »457, the good, the friend of the soul458, since he did it no harm, and preserved it from hell. The darkness (tvmah-), the lack of luminosity459, the farreaching bottomless state of the blackness, and the lack of goodness460 of the hell; the dish of frogs461, the clothing of


harWisp hAn I ahlaWAn sti. Cf. Y 35.1 WIspLm aCaonO stIm. sUr rendering Av. draonah- (nt.) ‘oblation; sacrificial cake’. Cf. Y 35.8 utayUiti … draonO: ‫ … ﺕﺍﻏﻔﺪﻭﺍ‬sUr [mizd]. 456 ped XadAyIh nE rAst baxt. Cf. Y 44.9 vrvSWA xSaqrA : rAst ped XadAyIh. 457 dastvar ‘authorithy; high-priest’, gl. of rad < Av. ratu- (m.) ‘judgement; judge’, cf. Y 33.1. 458 raWAn-dOst, gl. of ahlAyIh-ArzOg ‘who is desirous of truth’ rendering Av. aCahe bvrvjyaNt- ‘desirous of Truth’, cf. H 1.2. Cf. also Y 62.10 aCahe bvrvja ‘according to the rite of Truth’ Z ahlAyIh dOSArm [ArzOg I O kAr ud kirbag rAy]. 459 * ‫ ﺏﺍﻥﺍﺍ ﻭﻩﺉ‬/+a-WarzomandIh/? Av. Warvca$haNt- (adj.) ‘vigorous; shining’ is rendered by Pers. varzomand, cf. Vd 20.1. Cf. also Y 65.12 Z WarzomandIh. Or * ‫ ﺍﺏﺟﺎﺍﺗﻮﻩ ﺉ‬/WidardomandIh/? Pers. vidardomand (Paz. WadargmaNdI) renders Av. pairiqBO ‘surmountable’, cf. Aog. 77. 460 a-WehIh. Av. aWaMhu- (adj.) ‘un-good, who has no good’ is rendered by Pers. a-veh, cf. Y 12.4 aWa$hUS: ‫ﻭ*ﺻـﺪﻭ ﺍ‬. 455


* ‫ﺍﮔﺊ \ﺋﻔﺪﻭ‬

/vazag-jOyiSnIh/. Av. WazaGa-/A- ‘frog’.


frogs462, the cushion of …463, the arrival of the snow464, the painfulness, the affliction, and the terrible fright of those in hell465. Over it (= hell), there is the Bridge of the Accountant (cinWaT.pvrvtu-) which spans from the Peak (called) the Lawful one (dAitya-), which is in the homeland of the Aryans (airyanavaEjah-), to (the two edges of the mountain chain) HarA BvrvzaitI466; and under it at the middle is the gate of hell. (The Bridge) is the passage of the truthful (aCavan) and the lieful (drWaNt-); across it the passage for the truthful becomes in width as wide as nine lances, each one lance being three reeds in length467; the passage for the lieful becomes like the blade of a razor468. «Thus I say to you, O Spitama, that: Truth (aCa-) conducts man469 across the Ford [of atonement], the far-famed and beautiful bridge470; because ArStAt who is good and furtherer of living beings (WarvdaT.gaEqA-), and Miqra who provides wide gaoyaoiti save only the man who possesses truth (aCaWan-) from 462

* ‫ﺍﮔﺊ ﺍ ﻭﺳﺐﺩﻭ‬

/vazag-nihumbiSnIh/. Pers. nihumb- ‘to cover; conceal; cloth’ renders Av. vah ‘to be dressed, wear’. 463 *\‫( ﻝﺋﻔﺪﻭﯼﺍ ﺏﻏﻨﺪ‬J5 … ‫ )ﻝﺿﺪﻭﯼﺍ‬/…-bAlEnIh/. 464 snixr-abar-rasiSnIh. 465 Cf. DD 26. 466 Cf. Bd 199; Vd 19.30. 467 nOh nEzag pahnAy Ek Ek dagrandIh si nAy. Cf. RP 10g u-S hOSag si nEzag bAlAy I si nAy bUd. 468 ustarag tEG rendering Av. yaoZdanahe dAra, cf. F 4.7. 469 rAstIh mard franAmed. Cf. VYt 42 narO … aCa WahiSta … frAyaNtO: mard … hAn I pahlom ahlAyIh … frAzdar franAmed. 470 tarist ciy-Widarag I dUrnAmIg-iz nEk puhl. Cf. Y 19.6 tarO pvrvtUm: tarist ciy-Widarag, VYt 42 tarO pvCUm dUraEsrUtvm yim cinWatO: hAn nAmIgaz-dUr kE puhl I ciyWidarag. Pers. dUr-nAmIg ‘with name going far ahead’, cf. Dk iii M132; Dk vii M 628 dUr-nAmIgdom. Cf. also Y 65.3 dUrAT frasrUtMm: dUr frAz-nAmIg [kU-S nAm dUr gyAg Sud ested].


that distress, (who cries loud) like a regiment of a thousand men.471» «Thus I say to you, O Spitama, that: Do not become false to the contract (miqra-), neither when you conclude it with the infidel, nor with the righteous who follow your own daEnA, for the contract applies to both, the infidel and righteous472. The contract applies even, O ZaraquStra, to a wolf with (its) young ones. (Breaking) the contract of a (bad) woman (jahikA-) is more terrible, O Spitama!» «Thus I say to you, O Spitama, that: Do not accompany a jahikA (‘bad woman; whore’) for making her [that is, do not make her your wife], and lying with her [that is, do not sleep with her]473. If you accompany a jahikA for making her and lying with her, do not abandon her afterwards, neither in distress nor in prosperity, neither for the love of the body nor of the breath soul (vyAna-)474. Because he who accompanies a jahikA for making her and lying with her, and would abandon her for the love of the body or of the breath soul, harms the house (nmAna-), village (vĭs-), district (zaNtu-), and country (da?hu-), and becomes, owing to that, false to the contract (miqrO.druj-); he harms his soul (urvan-), as well as his children [that is, the +breach of contract comes upon them].475» cOn hAn I ‫( ﺧﻞﺟﯽﻭﯼﺍ‬J5 ‫)ﺧﻞﻏﺠﯽﻏﺎﯼﺍ‬/ hazAragAnag spAh. Cf. VZ 2.13 WAng O ohrmazd burd cOn hAn I hazAragAnag spAh ka ped AgenIn abar garzend. 472 mihr mA abar druxtAr baWe, mA ka abAg drWandAn hampurse, ud mA ka abAg XES-dEnAn I ahlaWAn; cE harW donAn mihr ast, drWandAn-z ud ahlaWAn-z. Cf. Yt 10.2 miqrvm mA janyl spitama mA yim drWataT pvrvslMhe mA yim XAdaEnAT aCaonaT Wayl zI asti miqrO drWataEca aCaonaEca. 473 abAg-nibEmiSnIh [kU-S abAg mA +Xafs]. Cf. Vd 18.64 (jahi) … apayasaite paiti.pasti : (jah) … be appared ped abAg-nibEmiSn. 474 mA ped tan ud mA gyAn dOSArm rAy. Cf. CHP 23 nE tan ud nE gyAn dOSArm rAy … az Weh dEn I mAzdesnAn abAz ne estem. 475 hAn Oy raWAn zinEned EdOn frazendAn [kU-SAn mihr-druz abar rased]. Cf. Dk vii M 654 aWESAn ped frazendAn druzend [kU-SAn mihrOgdruz abar rasiSn] ud pez hAn I XES-tan. 471


