November 23, 2017 | Author: MarkVincentTulinao | Category: Meat, Carcinogen, Cancer, Foods, Food And Drink
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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

“A Quantitative Study on the Profoundness of Consumption of Carcinogenic Foods among Senior High School Students of PLV”

Luna, Michaella S. Morales, Josephine Rose B. Nabuhay, Erick Resusta, Christian John A. Reyes, Reggie Nald R. Rito, Jerico O. Soriano, Jacqueline S. Tulinao, Ma. Olivia A.

Mr. Ramon V. Balagtas Research Adviser

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Cancer and Carcinogenic Foods

Background of the Study According to the Department of Health (DOH), cancer is the third leading cause of death in the Philippines next to heart diseases and diseases of the vascular system. Cancer is also known as the leading cause of death worldwide and the most frightening disease to have whichever type it is, for it has still no found exact cure, according to different studies. Epidemiologic studies (branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health.) found that cancer comes from different causes such as high exposure to radioactivity, unhealthy lifestyle, and diet. The link between diet and cancer has been widely studied and shows that food contaminants played an important role on this. These food contaminants that are contributing to the cause of development of cancer is commonly known by many as carcinogens, which can be mainly found in most the food that we consume daily like processed meats (bacon, sausages, hotdogs, and other meats that are preserved by curing, salting or smoking, or with added chemical preservatives), junk foods, canned goods, instant noodles, fast foods, alcoholic beverages, and even in burned or heavily-barbequed foods. Thus, having them called as carcinogenic foods. We Filipinos are known to love these kind of foods and a large number of us are consuming these foods more often than healthier or home-cooked foods due to its availability and affordability. Having said this, many Filipinos doesn’t have any or just have a little bit of idea about these carcinogenic foods are, especially on what it is, and what harm can it cause to them. Thus, causing them to continuously buy and consume this type of food. Having a great amount of stock of these in our local markets and stores and with an affordable price, made it more convenient for the people to consume this products than healthier ones and some even consume these products in a regular

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City basis. Yet, the lack of information and knowledge about these foods, also means that more people are exposed and in danger of the possible bad effects of consuming carcinogenic foods. With this issue, the researchers aimed to gather data and information on the profoundness of consumption of carcinogenic foods among us Filipinos, specifically among the senior high school students of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela (PLV). We wanted to know how much knowledge does the said students have about the carcinogenic foods; how aware they are to the possible effects of consuming these foods; what are the carcinogenic foods that they are commonly eating; how much of these foods they consume; how often do they eat these kind of foods; what are the factors that influence them to consume these foods; and if these foods, somehow, already had affected their health. This research also aimed on giving the readers awareness and knowledge about the topic as well as on giving recommendations on how to deal with the issue.

Statement of the Problem This research aims to determine the profoundness of consumption of carcinogenic foods among senior high school students of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela (PLV). Specifically to answer the following questions: 1. How aware are the students about carcinogenic foods? 2. What are the carcinogenic foods that the students commonly or more often consumed? 3. How often do the students consume carcinogenic foods? 4. What are the factors that influences students to eat carcinogenic foods? 5. Have any students encountered any sort of health issue after consuming carcinogenic foods?

Theoretical Framework

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City The theoretical framework used in this study is the Conceptual Model of Food Choice by Furst et al. Appetite, 26, 247-266, 1996. This model represents the three main components of factors involved in food choice: life course, influences, and personal systems. According to Furst et. al (1996), life course includes personal roles and social, cultural, and physical environments to which a person has been and is exposed. Life course generates a set of influences—ideals, personal factors, resources, social framework and food context—which inform and shape people's personal systems, including conscious value negotiations and unconsciously operationalized strategies that may occur in a food-related choice situation. It includes past influences of personal experiences and historical eras, current involvement in trends and transitions and anticipations of future events (e.g. upbringing, characteristics of an age or generation, past life roles affected respondents' relationship with food. People coordinated the demand of current life roles and activities [through their food choices]. Meanwhile, influences include ideals, personal factors, resources, social framework, and food context which mutually shape one another as well as reinforce, interact, and compete with one another.  

Ideals are expectations, standards, hopes and beliefs that are points of reference and comparison by which people judged and evaluated food choices. Personal factors are likes/dislikes, individual food styles, food centeredness and emotions (emotional cues, moods, and feelings); as well as characteristics like gender, age, health status, sensory preferences (or taste sensitivities) and state of hunger; incorporates cravings, preferences for particular foods or food types, and aversions; physiological factors such as allergic response, hunger.

