a330 Non Normals
Download a330 Non Normals...
A330 NON-NORMALS ENGINE-OUT APPROACH - Consider overweight landing - CAT 3 single with autothrust available - "CAT 3 DUAL" indicates on the PFD with APPR selected and the APU running, however the autoland equipment monitor does not observe everything that requires CAT 3 dual. The inop list still should say CAT 3 dual inoperative. - Landing distance x 1.1 (consult QRH 2.40) - Reverser inoperative (don't even select to interlock – may this change soon) - Manual thrust may be used as coordination with manual rudder is easier - A/THR is probably preferred. It may be unsatisfactory in gusty or turbulent conditions.. Vapp is VLS+5 (+ a further 3 kts for gear allowance), G/SPD mini varies. - If rudder trim is used, trim out on short final for correct sense of rudder when landing or for go-around. - CONF 3 (reset MCDU perf landing figure) - Delay gear down - especially if heavy, hot and high. Can run out of thrust on 1 engine when flying level and fully configured. CONFIG 2 and level flight, heavy-weight requires 80-90% N1 when not even hot. - @ half dot to go on G/S, call for gear down. AT G/S intercept call for FLAP 3 (final stage). A/THR will work out speed. Rudder trim will be automatically coordinated with AP engaged. - Consider gaining certain landing clearance if go-around is performance limited. ENGINE-OUT GO AROUND - Pitch is 12.5 deg - Neutralise B target for rudder input (slow and steady - FBW should take care of bank) - If speed goes below SRS, be careful about lowering the nose too much to regain SRS speed. V/S could easily go to negative – PNF calls “sink rate”. Monitor V/S as part of the instrument scan in the GA. - At engine-out acceleration altitude - select ALT and retract flaps on schedule. - Remember to call FMA – now do so after gear is up and a nav mode (NAV or HDG) is selected. This ensures that a nav mode is actually engaged. - Remember after takeoff checklist. CRM Aspects A timely PA to the cabin lets passengers and crew know that you are aware of, and in control of the problem. On diversion or return: - tell flight crew - tell ATC (fire services?) - tell cabin crew - tell passengers - tell company ENGINE DAMAGE INDICATIONS N1 and N2 windmill speeds, following a failure, are linked to TAS. It may happen that N2 is zero at low altitude and low IAS and N1 remains turning (larger surface area). This does not necessarily mean damage. Tests have shown N2 zero at 10,000’ and 20,000’ with IAS at 150 kts (very slow). This may occur at 3 minutes after shutdown (certainly not immediately). Engine damage is better observed by other indications: visual nacelle check high vibration (meters and airframe) high EGT with airframe vibration N1 = zero (seized main rotor) DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURE - A/P not available - F/D available - A/THR available (nothing hydraulic) - Manually fly the aircraft SLOW DOWN PF: "I have control, I have the radio" PNF: cancel any warnings and cautions Check navigation
- red.. mayday call and land as soon as possible - amber.. pan call and land without undue delay
Systems FLT LAW = alternate (many protections lost, eg. no speed protection) Some control surfaces lost (either fixed or floating.. worst case for controllability) "ECAM ACTIONS" The procedures are lengthy and take at least half an hour to follow and set up for the landing. Work through the whole ECAM process and when "ECAM actions complete" go to the "hydraulic summary CRUISE section and follow that procedure. The HYD SUMMARY page includes landing distance calculation and aids the decision to divert The increment to Vls is also determined from the summary. NOTE: use the yellow temporary revision page in the summary. MANUALLY INSERT THE APPROACH SPEED into the MCDU The HYDRAULIC ARCHITECTURE on page 5.02 shows what is still available with certain system losses. When briefing the approach, use the QRH HYD summary (landing & GA) and the STATUS page to talk about what is to come in the approach and landing phase. Speeds (QRH 2.40) RAT only useful above 140 kts. Above this speed the controls still move slower due to less hydraulic pressure (2500 psi). The approach speed is increased due to limited control deflection/effectiveness. Better handling results. The speed increment to Vls is 15-30 kts depending on flap configuration (at loss and also what you can extend). Also lost: - antiskid and nosewheel steering - partial spoilers Handling & Holding - continuous control input required - manoeuvre with care - if the ailerons are off-centre then consider use of rudder trim - easier