A Practical Handbook Urdu Meter

August 9, 2017 | Author: Javed Hussen | Category: Metre (Poetry), Syllable, Consonant, Arabic, Poetry
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METER F. W. Pritchet Kh. A. Khaliq


~~ INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW ONLINE VERSION ~~ We said at the end of Chapter 8 in the original print edition that real ahl-e zabaan were made and not born. That may have been only partially the case then, but it's all too true by now. Traditionallyeducated ustads are a dying breed. Classical Urdu poetry, like so much else, belongs less and less to those who simply inherit it, and more and more to those who seek it out and adopt it for their own. The very forces that have deprived us of traditionally-educated ustads, however, have brought us the internet. Now Urdu poetry is international, and we can share with each other across time and space. And of course we still have Mir and Ghalib, and so much else besides. So dig in, you ahl-e zabaan of the future, and learn to use the tools. Classical ghazal poetry is an astonishing delight. The rewards are so rich that you won't exhaust them in a lifetime. Fran Pritchett New York, July 2003

INTRODUCTION to the original print edition (South Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1987) This handbook is designed to be of use to English-speaking students of Urdu poetry. Above all it will be helpful to those students for whom English is a native language. One of the authors is such a student, while the other has been teaching such students for years. We have written the kind of book we can best use ourselves, for our own work; other students and teachers have also found our approach helpful. Our method does not assume a native speaker's instinct, an intuitive perception, or an "ear" for poetry. Even a completely tone-deaf and unintuitive student can learn to scan Urdu poetry with great accuracy. And a student who does have an "ear" can also learn to hear, recite, and enjoy the oral rhythms of the poetry as immediately as any native speaker. A determined student can even compose metrically correct verse himself; a number of Westerners have done so. We do, however, assume the student's ability to understand the words of a poem in their normal prose sense, and to pronounce them carefully and correctly. This does not mean that only advanced students should study poetry. On the contrary: we feel strongly that even beginning students 3

can enjoy poetry, and can profit by exposure to it. But the poetry chosen for study should be suited to the student's background. The student who cannot recognize and pronounce most of the words of a poem, and cannot generally understand their grammar, cannot properly scan that poem. No method can enable him to do so, and certainly not ours. Such a student needs a good dictionary, a good teacher, or an easier poem; he must generally understand the poem's words in order to correctly evaluate its meter. Another sort of student who can profitably use our method is the native speaker of Urdu (or the Hindi-speaker who has learned Urdu script) who has a serious interest in recitation or composition, but finds traditional Urdu poetics intimidating. Virtually all existing accounts of Urdu meter start with the elaborate metrical systems of Arabic and Persian poetic theory. These systems are complex enough in themselves, and must be further modified to suit a language for which they were not originally intended. Our method differs from traditional accounts in being completely descriptive and practical; it is designed to meet the immediate needs of the student, rather than to explicate the orthodox system or to develop any other comprehensive theory. Our method starts with the poetry as actually encountered, and explains its scansion in what we think is the simplest and most efficient way. The native speaker who prefers poetry to poetic theory will find our handbook convenient. Finally, we hope that our work will be of interest to those fully conversant with traditional Urdu poetic theory. It may offer a few new perspectives, and suggest different ways of looking at familiar phenomena. The first draft of this handbook was compiled during the course of the Berkeley Urdu Language Program in Pakistan, 1979-1980, and our earliest debts are to people associated with that program. The Program owes its long and healthy career to Professor Bruce Pray of the University of California at Berkeley, who has been a friend and counsellor to us both. Dr. Ruth Laila Schmidt, Field Director for 19791980, arranged for us to have the time and freedom for this project. One of the Program's teachers, Arif Vaqar, and one of its participants, Mark S. Pegors, took an especially strong interest in the project, and their continuing suggestions and criticisms were most helpful. All those involved in the Program encouraged us, and gallantly endured the hours of heated discussion which we inflicted upon them. In particular we thank Altaf Fatima, who has been a very good friend to us both, for her counsel, encouragement, and many cups of tea.


After the first draft of the book was prepared in Lahore during 19791980, circumstances made it impossible for the authors to work together in completing it: Frances Pritchett had to return to the United States, while Khaliq Ahmad Khaliq remained in Lahore. The later drafts, including the final one, were therefore prepared by F. Pritchett after her return to the United States. Although Khaliq Sahib has had a chance to see them in a general way, the final responsibility for the shape of the book, and for any errors it may contain, must be borne by F. Pritchett. She thanks all her Urdu students at Columbia University who have made use of the successive drafts of this book and contributed their suggestions; Randolph Thornton in particular has taken a serious interest in the project. Above all, the handbook owes incomparably much to the close scrutiny given it by Shamsur Rahman Faruqi, who is, among many other distinctions, perhaps the best modern authority on Urdu meter. Faruqi Sahib was kind enough to prepare extensive notes which became the basis for our discussion of feet and meters, and to suggest appropriate entries for the Bibliography. He also gave us the benefit of his advice and criticism throughout. The chance to draw on his specialized knowledge in this field was invaluable, and we are most grateful. We also thank Professor Gopi Chand Narang, of Delhi University; Professor M. A. R. Barker, of the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis; and Professor Ralph Russell, formerly of the School or Oriental and African Studies of the University of London, for their most valuable comments and suggestions. Professors Muhammad Umar Memon and Narayana Rao of the University of Wisconsin at Madison have also given encouragement and help to the project. The elegant and beautiful Urdu script which appears in this volume is generated by a program called "Khushnavis," designed by Professor Donald Becker of the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Professor Becker was most generous with his help in preparing the manuscript and designing its printed format, and the book owes him the ultimate debt: it could not have existed in its present form without his work. Frances W. Pritchett New York, 1987 Khaliq Ahmad Khaliq Lahore, 1980


*INTRODUCTION* *ONE == GENERAL RULES* *1.0 == Why should you learn meter?* *1.1 == Words, syllables, and letters* *1.2 == Syllables: two letters or one* *1.3 == Syllables: start with consonants if possible* *1.4 == Syllables: follow pronunciation* *1.5 == Long and short syllables* *TWO == FLEXIBILITY* *2.1 == Flexible words: the common monosyllables*

*2.2 == Flexible syllables: word-final vowels*

*2.3 == Flexible syllable divisions within words* *2.4 == Flexible spellings to indicate scansion* *THREE == SPECIAL CONSTRUCTIONS* *3.1 == Word-grafting*

*3.2 == i.zaafat constructions* *3.3 == o constructions*

*3.4 == al constructions*

*FOUR == IRREGULAR WORDS* *4.1 == Orthography and pronunciation* *4.2 == Irregular Persian words*

*4.3 == Irregular Indic words* *4.4 == Irregular Arabic words* *FIVE == METRICAL FEET* *SIX == METERS* *6.1 == Meter list* *6.2 == Mir's "Hindi" meter*

*6.3 == The rubaa((ii meters*



*9.1 == Works in English* 6

*9.2 == Works in Urdu* *TEN == EXERCISES* *Exercises 1-6* *Exercises 7-12* *Exercises 13-18* *Exercises 19-24*



ONE == GENERAL RULES 1.0 == Why should you learn meter? Because it's there, of course. It was carefully put there by the classical ghazal poets, and was completely expected by their audiences. No poet wanted (or dared) to break the metrical rules; people ridiculed each other for even the smallest accidental mistake. Meter was there because it was indispensable to how the classical ghazal works. Here are some of the things you can do with the help of meter: *You can memorize verses very easily, because meter creates such strong and consistent rhythmic patterns. *You can recite verses with proper understanding and intonation, and thus with much more pleasure for yourself and your audience; educated listeners can easily tell whether somebody reciting a verse knows the meter or not. *You can compose ghazals of your own that are formally indistinguishable from traditional ones. *You can tell where there must, or might, or must not, be an i.zaafat [i.zaafat]; this is often very important information. *You can read na:zm [na:zm] and other forms of metrically freer modern poetry with a much more subtle understanding of their technique. *You can detect many calligraphic or editorial errors, since most of them create unmetrical lines. *You can often reconstruct half-remembered verses in your mind, and can tell whether they are formally correct. NOTE: Urdu meter is not like English meter! If you have some intuition and a reasonably good ear, you can read English poetry quite well with very little knowledge of metrical theory. This is because there is not, and never has been, any single universally-applied system of English meter. Thus English metrical theory is retrospective fancy icing on the cake. By contrast, Urdu meter is a large part of the cake itself.


It tells you exactly and reliably how the verses are made, and helps you enjoy them to the fullest.

1.1 == Words, syllables, and letters The basic units of analysis in our system are words, syllables, and letters. Words are made of syllables, and syllables of letters. We don't intend to define "word" in any special or technical way. We mean by "word" what people generally mean in common usage: the smallest independently meaningful unit of language. Given a line of poetry, therefore, the student will have no trouble recognizing its division into words. The middle layer in the hierarchy, the syllable, is the crucial one for metrical purposes. No line of poetry can be scanned until it has first been broken into a series of syllables. Each word in the line of poetry must be divided into metrical syllables according to the following three criteria.

1.2 == Syllables: two letters or one The first criterion is that A SYLLABLE MUST CONSIST OF EITHER TWO LETTERS OR ONE. For metrical purposes, LETTERS include: *All the characters of the Urdu alphabet from alif [alif] to ye [ye], except for the do-chashmii he [do-chashmii he] of aspiration and the nuun-e ;Gunnah [nuun-e ;Gunnah] of nasalization. *The duplicate letter indicated by a tashdiid [tashdiid] on any letter. *The madd [madd] which may appear over alif [alif]. *The hamzah [hamzah] sign, )) , when it appears within a word. Letters do NOT include: the short vowels indicated by zer [zer], or zabar [zabar], or pesh [pesh]; the dotless medial ye [ye] inserted into a word as a "chair" for hamzah [hamzah]; the do-chashmii he [do-chashmii he] of aspiration, and the nuun-e ;Gunnah [nuun-e ;Gunnah] of nasalization. THE TREATMENT OF do-chashmii he: The do-chashmii he [dochashmii he] of aspiration, although it affects the pronunciation of the syllable in which it occurs, is metrically invisible. This rule applies to do-chashmii he in its proper modern usage, when it indicates an aspirated consonant. The rule applies whether or not it is actually written in the modern way, that is, as in khaanaa [khaanaa] rather than as in kahnaa [kahnaa] . (Older texts often use a simple h , gol he [gol he] for both forms.) The consonants which the do-chashmii he of aspiration may


normally follow are: b , p , t , ;T , j , ch , d , ;D , ;R , k , g [b, p, t, ;T, j, ch, d, ;D, ;R, k, g]. In a few cases it may follow n [nuun], as in nannhaa , or l [laam], as in duulhaa ; all such instances involve Indic words. Sometimes, however, the two-eyed shape of do-chashmii he may be found outside the environment of its proper usage, being written in place of the independent letter gol he . In such cases it is to be treated as though it were gol he . THE TREATMENT OF ;N : The nuun-e ;Gunnah [nuun-e ;Gunnah] of nasalization, although it affects the pronunciation of the syllable in which it occurs, is also metrically invisible. It is often difficult for the student to distinguish medial ;N the nasalizer from ordinary medial n , since they are written in the same way. We can offer one helpful rule of thumb: in general, ;N the nasalizer can occur only after long vowels. The only exceptions to this rule are a group of mostly Indic words in which ;N occurs in the first syllable. Except for a few rare cases--e.g., andheraa --these words begin with consonants: sa;Nbhalnaa , [sa;Nbhalnaa], sa;Nvaarnaa [sa;Nvaarnaa], mu;Nh [mu;Nh], ha;Nsnaa [ha;Nsnaa], pha;Nsnaa [pha;Nsnaa], ba;Ndhnaa [ba;Ndhnaa], etc. Almost all are verbs. Persian nouns, by contrast, more often have the full n : rang [rang], band [band], rind [rind]. (The verb ra;Ngnaa [ra;Ngnaa], however, has only a ;N .) Despite this handful of exceptions, our rule that ;N occurs only after long vowels is generally reliable.

1.3 == Syllables: start with consonants if possible The second criterion is that A SYLLABLE MUST BEGIN WITH A CONSONANT WHEREVER POSSIBLE. Since it's usually possible, most syllables have one of the following forms: *consonant + consonant, as in kab [kab] *consonant + vowel, as in kaa [kaa] *consonant alone, as in the k of kabhii [ka-bhii] At the beginning of a word, it is not always possible for a syllable to begin with a consonant. Thus the following forms also occur: *a + vowel, as in the au of aur [au-r] *a + consonant, as in ab [ab] *a alone, as in the a of abhii [a-bhii] 10

*aa alone, as in the aa of aadmii [aa-d-mii] It should be remembered that such syllables normally occur ONLY at the beginning of a word. (The few exceptions to this pattern involve alif madd ; most prominent among them is the word qur aan [qur-aa-n]. VOWELS: For metrical purposes, all the letters of the alphabet may be considered to be consonants except: * a , that is, alif , wherever it occurs * aa , that is, alif madd , wherever it occurs * o , ii , e -- that is, vaa))o and cho;Tii ye and ba;Rii ye --when they occur as the SECOND letter in a syllable It should be remembered that orthodox Urdu prosody, based on Arabic prosody, recognizes only consonants, and considers all the letters of the alphabet to be consonants. Our use of the terms "consonant" and "vowel" is a practical tactic for mobilizing the linguistic intuitions of English speakers. If o or either form of ye [ye] is doubled by a tashdiid [tashdiid], it is pronounced both times as a consonant, as in tayyaar [tayyaar] or ta.savvur [ta.savvur], even though it appears as the second letter of a syllable. But this never changes the division of the syllables. THE LETTER ((ain -- that is, (( --is usually pronounced as a vowel in modern Urdu; sometimes it is not pronounced at all. Nevertheless, for scansion purposes it behaves exactly like a consonant. THE LETTER hamzah : Similarly, the letter )) [hamzah] within a word, though of course it is pronounced as a glide, is to be treated for scansion purposes as a consonant. Thus however problematical its status in Urdu orthography and pronunciation, within our system it is clearly defined as a letter and a consonant. It shares with all other consonants the ability to begin a two-letter syllable, or to constitute a one-letter syllable, within a word. (Vowels as a rule have this ability only at the beginning of a word.) Furthermore, hamzah has one property all its own: it can never appear as the second letter of a two-letter syllable. By defining )) [hamzah] within a word as a full letter, we mean to exclude the )) placed after a word-final alif in certain Arabic words. This kind of Arabic )) is very rare and is almost never scanned at all even if it does appear; see Section 4.4 for further discussion. THE LETTER madd : The madd appears only over alif . The two together, as aa , called alif madd , always form one syllable. The appearance of madd thus always signals the beginning of a new syllable. The syllable consisting of aa is the only all-vowel syllable which may 11

appear medially, within a word. But this is rare; almost always it occurs at the beginning of a word.

1.4 == Syllables: follow pronunciation The third criterion is that the division into syllables must follow normal standard (prose) PRONUNCIATION as closely as possible. Much of the time the syllable division will be obvious, even in the case of new words. In some cases, however, it will be necessary to ascertain the exact pronunciation. Unfortunately, many Urdu dictionaries don't give sufficiently detailed information on pronunciation to be helpful in scanning. For most words, it's sufficient to ask an educated native speaker and listen carefully to his or her pronunciation. Or you might want to consult the very helpful book .si;h;hat-e alfaa:z , which provides an extensive list of frequently mispronounced words (pp. 9-42), together with their metrically correct breakdown into syllables. Or you could look in your trusty Platts dictionary, or else consult the online Platts database version. THREE-LETTER THREE-CONSONANT WORDS: Especially hard to pronounce and scan accurately are three-letter words composed of three consonants. Most such words are Arabic in origin. The great majority of these are divided into first a two-letter syllable, then a oneletter syllable, as in qism [qis-m], mulk [mul-k], vaqt [vaq-t], farq [farq]. This tendency is particularly marked in those words which end in ;h or (( , such as shar;h [shar-;h], sa:t;h [sa:t-;h], jam((a [jam-((a], qa:t((a [qa:t-((a]. This division, inherited from Arabic, persists in poetry, even though in many cases colloquial pronunciation has changed. There are only a few exceptions: :tama(( [:ta-ma((], qada;h [qa-da;h], and the convenient :tar;h which can be broken into either [:tar-;h] or [:ta-ra;h] at the poet's pleasure. Note that words that contain any of the letters ;s , ;h , ;z , .s , .z , :s , :z , (( , ;G [;s , ;h , ;z , .s , .z , :s , :z , (( , ;G ] are almost certainly Arabic in origin. Words that contain p , ch , zh , g [p , ch , zh , g], or aspirated or retroflex consonants, are definitely not. A minority of three-letter three-consonant words, including both Arabic and non-Arabic ones, are divided into first a one-letter syllable, then a two-letter one, as in varaq [va-raq], qasam [qa-sam], magar [ma-gar], ;Gazal [;Ga-zal], nikal [ni-kal]. Words of this minority group normally change their syllable division when normal grammatical transformations change their pronunciation. 12

For example: nikalnaa [ni-kal-naa] gives rise to nikal [ni-kal], but also to niklaa [nik-laa] and niklo [nik-lo]; na:zar [na-:zar] gives rise to na:zre;N [na:z-re;N] and na:zro;N [na:z-ro;N]. One common exception to this pattern of change: ;Gala:t [;Ga-la:t] goes to ;Gala:tii [;Ga-la-:tii]. Such words as these do not, however, usually change their syllable division when endings from Arabic and Persian grammar are applied: na:zar [na-:zar] goes to na:zariyah [na-:za-ri-yah], :tarab [:ta-rab] goes to :tarabiyah [:ta-ra-bi-yah]. But there are occasional exceptions to this tendency too: qasam [qa-sam] goes to qasmiyah [qas-mi-yah].

1.5 Long and short syllables In general, any syllable consisting of two letters is LONG, and any syllable consisting of one letter is SHORT. The difference in pronunciation is basically quantitative: a long syllable ideally takes twice as long to say as a short one. In this book a long syllable will be shown as (=) and a short syllable will be shown as (-). A syllable that may be used as long or short, at the poet's pleasure, will be called a FLEXIBLE syllable. It will be shown as (x). A flexible syllable may be treated as long in some instances, and as short in others. But in each individual instance, its value is as fixed as that of any other syllable.


TWO == FLEXIBILITY So far we've discussed the firm, general rules of the Urdu metrical system. Now we will deal with the system's flexible possibilities. If you try sometime to write an Urdu poem yourself, you'll come to cherish every form of flexibility that the system allows. It should be remembered that flexible syllables are flexible, or subject to change in length, only between one metrical environment and another, between one particular occurrence and another. Once the meter of a particular verse is known, and the syllable's position within the line is known, the syllable is either long or short, period. (The rare instances of continued flexibility are idiosyncratic and beyond our present scope.)

2.1 Flexible words == the common monosyllables Many one-syllable words in Urdu are flexible. They may thus be scanned either long or short, whichever suits the immediate needs of the metrical situation. All flexible words are TWO-LETTER ones, so that their normal length would be long. All flexible words have one of the following two forms: *Consonant + vowel *Consonant + h Not all one-syllable words of these forms are equally likely to be flexible. Words ending in ii , e , h are more likely to be flexible; those ending in o, a bit less likely; those ending in a [alif], less likely still. The likelihood of flexibility also depends on the nature and origin of the word. Grammatically operative particles, pronouns, postpositions, etc. are almost always flexible. Verb forms are generally flexible, except for familiar imperatives which are always long. Arabic and Persian nouns are almost always long, with no flexibility possible--for example, the words nai , mai , :tai , jaa , juu , ruu , suu are always scanned as long. The vocative address ai is nowadays always long, though in archaic usage it was sometimes treated as short. But these theoretical possibilities needn't be any problem, for by treating ALL one-syllable words of the forms given above as potentially flexible one never makes errors in ascertaining the meter of a poem. Here is a list of common one-syllable words which ARE flexible. They are listed in the GLOSSARY as well. bhii to , tuu 14

thaa , the , thii, thii;N jo do saa , se , sii se so kaa , ke , kii ko me;N , mai;N ne vuh , yih ho huu;N , ho;N hii hai , hai;N yuu;N In general, one-syllable words not on this list are not flexible, but can be taken as long. The following common one-syllable words are virtually ALWAYS LONG: taa , go , yaa . The two contractions vaa;N for vahaa;N and yaa;N for yahaa;N are always long nowadays, but once in a while may, in older poetry, occur as short. Despite their consonant clusters, jyuuN , kyaa , kyuuN are each scanned as one long syllable. Where a one-syllable word is repeated distributively or rhetorically, its first occurrence is normally scanned as long, while its second may be treated as flexible: Mir has used kyaa kyaa as (= -). But this is rare. Three special one-syllable words are ALWAYS SHORT in modern usage: bah for "with" in Persian constructions, kih which introduces quoted discourse, and nah for negation. Mir does treat kih and nah as long from time to time, but after him this is almost never done. THE WORD aur : A special case, a law unto itself, is aur . It can be scanned [au-r], (= -), as one would expect, or simply as one long syllable, (=).