Resources are tangible such as money, equipment and space; intangible such as skills, knowledge, and time; perceived as available or unavailable depending on individual outlooks and situations.

Social framework are nature of interpersonal relationships, social roles and meaning; families and households provided one of the most important sets of interpersonal relationships influencing food choice; entertaining and workplace was another interpersonal relationship.

Food context are environment for food choices that occur; physical surroundings, social climate of the choice setting, specific food supply factors in the environment such as types of food, food sources and availability of foods in the food system, including seasonal or market factors. Food context can offer expanded or constrained choice possibilities or establish a tone or ambiance that influences the food choice process.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City On the other hand, personal systems are: (1) value negotiations that involved weighing of different considerations in making choices and (2) strategies that involved choice patterns based on previously resolved deliberations that had become habitual. Six values came up the most: sensory perceptions, monetary considerations, convenience, health/nutrition, managing relationships and quality. Others discussed less frequently: ethics, tradition, and familiarity. 

Sensory Perceptions: the dominant value, drive mostly by taste, varied widely. The limiting factor is food choice, less negotiable than other values; included dimensions of texture, odor, or appearance. Sensory perceptions, especially taste, and monetary considerations were frequently in conflict. Taste was weighed against convenience. Tolerance for food aversions and willingness to accept particular foods were influenced by the foods available and the social setting.

Monetary considerations: price and perceived worth of food was another very salient value; price often conflicted with other values, especially taste and quality.

Convenience: time - often spoken of as a commodity to be spent or saved; weighing the value of convenience in terms of time in negotiation with other values; ease of preparation.

Health and nutrition: factors relating to disease avoidance or control, bodily wellbeing - nutrition was spoken of in terms of value while health was spoke of in terms of avoidance.

Managing relationships: maintaining harmony in the household.

Quality: usually mentioned in reference to comparing food products in meat and produce.

Strategies: well-established habits or rules (heuristics).

This theory supports the study in determining the causes and factors that influence the students to choose and consume carcinogenic foods. The researchers will also try to prove if the given three main components of factors involved in food choice such as life course, influences and personal systems, are true by relating survey questions regarding these. The anchored questions formulated for the survey questionnaire aims to gain information about the said three components and its effects to the profoundness of consumption of carcinogenic foods among students.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City Hypothesis “More students get to eat carcinogenic foods more often because of its availability, affordability, convenience, and their lack of idea about it.”

Significance of the Study The researchers believe that this study is important for giving the people an idea on how prone the students are on acquiring cancer by the exposure of them on carcinogenic foods. Thus, triggering their minds to have an idea and/or find a solution on how to deal with this issue to limit/ keep away the people, especially the students, to the exposure of carcinogenic foods or to avoid them consuming these kind of foods. This study is also important for there is not much study that is done yet about this matter aside from the studies about cancer, its causes, carcinogens and other scientific researches about carcinogenic foods. This could help next researchers if they would like to make further researches about the intensity of consumption of carcinogenic foods.

Scope and Limitation This study is about the degree of consumption of carcinogenic foods by the senior high school students of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela (PLV). 100 senior high school students from different strands are the respondents of this study. This aims to determine how much and often do the students eat carcinogenic foods and to know the reasons that influences them to eat said foods. This study is not concerned anymore with other levels of the said University but senior high school students only.

Definition of Terms Cancer – any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City Carcinogens – any substance that produces cancer. Carcinogenic Foods – any foods that contains carcinogens and tends to cause cancer. Consumption – the process of taking food into the body through the mouth. Profoundness – the extremeness of degree.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City


Foreign Studies Known and Probable Human Carcinogens According to American Cancer Society (2017). Their role is to educate people about cancer and its causes. Exposure of substances in the environment can cause cancer that makes many people worry. As part of the role of American Cancer Society they provide documents that have been known or suspected as cancerous for human. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) listed some related information how groups and agencies test possible carcinogens. Changes in cell DNA – genetic blueprint can cause cancer that might inherit from parents. Outside exposure is also one of the factor. Often referred as Environmental factors such as 1) Lifestyle factors 2) Naturally occurring exposures 3) Medical treatments 4) Workplace exposures 5) Household exposures 6) Pollution. Carcinogens are called the substances and exposure that can lead to cancer. It can lead to cancer in other ways but not affect the DNA directly. At all time, carcinogens do not cause cancer in every case. Substances have different levels of cancer-causing potential. Some cases of cancer might occur when prolonged in high level of exposure. The risk of developing cancer depends on many factors such as person's genetic makeup, exposed to a carcinogen, and the length and intensity of the exposure. In determining the cancer-causing potential of different substances, several national and international agencies are responsible for that. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is part of the World Health Organization (WHO). The IARC has evaluated the cancer-causing potential of more than 900 likely candidates in the past 30 years. They place them in groups: 1-Carcinogenic to humans, 2A-Probably carcinogenic to humans, 2B-Possibly carcinogenic to humans, 3-Unclassifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans, and 4-Probably not carcinogenic to humans. The Integrated Risk

