A roulette betting strategy
Descripción: A roulette betting strategy....
All right reserved. Copyright 2003 C. L. Woodfaulk a.k.a Roulette Queen
Dear Fellow Roulette Player, I know you’re ready to get started so I’m going to try to make this as short and to the point as possible. The key to the 35-to-5 system is repeat numbers, specifically any repeat number in a series of 13 spins. The benefits of this system include NO charting, a mild progression with predominantly flat bets, and fairly low bankroll requirements. The only thing you need when you go to the casino is your bankroll, the betting chart for the European or American wheel, and your concentration. Get ready for something new, fresh, and exciting. This is something you have never seen and it’s truly amazing how it works. Ready?
THE SYSTEM Instead of giving you a bunch of rules to follow, I will demonstrate how this system works by using a series of examples. I will highlight important rules in red as we work the examples. Please pay close attention as every word counts. First, print out the Roulette Wheel Charts on page 11. Each wheel chart has three columns, which read top to bottom. Okay, here is a quick overview of how the system works. You will only be looking at the most recent 13 numbers to hit on the marquee. Starting with the oldest number, you will work your way up (or down) the more recent numbers looking for a repeat (any number that has hit at least twice). You will locate that pivot number on the chart (the key to this system) for whichever wheel you are playing, check the five number combo of this number and verify that 3 out of 5 numbers in that combination have show in the last 13 spins and play that five number combo. You will always be playing five numbers for a series of 10 bets or less according to Figure 1 below. Note that the numbers on the chart are not numbers that are consecutive to each other on the roulette wheel or on the table layout. Don’t try to figure out how the charts were developed, you’ll give yourself a brain cramp. This may sound confusing, but it’s very easy as you’ll see in the examples below. In the event that the pivot number is at the top or bottom of the column, play the pivot number plus the four numbers below or above it. If the pivot number is 2nd from the top, play the pivot number plus the one number above it and the three numbers below it. If the pivot number is 2nd from the bottom, play the pivot number plus the one number below it and the three numbers above it. Lastly, you need to make sure the pivot number combo you are playing has not already hit! If so, wait for the next repeater. Figure 1 Betting Series – Memorize this betting progression 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 – table with $5 inside bet minimum– Bankroll $65 2
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 – tale with $10 minimum inside bet – Bankroll $130 For example, if playing on a table with a $5 inside bet minimum, you will play 1 unit ($1) per number totaling a $5 bet. You will play this for the first seven bets, and 2 units per number (total bet of $10) for the last three bets; double it for a $10 minimum table (start with $2 per number). It is highly recommended to take double to triple the minimum bankroll in the event you have a losing session before reaching the goal of +40 units. I don’t recommend going for too much higher than +40 units per setting. In any case, even if you do have a loss it will be $65 or less on the $5 minimum table, $130 or less for the $10 minimum table. Table Selection: Avoid slow spinning dealers. Test the table before playing by just watching the first play or so to make sure the table is “hitting”. Okay, time for some examples. Our first set of games is taken from the book Spin Roulette Gold page 153. Example Game 1 is taken from the first column on that page. For the sake of simplicity, we will consider the top number to be most recent. The 20 numbers are as follows: 29 17 00 2 9 13 8 19 17 13 17 12 9 4 9 7 35 21 19 20
For illustration purposes, we will assume that the first 13 numbers end at the underlined number, meaning the top number is the most recent and the last number is the oldest. Since the top number is the most recent, the 13th number is older, this is where we will start looking for repeaters. The 13th number as shown is #9. We will work our way back, number-by-number, looking for a match. We find another #9 eight numbers back. This is our pivot number. By the way, it’s up to you if you want to take a notebook and jot down the numbers as they hit so you can locate the repeaters easier but its not necessary after you’ve had some practice. We now look on our chart, in this case the American Roulette wheel chart and locate our pivot number, in this case #9. It is the fifth number in the second column. We now play the two numbers above it and the two numbers below it, for a total bet of five numbers. The two numbers above it are 4 & 7 and the two numbers below it are 11 & 14. NOW, we need to verify that another one of these numbers, including the pivot number itself, has also shown. In this case, we do not have another occurrence of 4, 7, 9, 11 or 14; so we keep looking. The next number to show is 4. NOW we have three of the five numbers from this combination showing: they are, 4, 9 and 9 as highlighted. According to our rule, we will play the numbers 4, 7, 9, 11 and 14 for up to 10 bets according to the progression above. We place 1 unit on each of the five numbers (4, 7, 9, 11, 14). Our next number is 9, so we hit on our first bet, and are now up +31 units. At this point, we continue on until we have another repeater. Our next pivot number is 19 as it occurs twice in the last 13 spins AND has another one of the combo numbers showing with the #21, as highlighted in green. According to the chart, you would then play 16, 18, 19, 21 and 25 for up to 10 bets using our betting progression.