«The +blasphemer476, the lieful, shall lie down without offspring477 at the bottom of hell [that is, there is no share, for the lieful, of the “bounty”478 established abundantly by Ahura MazdA.» WahiStvm aCvm astI WohU. Ch. 20 VohU.xSaqrvm (Y 51; Dk M 810-815). The exercise of power by DahAka, tyrannically, over the sevenfold earth479, and the execution of his commands before a wave of the hands480. DahAka deliberates (in a contest). He wonders481 about the reason of the +sorrowfulness482 of the whole people (maCyAka-), after the cutting of Yima to pieces483, and the accession of DahAka. The people say, in reply to DahAka, thus: «Yima had withheld from the world need484 and poverty485, hunger and 476

ped duS-hamOziSnIh rendering Av. duS.sasti- (m.) ‘person of bad announcement’, cf. Y 32.9. 477 ped a-frazendIh. Cf. Y 11.1 afrazaiNtiS: afrazend. 478 nEkIh rendering, possibly, Av. yAna- (nt.) ‘boon’. 479 abar bUm I haft. Cf. Yt 19.26 paiti bUmIm haptaiqyLm. 480 pES raWAgIh I-S framAn az dastAn WardiSn. Cf. Dk ix M 815 raWAgIh I-S framAn tEzdar az dastAn WardiSn. 481 hanzamanIg pursiSn I dahAk. Cf. Yt 8.15 hO iqra +WyAxmanyete hO iqra +pvrvsanyeiti. 482 * ‫ ﺍﺋﻔـﺪﻭﻩﺉ‬/WISomandIh/, cf. Y 9.11 aZIm … WISaWaNtvm: az … I WISomand ‘the poisonous dragon’; or /bESomandIh/ (opp. rAmiSn), cf. Dk iii M 234. 483 kirrEnIdan I jim. Av. yimO.kvrvNta- (adj.) ‘who cuts Yima to pieces’, cf. Yt 19.46. Cf. also Bd 211 dEWAn jim be kirrEnId. 484 jim abAz dASt ested az gEhAn niyAz … Cf. Aog. 95 jim … En gEhAn … Az ud niyAz az dAm I ohrmazd abAz dASt. 485 SkOhIh rendering Av. ain-iSti- (f.) ‘weakness; indigence’, cf. F 7 +ainiStOiS: SkOhI cOn a-XAstagIh. Cf. also Yt 13.130. Pers. SkOh < OPers. s/Skauqi- ‘weak, poor’.


thirst, old age and death, lamentation and mourning486, immoderate cold and heat487, and the mingling of demons with men.488 » This also: «Yima established peace489 [that is, he did such things that from them there were the peace (/ happiness) of men], granted (men and animals to go forth according to their own) wishes [that is, he performed acts of beneficence]490, (thereby) satisfied491 [that is, he satisfied men according to the (divine) models]. And ‫( ﻭﺕﯼ‬DahAka’s mother)492 created you who


SIWan ud mOy. Cf. Y 71.17 xSayasca amayaWaylsca: SIWan ud mOyag. suy ud tiSn ud zarmAn ud margIh … ud sarmAg ud garmAg I abeymAn. Cf. Yt 9.10 uWa SuDvmca tarSnvmca … uWa zaurWLmca mvrvqyUmca … uWa garvmvmca WAtvm aotvmca, Vd 2.5 nOiT mana (= Yima) xSaqre bWaT aotO WAtO nOiT garvmO nOiT axtiS nOiT mahrkO: nE ped hAn I man XadAyIh baWed hAn I sard WAd nE hAn I garm [WAd], nE xEndagIh [WaStagIh] ud nE margIh [hambunz]. Cf. also Yt 17.30, Dk vii M 595, MX 27.24-26. yimahe xSaqre aurWahe nOiT aotvm lMha nOiT garvmvm nOiT zaurWa lMha nOiT mvrviqyuS nOiT araskO daEWO.dAtO: ped hAn I jim XadAyIh I arWand nE sarmAg bUd nE garmAg, nE zarmAn bUd nE margIh, ud nE araSk I dEWAn-dAd. Cf. also Yt 15.16. 488 AmEziSn I dEW abAg mardOm. According to the Yt 19.81 ZaraquStra drove all daEvas under the earth. 489 AsAnIh-dAdAr rendering Av. *KAiti-dA-. Pers. AsAnIh renders Av. KAiti(f.) ‘happiness, peace’, cf. Y 51.8 (OPers. SiyAti-, Pers. SAdIh). 490 kAmag-dAdAr [kU-S nEkIh (ped) dAd]. Av. uSti- (f.) is rendered by Pers. kAmag, cf. Vd 2.11, and Pers. nEkIh, cf. Y 48.4. 491 J5 SnAyEnIdAr. Av. xSnaoqra- (nt.) ‘satisfaction’ is rendered by Pers. SnAyEnIdArIh. 492 We have to read the word ‫ ﻭﺕﯼﺍ‬in all probability /hOdag/. It is cognate with Av. haota- (nt.) ‘brood’ (?), cf. Yt 13.89 yO paoiryO ciqrvm urWaEsayata daEWAaTca haotAT maCyAaTca ‘who was the first to turn his seed away from daEvas, haota, and men’. Cf. also Vd 18.30 sraoSO aCyO drujim apvrvsaT: srOS ahlAy az druz pursed [az ‫ﻭﺕﯼﺍ‬. ast kE EdOn gObed kU: az xESm. ast kE az 487

gennAg menOg] ‘SraoSa aCya asked the Lie [the ‫ﻭﺕﯼﺍ‬. Some say “wrath” (aESma), and some “the Destructive Spirit” (aMra- mańyu-)], Bd 229 az mAdarAn dahAk I ‫ ﻭﺕﯼﺍ‬I bayak …


smashed Yima the radiant and with good herds493 by killing him deceitfully [unjustly]494, and you wished living beings need and poverty, scarcity [and “greed”]495, hunger and thirst496, Wrath with the bloody pike497, fodderless +drought [terror]498, clandestine danger499, old age with bad breathing500, and seven