2.2 Flexible syllables == word-final vowels A flexible syllable is one which may be scanned either long or short. All flexible syllables are two-letter ones; one-letter syllables are invariably short. All flexible syllables have one of the following two forms: *Consonant + vowel *Consonant + h


Almost all flexible syllables in words of more than one syllable occur in WORD-FINAL position. There are only a VERY few exceptions, of which two notable ones are ko))ii , scanned (x x), and aa))iinah , scanned (= x x). In words of more than one syllable, word-final two-letter syllables in which the second letter is ii , e , h are almost always flexible. In words of more than one syllable, word-final two-letter syllables in which the second letter is o or a [alif] are often treated as flexible. In some words, however, these syllables are always long. It's possible to give a few general guidelines. Syllables containing o are more likely to be flexible than those containing a [alif]. Such syllables in Indic words, especially verb forms, are more likely to be flexible than similar syllables in Persian and Arabic words; for example, rahaa from rahnaa [rahnaa] is scanned (- x), while the Persian rihaa [rihaa] meaning "released" is always scanned (- =). The whole problem of when such word-final syllables are flexible, and when they are not, is complex and controversial. It is not possible to formulate exhaustive rules. For a discussion of this question see ((aruu.z aahang aur bayaan , pp. 35-97. But it's only a problem for the theorist, not in practice for the student. When ascertaining the meter of a poem, ALL such word-final consonant + vowel or consonant + h syllables should initially be considered flexible, and then there will be no problem. COMPOUND WORDS: Some compound words retain the original flexibility of their separate parts: bandobast [ban-do-bas-t] is scanned (= x = -), from [band o bast], and kaarobaar [kaa-ro-baa-r] as (= x = -), from [kaar o baar]. Words like these are really petrified conjunct expressions containing a medial o ; see Section 3.3 for discussion of o constructions. GRAMMATICAL FORMS: Equally flexible are future verb forms: jaa))e gaa is scanned (= x x), from [jaa-))e-gaa], and so on for the other forms. Flexibility also sometimes remains within the word after the addition of nominative and oblique plural endings; this seems to occur chiefly with words ending in uu . For example, aa;Nsuu is scanned (= x), while aansuu))o;N is scanned (= x x). In some cases, these endings even increase flexibility: juu is scanned (=), juu))e;N and juu))o;N both (x x).

2.3 == Flexible syllable divisions within words A few words can undergo an optional redivision of their letters into different syllable patterns. Naturally these are words full of consonants, with few or no vowels to impose syllable breaks more strongly. We have 16

put as many of these as we thought useful into the Glossary. Here are some of the commonest examples: barhaman , "Brahmin": [bar-ha-man] scanned as (= - =); [ba-rah-man] scanned as (- = =) barahnah , "naked": [ba-rah-nah] scanned as (- = x); [bar-ha-nah] scanned as (= - x) ;xi.zr , "Khizr": [;xi.z-r] scanned as (= -) [;xi-.zir] or [;xi-.zar] scanned as (- =) :tar;h , "manner": [:tar-;h] scanned as (= -); [;ta-ra;h] scanned as (- =) gulistaa;N , "garden": [gu-lis-taa;N] scanned as (- = =); [gul-si-taa;N] scanned as (= - =). Words like gulistaa;N , in which the word-final ;N represents a shorter variant of a full n, do not have flexible word-final syllables. A large number of Arabic words which begin with a series of three consonants offer the poet a special kind of flexibility in syllable division. In modern Urdu, most such words are pronounced with an initial long syllable, and may be scanned accordingly. However, they may also be scanned according to their original Arabic pronunciation, with an initial (- -) sequence. Here are some common examples: barkat , "blessing": [bar-kat] scanned as (= =); [ba-ra-kat] scanned as (- =) :zulmaat , "darkness": [:zul-maa-t] scanned as (= = -); [:zu-lu-maa-t] scanned as (- - = -) kalmah , "speech": [kal-mah] scanned as (= x); [ka-li-mah] scanned as (- x)

2.4 == Flexible spellings to indicate scansion Certain words offer the poet the option of changing their scansion by changing their spelling. Such words are always scanned exactly as they are written; the spelling informs the reader of the intended scansion. Since they are hard to predict in advance, a number of the more frequently occurring ones are listed in the Glossary. Here are some of the commonest examples: "story": afsaanah [af-saa-nah] scanned as (= = x); fasaanah [fa-saa-nah] scanned as (- = x) "my": meraa [me-raa] scanned as (= x); miraa [mi-raa] scanned as (- x)


"there": vahaa;N [va-haa;N] scanned as (- x); vaa;N [vaa;N] scanned as (=) "one": ek [e-k] scanned as (= -); yak [yak] scanned as (=); ik [ik] scanned as (=) "silence": ;xaamoshii [xaa-mo-shii] scanned as (= = x); ;xaamushii [xaamu-shii] scanned as (= - x); ;xamoshii [;xa-mo-shii] scanned as (- = x) The same choices are available for the feminine and plural forms of meraa , and for the comparable forms of teraa, and for yahaa;N as for vahaa;N . THE LETTERS n AND ;N : Word-final n , if preceded by one of the letters a , o , ii , e , may be transformed to ;N and scanned accordingly: for example, bayaan [ba-yaa-n] scanned as (- = -) can be turned into bayaa;N scanned as (- =), losing its word-final short syllable. In such cases the word-final syllable ending in ;N is nearly always long. Similarly, word-final ;N can be turned into a full n : gulistaa;N [gulistaa;N] can turn into gulistaan [gulistaan], and thus add an extra short syllable at the end. OPTIONAL TASHDIID : Another kind of flexible spelling involves an optional [tashdiid]. Orthography is not in this case a reliable guide, for often the tashdiid is not written, but must nevertheless be assumed for correct scansion. Most words of this kind are simple perfect forms of certain common verbs. Usually, though not always, these verbs have roots that end in kh . Note the following cases: *very often with tashdiid : rakhaa , chakhaa *sometimes with tashdiid : pakaa , u;Thaa *rarely with tashdiid : likhaa For example, rakha could be scanned either [ra-khaa], (- x), without the [tashdiid], or [rak-khaa], (= x), with the [tashdiid]. The same applies to the plural and feminine perfect forms of these verbs: rakhe, rakhii , etc. Using such perfect forms in the past participle tends to decrease the likelihood of a [tashdiid] being present: pakaa hu))aa, uTHaa hu))aa never have a [tashdiid]. But while likhaa rarely has a [tashdiid], likhaa hu))aa is a bit more likely to have one. To be on the safe side, perfect forms of these verbs can initially be scanned (x x) when ascertaining the meter of a poem. A few nouns may have optional [tashdiid]s which are more often absent than present. Examples: dukaan [du-kaa-n] scanned as (- = -), versus dukkaan [duk-kaa-n] scanned as (= = -); shakar [sha-kar] scanned as (- =), versus shakkar [shak-kar] scanned as (= =).


THREE == SPECIAL CONSTRUCTIONS So far every kind of syllable pattern we've considered has existed within the boundaries of a single word. But several special constructions can generate syllables that ignore word boundaries.

3.1 == Word-grafting Word-grafting is our term for an operation which the poet may choose to perform on any suitable pair of adjacent words in a line of poetry. The words are suitable if and only if the first word ends with a consonant, and the second begins with a [alif] or aa [alif madd]. Word-grafting consists of pronouncing the two words as though they were run together into one single long word, and scanning them accordingly. If you have trouble performing word-grafting by merely altering the pronunciation of the two words, you can duplicate the same process orthographically by writing the second word without its [madd]-if a [madd] is present--or without its [alif] entirely, if a [madd] is not present. After this initial shortening, the rest of the second word is written as though it were a continuation of the first word. The resulting long word is scanned normally. Here are some examples, covering a range of metrical possibilities: aa;xir is [aa-;xir is], normally (= = =), can be treated as though it were aa;xiris [aa-;xi-ris], and scanned (= - =) aap agar [aa-p a-gar], normally (= - - =), can be treated as though it were aapagar [aa-pa-gar], and scanned (= - =) aa;xir agar [aa-;xir a-gar], normally (= = - =), can be treated as though it were aa;xiragar [aa-;xi-ra-gar], and scanned (= - - =) aap aa;xir [aa-p aa-;xir], normally (= - = =), can be treated as though it were aapaa;xir [aa-paa-xir], and scanned (= = =) The effect of word-grafting is always to cram more words into a given amount of metrical space, either by reducing the number of syllables they are divided into, as in the second and fourth examples, or by replacing a long syllable with a short one, as in the first and third examples. 19

Word-grafting is one of the poet's subtlest and most versatile tools. Though it alters the pronunciation of the words involved and transforms their scansion, it never changes their orthography on the printed page. The presence or absence of word-grafting can be determined only by careful analysis of the metrical environment in which the relevant wordpair occurs. But it certainly occurs less than half the time, so the first reading of a line in an unknown meter cannot assume it. Two words in succession, or even three or four, may be grafted, and the metrical change can be quite dramatic: Ghalib's kaafir in a.snaam [kaafir in a.s-naa-m], normally (= = = = = -), can be treated as kaafirina.snaam [kaa-fi-ri-na.s-naa-m] and thus can be scanned (= - - = = -). SPECIAL CASES: Word-final ii , e , o may sometimes be pronounced and scanned as consonants to permit word-grafting; but this is very rare. Even rarer is the treatment of (( [((ain] as though it were a [alif] in order to permit word-grafting, as in Mir's ;xaak ((anbar [;xaa-k ((an-bar] which instead of its normal (= - = =) is treated in one poem as [;xaak((an-bar], (= = =). Such liberties are no longer taken.

3.2 == i.zaafat constructions An i.zaafat is a grammatical construction borrowed from Persian that when placed between two nouns, makes the second modify the first; when placed between a noun and an adjective, it affirms their mutual relationship. It is commonly used both with Persian nouns and names and with Arabic ones as well. Its metrical behavior varies according to the last letter of the word on which it is placed. AN [i.zaafat] ON A CONSONANT: When an [i.zaafat] is applied to a word ending in a consonant, it joins with the last letter of the word to form a flexible syllable. For example: lab [lab] with an [i.zaafat] is scanned as [la-be], (- x) mulk [mul-k] with an [i.zaafat] is scanned as [mul-ke] (= x) diivaan [dii-vaa-n] with an [i.zaafat] is scanned as [dii-vaa-ne], (= = x). But it causes no other changes in the word's scansion, even in three-letter three-consonant words where such changes sometimes occur. Consider the case of na:zar [na-:zar], "sight," which is scanned (- =). Its direct plural form is na:zreN [na:z-re;N], (= x); its oblique plural form is na:zro;N [na:z-ro;N], (= x); but with an [i.zaafat] it is scanned [na-:zare], (- - =). In this latter case the final syllable cannot be flexible, because three shorts can never occur in a row; see Chapter 7. 20

ARABIC MONOSYLLABIC WORDS of the form "consonant + consonant" sometimes have a special form which violates this rule. The application of an [i.zaafat] to such words produces either an optional [tashdiid], or with some words even a compulsory [tashdiid], on the second of the two consonants. For example, fan [fan] with an [i.zaafat] becomes either [fa-ne], (- x), or [fan-ne], (= x), with a [tashdiid] over the n ; and ;xa:t [;xa:t] with an [i.zaafat] becomes either [;xa-:te], (- x), or [;xa:t-:te], (= x). There's no simple way to decide, on seeing a word of this kind, whether it must, or simply might, have the [tashdiid]. The most convenient way to allow for this effect is therefore initially to scan all Arabic twoconsonant words followed by an [i.zaafat] as "flexible"-flexible; though technically speaking only the second syllable is a flexible one. Apart from this case of two-consonant Arabic words, the rule for [i.zaafat] on words ending in consonants is never broken. AN [i.zaafat] ON AN [alif]: When an i.zaafat is applied to a word ending in the letter a [alif], in modern orthography the letter e (that is, a ba;Rii ye ) is added as a symbol of the [i.zaafat], and the [i.zaafat] constitutes one flexible syllable. The [i.zaafat] may be indicated by the letter e alone, or by the letter e with a )) [hamzah] above it, or (incorrectly) by a [hamzah] alone, or, in some older books, by a [zer] alone. All these forms are scanned identically. Moreover, in such cases the word-final syllable ending in a [alif] is never flexible, but is always scanned as LONG. Thus vafaa [vafaa], when followed by an [i.zaafat], becomes [vafaa-e], (- = x). AN [i.zaafat] ON A o: When an i.zaafat is applied to a word ending in o pronounced as a vowel, usually it is treated the same way as in the case of a [alif]. It thus receives the letter e to represent the [i.zaafat], and the [i.zaafat] forms one flexible syllable. For example, kuu [kuu] followed by an [i.zaafat] becomes [kuu-e], (= x). In some cases, however, the application of [i.zaafat] to word-final vowel- o causes that o to be pronounced and scanned as a consonant- o . This usually happens when the vowel- o has the sound of [au], as indicated by a [zabar]. For example, jau [jau] with an [i.zaafat] becomes [ja-ve], (- x); .zau [.zau] with an [i.zaafat] becomes [.za-ve], (- x). AN [i.zaafat] ON ii : When an i.zaafat is applied to a word ending in ii pronounced as a vowel (that is, chho;Tii ye ), as a rule the [i.zaafat] causes the word-final vowel- ii to be pronounced and scanned as a consonant , and a normal consonant [i.zaafat] is formed. For example, sho;xii [sho-;xii] with an [i.zaafat] becomes [sho-;xi-ye], (= - x); 21

dushmanii [dush-ma-nii] with an [i.zaafat] becomes [dush-ma-ni-ye], (= - - x). Sometimes, however, the poet may treat the word-final ii as a full vowel, and give it an entirely separate [i.zaafat]-syllable like those given to a [alif] and vowel- o . In this case the word itself terminates in a LONG syllable, and the independent [i.zaafat]-syllable is almost always short. For example, Atish writes saaqii-e azal [saaqii-e azal], making [saa-qiie] scan (= = -), rather than the usual [saa-qi-ye], (= - x). AN [i.zaafat] ON e: When an i.zaafat is applied to a word ending in {e} pronounced as a vowel, the application of the [i.zaafat] causes the vowel- e to be pronounced and scanned as a consonant, and a normal consonant [i.zaafat] is formed. For example, mai [mai] with an [i.zaafat] becomes [ma-ye], (- x).

3.3 == o constructions As an independent word, o (that is, the letter vaa))o ) means "and." In Urdu it is normally pronounced as a long vowel [o]. It is borrowed directly from Persian grammar, and occurs only between two Persian--or sometimes Arabic--words or proper names. Its behavior is in many ways similar to that of [i.zaafat]. When [o] follows a word ending in a consonant, it joins with that consonant to make one flexible syllable: diin o dil is scanned as [dii-no dil], (= x =). This is the normal pattern. And just as with [i.zaafat], Arabic two-letter two-consonant words sometimes receive a [tashdiid] on the word-final consonant before the [o]: ;xa:t [;xa:t] followed by o might become either [;xa-:to], (- x), or [;xa:t-:to], (= x). o FOLLOWING a [alif]: When o follows a word ending in a [alif], it always forms an independent syllable by itself. This independent syllable is usually short, and the word-final syllable before it, ending in a [alif], is always long. Thus vafaa [vafaa] with o usually becomes [va-faa o], (- = -) though at times it might be treated as (- = =). o FOLLOWING ii : When o follows a word ending in ii (that is, the letter chho;Tii ye ), usually the same thing happens: it forms an independent syllable. This independent syllable is usually short, and the word-final syllable before it, ending in ii , is always long. Thus saadagii o [sadaagii o] normally becomes [saa-da-gii o], (= - = -), though (= - = =) may also occur. Sometimes, however, it may happen that the o turns the vowel- ii into a consonant, so that a normal consonant- o construction occurs: the ii and the o together form one flexible syllable, and the syllable before it is thus 22

always reduced to a one-letter short one. Mir occasionally does this sort of thing: badnaamii o [badnaamii o] is scanned as [bad-naa-mi-yo], (= = - x), or shaadii o [shaadii o] as [shaa-di-yo], (= - x). o FOLLOWING e OR o : When o follows a word ending in e or o , word-final vowels are usually turned into consonants, and scanned as such. Having become consonants, they join with o as consonants normally do: mai o [mai o] becomes [ma-yo], (- x); ;xusrau o [;xusrau o] becomes [;xus-ra-vo], (= - x). Note that if the word-final o is already a consonant, it readily behaves as the other consonants do: sarv [sarv] when followed by o becomes [sar-vo], (= x). o FOLLOWING h OR ;h }: When o follows a word ending in h , it usually behaves in the consonant pattern, joining with the h to form a single flexible syllable. But sometimes the h is pronounced and scanned as a vowel; in this case the o forms an independent flexible syllable. The same range of possibilities exists for ;h .

3.4 == al constructions The Arabic particle al , usually pronounced [ul] in Urdu, appears between two Arabic words, and unifies them into a phrase. Its relationship with the second of the two words is quite simple: metrically speaking, they are entirely separate. After the al comes a complete break; scansion then begins afresh and proceeds normally. (The distinction between shamsii [shamsii] and qamarii [qamarii] words affects only pronunciation, with scansion remaining the same in either case.) The word before the al , however, unites intimately with it and is scanned together with it. When the word before the al ends in a consonant, the scansion technique is simple: pretend that the word is written with merely an extra l at the end of it instead of the whole al , and pronounce and scan the word normally. Examples: ((aalam ul-;Gaib} [((aalam ul-;Gaib] is scanned [((aa-la-mul ;Gai-b], (= = = -) an al-;haq [an al-;haq] is scanned [a-nal ;haq], (- = =) lisaan ul-((a.sr [lisaan ul-((a.sr] is scanned [li-saa-nul ((a.s-r], (- = = = -) ((a:ziim ul-shaan [((a:ziim ush-shaan] is scanned [((a-:zii-mush shaa-n], (- = = = -)


When the first word is a two-consonant word, it will always have a [tashdiid] on its final consonant: rabb ul-ra;hiim [rabb ur-ra;hiim] is thus scanned [rab-bur ra-;hii-m], (= = - = -). In the rare cases when al follows a word ending in a vowel, expect trouble! Assume that orthography will be thoroughly misleading and will not correspond to actual pronunciation and scansion. The reality is invariably shorter than the appearance, but it is hard to formulate general rules since Arabic grammar is the determining factor. Notice the following examples: [bi] + al = [bil]: baalkul [bi al-kul] becomes [bil-kul], (= =) baalaaxir [bi al-aaxir] becomes [bil-aa-xir], (= = =) baaliraadah [bi al-iraadah] becomes [bil-i-raa-dah], (= - = x) fii + al = [fil]: fii al-;haal [fii al-;haal] becomes [fil-;haa-l], (= = -) fii al-faur [fii al-faur] becomes [fil-fau-r], (= = -) fii al-;haqiiqat [fii al-;haqiiqat] becomes [fil-;ha-qii-qat], (= - = =) consonant + o + al : ;zuu al-fiqaar [;zuu al-fiqaar] becomes [;zul-fi-qaa-r], (= - = -) buu al-havas [buu al-havas] becomes [bul-ha-vas], (= - =) The presence of a )) [hamzah] at the end of the first word, however, prevents this kind of shortening of the vowel before al , as in maa)) al;hayaat [maa)) al-;hayaat], which remains [maa))-ul-;ha-yaa-t], (= = - = -)


FOUR == IRREGULAR WORDS 4.1 == Orthography versus pronunciation In Urdu, orthography and pronunciation correspond quite closely. Orthography is thus a tremendous help in scanning: many words can be scanned simply by dividing their letters into groups of one or two in such a way that as many groups as possible start with a consonant, without knowing their correct pronunciation at all. Our method is based as much as possible on orthography, which is more concrete and thus more accessible to the student who is not a native speaker. Linguistically and theoretically this is not the most sophisticated approach, as we are well aware; however, in practice it works remarkably well as a teaching tool for English-speakers, and that is our chief concern here. Moreover, in a few cases involving word-final (( [((ain], orthography alone provides an accurate scansion, while modern pronunciation does not. Words of this kind include shuruu(( [shu-ruu-((], mau.zuu(( [mau.zuu-((], nau(( [nau-((], mataa(( [ma-taa-((], ijtimaa(( [ij-ti-maa-((], ta.sdii(( [ta.s-dii-((], and a number of others; all are scanned with an extra word-final short syllable which can be clearly and regularly deduced from the orthography but can almost never be heard in modern pronunciation. These words form a small and special group, an exception to the general rule that pronunciation prevails over orthography. Certain three-letter three-consonant Arabic words like shahr [shah-r], sham((a [sham-((a], farq [far-q], etc. also seem to be scanned in ways that reflect their Persian and Arabic backgrounds rather than their modern pronunciation; these have been discussed in Section 1.4. Both the word-final- (( words and these three-consonant words are of course quite regular from the point of view of our own system, and in fact serve to point up its virtues. Above all, however, Urdu poetry is designed for oral recitation. Where orthography and pronunciation differ, therefore, scansion normally follows pronunciation. This fact gives rise to a category of words which are NOT scanned as they (orthographically) should be. These words which are written one way and pronounced another, and scanned as they are pronounced, we will call irregular words. We mean, of course, 25

irregular from the point of view of our orthography-based system. There are several main groups of such words. They are presented here roughly in order of their frequency of occurrence in poetry.