Example Game 2: Now you have the general idea of what we’re looking at here. All we do is make sure that 3 out of 5 numbers in a combo have shown within the last 13 spins, using a repeat number as the indicator that a section of the wheel is trending!!! Lets go to our next example game in column 2 of page 166. The numbers are as follows: 12 15 19 6 33 11 22 22 35 26 18 34 25 25 25 36 15 0 00 13
Working our way up from the oldest 13th number, 25, we look back and notice there are no other hits on this number. We look from 34 up and, again, no repeat. We do the same for 18, 26, and 35. We notice our first repeat on the number 22. We now locate the #22 on our chart, and play the two numbers above and below it. It is found in the first column. The two numbers above it are 15 and 17 and the two numbers below are 24 and 27. We also note that the #15, which is a number in our combo, has also shown giving us the three numbers we need as a signal to start wagering. So we will play the numbers 15, 17, 22, 24 and 27 for a series of only 5 bets. We are only playing for 5 bets instead of 10 because five numbers have already been spun since our last repeater. And of those 5 numbers, none of our numbers have shown (so it has not hit already). We get a hit on our 4th bet with the number 15. The benefit of this is that we got a hit on the fourth bet (+16 units), rather than the ninth bet. And if we had lost, we would have only lost 25 units instead of 65. Important: Also don’t play the same pivot number twice in a row. So in this case we would not play off the #22 twice in a row. We now continue looking until our next opportunity.
If you have the Spin Roulette Gold book, you’ll notice I skipped the first, third and sixth columns on the page as they are inconclusive, as there are not enough numbers to complete the betting series.
Example Game 3: So we now go to the fourth column for our next example, still page 166. The numbers are:
8 19 30 10 3 19 28 13 4 4 13 33 16 27 30 13 24 28 17 16
Working our way up from the 13th number, 16, we look back and notice there are no other hits on this number. We look from 33 up and, again, no repeat. We do the same for 13 and we notice a repeat three spins up. Then we locate the #13 on our chart, and play the two numbers above and below it. It is found in the first column. The two numbers above it are 3 and 5 and the two numbers below are 15 and 17. We note that the #3 has also shown, giving us the three numbers we need to proceed. So we will play the number 3, 5, 13, 15 and 17 for a series of only 8 bets! We are only playing for 8 bets instead of 10 because 2 numbers have already been spun since our repeater (33 and 16). And of those two numbers, none of our numbers have shown (so it has not hit already). We get a hit on our 3rd bet with the number 13. The benefit of this is that we got a hit on the third bet (+21 units), rather than the fifth. Note: The only time you will play for less than 10 bets is when you first start a game/session. Note that even though the #4 repeated, it did not have a third number from its combination appear, thus not confirming our selection. We now continue on from where we won, waiting for another repeat number. Our next play would be on the pivot number #28. You would play the combo of 20, 23, 26, 28 and 30 for up to 10 bets.
Example Game 4 (Column 5): 7 32 31 33 26 In this example we start with the #34, which is not a repeater. Neither 7 is the next number 30. The third number, #7, has shown three times in the 16 last 13 numbers BUT we do not use it as out pivot number as technically it 4 has already hit! That is because the #4, showing twice, is one of the 5 numbers in the five number combo for the number seven. So, again, it has 4 already hit. Even though the combo does hit again, we don’t want to take the chance that the trend is changing and this section is finished. To simplify, 7 you can look at it this way, if four or more of the numbers in a combination 30 are showing within the last 13 spins, then you do not bet. Note: One of the 34 common questions I receive is, “If the trigger is 3 out of 5 numbers in 36 the set, can the 3 numbers be all the same?” The answer is YES, the 23 pivot number can be the same number and is a great sign to play the 5 14 number combo if a number appears three times! 17 9 5
Example Game 5 (Column 7): 25 16 14 20 27 0 19 5 6 24 32 4 16 0 0 14 32 25 12 22
I’m going to move a little faster on this one. In this example we start with the #16, which is our pivot number. So we play the five number combo of 10, 12, 16, 18 and 19. We will play up to 10 bets since no numbers have been spun. We get a hit on our 6th bet on the #12! We win 6 units on the 6th bet. We now continue on from where we won, waiting for another repeat number within the last 13 numbers spun. We cannot go back and use zero as a pivot number, as its combo of 0, 2, 4, 7 and 9 has already hit!