In the later tradition hOdag was changed to vadag, understanding hOfrom Av. hu/ hao ‘good’, and replacing it with vad (Pers. vad ‘bad, evil’). Dk vii M 612 az hAn gyAg pEdAg kU cOn-iS baWed hAn I ‫ ﺍﺕﯼﺍ‬ud hAWandIh baWed margIh ‘as is revealed in that passage: There will be for him ‫ﺍﺕﯼﺍ‬, it will be like plague’, VZ 4.14 cOn ped dEn pEdAg kU: cOn-iS baWed Oy I ‫[ ﺍﺕﯼﺍ‬ka-S WattarIh gObend] u-t hAWandIh baWed margIh, u-S hAn az margIh abar-gumixt [kU-S aziz margIh +Wattar]. ‫ ﺍﺕﯼﺍ‬/vadag/ < Av. WaDa- (m.) ‘smashing weapon’ (≈ Skt. vadhá- m. a deadly weapon, esp. Indra’s thunderbolt), cf. Yt 19.92. Cf. also ŠGV 14.86 WIftagAn I dEWIg-WadagAn. Cf. also StUdegar, ch. 9, DD 71.5 ‫ ﺍﺕﯼﺍ‬I dahAk mAd kE-S fradom rUspIgIh kird. DD 77.2 … fradom dahAk … ped abArOn-gumEziSnIh I-S kAmag abAg ‫ ﺍﺕﯼﺍ‬I mAdar. There was also a confusion of this later word vadag with another name WaDaGana- (m.). Vd 19.6 WaDaGanO da?hupaitiS: ‫ ﺍﺕ×ﺍﺍ‬/‫ ﺍﺋﻂﺍﺍ‬dahebed ‘the lord of the land, VaDaGana’. In the MX 57.25 VaDaGana has been identified with DahAka’s mother: O ‫ ﺍﺕﯼﻭﺍ‬dahebed dahAk dAd. 493 jim SEd I huramag rendering Av. yimO xSaEtO hWLqBO, cf. Y 9.4. 494 ped zUr-zaniSnIh … [adAdestAnIhA]. Cf. Vd 7.3 zUrO.jataca: zUr-zad [ped adAdestAnIh]. 495 tangIh [ud Az] rendering Av. Lzah- (nt.) ‘narrowness, constriction’, cf. Y 8.8. The word /Az/ is a transposition of Lzah. 496 suy ud tiSn. Cf. Yt 19.96 SuDvm tarSnvmca. 497 &‫ ﻭﭘﺌﭙﺎ‬: ‫ ﻏﻔﺪﻏﺮ‬rendering Av. aESma- xrWI-dru- ‘Wrath, with the bloody javeline (pike)’, cf. Yt 11.15, Y 10.8. 498 ‫ ﻍ ﺍﻏﻀﺖ ﺝ‬: ‫ ﺍﺧـﻞ‬/+hEz I aWAstar/ rendering Av. haEcah- aWAstra-, cf. Vd 7.26 haEcaMhO aWAstrahe: huSk aWAstar [sahm], VZ 32.2 hEz-iz aWAstar sahm. 499 sIz I nihAn-raWiSn rendering Av. iqyejah- marKaWan- (or, marSaWan-) ‘danger which brings about destruction (or, forgetfulness)’, cf. Vd 19.43.


daEvas which are unworthy of worship.501» This also: «Those who look for a son, you make them devoid of “pregnancy”502, O you whose fortune is evil (duS-Xarvnah-)! [that is, you castrate them503], you make homosexuality (into a custom)504 [that is, no remedy could be sought for that]; it does not hand down (a heir) from (one)self [that is, no lineage proceeds from him]. You chase away505 those cattle that roam free506. And you have seized from us by force the luminous (bAmya-) and light (roacah-) Yima, who was radiant, who had good herds, who shone like the sun507


zarmAn I ‫ ﺛﺎ&ﻝﺕﺍ‬/+duSdaft/. Cf. Vd 19.43 zaurWa duZdLfvDrO, RP 48.91

zarmAn I ‫ﺛﺎ&& ﻝﺕﺍ‬. Cf. also Bd 185 zarmAn hAn dEW kE ‫ ﺛﺎﻓﺪﻏﻔﻞﺕﺍ‬kuned kE pIrIh XAnend. 501 haft dEW ayaziSnomand. Pers. yaziSnomand is rendered by yesnya(adj.) ‘worthy of worship’, cf. Y 1.19 WIspaEibyO … yazataEibyO … yOi hvNti yesnyAca WahmyAca: harWisp hAn I … yazad … kE hend yaziSnomand ud niyAyiSnomand. Cf. also Yt 19.81 WIspe daEWa ayesnya aWahmya. 502 *‫ ﺧﻞﺍﺻﺪﺙ‬/AbusIh/ rendering Av. Wvrvna- (m.), cf. Vd 18.38. 503

‫ﻓــﻞ ﺿﺖ ﻭﺕ ﯼﺍﺕﺍ‬

/SAbestAn-it kird/. Cf. Dk iii M 299 dahAk SAbestAn

kirdan I ‫‘( ﺳﺜﺎﯼﺍ‬genital organ’, cf. ŠnŠ 10.5) ud ‫ ﺳﺜﺎﯼﺍ‬I +mard ud +zan +drOSIdan (‘to circumcise’) handarzEnId cOn jehUdAn kES. 504 ‫ ﻏﺐﺍﻍ ﯼﺍﺕﺍ ﺋﺌﻔﻞﺍ‬/+mard kird +WEb/. Av. *narO.WaEpa- (m.) ‘homosexuality’, narO.WaEipya- (adj.), cf. Vd 1.11 aGa anApvrvqa Kyaoqna yA narO.WaEipya ‘bad inexpiable acts, that is, homosexuality’ Z hAn I Wattar anAbuhragAn WinAh kE mard-WEbIg [kU kUn-marz]. 505 ‫ ﺋﺌﺊ &ﺻﻘﺎﺻﺖ ﺍ‬/sIZdEnId/. Av. syazd/ sIZd, sIZdya- (pres.) ‘to remove, move away (from)’. 506 gOspend I frAx-raftAr. Cf. Y 71.9 WIspLmca gLm upApLmca upasmLmca fraptvrvjAtLmca raWascarAtLmca caMraMhAcasca: harWisp-iz gOspend I AbIg ud UnIg ud WAyendag ud frAxraftAr ud carag-arzAnIg. 507 ped hU-tAbiSnIh tAft. Av. hWarv.darvsa- (adj.) ‘whose aspect is like the sun’ (Pers. XarSEd-nigeriSn), an epithet of Yima, cf. Y 9.4.


on the arrival of every ‫ﺧـﻖ‬,508 in every winter [that is, he came out immediately for doing good]. May you be mortal, O *BaEWarAspa (= DahAka)509, break! This is (our) judgement: A bad ruler (deserves) a thing which is so bad. We wish a good ruler, who brings (worthy) shares [I shall give things to him who wishes to exercise good power].510» About Θraētaona’s triumph over DahAka, for the sake of killing him; striking his club (vazra-) upon his shoulders (*frayikA-), stomach (zvrvd- lit. ‘heart’), and skull (mastvrvGanlit. ‘brain’), and DahAka not dying from those blows, and then by striking him with a sword, and the going out of many kinds of creeping monsters (xrafstra-) from the body of DahAka at the first, the second, and the third striking. The creator, Ahura MazdA, said to Θraētaona: «Do not cut apart (kvrvNta) DahAka, because if you cut apart DahAka, you will make this earth full of snakes crawling on their bellies511, scorpions512, lizards513, tortoises514, and frogs515.»