4.2 == Irregular Persian words CONSONANT-CLUSTER WORDS: A very common type of irregular Persian word consists of or terminates in the following pattern: a consonant, followed by a long vowel, followed by two consonants which are pronounced as a conjunct and are scanned as though they were one single letter. Most of the words in this pattern terminate in the following way: consonant + long vowel + s or sh + t Examples include common words like dost [do-st], ziist [zii-st], raast [raa-st], bardaasht [bar-daa-sht], gosht [go-sht]. The last two syllables of such words are nearly always scanned (= -), instead of (= =) as our system would suggest. VERY rarely, especially in archaic poetry, such four-letter groups may be found scanned as (= - -) or even as a single (=). But NEVER are they scanned with word-final (= =). When such clusters are not word-final, however, they break up in the normal scansion process, and the word is scanned quite regularly: dost [do-st] is (= -), but the (Persian) plural form dostaa;N [do-s-taa;N] is (= =), and the abstract noun dostii [do-s-tii] is (= - x). Words ending in such clusters are also scanned normally when followed by [i.zaafat] or by o as an independent conjunction: dost-e [do-s-te] is scanned (= - x), and dost o [do-s-to] is scanned (= - x). Some Persian words contain the same kinds of clusters, but involving different consonants: koft [ko-ft], taa;xt [taa-;xt], kaard [kaa-rd], paars [paa-rs]. While much less common than the { s / sh + t } words, they too are scanned (= -), and behave as described above. This word-final pattern "consonant + vowel + consonant cluster" appears chiefly in Persian words. It is impossible in Arabic. But it is not quite confined to Persian words: a few Indic ones can be found as well, such as maarg [maa-rg], shuudr [shuu-dr], bhiishm [bhii-shm]. It also occurs in adopted English words: gaar;D [gaa-r;D], paark [paa-rk]. Though these words are not common in poetry, the same scansion considerations would apply to them as well. SUPPRESSED- o WORDS: Another important type of Persian-derived irregular word contains a largely suppressed o which is mostly ignored in pronunciation, and entirely ignored in scanning. These suppressed- o 26

forms occur only after the letter ;x . Depending on what follows the { ;x + o }sequence, the words fall into several sub-groups. Of all the Persian words which begin with {;x + o + consonant }, MOST are pronounced and scanned as though the o were absent and were replaced by a mere [pesh]. Common words of this kind include ;xvud [;xud], scanned (=); ;xvush [;xush], scanned (=); ;xvurshiid [;xur-shii-d], scanned (= = -), and ;xvushaamad ['xu-shaa-mad], scanned (- = =). It should be noted, however, that a certain number of common words beginning with {;x + o + consonant are pronounced and scanned quite normally: ;xuub [;xuu-b], (= -); ;xuu [;xuu-n], (= -); ;xauf [;xau-f], (= -); ;xuu [;xuu], (=); ;xojah [;xo-jah], (= x). These are exceptions to the more common pattern. Other Persian words of the suppressed- o type contain the group { ;x + o + a [alif]}. Wherever this sequence occurs, the o is suppressed and the { ;x + o + a [alif]} sequence is pronounced and scanned as though it consisted of ;xaa only. Examples: ;xvaahm;xvaah [;xaa-h-m-;xaa-h], scanned (= - - = -); tan;xvaah [tan-xaa-h], scanned (= = -); ;xvaahish [;xaa-hish], scanned (= =); ;xvaar [;xaa-r], scanned (= -). Note, however, that the ;xvaa [;xavaa] of a few Arabic plural forms is scanned quite normally and should not be confused with the Persian ;xvaa. Examples: ;xavaa.s [;xa-vaa-.s], scanned (- = -); ;xavaatiin [;xa-vaa-tii-n], scanned (- = = -); i;xvaan [i;x-vaa-n], scanned (= = -). There are also a few Persian words containing the group { ;x + o + e }, most of which contain the suppressed, unscanned o . Examples: ;xve [;xe], scanned (=); ;xvesh [;xe-sh], scanned (= -). But not quite all are of this irregular type: ;xved [;x-ve-d] is scanned normally, (- = -). Words containing this { ;x + o + e } sequence are few and rare in any case. Although it's a Persian word, piyaalah is sometimes scanned as though it contained a consonant cluster--i.e., [pyaa-lah] (= x). But this is rare; more often it is scanned normally, as [pi-yaa-lah] (- = x).

4.3 == Irregular Indic words A group of irregular words of Indic origin contain conjunct consonants that are scanned as though they were a single consonant. Many such clusters are possible; the most common ones include the letter ye [y] as the second consonant in the luster. Examples: byaah [byaa-h], pyaar [pyaa-r], dhyaan [dhyaa-n], gyaan [gyaa-n], etc., all of which are scanned (= -) regardless of their initial conjunct consonants. Since it is hard to generalize about such conjunct consonants within the framework of Urdu poetry, a good many examples are listed in the Glossary. 27

The interrogative monosyllables kyaa [kyaa] and kyuu;N [kyuu;N], and the relative pronoun jyuu;N [jyuu;N], also belong to this group: they are always scanned long (=). Although they are treated for metrical purposes as though they contained only one consonant, they are almost never used as flexible syllables. The perfect forms of honaa [honaa}--namely, huu))aa , huu))e , huu))ii , huu))iiN --are all scanned as they are pronounced, (- x), rather than as they are spelled. The familiar possessive forms tumhaaraa , tumhaare , tumhaarii are all scanned (- = x), as though the h in them were an aspirator [do-chashmii he]. Similarly, the familiar ko form tumhe;N [tumhe;N] and the emphatic form tumhii;N [tumhii;N] are both scanned (- x), though they are usually written with h (that is, gol he ) rather than [do-chashmii he]. Once in a while such consonant clusters may be scanned normally, as two separate consonants. But this is quite rare.

4.4 == Irregular Arabic words al CONSTRUCTIONS: Some words of Arabic origin are extraordinarily irregular. Many such words begin with either baa [baa] or fiil [fii] in their written forms, though the long vowels are not reflected in pronunciation; two of the most common, for example, are baalkul and fiil;haal , pronounced as though they were written [bilkul] and [fil;haal]. Words like these are really specially constructed phrases joined by the particle al [al]. They have been discussed in Section 3.4. WORDS ENDING WITH [tanviin]: Some Arabic adverbs used in Urdu end in tanviin [tanviin], a mark which consists of two small diagonal [zabar]-like slashes following just atop an a [alif]. Words which have the [tanviin] are pronounced and scanned as though instead of a [alif] they ended with the syllable an [an]. Common examples include faura:n, yaqiina:n, :zaahira:n , pronounced and scanned as [fau-ra:n], [ya-qiina:n], and [:zaa-hi-ra:n]. In a few words the [tanviin] sits atop a taa-e mudavvarah [taa-e mudavvarah] rather than an a [alif]. In such words the [taa-e mudavvarah] and the [tanviin] join to become a word-final syllable pronounced and scanned as tan [tan]. Words of this kind include ishaarata:n [i-shaa-ra-ta:n] and iraadata:n [i-raa-da-ta:n]. WORDS WITH dagger-[alif]: Dagger-[alif] when it appears over a consonant in certain Arabic words, as in ra;hm;aan [ra;hm;aan], is only orthographically different from ordinary [alif]. It looks like a small 28

suspended dagger, and the [alif] sound follows the consonant it sits over. It is scanned and pronounced as though it were a normal [alif]. Dagger-[alif] also occurs over ii (that is, the letter chho;Tii ye ). In this case the dagger-[alif] and the ii together form one letter, a vowel, as in lail;aa [lail;aa]. This vowel is usually pronounced and scanned as though it were an [alif]. When a word-final vowel of this kind is followed by an [i.zaafat], however, it is sometimes scanned as though it were equivalent to ii rather than to [alif]. See Section 3.2 for discussion of [i.zaafat] following ii . WORD-FINAL [hamzah]: Some Arabic words ending in a [alif] may be written with a )) [hamzah] after the [alif]. This [hamzah] is usually omitted entirely; even if it is written, it is VERY rarely pronounced or scanned. If it is ever scanned, it becomes an independent short syllable. Words like umaraa)) [u-ma-raa))] or ((ulamaa)) [((u-la-maa))] may have this kind of [hamzah]. A list of words which may have this word-final [hamzah] appears in .sih;h;hat-e alfaa:z , pp. 56-57. In a few Arabic words, o or a [alif] may (rarely) occur within the word as a "chair" for )) [hamzah], but it is ignored when scanning. Such words include the following; they are pronounced and scanned as though the long vowels were merely [zabar] or [pesh]: taa))'a;s;sur [ta-))a;s-;sur]; taa))'ssuf [ta-))as-suf]; taa))'ammul [ta-))am-mul];muu))'a;s;sir [mu))a;s-;sir]; muu))'addab [mu-))ad-dab]; muu))'a;z;zin [mu-))a;z-;zin], all scanned (- = =); mutaa))'a;s;sir [mu-ta-))a;s-;sir], scanned (- - = =); jur))at [jur-))at], scanned (= =). In each of these words the )) [hamzah] begins a new syllable, thus observing our rule that [hamzah] can never be the second letter in a syllable. Nowadays, however, the [hamzah] in such words is sometimes not even written, though its effects on scansion are still very much there. In a few other words containing a [alif] as a chair for [hamzah] within the word, it is the [hamzah] that drops out of pronunciation, scansion, and often orthography too, while plain [alif] remains. These words include: maa))xu;z [maa))-xu;z] scanned (= =); and maa))muun [maa))muu-n] scanned (= = -). WORDS WITH [kha;Rii zer]: The very few Arabic words with kha;Rii zer [khaRii zer], a tiny vertical slash the size of ordinary [zer] under word-final h [chho;Tii he], are pronounced and scanned as though the word-final h with the [kha;Rii zer] under it were equivalent to hii [hii]. The VERY few words with do zer [do zer], two tiny slashes, under their word-final consonants, are pronounced and scanned as though the wordfinal consonant were followed by in [in]. 29

Most of the words described in this section are quite RARE in Urdu poetry, and are mentioned mainly for the sake of completeness, so that the student who comes upon one unexpectedly for the first time will not be dismayed. The student should also remember that the great name of God, all;aah [al-l;aa-h], is always written in stylized orthography, and may be scanned either (= = -) or, less commonly, (= =). In dealing with such irregular words, it is often helpful to have a feel for which language a given strange word is likely to come from. Remember that the eight letters ;s , ;z , .s , .z , :t , :z , (( , q [;s, ;z, .s, .z, :t, :z, ((, q] originate mostly in Arabic. By contrast, the three letters p , ch , g [p, ch, g] are not found in Arabic, and words containing them will not be Arabic. The letter zh , [zh] quite rare in Urdu, originates only in Persian. The three retroflex consonants ;T , ;D , ;R [;T, ;D, ;R] come only from the Indic side, as do all aspirated sounds except that of sh [sh].


FIVE == METRICAL FEET Traditional Urdu prosody uses a set of words called afaa((iil [afaa((iil] which are of great practical value to the student. Each of the afaa((iil both names and metrically embodies one particular kind of foot, or rukn [rukn]. A suitable inventory of the afaa((iil can thus provide an accurate account of the metrical feet traditionally used in Urdu poetry. Furthermore, the afaa((iil are used in every poetic and critical context, in every formal and informal discussion of Urdu meter. Therefore the student will certainly need and want to know them. The afaa((iil all originate from the Arabic three-letter verb root { f + (( + l }, or fa((l , meaning "to do." They are derived in fixed ways, and transformed according to fixed rules, which were developed in the context of classical Arabic and Persian poetic theory. If you want to study the whole set of afaa((iil systematically, you'll find some suitable works listed in the Bibliography. Our approach here is strictly practical: we will look only at the afaa((iil actually used in Urdu poetry. The afaa((iil are considered to be of two kinds: a small number of original or saalim [saalim] ones, and a large number of variant or muzaa((f [muzaa((f] forms derived from these. When a line of poetry can be divided into feet in more than one way, the best division is considered to be the one which relies more on original afaa((iil , and less on variants. The [afaa((iil] are listed below, with internal syllable divisions indicated, along with the syllable patterns they represent and embody. The [saalim] ones are starred. The order in which they are given is intended to make them easily findable: those with the greatest number of initial long syllables are listed first. (= = =) [maf-((uu-lun] -- { maf((uulun } (= = - =) [mus-taf-((i-lun]* -- { mustaf((ilun } (= = -) [maf-((uu-l] -- { maf((uul }. Usually occurs as the first foot, except in rubaa((ii [rubaa((ii]. (= =) [fa((-lun] -- {fa((lun } (= - = =) [faa-((i-laa-tun]* -- { faa((ilaatun } (= - = -) [faa-((i-laa-t] -- { faa((ilaat } 31

(= - =) [faa-((i-lun]* -- { faa((ilun } (= - - =) [muf-ta-((i-lun] -- {mufta((ilun }. Rare. (= -) [fa((-l] -- { fa((l } (=) [fa((] -- { fa(( }. Usually occurs as the last foot; rare except in [rubaa((ii] (- = = =) [ma-faa-((ii-lun]* -- {mafaa((iilun } (- = = -) [ma-faa-((ii-l] -- { mafaa((iil }. Rarely occurs as the first or last foot. (- = =) [fa-((uu-lun]* -- { fa((uulun } (- = - =) [ma-faa-((i-lun] -- { mafaa((ilun } (- = -) [fa-((uu-l] -- { fa((uul } (- =) [fa-((al] -- { fa((al } (- - = =) [fa-((i-laa-tun] -- { fa((ilaatun } (- - = - =) [mu-ta-faa-((i-lun]* -- { mutafaa((ilun } . Rare. (- - = -) [fa-((i-laa-tu] -- { fa((ilaatu }. Very rare; almost always occurs as the first and third foot. (- - =) [fa-((i-lun] -- { fa((ilun }. Almost never occurs as the first foot. In the above list there are two afaa((iil with double identities. These can be, and are, scanned in two different ways. They are: { fa((l }, scanned both as [fa((-l], (= -), and as [fa-((al], (- =) { fa((lun }, scanned both as [fa((-lun], (= =), and as [fa-((i-lun], (- - =) There is nothing to be done about this; they must simply be accepted as parts of the traditional system. Modifications in them to eliminate ambiguity have often been proposed, but haven't been adopted in practice.


SIX == METERS A systematic discussion of Urdu meter, or ba;hr [ba;hr], would take us into the thick of Arabic and Persian poetic theory. As in the case of the afaa((iil , we must refer the theoretically-minded student to the works suggested in the Bibliography. For practical purposes, we offer a list of the meters commonly used in Urdu, with their full technical names, in an order designed for easy reference: starting with meters with the greatest number of initial long syllables, and ending with those with the fewest. This list is not quite complete, but the meters not included in it are very rare indeed. In the interest of simplicity, rare variants permissible within certain meters are not shown. Classical poetry is basically confined to the meters we have given; modern na:zm [na:zm], of course, often takes liberties with the traditional meters, or even rejects them entirely. We have shown the division of the meters into feet. The feet of course correspond to the [afaa((iil] described in Chapter 5. Note that all Urdu meters end with a long syllable--after which a short "cheat syllable" is permitted to occur, at the poet's pleasure, in almost all meters--and that three short syllables may never occur in succession. For convenience in reference, the meters are arranged in order according to their number of initial long syllables, from the ones with most initial long syllables to the ones with fewest.

6.1 == The meter list

1 = = = /= - = / - = = { hazaj musaddas a;xram ashtar ma;h;zuuf } [hazaj musaddas a;xram ashtar ma;h;zuuf]. May be used with #9. 2 = = / - = = // = = / - = = { mutaqaarib mu;samman a;sram } [mutaqaarib mu;samman a;sram]. Has caesura. 3==-=/==-=/==-=/==-= { rajaz mu;samman saalim } [rajaz mu;samman saalim] 4 = = - / = - = = // = = - / = - = = { mu.zaari(( mu;samman a;xrab } [mu.zaari(( mu;samman a;xrab]. Has caesura.


5==-/=-=-/-==-/=-= { mu.zaari(( mu;samman a;xrab makfuuf ma;h;zuuf } [mu.zaari(( mu;samman a;xrab makfuuf ma;h;zuuf] 6==/--=/==/==/==/--=/==/== { mutadaarik mu;samman mu.zaa((af maq:tuu(( ma;xbuun } [mutadaarik mu;samman mu.zaa((af maq:tuu(( ma;xbuun]. Very rare. May also be used in a flexible form in which any odd-numbered long may be replaced by two shorts. 7 = = - / - = = = // = = - / - = = = { hazaj mu;samman a;xrab } [hazaj mu;samman a;xrab]. Has caesura. 8==-/-==-/-==-/-== { hazaj mu;samman a;xrab makfuuf ma;h;zuuf } [hazaj mu;samman a;xrab makfuuf ma;h;zuuf] 9==-/-=-=/-== { hazaj musaddas a;xrab maqbuu.z ma;h;zuuf } [hazaj musaddas a;xrab maqbuu.z ma;h;zuuf]. May be used with #1. 10 = - = = / = - = = / = - = = / = - = { ramal mu;samman ma;h;zuuf } [ramal mu;samman ma;h;zuuf] 11 = - = = / = - = = / = - = { ramal musaddas ma;h;zuuf } [ramal musaddas ma;h;zuuf] 12 = - = / = - = / = - = / = - = / = - = / = - = / = - = / = - = { mutadaarik mu;samman mu.zaa((af saalim } [mutadaarik mu;samman mu.zaa((af saalim]. Sometimes used with only four feet; in this case the [mu.zaa((af] is dropped from its name. 13 = - = / = - = / = - = / = { mutadaarik mu;samman maq:tuu(( ma;h;zuuf } [mutadaarik mu;samman maq:tuu(( ma;h;zuuf] 14 =* - = = / - = - = / = = { ;xafiif musaddas ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf maq:tuu(( } [;xafiif musaddas ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf maq:tuu((]. May be used with #15. *The first syllable is properly long, but may be replaced with a short. 15 =* - = = / - = - = / - - = { ;xafiif musaddas ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf } [;xafiif musaddas ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf]. May be used with #14. *The first syllable is properly long, but may be replaced with a short. 16 =* - = = / - - = = / = = { ramal musaddas ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf maq:tuu(( } [ramal musaddas 34

ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf maq:tuu((]. May be used with #17. *The first syllable is properly long, but may be replaced with a short. 17 =* - = = / - - = = / - - = { ramal musaddas ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf } [ramal musaddas ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf]. May be used with #16. *The first syllable is properly long, but may be replaced with a short. 18 =* - = = / - - = = / - - = = / = = { ramal mu;samman ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf maq:tuu(( } [ramal mu;samman ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf maq:tuu((]. May be used with #19. *The first syllable is properly long, but may be replaced with a short. 19 =* - = = / - - = = / - - = = / - - = { ramal mu;samman ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf } [ramal mu;samman ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf]. May be used with #18. *The first syllable is properly long, but may be replaced with a short. 20 = - = / - = = = // = - = / - = = = { hazaj mu;samman ashtar } [hazaj mu;samman ashtar]. Has caesura. 21 = - = / - = - = // = - = / - = - = { hazaj mu;samman ashtar maqbuu.z } [hazaj mu;samman ashtar maqbuu.z]. Has caesura. 22 = - - = / = - = // = - - = / = - = { munsari;h mu;samman ma:tvii maksuuf } [munsari;h mu;samman ma:tvii maksuuf]. Has caesura. 23 = - - = / = - = - / = - - = / = { munsari;h mu;samman ma:tvii man;huur } [munsari;h mu;samman ma:tvii man;huur] 24 = - - = / = - - = / = - = { sarii(( musaddas ma:tvii maksuuf } [sarii(( musaddas ma:tvii maksuuf] 25 = - - = / - = - = // = - - = / - = - = { rajaz mu;samman ma:tvii ma;xbuun } [rajaz mu;samman ma:tvii ma;xbuun] Has caesura. 26 - = = = / - = = = / - = = = / - = = = { hazaj mu;samman saalim } [hazaj mu;samman saalim]. Not allowed to have extra unscanned short syllable at the end. 27 - = = = / - = = = / - = = { hazaj musaddas ma;h;zuuf } [hazaj musaddas ma;h;zuuf] 28 - = = / - = = / - = = / - = = { mutaqaarib mu;samman saalim } [mutaqaarib mu;samman saalim] 35

29 - = = / - = = / - = = / - = { mutaqaarib mu;samman ma;h;zuuf } [mutaqaarib mu;samman ma;h;zuuf] 30 - = - / = = / - = - / = = / - = - / = = / - = - / = = { mutaqaarib mu;samman mu.zaa((af maqbuu.z a;slam } [mutaqaarib mu;samman mu.zaa((af maqbuu.z a;slam] 31 - = - / = = / - = - / = = / - = - / = = { mutaqaarib musaddas mu.zaa((af maqbuu.z a;slam } [mutaqaarib musaddas mu.zaa((af maqbuu.z a;slam] 32 - = - = / - = - = / - = - = / - = - = { hazaj mu;samman mazbuu.z } [hazaj mu;samman maqbuu.z] 33 - = - = / - - = = / - = - = / = = { mujta;s mu;samman ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf maq:tuu(( } [mujta;s mu;samman ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf maq:tuu((]. May be used with #34. 34 - = - = / - - = = / - = - = / - - = { mujta;s mu;samman ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf } [mujta;s mu;samman ma;xbuun ma;h;zuuf]. May be used with #33. 35 - = - = / - - = = / - = - = / - - = = { mujta;s mu;samman ma;xbuun } [mujta;s mu;samman ma;xbuun]. Does not have caesura. 36 - - = - / = - = = // - - = - / = - = = { ramal mu;samman mashkuul } [ramal mu;samman mashkuul] Has caesura. 37 - - = - = / - - = - = / - - = - = / - - = - = { kaamil mu;samman saalim } [kaamil mu;samman saalim] Each meter is described by a series of Arabic terms, the first of which is the name of the basic meter itself. The second is either mu;samman [mu;samman], describing a meter with four feet, or musaddas [musaddas], describing a meter with three feet. The rest of the terms describe the modifications, zi;haafaat [zi;haafaat], by which the basic or saalim meter has been converted into the particular meter being described. At the end of a line of poetry in any of these meters, an extra short syllable may be added if the poet chooses. This short syllable is not scanned. This syllable almost always consists of a true one-letter short syllable, or of a syllable of the form { )) [hamzah] + vowel}. This short "cheat syllable" is permitted in all the meters except #26.