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City Information System (IRIS) is maintained by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). They is rating system describing the cancer-causing potential of a substance. Group A: Carcinogenic to humans, Group B: Likely to be carcinogenic to humans, Group C: Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential, Group D: Inadequate information to assess carcinogenic potential and Group E: Not likely to be carcinogenic to humans. The other agencies and groups such as CDC’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They may have the may comment on what levels of exposure to a particular substance might be considered and whether a substance or exposure may cause cancer. The American Cancer Society (ACS) Role evaluating how environmental factors affect a person's likelihood of developing cancer and contributes in many ways includes: 1) Conducting epidemiologic research on the causes of cancer, 2) Funding laboratory and epidemiologic research at universities and other institutions that study environmental causes of cancer, 3) Advocating for environmental health on local, state, and federal levels, and 4) Informing the public about environmental factors that affect cancer risk and how to decrease their risk of developing cancer. The ACS looks to national and international organizations such as the NTP and IARC is based on evidence from laboratory and human research studies and mission is to evaluate environmental cancer risks but in most cases they does not directly evaluate whether a certain substance or exposure causes cancer. One of the most priority of a person have to be his/her health. There are some agencies groups that may educate people in some health issues specifically about carcinogens/cancer. How can someone

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City know the suspected substances or factor that expose to people that may cause cancer. There are also some documented that gives people knowledge that provides be the groups and agencies in prevention of cancer.

Carcinogenicity of consumption of red meat and processed meat: A review of scientific news since the IARC decision. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) releases a results of the evaluation of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat in October 2015. The consumption of red meat was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and processed meat as "carcinogenic to humans" that is based on the accumulated scientific literature. That aimed to revise the current state of carcinogenicity of red and processed meat after the IARC decision. The IARC decision have been published during these months and the new epidemiological studies and new reviews is clearly supporting it. Other cancers arising from red and processed meat consumption and it is basic to launch the mechanisms leading to the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of known/suspected carcinogens contained in uncooked or unprocessed meats, as well as the influence of cooking is another important pending issue. Lastly, the consumption of white meat, such as pork and/or poultry, are -positively or inversely-associated with an increased risk of CRC and other types of cancer that’s why it is highly recommended to conduct new epidemiological studies to have further explanation. There are some issues about the IARC studies that some people agree and some of them are not. There was some unclear issue about the content of the study that’s the reason why they recommends to conduct another/new study to further the knowledge or to further educate the people about the difference Carcinogenicity of consumption of red meat and processed meat.

“Carcinogenic Foods Are Everywhere”

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City Food is one of the basic needs of a human. It is necessary for living, but foods can be also the reason of death. There are these foods that are carcinogenic. Carcinogenic, as defined in Merriam-Webster Dictionary means “a substance that can cause cancer. There are some foods you eat on a daily basis that could end up giving you cancer. In an article written by Philippe Michaud, he enlisted top 20 carcinogenic foods that we usually eat without knowing its impact on our body. One of these is processed foods, like salami, bacon and sausages. There is an analysis of the studies made by World Health Organizations (WHO) which shows that eating at least 2 ounces of processed meat a day is enough to trigger a bowel cancer (Michaud, 2017). Some of us already knew that red meat consumption can be a part of a healthy eating lifestyle because it has proteins, minerals and vitamins. But many studies have also shown that high consumption of red meat will trigger cancer diseases. It is not bad to eat red meat and processed foods we just need to lessen and if possible limit ourselves in eating these kinds of foods, remember the saying “too much can kill”. Foods are everywhere. Every zone is dangerous. Giving you the knowledge about what carcinogenic is, what the example of these are, and how can it affect you, is the goal of this study.