ped harWisp ‫ ﺧـﻖ‬abar-rasiSnIh. Cf. Vd 9.6 pasca isaoS zvmO aiBi.gaitIm: pas az zimestAn snOyomand abar-rasiSnIh ‘after the arrival of the frosty winter’. 509 Pers. bEvarasp < Av. baEWarv.spasan-? 510 a-mAn Oy I Weh XadAy kAmag bahr abar-bariSnIh [tis O Oy dahem kE XadAyIh I Weh abAyed ka kuned]. Cf. Y 51.1 WohU xSaqrvm WairIm bAgvm aibI.bairiStvm: O-m Oy I Weh XadAy kAmag bahr abar-bariSnIh [kU bahr O Oy kas dahem kE XadAy I nEk abAyed]. 511 ‫ ﺋﮓ ﺍ ﻭﺋﭙﻐﯽﺍ‬rendering Av. aZinLm udarO.qrLsanLm, cf. Vd 14.5, 18.73. 508

Cf. also Dk vii M 636 ‫ ﺋﮓ ﻭﺋﭙﻊ‬, Dk iii M 19 , RP 48.21 ‫ ﻭﺋﭙﻐﯽﺍ‬: ‫ﺧﻞﺍ‬. 512 gazdum ‘scorpion’ < *gaza-duma- ‘having a biting or stinging tail’. 513 ‫ ﯼﭘﺐﺍﯼﺍ‬/karbOg/ (*karpaaka-) rendering Av. kahrpuna- (m.), cf. Vd 14.5. Khwar. krbwn ‘lizard’, Lur. kOrbǒk ‘frog’. 514 ‫ ﯼﺻﻘﺎﯼﺍ‬rendering Av. kasyapa- (m.), cf. Vd 14.5. 515



/vazag/ rendering Av. WazaGă-, cf. Vd 14.5.

Then he bound DahAka with terrible fetters and imprisoned him in (the place of) the most grievous punishment which is (the place of) non-rest516. This also: When AZi DahAka was bound, this news travelled (fast) all continents (WIspAhu karSWOhu) [which are seven] that: «AZi DahAka has been smashed. He has been smashed by the high and mighty Θraētaona of ĀqBya.» In the tenth winter (year, zim-/ zyam-), the lands finally believed (the news), and they said thus: «Now we think they have smashed AZi DahAka, because now neither he traverses all the continents [which are seven], nor utters good and bad words, nor demands the beautiful young women517 and “desirable” objects518.» This also: When information came to him about women or objects that seemed to him requisite to possess, then he enticed the condemned servants, by the golden “musical instrument with holes”519, into his invisible place520, the den (gvrvDa-) of AZi DahAka. This also: He smote his brother, kindred, descendant521, or any closest relative (nabAnazdiSta-), and that did not seem grievous to him. “It did not occur to their mind”522 [that is, they did not even entertain a memory thereof], ‫ ﺛﺐﺍﺿﺪﻏﺎ‬/a-WisAn/. Pers. WisAn renders Syr. ‘rest; resting-place’, cf. Ps. 95.11, 131.8,4. 517 nEk carAdIg rendering Av. srIrA- carAitI- (°tikA-). Cf. Hn 2.10. 518 ArzOg (I) XAstag, rendering Av. bvrvxDA- aWarvtA-, cf. Yt 17.7. Cf. Also CHP 28 XAstag (ud) ArzOg I gEtIg. 516


J5  ‫ﺻﻘﺎﭘﯽﻏﺎﻩ ﺉ‬/ M ً ‫ ﺻﺪﻏﭙﯽ ﻭﻩﺉ‬/sUrAgomand/ I zarrEn rendering Av. suBrA-

zaranaEnI-, cf. Vd 2.6. Cf. Tha˓AlabI , Histoire des rois des Perses ( ‫ﻏﺮر اﺧﺒﺎر‬ ‫)ﻣﻠﻮک اﻟﻔﺮس و ﺳﯿﺮﻫﻢ‬, H. Zotenberg, Paris, MDCCCC, 24 : ‫ﺔ ﻨﻔﺦ ﻓﯽ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ‬‫ﻭﮐﺎﻥ ﺍﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻥ ﻴﺠﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﻴﻪ ﺸﻴﺌﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻤﺎﻟﮑﻪ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻋﺠﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﺍﻭ ﻏﻼﻡ ﺍﻭ ﺩﺍﺒ‬ .‫ﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻟﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻫﺏ ﻓﮑﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﻴﺒﻪ ﺒﻨﻔﺨﺔ ﺫﻟﮏ ﮐلّ ﻤﻥ ﻴﺭﻴﺩﻩ ﻓﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﮎ ﻴﻨﻔﺦ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻭﺩ ﻓﯽ ﺍﻟﺸﺒ‬ 520 ped menOg-gyAgIh. Pers. menOg-gyAg renders Av. mańyW-asah- (adj.), cf. Y 57.27. 521 ayAb nAf ayAb naftI. Cf. Y 46.12 naptyaESu nafSucA : nAfAn ud naftyAn. 522 u-SAn nE ped meniSn menId. Cf. Y 13.4 iqA mańyU ×mamnAitE: EdOn ped meniSn menem.


and they said thus: «He smashed the master of the house (nmAnO.paiti-, name of a fire) –that master of the house523 was necessary for all the fires of the districts (qraotO.stAc-)524. He smashed the master of the land (da?hu.paiti-), the lord (ahu-) of all of them.» This also: In every place that he came to, conflagration fell into (that place), and they kindled a huge fire for (their) protection 525. This also: AZi DahAka performed mixed deeds, good deeds (hWarSta-) and also evil deeds (duZWarSta-). A conference was held, after the defeat of DahAka, by the giants of the MAzańyan land526, as to turning to Xvaniraqa, and expelling Θraētaona therefrom, with a view to settle therein. They rushed in great number. On account of their tallness, the Vouru.kaCa Sea reached, in some place up to the middle of their thighs, in some other place up to the navel, and in the deeper place up to their mouth. When they came to this continent (Xvaniraqa), they subjected the poor (driGu-) to grievous harm (zyAni-) and smash (jaiDyAi). The people went to Θraētaona, with


mAnbed hAn be zad kE harWisp AtaSAn +rOstAgAn abAyed hAn mAnbed. Cf. Y 17.11 Atrvm WispanLm nmAnanLm nmAnO. paitIm: AtaS harWispIn mAn mAnbed. 524 ‫ ﻩ ﺻﻘﺎﻏﺎﺍ‬/+rOstAgAn/. Cf. FP 2 ‫ﻩﺻﻘﺎﻍ‬: ‫ﭘﺎﺕﺿﺖﻏﯽﺍ‬. 525

harW gyAg kU Oy be mad ‫ ﻏﺌﺌﻔﻞﺍ‬I az ‫ ﺋﺌﻔﻞﺍ‬andar Obast, u-SAn hAn I stabr

AtaS ‫ ﻏﺌﺌﻔﻞﺕﺍ‬pahrEz rAy. ‫ﻏﺌﺌﻔﻞﺍ‬

/AyEb/ ‘conflagration’, cf. ŠAbuhragAn 295-96 h˒n pd ˒wy ˒˒yb (˒c)yS

b˒ ˒wzyh˒[d]; or, /AsEb/ ‘injury; (flame of) calamity’. ‫ﺋﺌﻔﻞﺍ‬

/+sIz/ ‘danger, trouble’ (Av. iqyejah-), or, /dEb/ from *diHp ‘to light

up’. ‫ ﻏﺌﺌﻔﻞﺕﺍ‬/Ayift/, cf. Dk vii M 610 AtaS ped AyEbiSn abar Ayift ested, VZ 10.8 AtaS pediS abar Ayift, Dk iii M350 az XESmenIgIh Waran Ayift akaman-gArIh; Ayiftag-xESm ‘raging’, cf. ŠGV 14.9 ayAftaa xaSm. 526 mAzandarAn dehAn. Av. mAzańya- daEWa- ‘the giant daEva’, cf. Y 57.17 mAzańyaEibyO ... daEWaEibyO: mAzanIgAn dEWAn.