Many meters on the above list have a natural caesura, or break, halfway through each line. All such meters have the following pattern of feet: foot A, foot B; break; foot A, foot B. In these meters, an extra short syllable, unscanned, may be added to the end of the first half of the line, just before the caesura. Meters which permit this extra unscanned short syllable before the caesura are: #2, #4, #7, #20, #21, #22, #25, #36. Note that #35 does not have such a caesura. The caesura was not traditionally recognized in Urdu-Persian metrical theory; it was first explored by Hasrat Mohani [ ;hasrat mohaanii ] in ma((aa))ib-e su;xan [ma((aa))iibe su;xan] (Kanpur, 1941), and has since been studied by S. R. Faruqi in ((aruu.z aahang aur bayaan . Most traditional genres of poetry may be written in any meter. The ;Gazal [Gazal], qa.siidah [qa.siidah], and mar;siyah [mar;siyah] offer this freedom, as do most of the minor genres. The ma;snavii [ma;snavii] is traditionally supposed to be written in one of the following meters: #1 with #9; #11; #14 with #15; #16 with #17; #24; #27; #28; #29. But this is not binding, only customary. Permissible meters for the rubaa((ii [rubaa((ii], however, are very clearly spelled out; see Section 6.3 for details. Free verse, or aazaad na:zm [aazaad na:zm], tends to use either #28 or "Hindi" meter (see Section 6.2). You might have noticed certain pairs of meters-- #1 and #9, #14 and #15, #16 and #17, #18 and #19, #33 and #34-- which differ only in that the next-to-last syllable consists of one long (=) in the first member of the pair, which is replaced by two shorts (- -) in the second member. From a practical point of view, it does indeed seem as though these are permutations of a single meter. But from a theoretical point of view, they are quite separate; poems are sometimes written using only one member of the pair. So we have shown them separately, but have also indicated their close affiliation. Sometimes, when scanning, the student may encounter quite deviantseeming poems, in which often every single line seems different from the next. This might occur in dealing with the flexible variant form of #6. More common than this form, however, is Mir's "Hindi" meter, which will be dealt with below.

6.2 == Mir's "Hindi" meter

Mir introduced, or at least used extensively and made popular, a meter very unlike the meters of conventional prosody. (Actually the meter was first used by Mir Jafar Zatalli [miir ja((far za:tallii] (d. 1712) in a few of his longish satirical poems.) Although expressible in terms of the standard afaa((iil , this meter is highly irregular. The lines are equal in 37

length in that they all have eight feet, but they do not always contain an equal number of syllables. Hardly anything is absolutely fixed in this meter except that the last syllable in each line must be long, short syllables must occur in pairs, and the short syllables in each pair may be separated by no more than one long. Usually the first four feet contain eight long syllables or their equivalent (with two short syllables counted as equal to one long), and the last four feet contain seven long syllables, for a total line equal to fifteen long syllables. Yet other variations of this meter, used by Mir and others, contain fourteen long syllables (seven plus seven) or sixteen long syllables (eight plus eight). As with other meters, an extra short syllable, unscanned, is allowed at the end of the line. There has been a great deal of controversy over whether this meter was invented by Mir--or rather, as it now appears, by Zatalli--or somehow already exists within the conventional framework, or is a Hindi meter modified and adapted for Urdu. Most prosodists now hold the latter view; certainly this is basically a moric meter like many Indic meters, rather than a positional one like those of the traditional Perso-Arabic system. Within the traditional system, this meter could be called { mutaqaarib mu;samman mu.zaa((af } [mutaqaarib mu;samman mu.zaa((af] with varying modifications. A half-length form of it which has been described as { mutaqaarib mu;samman a;sram a;slam abtar } [mutaqaarib mu;samman a;sram a;slam abtar] is also sometimes used in Urdu. On the whole, however, these theoretical discussions are not too helpful to the student who wants to use the meter in practice. Here then is a form of ostensive definition of Mir's "Hindi" meter: a list of the various configurations which commonly occur in its first four feet. They are shown in the traditional [afaa((iil] patterns into which they could be broken: a) = = / = = / = = / = = b) = = / = = / = - / - = = c) = = / = - / - = = / = = d) = = / = - / - = - / - = = e) = - / - = = / = = / = = f) = - / - = = / = - / - = = g) = - / - = - / - = = / = = h) = - / - = - / - = - / - = = Each of these patterns contains the equivalent of eight long syllables. Usually the second half of the line contains the equivalent of seven long


syllables. Its customary patterns differ from those given above only by the omission of the final long syllable. Another form of definition is that used by Russell and Matthews and Shackle. It is an admirably simple one. It envisions the meter as generated by a pattern like the following, in which every even-numbered long syllable except the eighth can be replaced at will by two short syllables: = ( = ) / = ( = ) / = ( = ) / = = // = ( = ) / = ( = ) / = ( = ) / = This is a convenient and powerful way to think of the meter, and offers a breakdown of syllables more simple and lucid than that offered by the regular [afaa((iil]--as can be seen by comparing it with patterns (a) through (h) shown above. We recommend it to the student as the best general analytical notion of this meter. However, both of the above attempts at schematization eventually break down. Mir simply uses this meter in more complex and idiosyncratic ways than can be shown in these or any diagrams. Sometimes he does break the eighth long syllable into two shorts, thus disposing of the "caesura" as a reliable metrical constant; sometimes his word boundaries themselves flow over the "caesura," thus disposing of it as a semantic organizing principle. (And in any case the break in this meter never permits an extra unscanned short syllable before it, as do the more solid caesuras in the regular meters.) It's true that more often than not the break does seem to be there, but it is certainly optional rather than compulsory. Here is an example from Mir's fifth divan which abolishes the caesura on all levels: { shahr se yaar savaar hu))aa jo savaad me;N ;xuub ;Gubaar hai aaj } This line can be broken up as follows: [shah-r se yaa-r sa-vaa-r hu-))aa jo sa-vaa-d me;N ;xuu-b ;Gu-baa-r hai aa-j] = - - /= - - /= - - /= - - /= - - /= - - /= - - /= (-) This is not the only line in which Mir violates the caesura metrically, or in which he violates it semantically, but it is one of the few in which he violates it both ways at once. It seems also to be the only line in any of his divans in which he breaks every single even-numbered long syllable into two short syllables. Moreover, in this meter short syllables can also sometimes occur in a kind of syncopated pattern, (- = -), which is not allowed for in any of the above diagrams. An example of this syncopated pattern appears in the 39

fourth verse of Ghazal Six, by Jur'at, in the Exercises. Even in this syncopated form short syllables do, however, always occur in pairs. What then do you really need to know about this meter? Basically, that it can be recognized by its remarkable length--hardly any of the regular meters are as long--and its alarmingly erratic syllable pattern. It can be generally understood according to Russell's model, with suitable reservations about the caesura (not always present), the pairs of short syllables (they sometimes have a long between them) and the line length (it can vary by a syllable or two, and truncated versions of the meter can also be used). It's a very rhythmic and lively meter, a great pleasure to recite; with just a bit of practice, it becomes quite familiar.

6.3 == The rubaa((ii meters The rubaa((ii [rubaa((ii], or quatrain, is, like most genres of Urdu poetry, adopted from Persian, and has an extremely rigid metrical scheme. The [rubaa((ii] is written in a modified form of the hazaj [hazaj] meter. There are twenty-four fixed forms prescribed for it, and a [rubaa((ii] may contain any four of them. However, twelve of the twenty-four are distinguished only by the presence of a final short syllable that in fact need not be scanned at all, so in fact there are only twelve genuine forms. Of these, only six have been commonly used in Urdu. All the rubaa((ii forms contain the equivalent of ten long syllables, no more than three of which ever consist of pairs of short syllables. All short syllables occur in pairs; the halves of each pair are never separated by more than one long. The first two syllables, and the last syllable, are always long. All the forms have four feet, and the last foot is always the shortest. The [rubaa((ii] meter has no caesura; as in most other meters, an extra short syllable is allowed at the end of each line. Here is a list of the rubaa((ii forms used in Urdu, roughly in order of popularity. All the meter names start with hazaj mu;samman [hazaj mu;samman... POPULAR: [hazaj mu;samman... 1==-/-==-/-==-/-= ...a;xrab makfuuf majbuub] { a;xrab makfuuf majbuub }... 2==-/-==-/-===/= ...a;xrab makfuuf abtar] { a;xrab makfuuf abtar }... 3==-/-=-=/-===/= ...a;xrab maqbuu.z abtar] { a;xrab maqbuu.z abtar }...


4==-/-=-=/-==-/-= ...a;xrab maqbuu.z makfuuf majbuub] { a;xrab maqbuu.z makfuuf majbuub }... 5===/=-=/-==-/-= ...a;xram ashtar makfuuf majbuub] { a;xram ashtar makfuuf majbuub }... 6 = = = / = - = / - = = = / = ...a;xram ashtar abtar] { a;xram ashtar abtar }... RARE: [hazaj mu;samman... 7==-/-===/===/= ...a;xrab a;xram abtar] { a;xrab a;xram abtar }... 8==-/-===/==-/-= ...a;xrab majbuub] { a;xrab majbuub }... 9===/===/==-/-= ...a;xram a;xrab majbuub] { a;xram a;xrab majbuub }... 10 = = = / = = = / = = = / = ...a;xram abtar] { a;xram abtar }... 11 = = = / = = - / - = = = / = ...a;xram a;xrab abtar] { a;xram a;xrab abtar }... 12 = = = / = = - / - = = - / - = ...a;xram a;xrab makfuuf majbuub { a;xram a;xrab makfuuf majbuub }... Inspired by Russell's simplification of Mir's meter, here is what might be called the Pritchett formulation of rubaa((ii meter: a set of ten long syllables which may be grouped into (nontraditional) feet of three, three, three, and one long syllables. The final long in each foot may be freely replaced by two shorts, and the second foot ONLY may be freely replaced by (= - = -). This is what it looks like in schematic form: 1 2 3 / 4 5 6 / 7 8 9 / 10 =




(- -)

/ /

= (=

= -



(- -)


= -)






(- -)




It seems that this diagram will generate all the rubaa((ii meters, and it certainly has the merit of conciseness. However, what the student really needs to know about [rubaa((ii] meter is that a poem four lines long with a rhyme scheme AABA or AAAA is most probably going to turn out to BE a {rubaa((ii}. Then you can look it up in this book until you get used to it. In our experience it takes longer to get used to than most meters, but its subtlety and sophistication make it well worth the effort.


SEVEN == SCANNING AS CODE-BREAKING Using the material in this book, you can determine the meter of almost any Urdu poem with complete accuracy. The only condition is that you must have enough lines to work with. Eight lines are usually more than sufficient. Two lines are sometimes not enough. When you are new to the process, it's important to work calmly and carefully and pay full attention. The normal process of scanning is so reassuringly mechanical that mistakes and anomalies can seem quite disconcerting. And as we will see, some uncertainties are inevitable on the first reading. But the encouraging truth is that after all, all traditional and most modern poetry CAN most definitely be scanned. Urdu meter is a far more powerful and reliable tool for the student than English meter. Start with the first word in the first line, and divide it into syllables according to the three basic criteria (Sections 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4). Work from orthography first; very often it is sufficient in itself. If it is not, pronounce the word mentally for guidance. Consider whether there are any flexible syllables in the word (Section 2.2), or any special features that might make its scanning unusual (Sections 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4). Mark down its syllables in sequence as long, short, or flexible--you can use any sort of notation you like, as long as it can reflect these three possibilities. If the word is a monosyllable, consider whether it may be flexible (Section 2.1). Then deal with the second word. You can write down the syllables either from left to right, as we have done for typographical convenience in this book, or from right to left, as flows more naturally from working with Urdu script; a consistent method of your own is the main necessity. If some syllable puzzles you, leave its space blank, or mark it in lightly (pencil is more convenient than pen for this kind of work). Scan three or four lines in this way, trying to keep the syllables properly aligned in vertical columns as you go. After three or four lines you will almost always notice a pattern emerging, though you'll very often find one or two lines skewed or disarranged somehow, coming out too long or too short. Remember to allow for the extra, unscanned short syllable which may occur at the end of the line in almost all meters, and which does not count in determining the line length. All lines of poetry officially end with a long syllable, since all the meters do. If some lines still seem irregular in length, scan a few more lines, until the weight of evidence is sufficient to tell you the 42

normal line length. Then go over the idiosyncratic lines carefully for one or more of the following tricky features: *the word aur [aur], which is scanned either (= -), or merely (=). It is so common that it is in a class by itself as a source of error. *possible cases of word-grafting (Section 3.1). Word-grafting often reduces the number of syllables by one, so an extra syllable in a line can often be removed by detecting the presence of word-grafting. *metrical peculiarities. You might be dealing with one of those pairs of meters which permit the substitution of two shorts for one long, usually in the next-to-last syllable. Uniquely, the pair consisting of meters #1 and #9 permits such substitution in the third syllable. (These pairs of freely combinable meters are enumerated at the end of Section 6.1.) Some of these meters also permit the first syllable, normally long, to be replaced at will with a short (meters #14-#19). Also, be alert for the extra, unscanned short syllable permitted before the caesura in meters which have a caesura; see Section 6.1 for details. These features, which can be detected only AFTER the initial scanning process, account for almost all irregularities in the number of syllables per line. If any irregularity remains, set aside the line in which it occurs for later study. When in doubt, scan more lines and consider them all together; the pattern will emerge more and more clearly. Very rarely, but once in a while, you'll encounter a situation in which a pattern simply fails to emerge, in which each line seems to be quite different in length and pattern from other lines. If this happens, the most probable diagnosis is Mir's "Hindi" meter (Section 6.2); check the patterns and the length to see if this is the case. Remember that a halflength form of this meter, though quite uncommon, does sometimes occur. Then there is meter #6 (Section 6.1), which like "Hindi" meter permits frequent substitution of two shorts for one long, and thus can vary greatly from line to line. Another possibility is that you are dealing with a rubaa((ii [rubaa((ii]. Usually you will know beforehand if this is the case, since the [rubaa((ii] meters are such a distinctive group (Section 6.3), and since [rubaa((ii] poetry normally comes in four-line units which rhyme AABA or AAAA. If you're dealing with "Hindi" meter or one of its cousins, you will know it. Otherwise, you'll be able to normalize the length of enough lines to make the pattern clear. You will then have orderly vertical columns of syllables. If the nth vertical column contains all long or (most improbably) all short syllables, you will have no doubt about the length of the nth syllable of the line. If the column contains a mixture of longs 43

and flexibles, or a mixture of shorts and flexibles, the true length of the syllable will still be clear. Write the proper mark below each column, separated from it by a line or a bit of space. What if the column contains all flexibles? If you want to be perfectly sure of your ground, scan more lines. But a column of five or six flexibles usually indicates a short syllable. The reason for this is that the normal processes of syllable division produce more long syllables than short ones. All flexible syllables are two-letter ones: they are thus properly "long" syllables, which may also be pressed into service as short ones. In particular, all the common monosyllabic words which the poet can most conveniently shuffle around to fit the meter are either long or long-turned-flexible (Section 2.1). Thus when the poet wants a long syllable, he has a large stock to choose from and the odds are against his using a whole column of flexible longs and no inflexible longs. But when he wants a convenient short syllable, he has much less scope for choice, so the odds are much greater that he would come to select a whole column of flexibles. The longer the column of flexibles, the greater the probability that the syllable in question is short. Except in the case of the peculiar meters described above, it is impossible for a single column to contain both long and short syllables. It may often happen that all the syllables in your column appear to be of the same kind, or else flexible, with only a single glaring aberration. If there is any doubt, scan more lines until the weight of evidence makes the proper scansion clear. Then focus on the aberration. Consider the following possibilities: *possible word-grafting (Section 3.1). If word-grafting is permissible in the situation and would correct the scansion, it should be assumed to have taken place. *the possible presence of a [tashdiid], even if it is not written; or the erroneous insertion of a tashdiid by the calligrapher where there should not be one. *the possible presence of an [i.zaafat], even if it is not written; or the erroneous insertion of an i.zaafat where there should not be one. *the possibility of an Arabic, Persian, or Indic word that falls under some special irregular scansion rule; see Chapter 4 and the Glossary. *the possibility of a misspelled word-- it's possible that a word with a flexible spelling to indicate scansion (Section 2.4) has in fact been misspelled by the calligrapher.