“Deliciously Sweet and, Refreshingly Dangerous” People love to eat delicious, yummy, and sweet foods and drink some beverage. But, did you know that ‘too much love can kill you’? Too much love on sweets can kill you especially if it contains refined sugar. Cancer loves refined sugars because it multiplies their cell number. Yes, you heard it right. Refined sugar multiplies the number of cancer cells. Drinking milk is good for your bones because of its calcium. The Canadian Cancer Society believes that milk contains substances that can cause prostate cancer for men. A 2004 study shows that 68% of men who drink milk are more likely prone in getting prostate cancer. Tea, coffee, and soup can also cause a cancer. According to the

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City World Health Organization’s for Research on Cancer, drinking liquids that are hotter than 150 degrees can increase the risk on having a cancer of the esophagus. Alcoholic drinks as we know can also trigger diseases. According to the National Toxicology Program from the U.S Department of Health and Human Services, people who consume 3.5 or more alcoholic drinks per day – around 2 ounces of alcohol – are up to three times more likely to suffer from mouth and throat cancers, and are 1.5 times more likely to develop bowel cancer than those who didn’t drink (non-drinkers). Soda is also one of the drinks that can give cancer. According to Swedish Researchers who, in a 2012 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, men who drink one can of soda per day are 40% more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Another kind of drink that can cause cancer is tomato juice. Many people drink this as a part of their diet. Tomato juice contains Bisphenol A, this is according to the discovery of Xeno Analytical LLC Laboratory affiliated to the University of Missouri. Bisphenol A is a chemical compound usually used in manufacturing various plastic items like CD’s and water bottles. It can cause breast cancer and can increase the risk of suffering from hyperactivity, attention deficit, hormone imbalance and obesity. The profoundness on carcinogenic foods and drinks can reduce the rise of cancer. Especially among the students who might be a fan of those said drinks. In 2008, there were 12.7 million reported cases of cancer. The number of cancer cases worldwide is expected to increase to 75 percent by 2030 (based on www.healthydietbase.com, 2014). There is a report in Lancet Oncology Journal that assumes that there will be 22.2 million new cases of cancer by 2030.

“Snacks for Past Time and Faster Life” Most of the students now a day usually preferred to have snacks while having a rest. Some students like to eat chips, popcorns, potato fries and other snacks rather than eating rice. Pasta and white breads also belong to the group of food that is usually made to substitute with rice.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City According to an article on healthy diet base, some manufacturers of popcorn use chemical products in making artificial butter flavor. Some of these can cause an increase in risk of suffering testicular, liver and pancreatic cancers. Another snack that is well-consumed today is chips. According to the European Food Safety Authority, chips that are manufactured at a high temperature contain acrylamide. This quantity of acrylamide in chips is 500 times higher than the recommended maximum quantity by the WHO. Potato fries also have acrylamide. According to a Swedish study, acrylamide is the same chemical substance in cigarette smoke. In a family with a huge number of members, pasta is a great help to their budget. However, eating white pasta often will increase the risk of having lung cancer even if you’ve never experienced smoking. Pasta is rich in carbohydrates. Texas Researchers found out the relationship of carbohydrates into lung cancer. The higher the food in carbohydrates, the more it increases the risk of having lung cancer. Another study of Texas Researchers found out that white bread could increase the risk of developing lung cancer by 49% through increasing your body’s glycemic index. Peanuts are full of vitamins and minerals but sometimes, it can also be carcinogenic. Many people in African and Asian countries are fond of eating peanuts, without knowing that there is a risk of aflatoxin forming in peanuts. Aflatoxin is a substance produced by molds and fungus which increases the risk of cancer. The problem in the people is the lack of knowledge about carcinogenic substances Government must start to educate the students about this. Because students are the future leaders of this generation. To inform and educate everyone is the goal of every studies and researches.

Foreign Literature Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat In October, 2015, 22 scientists from ten countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to evaluate the carcinogenicity of the

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City consumption of red meat and processed meat. These assessments will be published in volume 114 of the IARC Monographs. Red meat refers to unprocessed mammalian muscle meat—for example, beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton, horse, or goat meat—including minced or frozen meat; it is usually consumed cooked. Processed meat refers to meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking, or other processes to enhance flavor or improve preservation. Most processed meats contain pork or beef, but might also contain other red meats, poultry, offal (e.g., liver), or meat byproducts such as blood. Red meat contains high biological-value proteins and important micronutrients such as B vitamins, iron (both free iron and haem iron), and zinc. The fat content of red meat varies depending on animal species, age, sex, breed, and feed, and the cut of the meat. Meat processing, such as curing and smoking, can result in formation of carcinogenic chemicals, including N-nitroso-compounds (NOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cooking improves the digestibility and palatability of meat, but can also produce known or suspected carcinogens, including heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and PAH. High-temperature cooking by pan-frying, grilling, or barbecuing generally produces the highest amounts of these chemicals. Depending on the country, the proportion of the population that consumes red meat varies worldwide from less than 5% to up to 100%, and from less than 2% to 65% for processed meat. The mean intake of red meat by those who consume it is about 50– 100 g per person per day, with high consumption equalling more than 200 g per person per day. Less information is available on the consumption of processed meat. On the basis of the large amount of data and the consistent associations of colorectal cancer with consumption of processed meat across studies in different populations, which make chance, bias, and confounding unlikely as explanations, a majority of the Working Group concluded that there is sufficient evidence in human beings for the carcinogenicity of the consumption of processed meat. Chance, bias, and confounding could not be ruled out with the same degree of confidence for the data on red meat consumption, since no clear association was seen in several of the high quality studies and residual confounding from other diet and lifestyle risk is difficult to