complaints527, and said: «Why did you smite AZi DahAka who was a good ruler (huxSaqra-) in the exercise of power [that is, he kept away fear], who was “investigator”528 and protected this continent from (the giants of) the MAzańyan land? » They also said about the villany of the giants who held in contempt the people of this continent. Then they said: «They are eared [that is, thay have ears]529, +horned [that is, they are holes]530, +endowed with speech [that is, they call one another]531, we think they are men (vĭra-) [we take them for the human beings]. » The meeting (haNjamana-) of Θraētaona with those of the MAzańyan land was held on the plain of PiSinah. He disputed with them thus: «O you of the MAzańyan land! I have smashed AZi DahAka who was the most agile (aurWO.tvma-) person, who was sovereign over both daEvas and men. Ahura MazdA


mardOmAn ped garziSn O frEdOn madan. Cf. AJ 4. WizustAr. Av. hazaMră.yaoxSti- ‘having a thousand faculties (of perception)’, an epithet of DahAka (and Miqra). Cf. Y 9.8 aZIm dahAkvm ... hazaMrA.yaoxStIm: az I dahAk I ... hazAr-WizustAr [I a-dAdag ped gOhrag]. AZ 3 hazaMrA.yaoxStyO baWAhi yaqa aZOiS dahAkAi: hazAr-WizustAr bed cOn dahAk [Wattar-dEn. Oy ped abArOnIh, aSmA ped frArOnIh bAd]. 529 gOSomand [kU-SAn ‫ ﯼﭘﯽﺍ‬ast]. Cf. Bd 21 caSmomand gOSomand uzWAnomand daxSagomand bUd gayOmard. 2 ‫ ﯼﭘﯽ ﺍ‬/karrag/ (Paz. xarg) from Av. karvna- ‘deaf’, cf. ŠGV 14.22; /karrag/ from Av. 1karvna- ‘ear’; /kalag/ (Fars. ‫‘ )ﮐﻠﻪ‬face’, cf. Dk vii M 659 528

frAz ped kalag jaWAnAn pIr pEdAg. 530 sUragomand [kU-SAn sUrag ast]. Pers. sUrag ‘hole’, sUragomand ‘holed’, cf. DD 17.4 Ek sag I sUragomand. We can also read sŭragomand ‘horned’, sŭr < *srU- ‘horn’, cf. Yt 14.7 zaranyO.srWahe ‘of a golden horned (bull)’, Arab. ‘horn (of an animal); horn (as a musical instrument)’. Cf. also Bd 150 (apropos of the mythical ass which stands in Vouru.kaCa) hAn Ek sruW zarrEn humAnAg sUrAgomand ‘that single golden horn is like a holed instrument (= suBrA- zaranaEnI-).’ 531 XAniSnomand [kU Ek Oy I did O XAnend]. Pers. XAn- renders Av. zbA ‘to call, invoke’.


produced me, and set me beyond other (material) creatures532, to smash him, and to defeat my own opponents. Then you come to smash my land (da?hu-), you who are of the MAzańyan land !» The giants thought lightly533 of Θraētaona, and said in a tone of mockery: «Supposing that you smashed AZi DahAka who was the most agile person, who was sovereign over both daEvas and men, and Ahura MazdA produced you for smashing him, and set you beyond other creatures, even then would we settle in this (place), and would we stay in this (place), and even so you are tall (bvrvzaNt-), much grown-up534, possessor of large cattle (pasu-/ staora-) and men (vIra-), (conversant with) discourses (uxDa-) (better) than any other, we would not admit you here!» Afterwards, the victorious535 Θraētaona retreated, and ran to the highest (place) of +PiSinah536. His nose blew forth537 [that is, he breathed out]. From his right nostril fell down snows –they were cold like winter, and (fatal) like the sharp edged “chase”538. While from his left nostril fell down stones –they were the size of a house539, blazing like fire, and (fatal) like the sharp-edged tarWEnIdAr az ‫ ﺓ ﻭﺻﺪﻏﻤﺪﻭ‬/anyAn dAmAn/, cf. Y 22.24 taraDAtO ańyAiS dAmLn: tarWEnIdArdom az anyAn dAmAn. 533 sabuk menId. Cf. Dk vi M 488 druz taromed ... daxSag En kU sabukmeniSn ‘the devil TarOmaiti (‘disdain’) ...its mark is this: light-mended.’ 534 Was-ArOyiSn rendering Av. *aS.raoDa-? 535 perOzgar rendering Av. Wvrvqrajan- (adj.) ‘obstruction-smashing’, an epithet of ΘraEtaona, cf. Yt 5.61. 536 bAlist I ‫ﻝﺋﻔﺪﻍ‬, cf. Dk ix M 805 abar ped bAlist I pEdAgdom. 532

‫ < ﻝﭘﺎﯼﺻﺖ ﺍ‬Av. fru, frava- (pres.) ‘to fly away’, frA-fru ‘to flap, flutter’, cf. Y 9.32. Cf. Also Dk viii M 729 fraWIdan I AtaS. 538 XEhiSn I burrAg I tEz. Pers. XEhiSn translates Av. WI- ‘pursuit, chase’, and, possibly, here vayah- ‘time (of death)’. Av. brOiqrO.taEZa- (adj.) is rendered by Pers. burrAg-tEz, cf. Y 57.31. 539 sag padId hend I ka ‫ ﺧﻞﺕﺍﺍ‬/+daft/ I kadag-mahA. Cf. Vd 19.4 asAnO zasta draZimnO katO.masaMhO hvNti: u-S sag ped dast dASt I kadag-mahA baWed. 537


“chase”. They casted their (evil) eyes on him540. But, the victorious and valiant Θraētaona541 bound them +beneath the feet of the bull BarvmAyaona542. He tossed them up in the air543, and made them in the shape of stone. He smashed them, those of the MAzańyan land by striking fifties, by striking hundreds, by striking thousands, by striking ten-thousands, by striking countless ones544. Thus he smote two thirds of those of the MAzańyan land, and one-third came (back) smashed and sick545. Never afterwards, O Spitama ZaraquStra, have they who are of the MAzańyan land marched upon this continent of Xvaniraqa, nor have thought haughtily this that «we shall go», except those whose names are SpitOiS UspLsnaoS and ƎrvzrAspahe UspLsnaoS, who will hurry in search of wisdom (*xratu.ISti-), to FraSaoStra of the HvOgva546. WahiStvm WohU astI aCvm. From the DEnkird vi: M 548 En-z pEdAg kU frEdOn az I dahAk Ozadan kAmist. ohrmazd guft kU-S mA +Ozan cE purr I En zamIg xrafstar 549 baWed. En-z pEdAg kU zarduSt ahOSIh XAst, ohrmazd guft ka tO nUn ahOS kunem fraSkird kirdan nE SAyed.