*the possibility of confusion between n and ;N . There could be confusion between [nuun] and [nuun-e ;Gunnah], with one being erroneously present while the other is metrically correct. *the amphibious role of o ii e as vowels or consonants, depending on syllable division. If none of these possibilities can account for the discrepancy, remember that editors and calligraphers do often make mistakes. Compare your edition of the text with some other if possible, to check its accuracy. It is all too easy for the calligrapher to write kar [kar] for ke [ke], shaah [shaah] for shah [shah], or the reverse. Such mistakes, all but undetectable in prose, can have a great effect on scanning, and it is necessary to be alert for them. It is much more likely that there's some such mistake in transmission, than that the poet wrote a line flagrantly out of meter. However, pronunciation and poetic practice have varied somewhat with time and place; the oldest poets may have archaic usages, and the newest may be experimentally taking liberties. If the poet has done something idiosyncratic, or if there is a textual problem, you will be well able to isolate and investigate it. If you have enough lines to work with, no small anomaly can possibly confuse you: you can always break the code. But sometimes you may want to scan a very short poem, or a single two-line shi((r [shi((r]. No method, and certainly not ours, can guarantee you perfect success. There are enough kinds of flexibility and uncertainty built into Urdu meter so that mechanical accuracy requires a good deal of redundancy. However, if you are willing to venture, it is usually possible to make excellent educated guesses. Scan the lines in the normal way as best you can. Usually you arrive at a result which leaves at least one flexible syllable even in the final resolution. A column consisting of only two flexibles has no more than about a 60-40 chance of representing a short syllable. Sometimes you can make use of the rule that three short syllables never occur in a row. But usually you need more help than this. If the meter is a common one, you may be able to recognize it; then you will know for sure what the flexible syllables really are. Even if you don't recognize the meter, you may be able to figure it out by recognizing the feet. The great majority of Urdu meters contain four feet. And the great majority of four-foot meters contain two or more identical feet among the four. Remember that the middle feet are more likely to be longer, often four-syllable ones; the last foot is often very short (two or three syllables), and the first foot is also often short (three syllables). A good working knowledge of the afaa((iil [afaa((iil] (Chapter 5) is obviously very helpful in this process. Remember that 45

none of the [afaa((iil] end with two short syllables, and only one-third of the [afaa((iil] end with one short syllable. Two short syllables together usually occur at the beginning of a foot. Try to envision the breakdown of your scansion into feet. If you can discover two or more identical feet, you can often resolve any remaining flexible syllables by seeing the correspondences. If your scansion reveals a caesura pattern (foot A, foot B, foot A, foot B), you can easily determine the true length of any flexible syllables. If your meter appears shorter than average, it is probably a three-foot one. Three-foot meters are very likely not to have any identical feet. If none of these shortcuts works, you can always take the meter list (Section 6.1), and plow through it until you recognize your meter; though the list is not exhaustive, it contains meters for something like 95% of the meters you will normally encounter. For rare and exotic meters, you can check in Barker or Grahame Bailey. Don't let a difficultlooking meter intimidate you. Even educated native speakers have trouble when given small samples of exotic meters. If you are careful and persistent, you can eventually figure out almost anything. A NOTE ON na:zm [na:zm]: Modern na:zm are actually much closer to traditional metrical conventions than might be expected. The paaband na:zm [paaband na:zm], "regular verse," always uses one of the traditional meters, and traditional rhyming elements as well. The na:zme mu((arraa [na:zm-e mu((arraa], "blank verse," also uses a traditional meter, though it is unrhymed. Undoubtedly aazaad na:zm [aazaad na:zm], "free verse," takes liberties with traditional meters. Yet the particular meter any aazaad na:zm is taking liberties with can almost always be recognized. Suppose that the traditional meter consists of the sequence: foot A, foot B, foot C, foot D. Then the aazaad na:zm might have lines in foot-sequences like the following: ABC / ABCD / A / AB / CDA / B / CDAB / CD, and so on. Sometimes a foot itself may begin at the end of one line and end at the beginning of the next. Lines may also be stretched by the duplication of medial feet: ABBBCD, ABBCCD, etc. But the omission of a foot (ACD, BD) does not usually occur. Common Hindi meters are sometimes adapted and used in [aazaad na:zm], but in general the traditional meters, though modified, remain quite recognizable. There is also of course na:srii na:zm [na;srii na:zm], the "prose poem." Works of this genre deliberately avoid meter. As a rule they can't be scanned in any systematic way.


EIGHT == FROM EYE TO EAR Once the code has been broken, and the proper meter of a poem is known, we abandon our invaluable analytical notion of the flexible syllable. A flexible syllable may be long in one instance and short in another: we call it flexible to show that we do not yet know which it is in the instance we are considering. But once we DO know the meter, there's no longer any such thing as a flexible syllable. Every syllable is either long or short. (Some meters--#14-#19--may begin with either a long or a short syllable. If the first word in the line is a flexible monosyllable, it might seem that it would retain its flexibility. But in fact in such cases the word is always read as long.) Scanning a poem accurately on paper is, given enough lines, a purely mechanical process. Reciting it properly is not. Yet we find that most students can learn to recite with some competence, and benefit by doing so. Recitation helps the student memorize, pronounce, analyze, and enjoy the poetry much more easily. And since Urdu poetry is so much part of an oral tradition which includes simple ta;ht ul-laf:z [ta;ht ullaf:z] recitation, unaccompanied tarannum [tarannum] performance, and full-scale singing in a classical raag [raag], the student who hears and recites, as well as reads, has much better access to the poetry as native speakers experience it. Before trying to recite a poem, you should thoroughly learn its meter. It is easiest to do this in terms of feet: traditionally educated native speakers learn meters as a series of afaa((iil [afaa((iil]. You may find it easier to substitute your own nonsense words. To express the sequence (= = =), it may be easier to say da-dum-dum-dum than mafa((aiilun [mafaa((iilun]; similarly, dum-da-dum-dum may replace faa((ilaatun [faa((ilaatun], etc. Any combination of syllables that works for you will do, especially when you are just starting, but try to choose your set and stick to it. When you practice reciting, choose a meter with three or four identical feet for your first attempt. Meter #10 or #26 would be a good one to begin with; both are easy and popular. Start with the fundamental idea that a long syllable takes roughly twice as much time to say as a short one. You can even use a metronome to get the feel of it. Or tap on the 47

table at a steady rate, holding a long syllable for two taps and a short syllable for one. Go as slowly as necessary at first, and get the rhythm RIGHT. Practice the first foot until you get it, then add the rest one by one, until you can say the whole line in slow, clumsy but ACCURATE rhythm. Be especially careful to make long syllables twice as long quantitatively, in duration, rather than giving them extra stress or a heavy accent as in English. It is insidiously easy to slide over from quantitative into qualitative emphasis, especially at first. That is why slow careful mechanical practice is of the greatest importance. Only when the rhythm has been thoroughly mastered should the words of the poem be gradually substituted for whatever set of foot-naming words you have been using. The first meter learned in this way may be slow going. But later ones become easier surprisingly quickly, since the basic feet keep recurring, and your ear becomes accustomed to quantitative distinctions. The most helpful thing is the constant recurrence of a handful of really common meters. You will quickly learn to be comfortable with them and will be able to recite new poetry in them with great ease, even on the first try. Eventually, you will learn to recognize them almost on sight and you'll no longer need to use pencil and paper, except for rare meters. You'll be able to recite a line of poetry in your head in one or two possible meters, and see which one works. Only rarely will very unusual meters perplex you--as they perplex native speakers. You can then scan systematically with pencil and paper, and teach yourself the meter once you have worked it out. But as a rule you will be able to identify the most common meters even from their first few syllables. For reference, here is a list of the most common meters, in order of decreasing popularity. Naturally in different genres and different periods, preferences have varied. This list is an over-all one, prepared for us by Shamsur Rahman Faruqi. The number assigned to each meter is its number in Section 6.1. #19 =* - = = / - - = = / - - = = / - - = #18 =* - = = / - - = = / - - = = / = = Frequently used together. *This long syllable may be replaced by a short. #5 = = - / = - = - / - = = - / = - = #10 = - = = / = - = = / = - = = / = - = #26 - = = = / - = = = / - = = = / - = = = #34 - = - = / - - = = / - = - = / - - = #33 - = - = / - - = = / - = - = / = = Frequently used together. 48

#8 = = - / - = = - / - = = - / - = = #7 = = - / - = = = // = = - / - = = = Has caesura. #15 =* - = = / - = - = / - - = #14 =* - = = / - = - = / = = Frequently used together. *This long syllable may be replaced by a short. In A Textbook of Urdu Prosody and Rhetoric, Pybus gives his own version of such a list (pp. 44-46): #26, #8, #10, #18-19, #5, #33-34, #28, #30 (in its half-length form), #14-15. Note that the first six meters are the same in each list, though differently ordered. Once your recitation is mechanically correct, you should take note of the subtleties. Notice that some short syllables are extra short, especially word-final one-letter ones (e.g., in dard [dar-d]; kaam [kaa-m]; dilchasp [dil-chas-p]). Practice your favorite lines until you can keep the meter perfect without thinking about it: the more you internalize the meter, the more you can afford to try embellishments and experiments in recitation. Listen to records or tapes. Classical Urdu Poetry, by Barker and Salam, is accompanied by a set of six cassette tapes that contain recitations and metrical patterns for a number of poems from the book; many students find them helpful. If possible, have native speakers recite for you. Don't be dismayed if you have trouble hearing the meter at first. It will come with practice. At some point you may feel like trying your hand at composing a poem of your own. More non-native-speakers than you might think have written Urdu poetry, and some have even done it reasonably well. If you've assimilated the material in this book you will be able to write metrically perfect poetry with only rare mistakes on small esoteric points. Start with simple words, and ideas that are not too complicated. Check the Glossary for some of the forms of flexibility available to you as a poet in particular words, and remember the beauties of wordgrafting (Section 3.1) as well. You will come to have a lively appreciation of the flexible monosyllables (Section 2.1). Nothing will make you admire the achievement of the great poets more than wrestling with the same artistic constraints and choices yourself. If you are serious, the traditional thing to do is to show your poetry to an ustaad [ustaad], a senior poet whom you respect, for criticism and revision. A poem must be more than metrically correct to be appreciated: its rhythm should be flowing, ravaa;N [ravaa;N] and its language wellchosen, fa.sii;h [fa.sii;h]. These criteria are subtle and intuitively determined. There's more to it than this, of course; even Ghalib had his troubles with the connoisseurs of his day. You could do worse than 49

make a study of Ghalib and Mir; this website provides a great deal of material for doing so. If you are lucky enough to find a good ustaad , pay close attention to him or her (the feminine form of ustaad is ustaanii [ustaanii]). Such an ustad may suggest many changes. Don't be discouraged. Ask questions, and think carefully about the criteria your ustad is using. Read more poetry. Memorize verses that you like, and recite them to yourself. If you persevere, you'll be rewarded. The best reward will be a far more sensitive and sophisticated understanding of how Urdu poetry works-how it is created, evaluated, and enjoyed. The true ahl-e zabaan [ahl-e zabaan], who knows and loves the poetry fully, is made and not born.


NINE == BIBLIOGRAPHY 9.1 == Works in English

BAILEY, T. Grahame. "A Guide to the Metres of Urdu Verse." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 2 9,4 (1937-39):969985. Contains an exhaustive and well-organized list of meters, which the student may find helpful. Long and short syllables are given, together with the corresponding [afaa((iil] in transliteration, and the basic oneword name of the meter. Bailey also gives a separate, short list of the most common meters that is convenient for quick reference. In his brief introduction (pp. 969-972) he makes some confusing and very doubtful statements about Urdu meter. But most of the article consists of the meter list. This is not perfect: for example, 20.2 is wrongly scanned; 13.1 and 15.14 are extremely unlikely in Urdu; 24.1 is entirely nonexistent. Moreover, he constantly interprets a meter with the permitted "cheat syllable" used at the end as a whole separate meter. Still, the list is thorough and basically useful. BARKER, M. A. R., and S. A. Salam. Classical Urdu Poetry. Ithaca, N.Y.: Spoken Languages Services, Inc., 1977. 3 vols. Volume I contains: Appendix I: Urdu Poetics-- A.130 Scansion (pp. xxxv-xl); A.140 Measure and Metre (pp. xl-xlvi); A.150 Catalexis (pp. xlvi-lxiv). An account which touches on all the major points of metrical theory and presents them with accuracy and technical sophistication. Syllables are defined as "heavy (CVC or CV) and light (CV)," where C = consonant, V = long vowel, and V = [zer], [zabar], or [pesh]. Thus agar [a-gar] is scanned CV-CVC, kaam [kaa-m] as CV-CV. To some students this notation is confusing. The list of meters is given in a form that makes it hard to consult quickly: meters are described only in terms of [afaa((iil], which are in turn given only in the authors' transliteration. But references are provided, so that the student can look up examples of the meter as they occur in the anthology. This book is an excellent reference work for students with enough background to make use of it. Any student who can use our book can move on to Barker's work for further study. ELWELL-SUTTON, L.P. The Persian Metres. London: Cambridge University Press, 1976. xiv, 285 p. The author's main thesis is that Persian meters are not derived from the Arabic. It's a very controversial idea, but presented with an admirable 51

amount of analytic detail. The transliteration system is not too easy to decipher. This work will be of interest only to the advanced student, and preferably one with a working knowledge of Persian. KIERNAN, Victor, trans. and ed. Poems by Faiz. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1971. 288 p. This is a beautiful book for the student who is just learning to read Urdu and wants to practice reading as well as scanning poetry. It contains a good selection of Faiz's best poetry in gorgeous calligraphy, careful and reliable transliterations of each poem on facing pages, and both literal and "poetic" translations. Learners always find this book most attractive and helpful. The student should, however, beware of pp. 13-14 of the Preface, in which Kiernan illustrates his view that stress is "clearly important" in Urdu poetry by giving some common meters used by Faiz in terms of shorts and longs, "with accents added to mark stress." The placement of these accent marks is apparently determined only by his own intuition. The value of that intuition can easily be judged: in every one of his six examples, the poem that he cites to illustrate a certain meter is not in that meter at all. MANUEL, Peter L. "The Relationship between Prosodic and Musical Rhythms in Urdu Ghazal-Singing." In: Studies in the Urdu Gazal and Prose Fiction, ed. by Muhammad Umar Memon. Madison: Center for South Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin, 1979. Pp. 101-119. An interesting and informative article. It contains some minor inaccuracies in the description of meters; the student who has used this handbook will easily spot them. But they do not affect the points being made about performance theory and practice. MATTHEWS, D. J., and C. Shackle. An Anthology of Classical Urdu Love Lyrics; Text and Translations. London: Oxford University Press, 1972. 283 p. Contains: Appendix I: Notes on Prosody and Meter (pp. 210-213). An extremely condensed account of Urdu meter, basically accurate though inevitably oversimplified. Scansion rules are briefly given. The meter list contains all the meters appearing in the book, described in terms of longs and shorts, with full references so that the poems in which a particular meter is used can easily be located. A note of caution: the patterns given are sometimes misleadingly simple. The optional initial short syllable in certain meters is not shown, even though it occurs in poems in the book (e.g. 15.5, pp. 128-9). But considering the brief scope of this account, it is a very good one.


PLATTS, John T. A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1884 (1st ed.) and many later reprints in England and New Delhi. viii, 1259 p. While this classic dictionary has nothing directly to do with meter, it's the English-speaking student's best friend, and anyone who doesn't already own it should get it. Fortunately various Indian and sometimes Pakistani editions are constantly kept in print, and are not even very expensive as modern books go. No one who does anything with classical Urdu literature should be without it. The fact that it's now available online doesn't at all exempt the serious student from needing to own it. Even better is to own two copies. (Or more, of course.) PYBUS, Captain G.D. A Textbook of Urdu Prosody and Rhetoric. Lahore: Ramakrishna and Sons, 1924. viii, 151 p.: ON THIS SITE. Contains: Part I: Prosody-- Chapter 2, Scansion (pp. 6-16); Chapter 3, Metre (pp. 17-21); Chapter 4, Catalexis (pp. 22-46) (on the derivation of meters); Appendix I-- Specimens of the common metres for practice in scansion (pp. 126-133). This is a treasure of a book and we recommend it above every other for the serious student. It explains traditional Urdu prosody accurately and in considerable detail, starting with saakin [saakin], "quiescent," and muta;harrik [muta;harrik], "movent," letters and proceeding to the [afaa((iil], then to the meters and their derivations. It is as lucidly written as possible, given the very complex material it is dealing with. Any student interested in reading Urdu works on meter should certainly master the material in this book first. Other chapters in Part I besides those mentioned above are also useful, and Part II, "Rhetoric," is worth reading as well. This is the only book in English that teaches the student to understand Urdu poetry the way the literarily educated native speaker has traditionally done. QURESHI, Regula. "Tarannum: the Chanting of Urdu Poetry." Ethnomusicology 13,3 (Sept. 1969):425-468. -------. "Islamic Music in an Indian Environment: the Shi`a Majlis." Ethnomusicology 25,1 (Jan. 1981):41-71. -------. Sufi Music of India and Pakistan: Sound and Meaning in the Qawwali. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. With cassettes. The author of these and many other books and articles is a musician herself who sings and plays ghazal beautifully. Much of her work will be of interest to students for its account of the ways in which Urdu poetry is sung and recited nowadays, especially in Islamic religious contexts. 53

RUSSELL, Ralph. "Some Problems of the Treatment of Urdu Metre." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Apr. 1960), pp. 48-58. Begins with a discussion of the difficulties of traditional scansion, and proceeds to a critique of Grahame Bailey's approach. Russell then develops the thesis that stress, or ictus, "is almost as important an element in Urdu metre as quantity is" (p. 57). His argument rests heavily on the example of Mir's "Hindi" meter. This example may well be considered, however, a dubious one on which to base wider generalizations about Urdu meter. An interesting presentation of a controversial thesis. RUSSELL, Ralph, and Khurshidul Islam. Three Mughal Poets: Mir, Sauda, Mir Hasan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968. xxii, 290 p. Contains: Appendix: A Complete Ghazal of Mir (pp. 271-277). Russell and Islam here give an account of Mir's "Hindi" meter in qualitative Western metrical terms, as a sequence of "spondees" and "dactyls" with a "beat" on the odd-numbered syllables. An intriguing approach, once again emphasizing stress, or ictus. If this approach can be applied at all to Urdu meter, it is certainly to "Hindi" meter rather than to the more conventional meters. RUSSELL, Ralph. A Primer of Urdu Verse Metre. London: by the author, mimeographed and ringbound, 1974. Pages not numbered. Contains Russell's views on the nature of Urdu meter, in a simplified form appropriate to students just beginning to study the subject (Lessons 1-4). Offers examples consisting of ghazals by Momin, Zafar, and Ghalib (Lessons 5-8) and a passage from Hali's [musaddas] (Lesson 9), all transliterated, scanned, translated, and discussed. The book also reproduces Bailey's meter list (minus Bailey's introduction) in Appendix 2. A helpful treatment of the subject, in a disarmingly colloquial style. Russell suggests, for example, a resemblance between the common meter (= - = = / = - = = / = - = = / = - =) and the rhythmic structure of "Oh My Darlin' Clementine." A beginning student could certainly use this book with enjoyment and profit, though it's impossible to agree with its insistence on stress as an analytical approach to Urdu meter. THIESEN, Finn. A Manual of Classical Persian Prosody; With Chapters on Urdu, Karakhandic and Ottoman Prosody. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1982. 274 p. A detailed and sophisticated account; the author is not only learned in the classical theory, but also at home with modern linguistic methods of 54

notation and analysis. Thiesen's specific account of Urdu prosody (pp. 181-209) is devoted mostly to the ways in which it deviates from the Persian norms he has already discussed. Examples are given throughout, in both original script and transliteration, with translations. For the advanced student who wants to put Urdu meter in as thoroughly Persian a perspective as possible, this book will be of great value. It also contains an account of the circles or "wheels" used by Arabic and Persian prosodists to generate all the classical meters (pp. 102-165), and a meter list (pp. 227-255) of the meters as used in Persian.