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City exclude. The Working Group concluded that there is limited evidence in human beings for the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of consumption of red meat and of processed meat. In rats treated with colon cancer initiators and promoted with low calcium diets containing either red meat or processed meat, an increase in the occurrence of colonic preneoplastic lesions was reported in three and four studies, respectively. The mechanistic evidence for carcinogenicity was assessed as strong for red meat and moderate for processed meat. Mechanistic evidence is mainly available for the digestive tract. A meta-analysis published in 2013 reported a modest but statistically significant association between consumption of red or processed meat and adenomas (preneoplastic lesions) of the colorectum that was consistent across studies. For genotoxicity and oxidative stress, evidence was moderate for the consumption of red or processed meat. In human beings, observational data showed slight but statistically significant associations with APC gene mutation or promoter methylation that were identified in 75 (43%) and 41 (23%) of 185 archival colorectal cancer samples, respectively. Consuming well done cooked red meat increases the bacterial mutagenicity of human urine. In three intervention studies in human beings, changes in oxidative stress markers (either in urine, faeces, or blood) were associated with consumption of red meat or processed meat. Red and processed meat intake increased lipid oxidation products in rodent faeces. Substantial supporting mechanistic evidence was available for multiple meat components (NOC, haem iron, and HAA). Consumption of red meat and processed meat by man induces NOC formation in the colon. High red meat consumption (300 or 420 g/day) increased levels of DNA adducts putatively derived from NOC in exfoliated colonocytes or rectal biopsies in two intervention studies. Few human data, especially from intervention studies, were available for processed meat. Haem iron mediates formation of NOC, and of lipid oxidation products in the digestive tract of human beings and rodents. Haem iron effects can be experimentally suppressed by calcium, supporting its contribution to carcinogenic mechanisms. Meat heated at a high

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City temperature contains HAA. HAA are genotoxic, and the extent of conversion of HAA to genotoxic metabolites is greater in man than in rodents. Meat smoked or cooked over a heated surface or open flame contains PAH. These chemicals cause DNA damage, but little direct evidence Overall, the Working Group classified consumption of processed meat as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) on the basis of sufficient evidence for colorectal cancer. Additionally, a positive association with the consumption of processed meat was found for stomach cancer. The Working Group classified consumption of red meat as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A). In making this evaluation, the Working Group took into consideration all the relevant data, including the substantial epidemiological data showing a positive association between consumption of red meat and colorectal cancer and the strong mechanistic evidence. Consumption of red meat was also positively associated with pancreatic and with prostate cancer. World Health Organization says processed meat is carcinogenic According to Simon (2015). Processed meat is classified as a carcinogen- which means something cancerous for human and red meat is classified as a probable carcinogen- which means probably cancerous, it is stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Processed meat is refers to the meat being processed/treated in way that it preserved or flavored. The process includes salting, curing, fermenting, and smoking. While the red meat is the typically meat which we can get in the cow, pork. Lamb, and goat. Eight hundred studies has been done to reach the conclusions of 22 experts from 10 countries. The consumption of 50g per day will increase the risk of colorectal cancer about 18% is equivalent to 1 hotdog or 4 bacons. Colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer are the probable diseases you can get in eating red meat. The risk of developing colon cancer is 5%. To put the numbers into all together the study would raise average lifetime risk to almost 6%, increased risk from eating the amount of processed meat.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City "We should be limiting red and processed meat to help reduce colon cancer risk, and possibly, the risk of other cancers. The occasional hot dog or hamburger is okay." said Colleen Doyle, MS, RD, American Cancer Society managing director of nutrition and physical activity. Limiting the processed meat and meat and high in consuming of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains is recommended by The American Cancer Society. Also they recommend together with the Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention that choosing fish, poultry, or beans instead of red meat and processed meat. Getting healthy, having a regular physical activity, limiting alcohol and avoiding cigarettes can help people in getting diseases and lower the development of cancer. People have known the pros and also have to know the consequences of what they are doing or what food they are eating and how it affect their body. Processed Meat rank alongside smoking as cancer causes According to Boseley (2015). Bacon, ham and sausages are consider as carcinogenic food. In UN health body, they stated that processed meat (ham, bacon and sausages) is indicated as most carcinogenic substances like cigarettes, alcohol, asbestos and arsenic. As stated by Kurt Straif head of the IARC monographs programme, it is based on strong evidences that the consumption of processed meat is carcinogenic for human. When a person eats processed meat he might have colorectal cancer and based on another association it also might cause stomach cancer. Also, based on evaluation of another association on their epidemiological study that red meat is also positive as cancerous for human but unlike the processed meat it didn’t have that strong evidences. In a day, a when a person consume 50g (1.8 ounce) of processed meat it increases the risk of having cancer about 20% which concluded by IARc’s experts. “For an individual, the risk of developing colorectal cancer because of their consumption of processed meat remains small, but this risk increases with the amount of meat consumed,” and “In view of the large number of people who consume processed meat, the global impact on cancer incidence is of public health importance.” said by Dr Kurt Straif. Processed meat is a cancer hazard based on the World Cancer Research Fund and they are advising people about that for them to be aware. Consumption 500g per