% ‫ﺧﻞﭘﻐﻔﺪﻍ ﺋﺌﭙﺎﺍ‬

/abar aS burd/. Cf. Dk vii M 620 ped abar-bariSnIh aS

burd. 541

perOzgar I tagIg frEdOn. Cf. Yt 5.61 Wvrvqrajl taxmO qraEtaonO. az (azEr?) pAy I gAW I guSn I barmAyOn. Cf. Yt 17.55 aDairi pADvm gVuS arSnO barvmAyaonahe. 543 u-S hAn ped ulIh ul-daWEnId. Cf. Yt 5.61 yaT dim usca uzdWLnayaT ... qraEtaonO. 544 ped panzAh-ganiSnIh ud E-sad-ganiSnIh ud E-hazAr-ganiSnIh ud bEWarganiSnIh ud amar-ganiSnIh. Cf. Vd 7.53. 545 Cf. Yt 5.21-22: HaoKyaMha sacrifices to AnAhitA and asks her to give him that boon so that he may strike two-thirds of the giant daEvas. 546 Cf. Dk vii M 648. 542


En-z pEdAg kU fraSkird zamAn rAy bUdan ka az I dahAk I EdOn margarzAn rAy ohrmazd guft kU-S mA +Ozan, ud zarduSt I EdOn Weh WirAstag baWed ahOS nE kird. ‘This too is revealed: (When) ΘraEtaona desired to kill AZi DahAka, Ahura MazdA said: «Do not kill him, for this earth may become full of creeping beasts. » This too is revealed: ZaraquStra demanded immortality. Ahura MazdA said: «If I make you immortal now, then it will not be possible to make the Renovation. » This too is revealed: It was on account of the happening of the time of the Renovation that Ahura MazdA said concerning AZi DahAka, who is worthy of death, thus: «Do not kill him!» and that He did not give immortality to ZaraquStra, who is so good and right.’

Ch. 21 VahiStA.IStiS (Y 53 ; Dk M 815-817). The best quest is (that of) the good religion (Wa$hI- daEnA)547. AESma (‘wrath’) once every night comes to the whole world, and BUSyLstA (‘putting things off for the future; lethargy’) twice, to corrupt and diminish it; SraoSa aCya (‘obedience/ readiness to listen, being in charge of rewards’) (comes) three times548, and Dahma Āfriti (‘qualified blessing’) four times549, to further and increase it –the most redeeming of the Yazatas is Dhama Āfriti. The most wonderful of shapes of women550 was HumAyA of the high-born seed551 daughter of VIStAspa; of horses the XSaEta 547

XAhiSnAn pahlom dEn I Weh. Cf. Y 53.1 WahiStA IStiS srAWI zaraquStrahE: pahlom-XAhiSnIh sraW I zarduSt [kU az hAn I Oh XAhend En pahlom abestAg ud zand]. Cf. also Vr 23.1. 548 Cf. Y 57.31, Bd 169. 549 Cf. Bd 157. 550 kerbAn abddom az nArIgAn. Cf. Yt 5.34 hvn-kvhrpa sraESta … abdOtvme. 551 humAy I AzAttOhmag. Cf. Yt 5.64 (about AnAhitA) kaininO … raEWaT ciqrvm AzAtayl. Cf. also AZ 77 ‫ ﻏﺮﻏﯽ‬/+humAy/ … kE andar ‫ ﻏﺮﻏﯽ‬/hamAg/ Sahr I erAn zan az Oy huzihrdar nEst.


horse552 of VIStAspa; of bulls the bull BarvmAyaona553; of sheep the ewe with spotted face554, ash-coloured555, with white jaws556, star-studded557, the +lower part with pinching members558 and gold-studded559, the upper part yellow560. And yet not one of them attains to a single thousandth of the Fortune of a dahma man (who accomplishes wonderfully religious deeds), who is truthful561, for whom the DahmLm va$hIm AfritIm562 is recited.


asp I SEd. Av. xSaEta- (adj. of colour), Pers. SEd; Fars. ‫ﮐﺮﻧﺪ ≈ ﺷﻴﺪ‬

‘sorrel’ (‫ ;)ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻗﻢ‬Armen. aSxEt dzi ariunagoyn ‘a xSaEta-horse blood-

coloured’. Cf. Dk vii M 639 hAn I abdIh I abar SEd I asp I WiStAspAn, Bd 120 fradom asp I arus I zardgOS I ‫ ﻓﺪﻏﺼﺖﺍﺟﺼﺪﻍ‬/SEd-+Wars/ I spEd-caSm frAz-brihEnId, hAn I ast rad. 553 gAW I guSn I barmAyOn. Cf. Yt 17.55 gVuS arSnO barvmAyaonahe. Cf. also Bd 120 fradom gAW I syA-mOy I zard-huSnOg (Av. hu-xSnaoqra-) dAd, hAn I ast gAWAn rad. BarvmAyaona was apparently ΘraEtaona’s brother, as mentioned in Bd 229. 554 ‫ ﻝﺟﻔﺪﻭﺧﺖﺝ‬/parS-Waxtar/? Av. parSu- (adj.) ‘spotted’, parSW-anika- (adj.) ‘with spotted face’, cf. Yt 14.15; Av. WaxvDra- (nt.) < *Waxqra- < *vak-tra‘speech organ’, Skt. vaktra- (nt.) ‘mouth, face, muzzle’. 555 ‫ ﺿﻞﺝ‬/+dabr/. Pers. dabr … mOy translates Av. harvtO … gaonanLm, cf. Vd 22.4. Av. daBrAmaESi- (pr. n. m.), Pers. dabr-gAW (pr. n. m., Arab. ،‫ﮐﺒﺮﮐﺎو‬ ‫)دﺑﺮه ﮐﺎو‬. 556 spEd-ErWArag < Av. *spaEtO.ha$harvna-. Cf. Bd 120 mES [I syAg] I dabr I spEd-ErWArag mESAn rad. 557 star-pEsId < Av. stvhr-paEsah- (adj.). 558 ‫ ﺧﻞﺟﺎﺛﺸﯽﺍ‬/+azEr-nEmag/ ped piSAdag. Cf. Yt 14.19 aDara.naEmAt piSatO. Pers. ‫ ﻝﻓــﺖﯼﺍ‬/piSAdag/ < *piSO° ‘pinching’ + aT.ka- (m.) ‘garment; member’ (≈ Skt. atka-). Cf. AVN 17.9 zan I jeh … piSAdag I frAz-SnOg I abAzgUn. 559 zarrEn-pEsId < Av. zaranyO.pis-/ °paEsa-. 560 abardar-nEmag zard. Av. upara.naEma- (adj.) is rendered by Pers. abardar-nEmag, cf. Vd 6.50; Av. zairita- (adj.) ‘tawny, yellow’ ≈ Pers. zard/ zerd, cf. Vd 8.16. 561 dahm mard I ahlO. Cf. Y 1.15 dahmaheca narS aCaonO. 562 = Y 60.