9.2 == Works in Urdu [in Urdu alphabetical order by title] aahang-e shi((r by abuu :zafar ((abd ul-vaa;hid [aahang-e shi((r] by [abuu :zafar ((abd ul-vaa;hid]. Hyderabad: Andhra Pradesh Urdu Academy, 1978. This work discusses meter and rhyme in great detail, making reference to the Hindi system as well. It is hard to use, since it is unsystematic and somewhat rambling. It contains a helpful glossary of terms, pp. 327-386. ba;hr ul-fa.saa;hat by najm ul-;Ganii [ba;hr ul-fa.haa.hat] by [najm ul;Ganii]. Lucknow: Naval Kishor Press, 1885 (1st ed.); 1926 (2nd ed.); 1927 (3rd ed.). 1232, 2 p. This voluminous work on Urdu poetics contains one sizable chapter, perhaps a couple of hundred pages, on meter. It is more commonly used as a reference today than the other works named in this section. It is simpler, more detailed, and better organized than the works by Auj or Faqir. chiraa;G-e su;xan by mirzaa yaas yagaanah changezii [chiraa;G-e su;xan] by [mirzaa yaas yagaanah changezii]. Lucknow: Siddiq Book Depot, 1927(?) [1914]. c.144 p. This work, first published in 1914, is unsystematic and disorganized. It is notable, however, for listing ALL variants, even the rarest and oddest, of the Urdu meters. ;hadaa))iq ul-balaa;Gat by shams ud-diin faqiir [;hadaa))iq ulbalaa;Gat] by [shams ud-diin faqiir]. Trans. by imaam ba;xsh .sahbaa))ii [imaam ba;xsh .sahbaa))ii]. Kanpur: Naval Kishor Press, 1915. 192 p. The famous Indian rhetorician and poet Shamsuddin Faqir composed the original work in Persian in 1768. It was translated into Urdu in 1842; the translator replaced the Arabic and Persian examples with ones drawn from Urdu. The work deals with all branches of literature, and includes 55

an extensive chapter on meter (pp. 123-174). It is comparatively wellorganized and non-theoretical; it includes chapter headings, which make it easier to consult than some similar works. dars-e balaa;Gat , ed. by shams ur-ra;hm;aan faaruuqii [dars-e balaa;Gat], ed. by [shams ur-ra;hm;aan faaruuqii]. New Delhi: Bureau for the Promotion of Urdu, Government of India, 1981. 192 p., index. A primer on meter designed for undergraduates; very simply written, it is accurate and avoids controversial issues. It seeks to explain scansion and other metrical issues in language understandable to modern native speakers with no special background. The book also contains an unusual glossary of Urdu poetic terms and their nearest English counterparts. The chapters on meter, scansion, and rhyme were written by Faruqi, and most of the rest carefully edited by him. This book is in print, and would be an excellent starting point for the student who is ready to read metrical material in Urdu. zar-e kaamil ((ayaar by mu:zaffar ((alii asiir [zar-e kaamil ((ayaar] by [mu:zaffar ((alii asiir]. Lucknow: Naval Kishor Press, 1903. 2nd ed.; 308 p. A translation of the famous Persian treatise mi((yaar ul-ash((aar , attributed to na.siir ud-diin :tuusii (d. 1079). The original work, without its numerous examples, is only about sixty pages long, and Asir's is a parallel-text version with commentary. A condensed but thorough and systematic account of Arabic and Persian meter. Extremely abstruse, and considered to be the most authoritative work on the subject. .si;h;hat-e alfaa:z by sayyid badr ul-;hasan [.si;h;hat-e alfaa:z] by [sayyid badr ul-;hasan]. Delhi: Kutbkhanah Anjuman Taraqqi-e Urdu, 1977. 119 p. The whole book consists of a series of lists of Urdu words that are difficult or problematical for various reasons. The book is clearly laid out and contains an index; the student should have no trouble using it. Perhaps the most helpful list is that of frequently mispronounced words (pp. 9-42). Each word in the list is followed by its metrically correct division into syllables. ((aruu.z aahang aur bayaan by shams ur-ra;hm;aan faaruuqii [((aruu.z aahang aur bayaan] by [shams ur-ra;hm;aan faaruuqii]. Lucknow: Kitab Nagar, 1977. 258 p., index. Thoughtful and original discussions of some problematical aspects of Urdu meter, by a critic versed in both Urdu and English poetic theory. The essays are difficult, but well worth the effort for the serious student. 56

Among the topics discussed: flexible syllables, the caesura (not recognized at all in traditional theory), the creation of seemingly different rhythms within the same meter. The book also includes a glossary of traditional metrical terms (pp. 250-258), with clear and concise definitions. ((ilm-e ((aruu.z o qaafiyah o taarii;x go))ii by ;hasan kaa:zim ((aruu.z ilaahaabaadii [((ilm-e ((aruu.z o qaafiyah o taarii;x go))ii] by[;hasan kaa:zim ((aruu.z ilaahaabaadii]. Allahabad: by the author, 1974. 96 p. This small volume is not notable for orderly arrangement or clear presentation. However, it is generally accurate, and very handy for quick reference. qavaa((id ul-((aruu.z by .safiir bilgraamii [qavaa((id ul-((aruu.z] by [.safiir bilgraamii].1844(?). Safir Bilgrami was a shaagird of Ghalib's; this book is considered quite authoritative. kiliid-e ((aruu.z by zaar ((allaamii [kiliid-e ((aruu.z] by [zaar ((allaamii]. Patiala, 1981. 208 p. Said to have been available from the Editor of sham((a-e ;xayaal , Gangoh, Saharanpur. The author is a well-known prosodist of the old school; his ustaad in prosody and poetry was si;hr ((ishqaabaadii (d. 1978), a famous and expert student of meter. Allami claims that a student can learn prosody directly from this book without additional instruction. Yet in fact, his style is jerky, his presentation unsystematic, and his definitions often cryptic. At times he implies that the rules of classical prosody are sacrosanct, but at other times he deviates from the rules without giving any reason for it. He spends much of his time providing examples of rare variant meters of types so unusual that they hardly ever actually occur. However, he provides detailed and useful charts of the meters and variations, or zi;haafaat [zi;haafaat], which are for the most part extremely accurate. He provides a small chapter on rhyme as well. miqyaas ul-ash((aar by mirzaa mu;hammad ja((far auj [miqyaas ulash((aar] by [mirzaa mu;hammad ja((far auj]. Lucknow: Matba`-e Ja`fari, 1886. 336, 4 p. The most exhaustive, authoritative, and painstaking of the classical works on Urdu meter.

9.3 == Web resources

At present, the only site I know of is one maintained by Mr. Mohammed Khashan: [site] 57

TEN == EXERCISES 1-6 These ghazal excerpts are meant for practice. They have been taken from M. A. R. Barker and S. A. Salam, Classical Urdu Poetry, volume 1; the page numbers refer to their location in this volume. All the poems in Barker's volume 1 have been literally translated, with full explanations, in volume 2 of the same work; thus no translations will be provided here. Errors of calligraphy in Barker's edition have been corrected, and a few editing choices have been differently made. The ghazals appear in abbreviated form, with some verses omitted, but the first and last verses are always included. Scansions and explanatory notes for the ghazals are given in Chapter 11. GHAZAL 1 by Vali Dakhani, p. 92: kiyaa mujh ((ishq ne :zaalim ko aab aahistah aahistah kih aatish gul ko kartaa hai gulaab aahistah aahistah vafaadaarii ne dilbar kii bujhaayaa aatish-e ;Gam kuu;N kih garmii daf((a kartii hai gulaab aahistah aahistah ((ajab kuchh lu:tf rakhtaa hai shab-e ;xilvat me;N gulruu suu;N ;xi:taab aahistah aahistah javaab aahistah aahistah adaa o naaz se aataa hai vuh raushan-jabii;N ghar suu;N kih jyuu;N mashriq suu;N nikle aaftaab aahistah aahistah valii mujh dil me;N aataa hai ;xayaal-e yaar be-parvaa kih jyuu;N a;Nkhyaa;N mane;N aataa hai ;xvaab aahistah aahistah GHAZAL 2 by Khvajah Mir Dard, p. 122: tuhmate;N chand apne ;zimme dhar chale jis li))e aa))e the so ham kar chale zindagii hai yaa ko))ii :tuufaan hai ham to is jiine ke haatho;N mar chale sham((a ke maanind ham is bazm me;N chashm tar aa))e the daaman tar chale kyaa hame;N kaam in gulo;N se ai .sabaa ek dam aa))e idhar uudhar chale dard kuchh ma((luum hai yih log sab kis :taraf se aa))e the kiidhar chale GHAZAL 3 by Mir, pp. 127-128: milne lage ho der der dekhiye kyaa hai kyaa nahii;N tum to karo ho .saa;hibii bande me;N kuchh rahaa nahii;N buu-e gul aur rang-e gul dono;N hai;N dilkash ai nasiim lek baqadr-e yak nigaah dekhiye to vafaa nahii;N


shikvah karuu;N huu;N ba;xt kaa itne ;Ga.zab nah ho butaa;N mujh ko ;xudaa nah ;xvaastah tum se to kuchh gilaa nahii;N chashm-e safed ashk-e sur;x aah-e dil-e ;hazii;N hai yaa;N shiishah nahii;N hai may nahii;N abr nahii;N havaa nahii;N ek faqa:t hai saadagii tis pah balaa-e jaa;N hai tuu ((ishvah karishmah kuchh nahii;N aan nahii;N adaa nahii;N GHAZAL 4 by Mir, pp. 128-129: hastii apnii ;hubaab kii sii hai yih numaa))ish saraab kii sii hai naazukii us ke lab kii kyaa kahiye pankha;Rii ik gulaab kii sii hai baar baar us ke dar pah jaataa huu;N ;haalat ab i.z:taraab kii sii hai mai;N jo bolaa kahaa kih yih aavaaz usii ;xaanah-;xaraab kii sii hai miir un niim baaz aa;Nkho;N me;N saarii mastii sharaab kii sii hai GHAZAL 5 by Mir, p. 130: ((ishq hamaare ;xayaal pa;Raa hai ;xvaab ga))ii aaraam gayaa jii kaa jaanaa ;Ther gayaa hai .sub;h gayaa yaa shaam gayaa ((ishq kiyaa so diin gayaa iimaan gayaa islaam gayaa dil ne aisaa kaam kiyaa kuchh jis se mai;N naakaam gayaa haa))e javaanii kyaa kyaa kahye shor saro;N me;N rakhte the ab kyaa hai vuh ((ahd gayaa vuh mausam vuh hangaam gayaa GHAZAL 6 by Mus'hafi, p. 178: nah vuh raate;N nah vuh baate;N nah vuh qi.s.sah kahaanii hai faqa:t ik ham hai;N bistar par pa;Re aur naatavaanii hai bhalaa mai;N haath dho bai;Thuu;N nah apnii jaan se kyuu;N kar ;xiraam us ke me;N ik aab-e ravaa;N kii sii ravaanii hai tuu yuu;N be-pardah ho jaayaa nah kar har ek ke aage nayaa ((aalam hai teraa aur na))ii kaafir javaanii hai nah tanhaa gul garebaa;N phaa;Rte hai;N dekh is saj ko chaman me;N aab-juu bhii chaal par us kii divaanii hai tirii baato;N ne to ay mu.s;hafii jii ko jalaa ;Daalaa ;xuda ke vaas:te chup rah yih kyaa aatish zabaanii hai TEN == EXERCISES 7-12 GHAZAL 7 by Jur'at, p. 191: baal suljhaanaa tiraa kanghii se dil uljhaa))e hai aur bikhre dekh kar bas jii hii bikhraa jaa))e hai 59

sur;x ;Dore dekh kyaa hii jaal me;N pha;Nstaa hai dil nikle;N hai;N kyaa kyaa adaa))e;N jab kih tuu sharmaa))e hai rang par chahre ke hai kyaa hii javaanii kii chamak aur bhare gaalo;N pah jii bose ko kyaa lalchaa))e hai ;Gash me;N ho jaataa hai jii bas ((i:tr kii buu baas par jha;T se jur))aat ke gale jab aa ke tuu lag jaa))e hai GHAZAL 8 by Jur'at, pp. 193-194: bhuul ga))e tum jin rozo;N ham ghar pah bulaa))e jaate the hote the kyaa kyaa kuchh charche ((aish manaa))e jaate the kyaa kyaa kuchh thii ;xaa:tirdaarii kyaa kyaa pyaar kii baate;N thii;N kis kis ;Dhab se chaah jataa kar rab:t ba;Rhaa))e jaate the karte the tum un kii ;xvushaamad jo the hamaare ma;hram-e raaz har har baat pah kyaa kyaa un ke naaz u;Thaa))e jaate the nang hai yaa ab naam se aisaa jahaa;N likhaa ho mi;Tvaa do yaa pa;Rhne ko juraa))t hii ke shi((r likhaa))e jaate the GHAZAL 9 by Atish, p. 218: ;hasrat-e jalvah-e diidaar li))e phirtii hai pesh-e rauzan pas-e diivaar li))e phirtii hai maal-e muflis mujhe samjhaa hai junuu;N ne shaayad va;hshat-e dil sar-e baazaar li))e phirtii hai ka((bah o dair me;N vuh ;xaanah-bar-andaaz kahaa;N gardish-e kaafir o dii;Ndaar li))e phirtii hai kisii .suurat se nahii;N jaa;N ko qaraar ai aatish :tapish-e dil mujhe naachaar li))e phirtii hai GHAZAL 10 by Atish, p. 218: yih aarzuu thii tujhe gul ke ruu bah ruu karte ham aur bulbul-e betaab guftaguu karte mirii :tara;h se mah o mahr bhii hai;N aavaarah kisii ;habiib kii yih bhii hai;N justajuu karte jo dekhte terii zanjiir-e zulf kaa ((aalam asiir hone kii aazaad aarzuu karte nah puuchh ((aalam-e bargashtah :taal((ii aatish barastii aag jo baaraa;N kii aarzuu karte GHAZAL 11 by Zauq, p. 297: use ham ne bahut ;Dhuun;Dhaa nah paayaa agar paayaa to khoj apnaa nah paayaa muqaddar par hii gar suud o ziyaa;N hai to ham ne yaa;N nah kuchh khoyaa nah paayaa kahe kyaa haa))e za;xm-e dil hamaaraa dahan paayaa lab-e goyaa nah paayaa 60

na:ziir us kii kahaa;N ((aalam me;N ai ;zauq kahii;N aisaa nah paa))egaa nah paayaa GHAZAL 12 by Zauq, pp. 298-299: laa))i ;hayaat aa))e qa.zaa le chalii chale apnii ;xvushii nah aa))e nah apnii ;xvushii chale bahtar to hai yihii kih nah dunyaa se dil lage par kyaa kare;N jo kaam nah be-dil-lagii chale ho ((umr-e ;xi.zr bhii to kahe;Nge bavaqt-e marg ham kyaa rahe yahaa;N abhii aa))e abhii chale naazaa;N nah ho ;xirad pah jo honaa ho ho vuhii daanish tirii nah kuchh mirii daanishvarii chale dunyaa ne kis kaa raah-e fanaa me;N diyaa hai saath tum bhii chale chalo yuu;N hii jab tak chalii chale TEN == EXERCISES 13-18 GHAZAL 13 by Momin, p. 307: a;sar us ko ;zaraa nahii;N hotaa ranj raa;hat-fazaa nahii;N hotaa tum hamaare kisii :tara;h nah huu))e varnah dunyaa me;N kyaa nahii;N hotaa ek dushman kih char;x hai nah rahe tujh se yih ai du((aa nahii;N hotaa tum mire paas hote ho goyaa jab ko))ii duusraa nahii;N hotaa kyuu;N sune ((ar.z-e mu.z:tar ai momin .sanam aa;xir ;xudaa nahii;N hotaa GHAZAL 14 by Momin, p. 312: vuh jo ham me;N tum me;N qaraar thaa tumhe;N yaad ho kih nah yaad ho vahii ya((nii va((dah nibaah kaa tumhe;N yaad ho kih nah yaad ho vuh na))e gile vuh shikaayate;N vuh maze maze kii ;hikaayate;N vuh har ek baat pah ruu;Thnaa tumhe;N yaad ho kih nah yaad ho huu))e ittifaaq se gar baham to vafaa jataane ko dam bah dam gilah-e malaamat-e aqrabaa tumhe;N yaad ho kih nah yaad ho ko))ii baat aisii agar huu))ii kih tumhaare jii ko burii lagii to bayaa;N se pahle hii bhuulnaa tumhe;N yaad ho kih nah yaad ho jise aap ginte the aashnaa jise aap kahte the baavafaa mai;N vahii huu;N momin-e mubtalaa tumhe;N yaad ho kih nah yaad ho GHAZAL FIFTEEN by Ghalib, p. 319:


baskih dushvaar hai har kaam kaa aasaa;N honaa aadmii ko bhii muyassar nahii;N insaa;N honaa vaa))e diivaanagii-e shauq kih har dam mujh ko aap jaanaa udhar aur aap hii ;hairaa;N honaa ((ishrat-e qatl-gah-e ahl-e tamannaa mat puuchh ((iid-e na:z:zaarah hai shamshiir kaa ((uryaa;N honaa ((ishrat-e paarah-e dil za;xm-e tamannaa khaanaa la;z;zat-e resh-e jigar ;Garq-e namakdaa;N honaa ;haif us chaar girah kap;Re kii qismat ;Gaalib jis kii qismat me;N ho ((aashiq kaa garebaa;N honaa Ghazal 16 by Ghalib, pp. 319-320: yih nah thii hamaarii qismat kih vi.saal-e yaar hotaa agar aur jiite rahte yihii inti:zaar hotaa tire va((de par jiye ham to yih jaan jhuu;T jaanaa kih ;xvushii se mar nah jaate agar i((tibaar hotaa ko))ii mere dil se puuchhe tire tiir-e niim kash ko yih ;xalish kahaa;N se hotii jo jigar ke paar hotaa ;Gam agarchih jaa;N-gusil hai pah kahaa;N bache;N kih dil hai ;Gam-e ((ishq agar nah hotaa ;Gam-e rozgaar hotaa yih masaa))il-e ta.savvuf yih tiraa bayaan ;Gaalib tujhe ham valii samajhte jo nah baadah ;xvaar hotaa Ghazal 17 by Ghalib, p. 321: dahr me;N naqsh-e vafaa vajah-e tasallii nah huu))aa hai yih vuh laf:z kih sharmindah-e ma((nii nah huu))aa mai;N ne chaahaa thaa kih andoh-e vafaa se chhuu'Tuu;N vuh sitamgar mire marne pah bhii raa.zii nah huu))aa huu;N tire va((dah nah karne pah bhii raa.zii kih kabhii gosh minnat-kash-e gulbaang-e tasallii nah huu))aa kis se ma;hruumii-e qismat kii shikaayat kiije ham ne chaahaa thaa kih mar jaa))e;N so vuh bhii nah huu))aa mar gayaa .sadmah-e yak-junbish-e lab se ;Gaalib naatavaanii se ;hariif-e dam-e ((iisii nah huu))aa Ghazal 18 by Ghalib, pp. 321-322: sab kahaa;N kuchh laalah o gul me;N numaayaa;N ho ga))ii;N ;xaak me;N kyaa .suurate;N ho;Ngii kih pinhaa;N ho ga))ii;N yaad thii;N ham ko bhii rangaarang bazm-aaraa))iyaa;N lekin ab naqsh o nigaar-e :taaq-e nisyaa;N ho ga))ii;N niind us kii hai dimaa;G us kaa hai raate;N us kii hai;N terii zulfe;N jis ke baazuu par pareshaa;N ho ga))ii;N


ham muva;h;hid hai;N hamaaraa kesh hai tark-e rusuum millate;N jab miT ga))ii;N ajzaa-e iimaa;N ho ga))ii;N yuu;Nhii gar rotaa rahaa ;Gaalib to ai ahl-e jahaa;N dekhnaa in bastiyo;N ko tum kih viiraa;N ho ga))ii;N TEN == EXERCISES 19-24 Ghazal 19, by Ghalib, pp. 324-325: gar ;xaamushii se faa))idah a;xfaa-e ;haal hai ;xvush huu;N kih merii baat samajhnii mu;haal hai kis parde me;N hai aa))inah-pardaaz ai ;xudaa ra;hmat kih ((u;zr-;xvaah lab-e be-savaal hai hai hai ;xudaa na;xvaastah vuh aur dushmanii ai shauq-e munfa((il yih tujhe kyaa ;xayaal hai hastii ke mat fareb me;N aa jaa))iyo asad ((aalam tamaam ;halqah-e daam-e ;xayaal hai GHAZAL 20 by Ghalib, p. 331: hai baskih har ik un ke ishaare me;N nishaa;N aur karte hai;N mu;habbat to gu;zartaa hai gumaa;N aur yaa rab vuh nah samjhe hai;N nah samjhe;Nge mirii baat de aur dil un ko jo nah de mujh ko zabaa;N aur har chand subuk dast huu))e but-shikanii me;N ham hai;N to abhii raah me;N hai sang-e giraa;N aur paate nahii;N jab raah to cha;Rh jaate hai;N naale ruktii hai mirii :tab((a to hotii hai ravaa;N aur hai;N aur bhii dunyaa me;N su;xanvar bahut achchhe kahte hai;N kih ;Gaalib kaa hai andaaz-e bayaa;N aur GHAZAL 21 by Dagh, p. 367: yaa rab hai ba;xsh denaa bande ko kaam teraa ma;hruum rah nah jaa))e kal yih ;Gulaam teraa jab tak hai dil ba;Gal me;N har dam ho yaad terii jab tak zabaa;N hai mu;Nh me;N jaarii ho naam teraa hai tuu hii dene vaalaa pastii se de bulandii asfal maqaam meraa a((al;aa maqaam teraa ma;hruum kyuu;N rahuu;N mai;N jii bhar ke kyuu;N nah luu;N mai;N detaa hai rizq sab ko hai fai.z ((aam teraa yih daa;G bhii nah hogaa tere sivaa kisii kaa kaunain me;N hai jo kuchh vuh hai tamaam teraa GHAZAL 22 by Dagh, pp. 371-372: ((ajab apnaa ;haal hotaa jo vi.saal-e yaar hotaa kabhii jaan .sadqe hotii kabhii dil ni;saar hotaa 63

ko))ii fitnah taa qiyaamat nah phir aashkaar hotaa tire dil pah kaash :zaalim mujhe i;xtiyaar hotaa yih mazah thaa dil-lagii kaa kih baraabar aag lagtii nah tujhe qaraar hotaa nah mujhe qaraar hotaa tire va((de par sitam-gar abhii aur .sabr karte agar apnii zindagii kaa hame;N ((itibaar hotaa tumhe;N naaz ho nah kyuu;N kar kih liyaa hai daa;G kaa dil yih raqam nah haath lagtii nah yih ifti;xaar hotaa GHAZAL 23 by Akbar Ilahabadi, pp. 396-397: ;xudaa ;haafi:z musalmaano;N kaa akbar mujhe to un kii ;xvush-;haalii se hai yaas kahaa majnuu;N se yih lail;aa kii maa;N ne kih be;Taa tuu agar kar le em ai paas to faura:n byaah duu;N lail;aa ko tujh se bilaa diqqat mai;N ban jaa))uu;N tirii saas kahaa majnuu;N ne yih achchhii sunaa))ii kujaa ((aashiq kujaa kaalij kii bakvaas dil apnaa ;xuun karne ko huu;N maujuud nahii;N man:zuur ma;Gz-e sar kaa aamaas yahii ;Thahrii jo shar:t-e va.sl-e lail;aa to isti((faa miraa baa ;hasrat o yaas GHAZAL 24 by Iqbal, p. 425: kabhii ai ;haqiiqat-e munta:zar na:zar aa libaas-e majaaz me;N kih hazaaro;N sijde ta;Rap rahe hai;N mirii jabiin-e niyaaz me;N tuu bachaa bachaa ke nah rakh use tiraa aa))iinah hai vuh aa))iinah kih shikastah ho to ((aziiztar hai nigaah-e aa))iinah-saaz me;N nah kahii;N jahaa;N me;N amaa;N milii jo amaa;N milii to kahaa;N milii mire jurm-e ;xaanah-;xaraab ko tire ((afv-e bandah-navaaz me;N nah vuh ((ishq me;N rahii;N garmiyaa;N nah vuh ;husn me;N rahii;N sho;xiyaa;N nah vuh ;Gaznavii me;N ta;Rap rahii nah vuh ;xam hai zulf-e ayaaz me;N jo mai;N sar bah sijdah huu))aa kabhii to zamii;N se aane lagii .sadaa tiraa dil to hai .sanam aashnaa tujhe kyaa milegaa namaaz se