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City week of products such as bacon, ham, salami, beef, pork and lamb is not advisable. “Cancer Research UK supports IARC’s decision that there’s strong enough evidence to classify processed meat as a cause of cancer, and red meat as a probable cause of cancer.” and “We’ve known for some time about the probable link between red and processed meat and bowel cancer, which is backed by substantial evidence.” said Prof Tim Key, Cancer Research UK’s epidemiologist at the University of Oxford. “This decision doesn’t mean you need to stop eating any red and processed meat. But if you eat lots of it you may want to think about cutting down. You could try having fish for your dinner rather than sausages, or choosing to have a bean salad for lunch over a BLT.” The IARC statement considerably strengthens the line against processed meat. Some nutritionists maintain that the extra risk is relatively small and that meat has other benefits but while cancer scientists are concerned about the risks of eating too much meat. “Red meat was linked to about three extra cases of bowel cancer per 100,000 adults in developed countries.” stated by Dr Elizabeth Lund, independent consultant in nutritional and gastrointestinal health, and a former research leader at the Institute of Food Research. She also said. “Overall, I feel that eating meat once a day combined with plenty of fruit, vegetables and cereal fibre, plus exercise and weight control, will allow for a low risk of colorectal cancer and a more balanced diet.” Carcinogenic Food Contaminants According to Abnet (2007). “Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and diet is thought to play a substantial role in cancer etiology”. In epidemiologic studies the effects of different foods, food components, and food contaminants have been widely studied in the laboratory. Several governmental and international agencies studied and formal risk assessments about the importance of food contaminants in the link between diet and cancer. There are two components in Risk assessments for human hazards. The first one is a particular exposure can have adverse consequences to determine a hazard. Second one, the range of exposures puts an individual or population at risk of adverse consequences to determine an exposure. A carcinogenic can be a particular exposure but will be minimal that it is of little concern to the general population. It can be based in animal studies, the hazard assessment. “The Monographs represent the first

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City step in carcinogenic risk assessment, which involves examination of all relevant information in order to assess the strength of the available evidence that certain exposures could alter the incidence of cancer in humans. The second step is quantitative risk estimation. Detailed, quantitative evaluations of epidemiological data may be made in the Monographs, but without extrapolation beyond the range of the data available. Quantitative extrapolation from experimental data to the human situation is not undertaken.” stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) on their IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. There are four types of compounds that potentially carcinogens in human. First, the natural products and are unavoidable (e.g. salted fish). Second, natural products that might be avoided (e.g. contaminated grain with the carcinogenic fungal metabolite aflatoxin). Third, anthropogenic chemicals, there some chemicals that might contaminate the environment and accumulate in foodstuffs. Fourth, anthropogenic chemicals intentionally added to foods (e.g. saccharin or food coloring) they are added intentionally that’s why this is not addressed. Numerous and several food contaminants exist that has been confirmed as carcinogenic. For example, the major cause of liver cancer is aflatoxin especially in lower resource countries- where commonly infected by Hepatitis B. Once recognized the reduction of exposure, it can be started through government guideline, food producer initiatives, and by individuals. It is important to know the carcinogenic food contaminants, to prevent people to have cancer or any other diseases and for people to be aware of the compounds that can be/potentially carcinogenic foods.