The next example is taken from Spin Roulette Gold page 167, fourth column in second half of page. The numbers are:
1 11 26 27 27 34 29 16 5 26 32 24 14 15 2 22 33 34 4
In this example we start with the #14, which is not a repeater. Although the #26 has repeated, it does not have a third number showing from its combo, so it is not a valid pivot number. We get our pivot number with the #27, because three numbers of its combo is showing within the last 13 spins. Because one number has already been spun, (14), we will only play for a series of 9 bets. According to the chart, we play the numbers 22, 24, 27, 32 and 34 for the next 9 bets. As you see, we win with the #22 on our third bet! Damn, we’re good! Note: We cannot use #34 as the next pivot number because it has already hit as four of its combo numbers have shown within the last 13 numbers including the #24.
12 Now that you have the general idea, we will play one long game. This time we will use the European Roulette Wheel. These numbers are taken from the German Spielbank Hamburg website, September 16, 2003. The numbers are: 7 4 0 17 22 31 18 25 5 11 7 27 26 11 5 0 +21 6 10 28 4 13 1 29 8 2 32 17 36 18 32
34 +52 14 33 14 25 7 23 22 20 21 1 8 19 9 13 34 23 8 34 23 +73 8 34 18 34 +99 8 5 +130 20 34 1 4
8 32 23 26 9 22 6 6 30 8 5 13 24 26 20 19 16 17 24 28 +136 28 19 34 36 24 14 28 +142 2 33 33
13 26 4 28 31 21 1 17 14 11 8 11 7 32 7 2 19 16 30 29 24 6 31 18 36 13 13 15+173 2 19
33 12 9 7 26 22 25 30 21 36 21 26 33 34 4 22 +189 36 17 24 27 21 27 27 31 7 30 10 30 25 32
7 24 9 20 +195 14 13 0 36 26 29 24 5 19 36 1 30 +206 19 17 19 19 1 20 5 11 19 27 31 13 35 30
25 19 32 10 7 4 31 14 1 32 28 27 32 8 11 34 24 16 15 13 1 6 31 26 22 34 7 6 15 5
13 18 0 17 26 18 13 34 22 5 25 31 22 28 11 35 10
Note that I highlight the pivot number combination we are playing and put the running total of units won or loss next to the winning/losing number. Purple highlighting is used to show numbers that have already hit, and therefore we do not play them. The numbers read top to bottom. Print out the page above to ease following along with the explanation below. Okay, we start the game as usual. We look at the first 13 numbers which end with #26. Starting at #26 we work our way back, number by number, looking for another 26, which we do not find. We now go to the next number, #27, and do the same thing, looking back number by number for a repeat, which there is not. We now get to #7. Looking back we find a repeat at the very beginning thus #7 qualifies as our repeat number. We now locate the #7 on our European Roulette Wheel chart in the first column. We play the two numbers above and below it as listed on the chart, so we will be playing the following five numbers: 0, 3, 7, 9 and 12. We will only be playing these numbers for a series of 8 bets. This is because two numbers have already hit (27 and 26) since our pivot number. We also note that 27 and 26 are not winning numbers of our pivot #7 (so it did not hit yet). Our next three numbers to win are 11, 5, and 0. We get a win on our third bet and now are up +21 units as indicated. Now we continue on looking for our next play. Our next number is 6. Starting at #6 we work our way back, number by number, of the last 13 numbers to hit looking for another 6, which we do not find. We now go to the next number, #10, and do the same thing, looking back at the last 13 numbers, number by number for a repeat, which there is not. We don’t get one until we get to the second #32 at the end of the first column. According to our betting chart, we find #32 in the third column surrounded by the numbers 25, 27, 34 and 36. So our betting selection looks like this: 25, 27, 32, 34 and 36. We will play these for a maximum of 10 bets. The very next number to hit is #34, winning us another 31 units bringing out total win thus far to +52 units (+104 on $10 table). We now continue on with the next number to hit, which is #14. We note there are no repeats of this number in the last 13 numbers to hit. We go to the next number, #33, and again no repeat. But we get a repeat of the #14 on the next spin, but it doesn’t have a third number showing from its combo. We get a