ELEVEN == NOTES TO EXERCISES GHAZAL ONE by Vali Dakhani, p. 92: METER: #26, - = = = / - = = = / - = = = / - = = = In this ghazal word-grafting occurs at the start of the radiif [radiif] every time it appears: for example, aab aahistah is scanned as though it were aabaahistah [aa-baa-his-tah]. See Section 3.1. Technical terms like radiif are explained in the Ghalib index of terms, and by Barker in volume 1, in "Appendix I: Urdu Poetics," pp. xxiii-lxiv. Barker also discusses Urdu meter in some detail, in a relatively traditional manner. This ghazal contains a number of Dakhani forms like mujh [mujh] for mere [mere], kuu;N [kuu;N] for ko [ko], suu;N [suu;N] for se [se], mane;N [mane;N] for me;N [me;N]. Their frequency decreases in later ghazals. VERSE 1: mujh [mujh] is scanned (=), since the do-chashmii he of aspiration does not count as a letter. See Section l.l. VERSE 2: aatish-e ;Gam is an i.zaafat [i.zaafat] construction, and is scanned [aa-ti-she-;Gam], (= - x =). See Section 3.2. VERSE 3: ((ajab [((ajab] and lu:tf [lu:tf] are both three-consonant Arabic words; in this case the first is scanned (- =) and the second, more typically, (= -). See Section 1.4. Word-grafting: ;xi:taab aahistah is treated as ;xi;taabaahistah [xi-:taa-baa-his-tah]. VERSE 4: adaa o naaz [a-daa o naa-z] involves a construction with o ; see Section 3.3. jyuu;N [jyuu;N] is scanned (=); see Section 2.1. VERSE 5: a;Nkhyaa;N [a;Nkh-yaa;N] is archaic; it is scanned (= =). ;xvaab [;xvaa-b], scanned (= -), is an irregularly spelled Persian word; see Section 4.2. [back to top of page] GHAZAL TWO by Mir Dard, p. 122: METER: #11, = - = = / = - = = / = - = VERSE 1: li))e [li-))e] is scanned (- x), for )) counts as a full consonant; see Section 1.1. VERSE 2: ko))ii [ko-))ii] is a uniquely flexible word, scanned (x x); see Section 2.2. VERSE 4: uudhar [uu-dhar], scanned (= =), is spelled in a manner now archaic to signal the intended scansion. Note the contrast with the normal spelling, and scansion, of idhar [i-dhar] (- =). Word-grafting: kaam in is treated as kaamin [kaa-min]. 65

[back to top of page] GHAZAL THREE by Mir, pp. 127-128: METER: #25, = - - = / - = - = // = - - = / - = - = Has caesura. VERSE 1: der der [de-r de-r], is scanned (= - = -), so it would seem not to fit the meter. But in meters with a caesura, like this one, an extra unscanned short syllable may occur just before the caesura; see the discussion in Section 6.1. The final r in the second der thus need not count in the scansion. VERSE 2: Since the verse contains several special features like [i.zaafat] and word-grafting, here is its breakdown into syllables and feet: [buu-e gu-lau/-r ran-ge gul// do-no;N hai;N dil/-ka-shai na-sii-(m)] [le-k baqad/-re yak ni-gaa(-h)// de-khi-ye to/ va-faa na-hii;N]. Note that an extra unscanned syllable can be present before the caesura, like the (-h) at the end of nigaah , and/or at the end of the line, as in the case of the (-m) at the end of nasiim . See Section 6.1. VERSE 3: ;xvaastah [;xvaa-s-tah] is an irregularly spelled Persian word, scanned (= - x). See Section 4.2. [back to top of page] GHAZAL FOUR by Mir, pp. 128-129: METER: #14 =* - = = / - = - = / = = *This syllable, while normally long, may occasionally be replaced with a short, at the poet's pleasure. VERSE 2: ik [ik] by its spelling signals a scansion of (=); see Section 2.4. VERSE 3: Word-grafting: baar baar us is treated as baarbaarus [baa-r baa-rus]; ;haalat ab is treated as ;haalatab [;haa-la-tab]. VERSE 4: aavaaz [aa-vaa-(z)] contains the extra short "cheat syllable" permitted at the end of the line in almost all meters. The second line begins with the less common but permissible short syllable, rather than the official long syllable shown in the pattern. [back to top of page]

GHAZAL 5 by Mir, p. 130: METER: "Hindi" meter; see Section 6.2. In order to help you get used to this meter, here is a breakdown into syllables. Long syllables are shown in bold: ((ish-q ha-maa-re ;xi-yaa-l pa-;raa hai // ;xvaa-b ga-))ii aa-raa-m gayaa jii kaa jaa naa ;The-r ga-yaa hai // .sub-;h ga-yaa yaa shaa-m ga-yaa 66

((ish-q ki-yaa so dii-n ga-yaa ii- / maa-n ga-yaa is-laa-m ga-yaa dil ne ai-saa kaa-m ki-yaa kuchh // jis se mai;N naa-kaa-m ga-yaa haa-))e ja-vaa-nii kyaa kyaa kah-ye // sho-r sa-ro;N me;N rakh-te the ab kyaa hai vuh ((ah-d ga-yaa vuh / mau-sam vuh han-gaa-m ga-yaa Note that in the first line of the second verse, and the second line of the third verse, word overlaps prevent the lines from having a true caesura break after the eighth syllable. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 6 by Mus'hafi, p. 178: METER: #26, - = = = / - = = = / - = = = / - = = = VERSE 1: aur [aur] is here scanned as (=) rather than (= -) as it normally would be; it is scanned again this way in Verse 4. This is one of its possibilities; see Section 2.1. VERSE 2: Word-grafting: ;xiraam us is treated as ;xiraamus [;xi-raamus]. VERSE 4: divaanii [di-vaa-nii] has replaced the normal spelling diivaanii [dii-vaa-nii], in order to permit and suggest a scansion of (- = x). This is now archaic. See Section 2.4. VERSE 5: tirii [ti-rii] has replaced the normal spelling terii [te-rii], in order to change the scansion to (- x). See Section 2.4. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 7 by Jur'at, p.191: METER: #10 = - = = / = - = = / = - = = / = - = VERSE 2: kyaa [kyaa] is almost always (=); see Section 2.1. For pha;Nstaa [pha;Ns-taa] see Section 1.2. VERSE 3: For rang [ran-g] see Section 1.2. The word aur [aur], normally (= -), is here scanned (=); see Section 2.1. VERSE 4: jur))aat [jur-))at] is scanned (= =); see Section 4.4. [back to top of page]

GHAZAL 8 by Jur'at, pp. 193-194: METER: "Hindi" meter; see Section 6.2. VERSE 2: pyaar [pyaa-r] is an irregularly spelled Indic word, scanned (= -); see Section 4.3. VERSE 3: ;xvushaamad is really [;xu-shaa-mad]; see Section 4.2. VERSE 4: jahaaN likhaa ho [ja-haaN li-khaa ho] contains an example of the rare scansion pattern (- = -), in [ja-haaN li-], rather than (= - -) as is the norm in this meter. See Section 6.2. 67

[back to top of page] GHAZAL 9 by Atish, p. 218: METER: #18, =* - = = / - - = = / - - = = / = = #19, =* - = = / - - = = / - - = = / - - = These two closely related meters are often used together. *This syllable, while normally long, may occasionally be replaced with a short, at the poet's pleasure. VERSE 3: The first line of this verse is the only one in this excerpt that is composed in meter #18 rather than its more common companion #19. Word-grafting: bar andaaz is treated as barandaaz [ba-ran-daa-z]. VERSE 4: Both lines of this verse begin with a short syllable, rather than the more common long syllable shown in the official pattern. Wordgrafting: qaraar ai is treated as qaraarai [qa-raa-rai]. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 10 by Atish, p. 218: METER: #34 - = - = / - - = = / - = - = / = = VERSE 1: Word-grafting: ham aur is treated as hamaur [ha-mau-r]. VERSE 2: The writing of mahah [mahh], "moon," with two h's in sequence is merely an orthographic convention, like that used with kahah , the root of kahnaa , to distinguish it from kih [kih]. It does not affect the scansion, which remains [ma-ho mah-r]. VERSE 4: :taali((ii is scanned [:taa-li-((ii]. Remember that (( is a full, regular consonant in metrical terms; see Section 1.3. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 11 by Zauq, p. 297: METER: #27 - = = = / - = = = / - = = VERSE 1: Word-grafting: khoj apnaa is treated as khojapnaa [kho-japnaa]. VERSE 4: Word-grafting: na:ziir us is treated as na;ziirus [na-:zii-rus]. [back to top of page]

GHAZAL 12 by Zauq, pp. 298-299: METER: #5 = = - / = - = - / - = = - / = - = VERSE 1: ;xvushii is really [;xu-shii]; see Section 4.2. VERSE 3: bavaqt-e marg is [ba-vaq-te mar-g]. It could also be written bah vaqt-e marg , of which it's just a shortened form. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 13 by Momin, p. 307:


METER: #14 =* - = = / - = - = / = = #15 =* - = = / - = - = / - - = These two closely related meters are often used together. *This syllable, while normally long, may occasionally be replaced with a short, at the poet's pleasure. VERSE 1: Word-grafting: a:sar us is treated as a:sarus [a-:sa-rus]; this verse begins with the variant short-syllable opening. VERSE 2: The first line is in meter #15. huu))e is really [hu-))e], (- x); see Section 4.3. VERSE 3: The first line is in meter #15. VERSE 4: ko))ii is to be considered (x x). See Section 2.2. VERSE 5: Word-grafting: mu.z:tar ai is treated as mu.z:tarai [mu.z-:tarai]; .sanam aa;xir is treated as .sanamaa;xir [.sa-na-maa-;xir]. The second line begins with the variant short-syllable opening. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 14 by Momin, p. 312: METER: #38 - - = - = / - - = - = / - - = - = / - - = - = VERSE 1: Note the scansion of tumhe;N [tu-mhe;N], which is (- x) in accordance with its pronunciation, though it is more often spelled with h than with [do-chashmii he]. See Section 4.3. Both kih [kih] and nah [nah] are virtually always short; see Section 2.1. VERSE 2: Word-grafting: har ek is treated as harek [ha-re-k]. VERSE 3: huu))e [hu-))e] is an irregularly spelled Indic word, scanned (- x); see Section 4.3. Note that the doubled letter created by the tashdiid [tashdiid] on the t in ittifaaq counts as fully as any other letter in the scansion: [it-ti-faa-q]. VERSE 4: The protean word ko))ii is always to be scanned (x x). Note that tumhaare is scanned [tu-mhaa-re], (- = x); see Section 4.3. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 15 by Ghalib, p. 319: METER: #18 =* - = = / - - = = / - - = = / = = *This syllable, while normally long, may occasionally be replaced with a short, at the poet's pleasure. VERSE 2: Note the way the vowel- ii turns into a consonant before an [i.zaafat]: diivaanagii-e shauq becomes [dii-vaa-na-gi-ye shau-q], (= = - = = -); see Section 3.2. In this case the [i.zaafat] syllable has to be long, to avoid having the forbidden three shorts in a row. Also note the double word-grafting: udhar aur aap is treated as udharauraap [u-dha-rau-raap]. [back to top of page]


GHAZAL 16 by Ghalib, pp. 319-320: METER: #37 - - = - / = - = = // - - = - / = - = = Has caesura. VERSE 1: Word-grafting: agar aur is treated as agaraur [a-ga-rau-r]. VERSE 2: ;xvushii is really [;xu-shii]; see Section 4.2. Word-grafting: agar i((tibaar is treated as agari((tibaar [a-ga-ri((-t-baa-r]. VERSE 3: ko))ii [ko-))ii] is, as ever, (x x). VERSE 4: Word-grafting: ;Gam agarchih is treated as ;Gamarchih [;Ga-ma-gar-chih]. VERSE 5: masaa))il-e ta.savvuf is [ma-saa-))i-le ta-.sav-vuf]. [back to top of page]

GHAZAL 17 by Ghalib, p. 321: METER: #19 =* - = = / - - = = / - - = = / - - = #18 =* - = = / - - = = / - - = = / = = These two closely related meters are often used together. *This syllable, while normally long, may occasionally be replaced with a short, at the poet's pleasure. VERSE 1: vajah-e tasallii is [vaj-he-ta-sal-lii]. VERSE 2: The first line is in #18. VERSE 4: The first line is in #18. VERSE 5: The first line is in #18. .sadmah-e yak-junbish-e lab is [.sadma-he yak-jun-bi-she lab]. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 18 by Ghalib, pp. 321-322: METER: #10 = - = = / = - = = / = - = = / = - = VERSE 1: laalah o is [laa-la-ho]; see Section 3.3. VERSE 2: Word-grafting: bazm-araa))iyaa;N is treated as bazmaaraa))iyaa;N [baz-maa-raa-))i-yaa;N]. VERSE 3: Word-grafting: dimaa;G us is treated as dimaa;Gus [di-maa;Gus]. VERSE 4: muva;h;hid is scanned [mu-va;h-;hid]. Note the presence of the extra unscanned "cheat syllable"--the m of rusuum [ru-suu-m]-- at the end of the first line. VERSE 5: yuu;Nhii is scanned as [yuu;N hii], (x x). [back to top of page] GHAZAL 19 by Ghalib, pp. 324-325: METER: #5 = = - / = - = - / - = = - / = - = VERSE 1: The spelling ;xaamushii , rather than the usual ;xaamoshii , points to the scansion [;xaa-mu-shii]; see Section 2.4. ;xvush is really [;xush]; see Section 4.2.


VERSE 2: aa))inah , a remarkably flexible word, is here scanned (= x x), and spelled accordingly; see Section 2.2. ((u;zr-;xvaah is scanned [((u;z-r-;xvaa-h]; see Section 4.2. VERSE 3: na;xvaastah is scanned [na-;xvaa-s-tah]; see Section 4.2. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 20 by Ghalib, p. 331: METER: #8 = = - / - = = - / - = = - / - = = This ghazal should be considered to have the optional "cheat syllable" at the end of every verse, in the form of the r in aur [au-r]. VERSE 1: Word-grafting: har ik [har ik] is treated as harik [ha-rik]; note that the spelling of ik [ik] points to its scansion as (=) rather than (= -). VERSE 2: Word-grafting: dil un is treated as dilun [di-lun]. VERSE 3: huu))e is really [hu-))e]. shikanii is [shi-ka-nii]. VERSE 5: Word-grafting: bahut achchhe is treated as bahutachchhe [ba-hu-tach-chhe]. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 21 by Dagh, p. 367: METER: #4 = = - / = - = = // = = - / = - = = Has caesura. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 22 by Dagh, pp. 371-372: METER: #37 - - = - / = - = = // - - = - / = - = = Has caesura. VERSE 1: Word-grafting: ((ajab apnaa is treated as ((ajabapnaa [((a-jabap-naa]. VERSE 2: Word-grafting: phir aashkaar is treated as phiraashkaar [phiraa-sh-kaa-r]. VERSE 3: Word-grafting: baraabar aag is treated as baraabaraag [baraa-ba-raa-g]. VERSE 4: Word-grafting: agar apnii is treated as agarapnii [a-ga-rapnii]. VERSE 5: tumhe;N is [tu-mhe;N], (- x). [back to top of page] GHAZAL 23 by Akbar Ilahabadi, pp. 396-397: METER: #27 - = = = / - = = = / - = = Strictly speaking, this is not a ghazal but a qi:t((ah [qi:t((ah]. See Barker vol. I, pp. xxvi-xxvii. Note that yaas [yaa-s], paas [paa-s], and all the other rhyming words end in the short "cheat syllable" permitted at the end of a line. VERSE 1: ;xvush is really [;xush]; see Section 4.2. VERSE 2: Word-grafting: em ai , "M.A.," is treated as emai [e-me]. 71

VERSE 3: For faura:n [fau-ran] see the [tanviin] part of Section 4.4. byaah [byaa-h] is an irregular Indic word, scanned (= -); see Section 4.3. VERSE 4: Word-grafting: dil apnaa is treated as dilapnaa [di-lap-naa]. [back to top of page] GHAZAL 24 by Iqbal, p. 425: METER: #38 - - = - = / - - = - = / - - = - = / - - = - = VERSE 1: Word-grafting: na:zar aa is treated as na:zaraa [na-:za-raa]. VERSE 2: aa))iinah is scanned (= x x); see Section 2.2. VERSE 3: In the word ((afv [((af-v], the v is a consonant, and so receives a normal consonant [i.zaafat], becoming [((af-ve]. VERSE 5: huu))aa is really [hu-))aa].