Local Studies According to Vila (2014) we are preferred on choosing foods that is easy to prepare such as deep frying, microwave heating, or those that do not even need to be subjected to cook at all. But these kinds of foods have detrimental effects on the health. These following cancer-causing foods can contribute to the development of diabetes, obesity, and heart diseases. Based on the nutritionist and various health agencies, these are the top cancer-causing food that you probably have eaten for so many times.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City 1. Microwave Popcorn - Perfluorooctanoic acid ( PFOA) are present in the

popcorn bag. This toxic chemical is known to cause infertility and cancer in lab animals.

The EPA lists






carcinogen. Moreover, diacetyl has been linked to a rare type of lung disease, bronchiolitis obliterans, also called "popcorn worker's lung" because it has been seen primarily in workers at microwave popcorn factories. 2. Canned Goods - The lining of almost all canned goods are made with a chemical called bisphenol-A, or BPA. National Toxicology Program expressed “some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol-A”. Canned tomatoes are particularly dangerous because their high acidity causes BPA to leach into them. 3. Processed Meat - Processed meat products looks so appealing and enticing. It is because processed meats contain too many chemical preservatives. According to nutritionist Mike Adams, author of Grocery Warning Manual “most processed meats contain sodium nitrite”, which is a carcinogenic precursor. 4. Potato Chips - These are fried in high temperatures to make them crispy but this

also causes them to make a material called acrylamide, a known carcinogen that is also found in cigarettes. 5. “Diet” Soda – According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) they found out that Aspartame, is one of the most common artificial sweeteners, causes a range of illnesses including birth defects and cancer. 6. Conventional Apples, Grapes, and Other

Fruits - 98 percent of all

conventional produce, and particularly the type found on its “dirty” fruits list is contaminated with cancer-causing pesticides found by the Environmental Working Group (EWG).

Street Foods and its IMPACT to the residence of

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City barangay Dalandanan in the city of Valenzuela As the researchers gathered some related studies done in the Philippines, they found out that; out of 17,038 populations in Barangay Dalandanan as of 2006, 391 respondents answered the survey of the researchers about the impacts of consumption of street foods in their health and to their society. In the survey that they conducted in the said barangay, most of the consumers in their society are ranging from 18 to 22 years old. The specific count of the said consumers in their respondents is 182 out of 391 respondents that answered their survey forms. It is the biggest count of the consumers. When it was converted into percentage the result was; out of 100 percent, 46.55 percent of the respondent ages were ranging from 18 to 22 years old. As they conducted their research, they found out that the family of the respondents is a big factor in consuming street foods. “Street food vending is a family affair, a business enterprise wherein the father is the purchaser, the mother sales attendant, and the children are helping for their business.” This is quoted from the research or study of the PLV students named Melissa T. Alvaro, Ruselle L. Gonzales, and Cherry May M. Serrano last March 17, 2007 entitled “STREET FOODS AND IT’S IMPACT TO THE RESIDENCE OF BARANGAY DALANDANAN IN THE CITY OF VALENZUELA”. As they conducted their study, they also found out that the family income is also a big factor for them to consume street foods. As a numerical statement, out of 391 respondents, 271 of them have a monthly income up from 10,001 to 20,000 pesos. In percentage form; out of 100 percent of the respondents, 69.31 percent of the respondents have the said income for a month. This research was conducted here in the Philippines by the students of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Synthesis As the researcher conducted their research about the profoundness of consumption of carcinogenic foods among the senior high school students of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela, they gathered some of the different studies that are related in their topic that are done locally and internationally based.


researchers discovered form the gathered sources from different studies that we can get carcinogens when eating processed foods including hotdogs, salami, sausages, bacon, tocino, etc. People consumed processed foods because of it is convenient and easy to cook. It is affordable or budget friendly. That’s why it is being used as a business. The family that is using processed foods as a business also makes it as a foods source for their family members. In eating processed foods, people can get some serious illness mostly different kinds of cancers. Some of the factors are the following; they eat foods that are carcinogenic without knowing that it is carcinogenic. They are lack of knowledge about what are carcinogens. They eat because of curiosity. These information that are gathered by the researchers are from different studies and literatures.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City