There is as much goodness (possessed) by the man and woman as wickedness (possessed) by the (bad) man and (bad) woman. 563 Kavi Usa(Da)n ruled, powerfully564, on the sevenfold earth, over the daEvas and men565; the execution of his commands was faster than a wave of the hands. He built seven houses in the midst of HarA bvrvzaitI, one of gold, two of silver, two of steel, and two of crystal.566 He restrained many giant daEvas (daEWa mAzańya) from spoiling the world of living beings, and bound them to their own duty.567 Any mortal man whose (vital) force (zAWar-) was overcome by old age568, whose life (breath)569 was near to depart from the body, he had to reach570 that house and be conveyed rapidly round that house, then the old age would leave him and his vital force and youth would return. Kavi Usan issued a command that: «Keep no man away at the gate, introduce him as a young of fifteen years! »571


En-z and-cand ped mard ud zan WehIh ped mar ud jeh WattarIh. Cf. Y 53.6 iqA I haiqyA narO aqA jVnayO: EdOn cOn ped hAn I harW do [tis I menOg ud gEtIg] ASkArag mard ud zan [ped WehIh EdOn jeh ud mar ped WattarIh]. 564 XadAyIh ped cErIh, cf. Yt 10.109 uGrvm xSaqrvm. Av. uGra-/ G ugra- is rendered by Pers. cEr, cf. F 9. 565 abar bUm I haft ped dEWAn mardOmAn, cf. Yt 19.26 paiti bUmIm haptaiqyLm daEWanLm maCyAnLmca. Cf. Yt 5.46. 566 Cf. Bd 209-210. 567 According to the YaSts HaoKyaMha subdued the giant daEvas. Cf. Yt 5.22, Yt 9.4, Yt 13.137. 568 zarmAn rendering Av. zaurWA- (f.)/ zaurvan- (m.). 569 gyAn rendering Av. uStAna- (m.). 570 ‫ ﻏﺼـﻞ ﺕﺍ‬/ayAft/. Pers. ‫ ﻏﺼـﻞ‬/ayAb-/ renders Av. Ap, apaya- (pres.) ‘to attain, reach’, cf. Y 57.29 apayeiNti: ‫ﻏﺼـﻞﺻﺖ‬. 571 Cf. Bd 210 u-S harW mizag xAnIg anOSag +Ab aziS tazed kE zarmAn tarWEned kU ka zarmAn-mard ped En dar andar SaWed aburnAy I pAnzdah sAlag ped hAn dar berOn Ayed ud margIh-iz be zad.


Afterwards, the daEvas planned the death (aoSah-) of Kavi Usan. AESma (‘wrath’) undertook his death, and came to Kavi Usan, and presented in his mind as modest that great sovereignty (xSaqra-) over the sevenfold earth by instigating him to desire for the sovereignty over the sky (asan-/ asman-), the place of the Holy Immortals.572 Owing to the delusion of AESma and the other demons who were his cohorts, Kavi Usan persisted in that improper work, and did not give up (his intention) even despite the responding argument of the Yazatas. He sped over beyond HarA BvrvzaitI with many daEvas and lieful men till the border of the darkness (= hell)573; on that limit (karana-), the Fortune of the Kavis (kaWaEm XarvnO) –which accompanied Kavi Usan –, in the shape of a bird of prey574 hastened away from the army (of Kavi Usan). But despite the superior argument of the Supreme Yazatas he persisted anew in his foolishness. Then the creator (dAtar-) called back the Fortune of the Kavis to himself. The army of the Kavi Usan fell down to the earth from that height, and Kavi Usan himself flew to the Vouru.kaCa sea.575 This also is said (in this chapter): After his +life flied NairyO.saMha, the furtherer of the world of living beings


Cf. Aog. 60. ‫ ﻝﺝ‬/par/ I tam. Pers. păr < Av. °pAra-, dUraE-pAra- (adj.) ‘with distant borders’ ; Khot. pAra- ‘boundary’ ; Pers. bAr, rOdebAr. Pers. tem/ tam < Av. tvmah- (nt.) ‘darkness’; Sogd. tam ‘hell’. 574 kayAn Xarrah ‫ ﺕ\ﻍ‬kerb bUd. In the FP 2 the word ‫ ﺕ\ﻍ‬is the Aramaic 573

TYN˒ /ṭInA/ ‘mud, clay’ representing Pers. gil ‘clay’. But it makes little sense

here. One might conjecture a reading TYR˒ /ṭairA/ ‘a bird, (esp.) a bird of prey’ (Syr. , Arab. ‫)ﻃﺎﺋﺮ‬. Cf. Yt 19.35 KusaT XarvnO … mvrvGahe kvhrpa WArvGnahe ‘the Fortune hastened away … in the shape of a bird of prey’. 575 Cf. Bd 212 andar XadAyIh I kayus, andar ham hazArag, dEWAn stahmag bUd hend … meniSn WiyAbAnEnId dA O kArezAr I asmAn Sud, sar-nigUn Obast, Xarrah aziS appAr bUd.


(WarvdaT.gaEqa-), and at the turning point of his +life576 (the fravaCi of) the unborn Haosravah cried out with a cry of an army of a thousand577: «Do not smite this (man), O NairyO.saMha, furtherer of the world! For if you smite this man, O NairyO.saMha, there will not then be found the +connection (with) the wise minister of the TUiryan (land)578; because owing to this man will be born one SyAWarSan by name, and owing to SyAWarSan I shall be born, who am Haosravah, who will make the very strong man579 of the TUiryan (land) (i.e., FraMrasyan) –who has more troops and armies – in need of men580 [that is, I will destroy his troops and armies], who will drive the ruler581 of the TUiryans far away. » With these words the fravaCi of Haosravah calmed NairyO.saMha, furtherer of the world; and owing to these [words], NairyO.saMha released him, and he became mortal [Kavi Usan].582 WahiStvm WohU aCvm astI.

ped WardiSn I hAn I Oy ‫( ﻏﺌﻔﺪﻍ‬J5 ‫ )ﺻـﺪﻭﺍ‬/+gyAn/. Cf. Y 71.15 ustvme urWaEse gayehe: dA O hAn I abdom WardiSn I gyAn … [… ped abdom WardiSn I gyAn …]. Cf. also Y 51.6. 577 EdOn O ham ‫ ﻏﺠﻐﻀﺖﺍ‬/+xrust?/ WAng cOn hAn I ‫ ﺧﻞﺟﯽﻭﯼﺍ‬/+hazAragAnag/ spAh. Cf. VZ 2.13 WAng … burd cOn hAn I hazAragAnag spAh. 578 ‫ ﺏﺍﻍ ﺍﺿﺪﻭ \ﺻﺖﻏﺞ‬dastWar I tUrAn. Pers. \ ‫ﺍﺿﺪﻭ‬, cf. also Dk ix M 903. 576



/WIrdom/ rendering Av. *WIrOtvma-; Skt. WIrá-tama-.