12 == GLOSSARY This glossary contains exceptional words of all kinds that you may find it useful to know about. It includes only selected examples of the more "regularly" irregular words of Persian origin described in Section 4.2, and of the extremely irregular Arabic words described in Section 4.4. It does include a large number of Indic conjunct words (described in Section 4.3), and many miscellaneous irregularly scanned words. It also includes as many words of flexible syllable division and spelling (Section 2.3 and Section 2.4) as possible, together with the basic flexible monosyllables (Section 2.2). It's good for browsing as well as reference. It will be useful to anyone trying to write poetry, and also to anyone reading poetry texts in which many editorial or calligraphic errors occur--because such errors often involve incorrect substitutions among the variant choices for words like those in this glossary. The glossary is in Urdu alphabetical order. Where two or more scansions and/or spellings are possible for a word, we've tried to enter the most commonly used forms first. [aa-p hii] (= - x), (= x), "one's own self" { aap hii } [aa-phii] (= x) { aaphii } [aa-pii] (= x) { aapii } [u-;Thaa] (- x), perf. of [u;Thnaa] { u;Thaa } [u;T-;Thaa] (= x) { u;T;Thaa } [aa-;xir] (= =), "finally" { aa;xir } [aa-;xii-r] (= = -) { aa;xiir } [a-;xii-r] (- = -) { a;xiir } [i-dhar], [u-dhar] (- =), "here," "there" { idhar } [ii-dhar, uu-dhar] (= =) { iidhar } [az] (=), "from, by, with" (Pers.) { az } [zi] (-) { z } [a-shar-fii] (- = x), name of a gold coin { asharfii } [ash-ra-fii] (= - x) { ashrafii } [aa-sh-kaa-r] (= - = -), "apparent" { aashkaar } [aa-sh-kaa-raa] (= - = x) { aashkaaraa } [aa-shi-yaa-nah] (= - = x), "nest" { aashiyaanah } [aa-shi-yaa;N] (= - =) { aashiyaa;N } [aa-gaa-h] (= = -), "aware" { aagaah } [aa-gah] (= x) { aagah } [al-laa-h] (= =), (= = -), "God" { allaah }


[um-mii-d] (= = -), "hope" { ummiid } [u-mii-d] (- = -) { umiid } [an-jhuu] (= x), (- x), archaic for "tears" { anjhuu } [in-shaa)) al-laah] (= = = =), (= = = = -), "God willing" { inshaa)) allaah } [au-r] (= -), (=), "and" { aur } [aa-))ii-nah] (= x x), "mirror" { aa))iinah } [aa-))i-nah] (= - x) { aa))inah } [e-k] (= -), "one" { ek } [ik] (=) { ik } [yak] (=) { yak } [bil aa-;xir] (= = =), "finally" { baalaa;xir } [bil far-.z] (= = -), "suppositionally" { baalfar.z } [bil kul] (= =), "entirely" { baalkul } [bah an-daa-zah] (- = = x), "according" { bah andaazah } [ba-an-daa-zah] (- = = x) { baandaazah } [bach-chah] (= x), "child" { bachchah } [ba-chah] (- x) { bachah } [bar-ha-man] (= - =), "Brahman" { barhaman } [ba-rah-man] (- = =) { barahman } [ba-rah-nah] (- = x), "naked" { barahnah } [bar-ha-nah] (= - x) { barhanah } [ba((-.z] (= -), "a number of" { ba((.z } [ba((-.ze] (= x) { ba((.ze } [bul ha-vas] (= - =), "sensualist" { buu al-havas } [buu-s-taa-n] (= - = -), "garden" { buustaan } [bus-taa-n] (= = -) { bustaan } [bah] (-), "with" (Pers.) { bah } [ba-hut] (- =), "much, many" { bahut } [bah-ut] (= -), archaic { bahut } [bhii] (x), "too" { bhii } [bhii-tar] (= =), "inside" { bhiitar } [bhi-tar] (- =) { bhitar } [byaa-h] (= -); (- = -), "wedding" { byaah } [ba-yak] (- =), [bah] + [yak] { bayak } [byo-paa-r] (= = -), "business" { byopaar } [paa-))o;N] (= x), "foot" { paa))o;N } [paa;N-v] (= x) { paa;Nv } [pach-chii-s] (= = -), "twenty-five" { pachchiis } [pa-chii-s] (- = -) { pachiis } [par-vaa] (= =), "care" { parvaa } [par-vaa-h] (= = -) { parvaah } [prii-t] (= -), "love" { priit } [pa-re-t] (- = -), "ghost" { pret } [pre-m] (= -), "love" { prem }


[pa-kaa] (- x), "cooked, ripened" { pakaa } [pak-kaa] (= x) { pakkaa } [pa-naa-h] (- = -), "refuge" { panaah } [pa-nah] (- =) { panah } [pah] (x), "on" { pah } [pa-hu;Nch-naa] (- = x), "to arrive" { pahu;Nchnaa } [po;N-ch-naa] (= - x), archaic { po;Nchnaa } [phu-vaa-r] (- = -), "drizzle" { phuvaar } [phu-haa-r] (- = -) { phuuhaar } [phvaa-r] (= -) { phvaar } [pyaa-r] (= -), (- = -), "love" { pyaar } [p-yaa-lah] (- = x), (= x), "cup" { pyaalah } [pai-raa-han] (= = =), "robe" { pairaahan } [pai-ra-han] (= - =) { pairahan } [pa-yaa-m] (- = -), "message" { payaam } [pai-;Gaa-m] (= = -) { pai;Gaam } [pa-yam-bar] (- = =), "Prophet" { payambar } [pai-;Gam-bar] (= = =) { pai;Gambar } [pe-sh-vaa-z] (= - = -), "gown" { peshvaaz } [pish-vaa-z] (= = -) { pishvaaz } [taa] (=), "up to, until" { taa } [ta-))a;s-;sur] (- = =), "effect" { taa))';s;sur } [ta-))as-suf] (- = =), "grief" { taa))'ssuf } [ta-))am-mul] (- = =), "hesitation" { taa))'mmul } [ta-;xay-yul] (- = =), "imagination" { ta;xayyul } [ta;x-))ii-l] (= = -) { ta;x))iil } [ta((-))ii-n] (= = -), "appointing" { ta(())iin } [ta-((ay-yun] (- = =) { ta((ayyun } [tak] (=), "until" { tak } [ta-lak] (- =) { talak } [tu-mhaa-raa] (- = x), same for fem. and plur., "your" { tumhaaraa } [ta-nuu-r] (- = -), "oven" { tanuur } [tan-nuu-r] (= = -) { tannuur } [tan-duu-r] (= = -) { tanduur } [to] (x), "then" { to } [tuu] (x), "you" { tuu } [thaa] (x), same for fem. and plur., "was" { thaa } [tahh] (=), "under" { tahah } [ta-))ii;N] (- =), (=), (= =), "oneself" { ta))ii;N } [te-raa] (= x), same for fem. and plur., "your" { teraa } [ti-raa] (- x), same for fem. and plur. { tiraa } [tev-rii] (= x), "brow" { tevrii } [tyuu;N] (=), "in that way" { tyuu;N } [jib-ra-))ii-l] (= - = -), "Gabriel" { jibra))iil } [jib-rii-l] (= = -) { jibriil } 75

[jib-hah] (= x), "forehead" { jibahah } [ji-dhar] (- =), "the place where" { jidhar } [jii-dhar] (= =) { jiidhar } [jur-))at] (= =), "courage" { jur))aat } [jur-aat] (= =) { juraat } [juz-v] (= -), "part" { juzv } [juz] (=) { juz } [ja-gah] (- x), usually (- =), "place" { jagah } [jaa-gah] (= x), usually (= =) { jaagah } [jo] (x), "the one who" { jo } [ju-vaa] (- =), "gambling" { juvaa } [juv-vaa] (= =), rare { juvva } [j-vaa-r] (- = -), "millet" { jvaar } [jii] (x), honorific particle { jii } [jyuu;N] (=), "the way in which" { jyuu;N } [cha-khaa] (- x), perf. of [chakhnaa] { chakhaa } [chak-khaa] (= x) { chakkhaa } [chuu-hi-yaa] (= - x), "mouse" { chuuhiyaa } [chuh-yaa] (= x) { chuhiyaa } [chyuu;N-;Tii] (= x), var. of [chii;N;Tii], "ant" { chyuun;Tii } [;xaa-mo-shii] (= = x), "silence" { ;xaamoshii } [;xa-mo-shii] (- = x) { ;xamoshii } [;xaa-mu-shii] (= - x) { ;xaamushii } [;xi.zr] (= -), "Khizr" { ;xi.zr } [;xi-.zir] (- =), "Khizir" or "Khizar" { ;xi.zir } [;xa:t-rah] (= x), "danger" { ;xa:trah } [;xa-:tar] (- =) { ;xa:tar } [;xvaa-m-;xvaa-h] (= - = -), "willy-nilly" { ;xvaam;xvaah } [;xvaa-hish] (= =), "longing" { ;xvaahish } [;xud] (=), "self" { ;xvud } [;xu-shii] (- x), "happiness" { ;xvushii } [daa-man] (= =), "skirt" { daaman } [daa-maa-n] (= = -) { daamaan } [du;x-tar] (= =), "daughter" { du;xtar } [du;x-t] (= -) { du;xt } [du-kaa-n] (- = -), "shop" { dukaan } [duu-kaa-n] (= = -) { duukaan } [duk-kaa-n] (= = -) { dukkaan } [dulhan] (- =), (= =), "bride" { dulhan } [duulhan] (- =), (= =) { duulhan } [do] (x), "two," "give" { do } [do-baa-rah] (x = x), "twice" { dobaarah } [du-pa;T-;Tah] (- = x), "long scarf" { dupa;T;Tah } [do-pa;T-;Tah] (= = x) { dopa;T;Tah } [do-raa-haa] (x = x), "fork in the road" { doraahaa } 76

[do-zaa-nuu] (x = x), "kneeling" { dozaanuu } [do-gaa-naa] (= = x); (- = x), "double" { dogaanaa } [duu-lhaa] (= =), "bridegroom" { duulhaa } [duu-lah] (= x), rare { duulah } [duu-))ii] (x x), "twoness" { duu))ii } [da-han] (- =), "mouth" { dahan } [da-haa-n] (- = -) { dahaan } [da-haa-nah] (- = x) { dahaanah } [dhyaa-n] (= -), "concentration" { dhyaan } [dii-gar] (= =), "other" { diigar } [di-gar] (- =) { digar } [dii-vaa-nah] (= = x), "mad" { diivaanah } [di-vaa-nah] (- = x), archaic { divaanah } [raa-s-tah] (= - x), "road" { raastah } [ras-tah] (= x) { rastah } [raa-h] (= -), "road" { raah } [rah] (=) { rah } [ru;x-saa-r] (= = -), "cheek" { ru;xsaar } [ru;x-saa-rah] (= = x) { ru;xsaarah } [ra-khaa] (- x), same for fem. and plur., "kept" { rakhaa } [rak-khaa] (= x), same for fem. and plur. { rakkhaa } [ruu-bah] (= x), "fox" { ruubah } [ruu-baa-h] (= = -) { ruubaah } [rah-gu-z;ar] (= - =), "road" { rahguz;ar } [raa-h-gu-z;ar] (= - - =) { raahguz;ar } [rah-gu-z;aa-r] (= - = -) { rahguz;aar } [raa-h-gu-z;aa-r] (= - - = -) { raahguz;aar } [zaq-quu-m] (= = -), name of an infernal tree { zaqquum } [za-quu-m] (- = -) { zaquum } [za-maa-nah] (- = x), "era" { zamaanah } [za-maa;N] (- =) { zamaa;N } [za-maa-n] (- = -) { zamaan } [za-man] (- =) { zaman } [zin-haa-r] (= = -), "beware" { zinhaar } [zii-n-haa-r] (= - = -) { ziinhaar } [saa] (x), "-ish" { saa } [saa-jan] (= =), "lover" { saajan } [sa-jan] (- =) { sajan } [saa-))ii-s] (= = -), "groom" { saa))iis } [sa-))ii-s] (- = -) { sa))iis } [sai-s] (= -) { sais } [sa-rhaa-naa] (- = x), "headboard" { sarhaanaa } [si-kan-dar] (- = =), "Alexander" { sikandar } [is-kan-dar] (= = =) { iskandar } [so] (x), "thus" { so } 77

[sau] (=), "100" { sau } [suu] (=), "direction" { suu } [sa-vaa-r] (- = -), "horseman" { savaar } [as-vaa-r] (= = -), rare { asvaar } [svaa;N-g] (= -), "folk opera" { svaa;Ng } [saa;N-g] (= -) { saa;Ng } [su-var] (- =), "pig" { suvar } [suu-raa-j] (= = -), "Swaraj" { suuraaj } [sva-raa-j] (- = -) { svaraaj } [sih] (x), "three" { sih } [sii] (x), "-ish" { sii } [se] (x), "from, with," "-ish" { se } [si-yaa-h] (- = -), "black" { siyaah } [si-yah] (- x) { siyah } [shaa-h] (= -), "king" { shaah } [shah] (=) { shah } [shub-hah] (= -), "suspicion" { shubahah } [shu-tur] (- =), "camel" { shutur } [ush-tur] (= =) { ushtur } [sha-raa-r] (- = -), "spark" { sharaar } [sha-rar] (- =) { sharar } [sha-raa-rah] (- = x) { sharaarah } [sha-kar] (- =), "sugar" { shakar } [shak-kar] (= =) { shakkar } [.saa-buu-n] (= = -), "soap" { .saabuun } [.saa-bun] (= =) { .saabun } [.su-var] (- =), pl. of [.suurat], "face" { .suvar } [:tar-;h] (= -), "manner" { :tar;h } [:ta-ra;h] (- =); (- x), (modern) { :tara;h } [:ta-raf] (- =), "direction" { :taraf } [:tar-f] (= -) { :tarf } [:ta-ma((] (- =), "greed" { :tama(( } [:tam-((a] (= -) { :tam((a } [fi-ran-g] (- = -), "European" { firang } [af-ran-g] (= = -) { afrang } [fu-zuu;N] (- x), "increasing" { fuzuu;N } [af-zuu;N] (= x) { afzuu;N } [fa-saa-nah] (- = x), "story" { fasaanah } [af-saa-nah] (= = x) { afsaanah } [fu-sur-dah] (- = x), "sorrowful" { fusurdah } [af-sur-dah] (= = x) { afsurdah } [fu-suu;N] (- x), "increasing" { fusuu;N } [af-suu;N] (= x) { afsuu;N } [fu-;Gaa;N] (- x), "sighing" { fi;Gaa;N } [af-;Gaa;N] (= x) { af;Gaa;N } 78

[fi-gaa-r] (- = -), "wounded" { figaar } [af-gaa-r] (= = -) { afgaar } [fu-laa;N] (- =), "such-and-such" { fulaa;N } [fa-laa-naa] (- = x) { falaanaa } [fil-;haa-l] (= = -), "at present" { fii al-;haal } [fil-;ha-qii-qat] (= - = -), "in reality" { fii al-;haqiiqat } [qur-aan] (= = -), "Qur'an" { qur aan } [qu-raa-n] (- = -), rare { quraan } [kaa] (x), "of" { kaa } [kaa-sah] (= x), "bowl" { kaasah } [kaa-s] (= -) { kaas } [krish-n] (= -), "Krishna" { krishn } [ki-naa-rah] (- = x), "riverbank" { kinaarah } [ka-naa-r] (- = -) { kinaar } [ko] (x), "to" { ko } [ko))ii] (x x); archaic variant (=); "anyone, any" { ko))ii } [kih] (-); archaic variant: (=); "that" { kih } [kahh] (=), root of [kahnaa] { kahah } [kho-))e] (= x), "lost" { kho))e } [kho))e] (=), archaic { kho))e } polite imperative of [kahnaa] (- - x) { kahiye } (= x) { kahye } [kii] (x), "of" { kii } [ke] (x), "of" { ke } [kyaa] (=), "what" { kyaa } [ki-yaa-rii] (- = x), "flowerbed" { kiyaarii } [kyaa-rii] (= x) { kyaarii } [kyuu;N] (=), "why" { kyuu;N } [gaa-h] (= -), "place" { gaah } [gah] (=) { gah } [gar] (=), "if" { gar } [a-gar] (- =) { agar } [gar-chah] (= x), "although" { garchah } [a-gar-chah] (- = x) { agarchah } [gur-sa-nah] (= - x), "hungry" { gursanah } [gu-ras-nah] (- = x) { gurasnah } [gar-han] (= =), "eclipse" { garhan } [ga-han] (- =) { gahan } [gu-lis-taa;N (- = =), "garden" { gulistaa;N } [gul-si-taa;N] (= - =) { gulsitaa;N } [gu-naa-h] (- = -), "sin" { gunaah } [gu-nah] (- x) { gunah } [go] (=); very rare: (-); "although" { go } [guu-ruu] (- =), "religious teacher" { guuruu } [gu-ruu] (- =) { guruu } 79

[gau-har] (= =), "pearl" { gauhar } [gu-har] (- =) { guhar } [ga-))e] (- x), "went" { ga))e } [ga))e] (=), archaic { ga))e } [gyaan] (= -), "knowledge" { gyaan } [laa-sh] (= -), "corpse" { laash } [laa-shah] (= x) { laashah } [li-khaa] (- x), same for fem., plur.; "wrote" { likhaa } [lik-khaa] (= x), same for fem., plur. { likkhaa } [lo-haa-r] (- = -), "blacksmith" { lohaar } [lu-haa-r] (- = -) { luhaar } [le-kin] (= =), "but" { lekin } [le-k] (= -), archaic { lek } [maa-rg] (= -), "road" { maarg } [maa-shaa)) al-laah] (= = = =), (= = = = -), "as God wills" { maashaa)) allaah } [ma-;aa-l] (- = -), "property" { ma;aal } [maa))-muu-n] (= = -), same as [maamuun], "safe" { maa))muun } [maa-h] (= -), "moon" { maah } [mah] (=) { mah } [mi.s-ra((] (= =), "line of verse" { mi.sra(( } [mi.s-ra((h] (= =) { mi.sra((h } [mi.s-raa-((] (= = -) { mi.sraa(( } [mu-vaa] (- x), "wretch" { muvaa } [muu-))ii] (- x) { muu))ii } [muu-))e] (- x) { muu))e } [mau-j] (= -), "wave" { mauj } [mau-jah] (= x) { maujah } [mu-))a;x-;xar] (- = =), same as [muva;x;xar], "latter" { muu))a;x;xar } [mu-))ad-dab] (- = =), same as [muvaddab], "courteous" { muu))addab } [mu-))ar-ri;x (- = =), same as [muvarri;x], "chronicler" { muu))arri;x } [muu;Nhh] (=), same as [mu;Nh], "mouth" { muu;Nhah } [mi-yaa;N] (- x), (term of address or endearment) { miyaa;N } [myaa;N] (=) { myaa;N } [me-raa] (= x), same for fem. and plur., "my" { meraa } [mi-raa] (- x), same for fem. and plur. { miraa } [me;N] (x), "in" { me;N } [mai;N] (x), "I" { mai;N } [mii-naa-r] (= = x) "tower" { miinaar } [mi-naa-r] (- = -) { minaar } [naa-;xuu-n] (= = -), "fingernail" { naa;xuun } [naa-;xun] (= =) { naa;xun } [naa-gaa-h] (= = -), "unaware" { naagaah } [naa-gahh] (= x) { naagahah }


[naa-))o] (= x), "boat" { naa))o } [naa-v] (= x) { naav } [ni-baa-h-naa] (- = - x), "to uphold" { nibaahnaa } [ni-bhaa-naa] (- = x) { nibhaanaa } [na-dii] (- x), "river" { nadii } [nad-dii] (= x) { naddii } [nash-tar] (= =), "lancet" { nashtar } [ne-sh-tar] (= - =) { neshtar } [nash-))ah] (= x), "intoxication" { nash))ah } [na-shah] (- x) { nashah } [na-:zaa-rah] (- = x), "sight" { na:zaarah } [na:z-:zaa-rah] (= = x) { na:z:zaarah } [ni-gaa-h] (- = -), "glance" { nigaah } [ni-gah] (- x) { nigah } [nan-haa] (= x), "tiny" { nanhaa } [nau] (=), "nine," "new" { nau } [na-vaa-b] (- = -), "Navab" { navaab } [nav-vaa-b] (= = -) { navvaab } [nau-shah] (= x), "bridegroom" { naushah } [nau-shaa-h] (= = -) { naushaah } [nah] (-); (=), rare and archaic; "not" { nah } [nah] (-), "neither" { nah } [nai] (=), archaic { nai } [ne] (x), ergative marker { ne } [na-yas-taa;N] (- = =), "reed-thicket" { nayastaa;N } [nai-si-taa;N] (= - =) { naisitaa;N } [var-nah] (= x), "otherwise" { varnah } [va-gar-nah] (- = x) { vagarnah } [vuh] (x), "he, she it" { vuh } [va-haa;N] (- x), "there" { vahaa;N } [vaa;N] (=), archaic { vaa;N } [vai] (=), rare and archaic, "they" { vai } [haa-))e] (= x), "alas" { haa))e } [haay] (=) { hay } [ho] (x), subjunc. or fam. imp. of [honaa] { ho } [hu-))aa] (- x), "occurred" { huu))aa } [hu-))e] (- x) { huu))e } [hu-))ii] (- x) { huu))ii } [hu-))ii;N] (- x) { huu))ii;N } [ho-sh-yaa-r] (= - = -), "alert" { hoshyaar } [hush-yaa-r] (= = -) { hushyaar } [ho;N] (x), "might be" { ho;N } [huu;N] (x), "am" { huu;N } [hii] (x), emphatic particle { hii } [hai] (x), "is" { hai } 81

[hai;N] (x), "are" { hai;N } [yaa] (=); (x), archaic; "or," "oh" { yaa } [yuu-rish] (= =), (- =), "assault" { yuurish } [yih] (x), "this" { yih } [ya-haa;N] (- x), "here" { yahaa;N } [yaa;N] (=), archaic { yaa;N } [yuu;N] (x), "in such a way" { yuu;N } [ye] (=), rare and archaic, "these" { ye }


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