Introduction This chapter will elaborate the plan of the researchers in achieving the goal of the study, specifically the formulation of research design and the acquired methodology. In that matter, the place and the method of choosing the sample will be narrated as well as the instrumentation. After giving a careful consideration to the objectives of the study, the availability of information, and the scope and limitations, the researchers decided to use quantitative method in gathering information. A quantitative data gathering is useful in obtaining standardized answers from a massive number of people which makes the study more convenient for the researchers; and for obtaining a valid and precise result for the paper itself. The objective of the study is to determine the profoundness of consumption of carcinogenic foods of the students of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela (PLV) and how will the degree of consumption affect each of the students. As well as to examine the degree of knowledge random PLV students possess regarding the topic and increase and or or actuate their awareness. Thus, this chapter will also narrate the process and procedure that the researchers had undergone in order to acquire sufficient data from primary sources.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Research Design Since this paper will use quantitative data gathering technique, a large number of people is required to obtain a valid and authentic answer. The researchers formulated questions that would help them understand how often, to what extent and other similar questions that would explain the consumption of carcinogenic food among the students. According to Aliaga and Gunderson (2002), quantitative data gathering technique is an inquiry into a social problem that aims to explain phenomena by gathering numerical data that are analyzed using mathematically based methods given in particular statistic. Therefore, the researchers will observe random students from Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela to analyze and grasp the food consumption of the students. After, the researchers will choose respondents to answer and they will gather the numerical data regarding the questions they prepared. The researchers will ask for consent first, before finalizing the participation of a student. Privacy will be respected and the information that the students give will remain discrete and for research paper purposes only. The identity of the student will be veiled unless the participant give permission to uncover. Given these, the researchers are expecting a full participation from each chosen students. Also, the researchers are in need of honest and true answers, any falsification will not be held against the researchers. The set of questions will be presented as survey forms. Answers are expected to be standardized since the questions for all the respondents are presented in the same way and structure. According to Sapsford (2007), the advantage is that a survey form will be an entirely standardized measuring instrument given that self completion is required because the questions are always phrased exactly in the same way for all respondents. Another advantage according to him is the method is time saving and cheap, it does not require much time. A total of 100 questionnaire will be disseminated next month, in respect to the allotted time for the researchers to complete the paper.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Research Locale Primary information that is needed to accomplish the research paper will be the dissemination of survey forms (questionnaire) among the chosen students of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela. Valenzuela is a city where bunches of processed-food factories and like can be found, including the famous CDO Foods, Splash Food Corporation, and W.L. Food Products. Given that matter, the researchers believe that Valenzuela citizens are exposed to carcinogenic foods and are capable of giving the needed information regarding the topic. Furthermore, senior high school students belong to the group of citizens who are most active in consumption of various foods. Hence, for convenience and for a valid result, the reseachers will choose respondents from Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela, specifically from Senior High School Department.

Population and Sampling According to the definition, research population is a well-defined collection of individuals or objects known to have similar characteristics. In this study, the population is the total number of students in the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela (PLV) for they belong in the same school. Out of the total number students from PLV, the researchers will choose only 100 respondents via stratified sampling technique. This sampling technique is under Probability Sampling where individuals from the population will be selected to represent the population. A total number of 100 from different strands will be the general sample, including 20 students from ABM (Accountancy, Business and Management), 20 students from ARTS, 20 students from GAS (General Academic Strand), 20 students from HUMMS (Humanities and Social Sciences) and 20 students from STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math). This subset of population will be chosen as respondents to gather more concrete answers, because inquiring from various people from different strands can avoid imitation and falsification of answer.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City Instrumentation In quantitative data gathering method, survey forms are the most used medium of collecting information. According to Sincero (2012), the first advantage of conducting a survey is that it provides a high level of general capability in representing a large population. Furthermore, due to the usual huge number of people who answers survey, the data being gathered possess a better description of the relative characteristics of the general population involved in the study. As compared to other methods of data gathering, surveys are able to extract data that are near to the exact attributes of the larger population. The survey forms will be composed of few questions regarding the topic in order for the researchers to understand the problem. The questions that will be formulated aims to seek for answers that will help individuals who are exposed to carcinogenic foods understand their situation and the do's and don’ts as well. The set of questions on the survey form will be listed here after the researchers consulted the research adviser.

Data Analysis Not yet available

Summary Not yet available

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENUELA Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City Society, A. C. (2017). Cancer. Retrieved from www.cancer.org: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/general-info/known-and-probable-human-carcinogens.html Vila, A. C. (2014). Cancer-causing foods that you really should avoid. World Health Organization. (2015, November 3). Harvard T.H. Chan. Retrieved from www.hsph.harvard.edu: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/2015/11/03/reportsays-eating-processed-meat-is-carcinogenic-understanding-the-findings/

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