play on the #23 and thus play: 16, 20, 23, 24 and 30 for up to 10 bets. We get a win on our third bet with the #23, bringing out net win up to +73 (52 + 21). Starting with the next number, 21, we go back 13 looking for a repeat. We get our next one with the #34. Note that the #8 could not be used as it has already hit, as highlighted in purple. We now play 25, 27, 32, 34 and36 according to the chart. We get a hit on our second bet with the pivot number, #34. We are now up to +99 units. Our next number is 8, and looking back this number has hit twice before within the last 13 numbers and qualifies as our pivot number. According to our chart we now play the five number combo of 1, 5, 8, 10 and 11. We hit on the first bet, #5, and win another 31 units and we are now at +130 units or dollars. Our next number is #34 and is a repeat, but it has already hit. Again the #8 appears, but following our rule, WE DO NOT PLAY THE SAME PIVOT NUMBER TWICE IN A ROW. We don’t get another play until the double 26’s appear in the third column above. We now play the pivot number of 26, which is the five number combo of 18, 22, 26, 28 and 29. We get a hit on our sixth bet winning +6 units and this brings our total winnings up to +136. Our next number is 28 and is a repeater AND including the #26 qualifies as a pivot number, which we CAN play because it does not break our rule about playing the same pivot number twice. It does not matter that we hit on this number, as long as it was the pivot number in our last game. We now play 22, 26, 28, 29 and 31 for up to 10 bets. This time we get a win with our sixth bet on the pivot number itself, #28. We win 6 units bringing us to +142 as noted. The double 33s do not qualify as the combo has already hit multiple times with the numbers 28. The #28 does not qualify, again, because we do not play the same pivot number twice in a row.
We don’t get another qualifying pivot number again until the #13. We win on our first bet, #15, which brings us up to +173. By the way, if you haven’t quit yet, this might be a good time to call it an evening. DON’T PUSH YOUR LUCK. But for the sake of illustration, let’s continue just to see what happens. We’re now going to move faster as you should have the hang of it. Our next play comes on the #26, which hits on the fourth bet, #22, and we are no up to +189. Our next play occurs with the #21, in which we play the five number combo of 17, 19, 21, 25 and 27 for up to 10 bets. We get a hit with the #17 on our seventh bet and are now up to +198. Our next play is with the #30 (note we did not play #21 because it has already hit with the #17; we do not play the #27 because it has hit with the #34) and we win on the sixth bet, bringing our running total to +195. We now play the pivot number of 24 (16, 20, 23, 24 and 30 according to our rule) and get a hit on the #30 bringing us up to +206. This is where I’ll stop. Play the rest of the numbers on your own for practice. There are many more winners. NOTICE, THIS SYSTEM ALSO WORKS WELL IF YOU USE THE LAST 10 NUMBERS ONLY, rather than 13. As you can see, if we were to stop our play at this point, we would win over $200 on a $5 table and $412 had we been betting on a $10 table. You play exactly the same on an American wheel. Also make sure to set a win goal (i.e. +40 units) and loss limit (i.e. -95 units). Again, a $5 minimum table refers to a table where you can play $1 per number on five different numbers on the inside, thus a minimum bet of $5; a $10 minimum table is a table where you have to play $2 per number to make a minimum $10 bet. ADVANCED PLAY: In addition, to increase your chance of winning, you can play 2 pivot numbers at once as you see them show, provided you have the bankroll and expertise. It can get confusing, but it works well as sometimes the one number you’re playing doesn’t hit but the other pivot number does! ALSO, if you’re really good, you can memorize the combinations and if you notice any three numbers of any combo showing within the last 13 spins (repeater or not) you can play that combo. This way you’ll get more chances to play. Take a look at the above sample numbers again and you’ll see what I mean!