‫ ﺍﺧﺪﻏﺼﺪ\ﺍ ﺍﺋﺠﺼﺪﻍ‬/+nAyEn-WIrIh/. Pers. nAyEn-dahiSn (most Holy, opp. Ozomand) renders Av. nAidyah- (comp. of Adra-) ‘more lowly, weaker’, cf. Y 57.10 yaqa aojl nAidylMhvm ‘as a strong one (treats) a weaker one’ Z cOn Ozomand Oy I nAyEn-dahiSn. 581 pAdixSAy rendering Av. xSayamna- (adj.), cf. Y 65.14, F 5. 582 ped hAn [gObiSn] frAz hiSt ud hAn ped OSomand bUd [kayus]. The original words are found in the Zand of Vd 2.5 kayus rAy az hAn gyAg pEdAg: ahmi (aṃi) dim paiti fraMhvrvzaT ahmi (aṃi) hO baWaT aoSaMhl. 580


Ch. 22 Airyaman (A airyVmA iSyO Y 54.1; Dk M 817-818). Kavi Haosravah has a meeting with Vayah of long dominion583, at the moment of the approach of Renovation (fraSO.kvrviti-). Kavi Haosravah asks Vayah of long dominion about his having smitten so many of the ancients who had been supreme in dignity (Warvcah-) and Fortune (Xarvnah-) among men. And Vayah of long dominion replies him about his having smitten them. On that reply Kavi Haosravah seizes Vayah of long dominion, and changes him into the shape of a camel, mounts him, and goes along with the Aryan champions584 to the place where the immortal “HaoiSti” son of “Gvurva” lies down asleep585, and he raises him up. Then he goes with him to that place where the battle-driving Tusa586 lies asleep, and he raises him up. He goes with him to that place where Kavi Aipi.vohu lies, and he raises him up. He goes with all of them, and on the way he meets the beneficial victor [SaoSyaNt]587, and of him inquires the beneficial victor, thus: «What man are you who sit aloft on Vayah of long dominion [that is, you drive Vayah of long dominion] changed into the shape of a camel? » Kavi Haosravah tells SaoSyaNt in reply, thus: «I am Kavi Haosravah. » Then SaoSyaNt exalts Kavi Haosravah by praise, as regards his having dug up the idol-temple on the shore of lake 583

WAy I dagrand-XadAy. Av. vayah- (nt.) ‘duration; microcosmic time’, (m.) ‘personified age’; Skt. vayas- (nt.) ‘food, meal; vitality, strength; age’. Av. vay(i)- ≈ Arab. ‫أﺟﻞ‬. Cf. Ny 1.1 WayLn darvGO.XaDAtvm: WAy I dagrandXadAy. Aog. 77 WayOiS anamarZdikahe: WAy I anAmurzId. Cf. also DD 35.3. 584 erAn hanzamanIgAn. Pers. hanzamanIg renders Av. WyAxana- (adj.). 585 ،‫ ﮔﺈﺓﺭﺓﺓ!ﻥ‬،}‫ﻫﺎﺅ}ﺷﺖ‬. Cf. Yt 13.118 y(U)iStahe gaorayanahe (/ gAurWayanahe). 586 tus I ardIg-rAyEnIdAr. Cf. Yt 5.53 taxmO tusO raqaEStArO. 587 sUdomand I perOzgar sOSyAns. Cf. Y 26.10 saoSyaNtAT WvrvqraGnaT: sUdemand I perOzgar [sOSyAns]. Cf. also Y 59.28, VYt 30.


CaEcasta588, and his having smitten the wizard FraMrasyan589, and his having praised the Conscience of those who worship Ahura MazdA (daEnA- mAzdayasni-). Then, the powerful (hero)590 KvrvsAspa comes, with a mace in hand591, opposite them. The battle-conducting Tusa stands upon the wizard’s building (= the cavern of FraMrasyan)592, calling to KvrvsAspa for the profession of the faith of the GAqAs593, and for union with them. KvrvsAspa praises ACvm (i.e. he recites the ACvm VohU formula), and overthrows the hook which he has in his arm594. This also is said in this chapter as well as in other places: So these men meet for the fulfilment of the Renovation (of the existence), all are agile (aurWaNt-) and with supreme feats (upairi.kairya-), all are firm (taxma-) and beautiful (*naiva-), and they make the existence “excellent” (fraSa-), ageless, ‫( ﻭﭺﺍ ﺧﻞﻏﺞ‬J5 ‫ )ﻏﺎﭺﺛﺼﻞﻏﺞ‬/+uzdEsezAr/ abar bAr I War I cEcast. Cf. Yt 5.49 +paSne WarOiS caEcastahe. Cf. also Bd 125 kay-hOsrO uzdEszAr hamE kand, ŠEŠ 7 guzastak frAsyAk I tUr … uzdEszAr (ud) baSn pediS kird. According to Yt 5.41 the abode of FraMrasyan (haNkana, Pers. hang) was built inside the earth. Cf. also Bd 210, Aog 61Z. 589 jAdOg frAsyAb. The Av. epithet of FraMrasyan is mairya, cf. Yt 19.56, Yt 5.41, Y 11.7. 590 ‫ ﻏﺼﺖ ﺕﺍﺏ ﻭ ﻅ‬/had-taWAnIg/ < Av. *haDa.taWah- (adj.) ‘possessed of power’. 591 kersAsp gad-dast. Cf. Y 9.10 kvrvsAspasca … uparO.kairyO yaWa gaEsuS gaDaWarO. 592 abar I Oy ‫ ﺋﺼﻖ‬/+dEs/ jAdOg mAn be estAd. Pers.- Parth. dEsmAn 588

‘structure, building’, cf. M 100.709-10 (ky p)d (dy)sm[˒n] ˓ystyd. 593 AstaWAnIgIh I abar gAhAnIgIh. Cf. Y 45.2 nOiT daEnl: nE dEn [cE man dEn gAhAnIgIh ud tO jAdOgIh]. 594 abgandan I-S hAn I arm zadAr. Pers. arm < Av. ar(v)ma- (m.) ‘arm’. Pers. zadAr ‘smiter’ renders Av. 1aka- (adj.) ‘evil, bad’; but, here, it translates Av. 2aka- (m.) ‘hook’, cf. Yt 10.125 darvta hukvrvta upairispAtA aka bastLm xSaqrIm WairIm ‘the upairispAt attached to a metal aka which is solid and wellmade’.


immortal, un-decaying, not putrefying, ever-living, ever-lifegiving, and ruling at will.595 astI WahiStvm WohU aCvm.


harWisp arWand hend ud abargAr, harWisp tagIg hend ud nEW, ud aWESAn kunend fraSegird ped kAmag andar oxAn azarmAn ud amarg ud asOyiSn ud abOyiSn dA hamE-ud-hamE-raWiSnIh. Cf. Yt 19.11 yaT karvnaWLn fraSvm ahUm +azarvsvNtvm ×amarKvNtvm afriqyaNtvm apuyaNtvm yaWaEjIm yaWaEsUm WasO.xSaqrvm.


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