to maintain control with small pitch and bank angles. This also eases the load on the hydraulic system - if holding, ask for 3 minute patterns (check above MSA); less turns, less workload - configure when straight and level. In turns the Vls come up and could get a nuisance stall warning - hold at an approach fix so when ready for the approach you can configure and get straight into it. Go Around - Status page states use SLAT/FLAP jammed procedure - the hydraulic summary states to maintain slats/flap configuration, therefore landing with slat/flap jammed procedure is not required. - the gear will not retract (if green system lost) BLUE and YELLOW System Loss - THS not available; trim is locked in the current position (possibly flare early or flare more) if trim setting greater than 8 then max speed is 180 kts (not enough forward elevator pressure to maintain descent or fly level) - autotrim operates by deflecting actual elevators - park brake may not be available due loss of accumulator (checks required at stop) GREEN & YELLOW System Loss - no autobrakes - alternate (blue) brakes only with antiskid - no NWS - slats slow - no flaps - no yaw damper - single elevator - gravity gear extension only - RAT MAN ON (should auto-deploy with G & Y LO LVL) >140 kts and 2500 psi system - do not use speedbrake GREEN & BLUE System Loss - no autobrakes - no slats
“ABNORM” (NOV 07) NOT AN OFFICIAL DOCUMENT PAGE 1
- flaps slow - single elevator - no brakes - only accumulator - max 7 applications - no antiskid so max brake pedal pressure 1,000 psi - spoilers 4 & 6 only - RAT MAN ON (should auto-deploy with G & B LO LVL) >140 kts and 2500 psi system - do not use speedbrake - park brake may be inoperative due lost accumulator pressure System Recovery Some systems may be recoverable at the approach phase. - If OVHT or RSVR LO AIR PR was the initial condition and the OVHT light is now out or the reservoir pressure had restored, the hydraulic pump may be turned back on. Other Systems - GPWS system is turned off due to unusual flap configuration - if 1 green pump fails, the other can pressurise the whole system - the yellow electric pump runs with an engine failure at takeoff to ensure the flaps retract properly. It runs continuously provided the green elec pump is not running for gear retraction. (the paper checklist adds to turn it off) - the electric pumps are only 18% the flow capacity of the engine pumps. They assist to retract surfaces but cannot replace the EDPs System Sources FLAPS SLATS Normal brakes Alternate brakes & park brake RUDDER LH ELEVATOR RH ELEVATOR Pitch Trim 1 Y Pitch Trim 2 B Landing Gear G NWS G
G &Y G&B G B GYB G&B G&Y
Decision Process Control aircraft - FLY & NAVIGATE Confirm problem Checklist Decision AFOTW, ETOPS + commercial Communication - Flight Crew - ATC - Cabin Crew - Passengers - Company UNANNUNCIATED CHECKLISTS EMERGENCY ELEC EMER CONFIG & SUMMARY SMOKE/TOXIC FUMES REMOVAL SMOKE/AVIONICS SMOKE DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURE SUMMARY LOSS OF BRAKING EGPWS ALERTS TCAS WARNINGS ALL ENG FLAME OUT DITCHING EMER DESCENT FORCED LANDING ON GROUND EMER/EVACUATION ABNORMAL MCDU FAILURE COCKPIT DOOR FAULT RUDDER JAM/RUDDER PEDAL JAM RUDDER RUNAWAY TRIM LANDING WITH SLATS/FLAPS JAMMED NO FLAPS NO SLATS LANDING LOW ENERGY WARNING FUEL LEAK GRAVITY FUEL FEEDING FUEL IMBALANCE TRIM TANK FUEL UNUSABLE
DOUBLE PROBE HEAT FAILURE DISPLAY UNIT FAILURE ECAM SINGLE DISPLAY DISPLAY DISCREPANCY L/G GRAVITY EXTENSION LANDING WITH ABNORMAL L/G RESIDUAL BRAKING PROC IR ALIGNMENT IN ATT MODE FM/GPS POS DISAGREE ADR 1+2+3 FAULT ADR DISAGREE/ADR CHECK PROC UNRELIABLE SPEED INDICATION DUAL BLEED FAULT ENG RELIGHT IN FLIGHT ENG STALL ENG HIGH VIBRATION ENG TAILPIPE FIRE OVERWEIGHT LANDING COCKPIT WINDSHIELD /WINDOW CRACKED VOLCANIC ASH ENCOUNTER BOMB ON BOARD RESET OF COMPUTERS ECAM ADVISORY CONDITIONS Vapp DETERMINATION LDG CONF/APP SPD/LDG DIST FOLLOWING FAILURES FCU FAILURE ECAM message is AUTO FLT FCU FAULT Autopilots (including FDs) and autothrust may be lost depending on the failure. Total loss of FCU Baro ref STD is only available therefore a pilot correction to altitude must be made (30’ per hPa). The STBY altimeter and baro reference will still be available. * All FCU selections are lost * SPEED SEL flag is displayed on the PFD * ALT SEL flag is displayed on the PFD * CAT 1 can still be performed manually Default displays are: * PFD with ILS * track/FPA is also lost * ND with 80 nm scale range * ND weather radar is lost (WXR RANGE flag displayed on ND) * Needle 1 is VOR 1 * Needle 2 is ADF 2 Note: DDRMI selections are