The above game was a pretty good run. In my worst game to date, I would win, lose, win, and lose; alternating back and forth and yet my total loss was still only my initial bankroll of 65 units (playing a $5 table). With other systems I would normally lose hundreds. This system is designed to protect you from large losses. If you get into a situation where you win, lose, lose, win, lose, etc. then your personal win goal and loss limit will protect you. In this case, since my personal win goal is +40 and loss limit -95, I would continue until I get either +40 or -95. If it’s a particularly rough run I stop at ANY point where I have a profit and take a break. Remember NO ONE wins 100% of the time. Your goal is to get about +40 units and take a break. Sometimes you will do this quickly; other times it will take a little longer due to losses. One of the worst runs can be found on the Spielbank Hamburg website (http://www.spielbankhamburg.de/spielsaal/permanenzen.php4), 01 January 2000. I suggest you play that game too so you have an idea of what a bad run feels like and therefore will know when to call it quits. Not that you' re going to lose more than your stop loss, but that its a waste of time because you' ll get no where. You' ll go back and forth, up and down. Remember this system is for live, land-based casinos only. It’s amazing how well this works and I am still shocked at its simplicity, low bankroll and high winning potential. Plus I don’t have to chart anything!!! (Unless I want too.) The only hang-up with this system is waiting until you get your next repeat number. But I say a little patience is better than losing. In order to keep my seat until I see a play, I play a dozen and even money bet. The bet goes like this: One unit ($5) on the 1st dozen and one unit ($5) on the 19-36 even money bet OR one unit on the 3rd dozen and one unit on 1-18. I decide which bet by checking the marquee. If the numbers 13-18 are hitting, I cover 1-18 and the 3rd dozen. If 19-24 is hitting more, I cover 19-36 and the 1st dozen. Whether I win or lose I make the same bet with no progression. I either break even or make one unit as long as it doesn’t hit any of the 6 numbers I’m not covering (or the zeroes). I can keep my seat this way without risking a lot of money and maybe even make a few bucks until I get a pivot number.
35.to.5 Online Version The online system is based on the same concept as the offline version except you play five numbers for a series of 7 flat bets only (not 10). There is no progression with the online version. I only try to win at most 40-50 units at a time. It goes back and forth but eventually I meet my profit goal. So far, the most I’ve lost in a row is three games, but have always managed to make a profit. It’s also a good idea to just watch the first play and see if you get a hit. Don’t start playing until you first VISUALLY get a win. Then start your watching from that point. If you have multiple losses (over three in a row), then you are off the trend! Wait until you visually get a win, then start “charting” from that point on. After you get a win, YOU CAN look back at old numbers for a play. NOTE: It is easier to lose the trend playing online than playing live. Not all casino software is fair and can often be tuned to prevent you from winning too much. For more info on online casino software visit www.takemeto.addr.com/scamalert Also for online players, you should check out the BEAT Roulette Online system that came with your order. I recommend Casino Tropez (www.casinotropez.com), USA Casino (www.usacasino.com) and New York Casino (www.newyorkcasino.com) and a bankroll of $105 to play at the minimum level. Sometimes I skip the first two bets and play for five instead of seven, thereby reducing the bankroll further. If, while skipping the first two spins after seeing the combo, the combo hits, consider the combo as already hit and wait for the next opportunity. These are the only three casinos I use and cannot vouch for any others, so always test first before playing for real money. These recommended casinos allow you to spin the roulette wheel WITHOUT betting so you can watch UNTIL you get a play. Playing online goes a lot faster than playing live. Also if you use the “Fast Play” option, it only takes minutes to do a session! Please continue reading for win goal and loss limit suggestions.