not affected In Practice * the BIRD comes on automatically (supplied by IRs) * the green track diamond on the PFD is still available (supplied by IRs) * there is no blue track line on the PFD when the FDs are turned off * there is no speed bug so speeds are manually flown by reference to the IAS tape * there is no altitude box on the PFD * there is no track or heading bugs available * green dot, F and S speeds are still available from the FMGEC Some of these may be available with only partial loss of FCU. Consider FCU R/B for reset DUAL RA FAILURE System Information * GPWS inoperative - switch OFF * Lost CAT II / III - CAT 1 single available only and manual landing * Both PFDs will have a red RA flag * Lost autocallouts - “1000”, “500”, “50”, “30”, “10”, “RETARD” * “hundred above” and “minima” callouts remain as these are off the pressure altimeter * No flight director approach to CAT ceiling OK but must increase visibility minima to 1200m * APPR unable to be selected, therefore a raw data approach is required * AP (and FDs) not available in APPR mode but available in other modes (procedurally) down to 500’ * LOC mode is available down to 400’. Below 400’ the AP and/or FDs guide for overcontrol in roll * When gear down and AP disconnected the pitch law reverts to “FLARE LAW” (damped direct law with no autotrim)
“ABNORM” (NOV 07) NOT AN OFFICIAL DOCUMENT PAGE 2
* Roll mode remains normal law * With flap selection will get a nuisance GPWS “gear not down warning” cancel and clear. How To Fly It * Use the autopilot in LOC / FPA mode. * Establish full landing configuration with AP engaged (trim still occurs) * Disconnect the autopilot when visual - nominally at 800’ AGL (by altimeter) * Select FDs OFF and BIRD ON * Fly the remainder of the ILS in raw data and manually trim if necessary (generally not required) * PNF cannot call “radalt alive” * PF calls “1000”, “500 stable”, “100”, “50”, “30” and if necessary “RETARD”. These calls are made off the pressure altimeter, adjusted for elevation. They assume that the QNH is correct * The PF conducts the flare primarily by visual reference as the QNHbased calls from the PF may not be accurate COMING OUT OF TOGA LK - move the thrust levers so that doughnut = actual thrust - disengage the autothrust (instinctive disengage p/b) - engage autothrust - move the thrust levers to the CLB detent DUAL FMGEC FAILURE
RESETTING FMGECS (3.04.24 P2) Supplementary Tech - electrical The system will automatically attempt some form of FMGEC reset and resync. It is recommended to use the FMGEC R/B rather than the FM R/B (reset button) Ensure the APs are disconnected prior the reset and reset BOTH FMGECs (left and right side of o/head panel) If one FMGEC is recovered. Deselect NAV backup function on all RMPs so that AUTO tuning is restored to the MCDU RAD/NAV page. GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM EGPWS CAUTION During night or IMC conditions, apply the procedure immediately. Do not delay reaction for diagnosis. During daylight VMC conditions, with terrain obstacles clearly in sight, the alert may be considered cautionary. Take positive corrective action until the alert ceases, or a safe trajectory is ensured. + "PULL UP" - "TERRAIN TERRAIN PULL UP" - "TERRAIN AHEAD PULL UP" Simultaneously :
FMGEC COMPONENTS * Flight Management (FM) Navigation Flight Planning Performance * Flight Guidance (FG) AP FD A/THR * Flight Envelope (FE) VLS and VMAX computation Aft CG monitoring Windshear detection * Fault Identification and Display Systems (FIDS) - maintenance use only FAILURE MODES Parts of the FMGEC may fail or it may fail completely. Inoperative systems are displayed on ECAM and may include: * AP 1 & 2 (only lost if FG function is lost) * FD 1 & 2 (turn them off!) * A/THR (THR LK indication on PFD) * VLS & VMAX on PFDs * FM functions on MCDU (including landing elevation feed to CPCs) * GPWS Terrain function ALTERNATIVE METHODS * FPV is available (provided by the IRs) * Selected modes available * Navaid tuning is conducted through the RMPs * NAV backup mode may be available in the MCDUs (the FM SOURCE Switch must be in NORM) * A reset of the FMGECs may be available * Landing elevation is set manually by the knob on the overhead panel (take out of detent and set landing elevation (the figures are in thousands of feet, not hundreds) * ILS CAT 1 available NAV BACKUP MODE Stores the existing flight plan in the MCDU. Gathers the aircraft position from the onside IR. The only functions available are; - DIR TO - F-PLN - PROG The flight plan still sequences. Any new waypoints must be entered as a lat/long.