The Rules of Being A Successful Gambler
As a professional I would like to offer you the following advice: DISCIPLINE Be patient - in order to be a successful gambler, you need to be patient. You won' t win every session and sometimes the winning streak you are waiting for may take hours to come around. If you can' t wait or don' t have the nerves to grind it out, then gambling is not an option. Waiting for a key opportunity to play is crucial. Never drink alcohol while you are playing (working)! Never play (work) when you are tired! Stop immediately playing (working) when you start getting nervous or frustrated! Remember NO ONE wins 100% of the time. Your goal is to get +40 units and take a break. Sometimes you will do this quickly; other times it will take a little longer due to losses. During a recent trip to Las Vegas, I saw a fellow family member turn 700 dollars into 1500, but you know what? They lacked the discipline to be happy with what they had so in turn, they kept gambling and what happened was they went bust. Gave it all back to the casino, plus some! If you are the type of person who will get up and want to play knowing you can' t stop, I suggest you don' t gamble. If anything, bring a "gambling buddy" [always important] who will just watch you play and make you stop when the time comes. Tell them before hand that if you get up to X amount stop you or if you lose X amount stop you. FOR TRAVELERS NEVER play on a traveling day. Some people travel for hours and when they get there they can' t wait to get to the casino floor and start playing. Of course there are some lucky people who live close to casinos but most have to travel. Also, for travelers, don' t gamble any large amounts on the day you are leaving. You could end up losing a lot of money and time runs out. SET WIN-GOAL AND LOSS-LIMIT Depending on your bankroll you have to know exactly how much you want to win and how much you can lose. If one of those limits is reached, TAKE A BREAK. A good win goal would be 30% of your bankroll ($40 for a $5 table, $80 for a $10 table); your loss limit should never exceed more than double the minimum bankroll for your table ($130 for a $5 table, $260 for a $10 table, etc). In either case, you have to stop playing for a while (I would say at least an hour and a half). So, if you start playing with a bankroll of $130 dollars, your win goal would be $40 dollars per session; if this is not enough for you, take a break and play two separate sessions or wait until you can afford to start playing with a bankroll of $260 or more. NEVER GAMBLE WITH YOUR RENT MONEY You must exactly know why you gamble and if you can afford it. Gambling can be great, especially if you win and if those winnings are the result of your skill (although chance is always in play, winning is mainly a matter of skill, knowledge and most of all, of discipline). But if you lose (your control and your money), it can make you very unhappy. Be aware that there will always be moments where you lose, even if you do everything right. These are the moments where your predetermined loss-limit will protect you from big losses. Don't chase the dollars that you lost during a given playing session. If you stick to the major rules of gambling, the good moments will predominate, you will quit more often as a winner and your money balance will grow. Don' t expect to become rich at gambling, but you CAN win on a consistent basis if you only follow the rules pointed out above. IF NOT, DON'T GAMBLE And still, this is not all to be successful at gambling. It is very important that you never get GREEDY. When you reach your win-goal very fast (and this happens more often than you think), stop playing immediately. Otherwise, the following will happen: you place another bet and you lose. THEN, you want to come back to your win-goal and you continue playing, but on the next spin you lose again. And now, a VERY, VERY dangerous chase begins: you are chasing your dollars! You may lose your whole win for that session and you start getting frustrated (because you HAD won before). AND THEN you come to the most crucial point of gambling: you don't care about the rules anymore and start betting big because you want to get your money back. You get more and more nervous and finally, you loose all your winnings. THIS IS WHAT THE CASINO IS BANKING ON. YOU’RE GIVING THEM YOUR WINNINGS BACK, AND THEN SOME. DON’T FALL FOR IT!! Disclaimer: This system is a guide only and offers no 100% guarantee of winning. Gambling is your choice and no responsibility is accepted for your gambling decisions. You do so at your own risk.
Roulette Wheel Charts -----------------------------------------------------------------------
American Chart 00 1 3 5 13 15 17 22 24 27 32 34 36
Bet # 1–5 2–5 3–5 4–5 5–5
0 2 4 7 9 11 14 20 23 26 28 30
Win 31 26 21 16 11
6 8 10 12 16 18 19 21 25 29 31 33 35
Bet # 6–5 7–5 8 –10 9 – 10 10 –10
Win 6 1 27 17 7
European Chart 0 3 7 9 12 18 22 26 28 29 31 33 35 Bet # 1–5 2–5 3–5 4–5 5–5
1 5 8 10 11 14 16 20 23 24 30
Win 31 26 21 16 11
2 4 6 13 15 17 19 21 25 27 32 34 36 Bet # 6–5 7–5 8 –10 9 – 10 10 –10
Win 6 1 27 17 7
Small Roulette Wheel Charts
The following charts are smaller versions for use in the casino. This chart has all the numbers of the wheel; together with the five numbers you will be playing listed in numerical order. Once you have picked your pivot number, simply locate it on the chart, and you have the numbers you will be betting.