- AP ……………………..…. OFF - PITCH ……………….…… PULL UP Pull up to full backstick and maintain. - THRUST LEVERS ……… TOGA - SPEEDBRAKE LEVER … CHECK RETRACTED - BANK ………………….… WINGS LEVEL or adjust For "TERRAIN AHEAD PULL UP" only, in addition to climbing, a if the crew concludes that turning is the safest way of action, a turning manoeuvre can be initiated. * When flight path is safe, and GPWS warning ceases : Decrease pitch attitude and accelerate. * When speed is above VLS, and vertical speed is positive : Clean up aircraft as required. + "TERRAIN TERRAIN" - "TOO LOW TERRAIN" : Adjust the flight path, or initiate a go-around. + "TERRAIN AHEAD" : adjust the flight path. Stop descent. Climb and/or turn as necessary based on analysis of all available instruments and information. + "SINK RATE" "DON'T SINK" : Adjust pitch attitude, and thrust to silence the alert. + "TO LOW GEAR" - "TOO LOW FLAPS" : Correct the configuration, or perform a go-around. + "GLIDESLOPE" : Establish the aeroplane on the glideslope, or switch OFF the G/S mode pushbutton, if flight below the glideslope is intentional (non precision approach) FAM STUFF Crew immediately: - acknowledge alert - correct flight path or configuration to eliminate the cause of the alert. “terrain terrain pull-up” and “whoop whoop pull-up”. PF immediately take over controls and execute the recovery manoeuvre. (if S/O is PF, pilot on watch takeover and execute manoeuvre). Only if: DAY VMC and it is immediately obvious to the PF that the aircraft is not in a dangerous situation can the aircraft continue without the recovery manoeuvre. Recover to MSA, LSALT with maximum climb gradient unless the cause of the warning has been identified and the warning ceases.
“ABNORM” (NOV 07) NOT AN OFFICIAL DOCUMENT PAGE 3
MANUAL ENGINE STARTING See FCOM “SUPPL TECH” procedures. Manual engine start is recommended over automatic engine start (even when auto start is functional) when: * after an aborted start because of engine stall, Engine EGT overlimit, low starter pressure. * expecting an aborted start due to degraded bleed performance - hot or high airfield, engine with reduced EGT margin - hot or high airfield, marginal performance of external pneumatic air. FADEC passively monitors: - engine parameters FADEC controls: - high EGT start abort - ignition - start valve cutout (after start) Other procedures available: * Starting with external pneumatic power * Cross bleed start * Start Valve manual operation (ground crew) * Engine start on batteries (with external air) With an autostart and EGT approaching limit, the FADEC will stop fuel into the engine well before the limit (750°) is reached. After a short delay the less is introduced (7% less). If there is a further abort, 7% less fuel again is introduced. The FADEC autostart gives up after 3 attempts to start the engine. A manual start is then required procedurally. COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE * Check correct frequency * Check RMP settings * Check ACP settings * Try hand mic and speaker up * Try another comm. Set (eg. VHF 2 or 3, HF, SATCOM or CPDLC/ADS link) * Try relay with other aircraft on 121.5 or via company on ACARS * Full communications is unlikely but if so: - monitor 121.5, navaids for voice – eg. VOR, NDB - squawk 7600 - non-radar environment: maintain speed and level for at least 20 minutes - radar environment: maintain speed and level for at least 7 minutes - proceed as per flightplan and land ….(TBC) TAILPIPE FIRE On the ground. It is not an “engine fire” so the engine fire extinguisher is strictly not used (this does not go through the core of the engine). A tailpipe fire comes from the core. Fuel is removed from the engine with the ENG MASTER SWITCH. If the ENG FIRE pushbutton is used -the FADEC will become unpowered and the engine will not be able to be cranked. PROCEDURAL ELEMENTS - ENG MASTER switch OFF - ensure a bleed source (other engine or APU bleed). If neither, airport fire services must attend promptly or the engineer can use a portable fire extinguisher. - crank the engine (ENG START SEL to CRANK and MAN START P/B ON). When N2 below 30% Note: this procedure is in the QRH “ABNORMALS” not the emergency section.
“ABNORM” (NOV 07) NOT AN OFFICIAL DOCUMENT PAGE 4