A Handbook of Cosmetics by B.M. Mithal

December 30, 2017 | Author: rajender | Category: Epidermis, Skin, Cosmetics, Integumentary System, Science
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Cosmetic Technology...


A Handbook of

COSMETICS he a 9n ln a

rf io lt

is e



M.Pharm., Ph.D., MRPharmS Professor of Pharmacy & Deputy Director and

N.N. SAI{A M.Pharm., Ph.D. Professor of Pharmacy and Group Leader (Head) Birla


of Technolory PII"ANI, India

and Science,


rs B N 8r - 8573r - 2 2 -5 VPBN 48 First Edition Reprint Reprint Reprint Reprint

2000 2003 2004 2005 2006

@2000 by authorsand publishers All rights reserved. No pad and style of this book be reproducedor transmitted,in any form, or by any means---€lectronic, mechanical,photocopying,recordingor otheiwise,without prior permissionof the publishersand authors.

Publishedby M K Jain for VALLABH PRAKASHAN AP-53A,Pitampura,DELHI-110088 Phone:.27317755 e-mail : [email protected]

A thought to bring out a Handbook of Cosmetics has been in the mind since 1950 when one of the authors (BMM) started teaching a course on Perfume and Cosmetics to the B.Pharm. students of the then Birla College, Pilani. The course was discontinued from 1964 when Birla Institute of Technology and Science was for.med. However, a course named, 'Cosmetic Science' has been reintroduced. Importance of the book on Cosmetics has been felt ever since. In the last 20 years or so the use of cosmetics has been continuously increasing so much so that many colleges/universities have introduced courses in cosmetics. This book intends to provide a hand book on cosmetics which may be introducedin colleges. The cosmetic products are classified and arranged according to their site of application and function. Though a general manufacturing procedure is given but for special type of products, specific and separate procedure is also given. Basic aspectsof quality control and evaluation of products are also mentioned in each chapter. There is in the market good literature already existing. The subject matter is mainly from the student angle, and it is hoped that it rvill fulfil that purpose besides providing handy literature to anyone interested in the design and manufacture of cosmetics. Any suggestionby the readers will be appreciated. The authors express sincere gratitude to Mr C. Sreekhar of the Pharmacy Group for proof reading and Mr Sharwan Kumar Vajpayee, Deputy Director's Office for help in word processingthe manuscript.

Pilani 13 April 2000

B.M. Mithal R.N. Saha

Rs 125 (in Delhi) Rs 130 (outside Delhi)

Printed at Nerv Gyan Offset Printers, Delhi


Contents Preface


1. Cosmetics-An


1 I

2. The Skin


3. Powders and Compacts


4. Skin Colorants


5. Skin Creafns


6. SunscreenPreparations


7. Hair


8. Hair CleansingPreparations


9. Hair Tonics


10. Hair Colorants


11. Hair Grooming Aids


12. Hair Wavers, Curlers and Straighteners


13. Hair Removers


14. Shaving Preparations


15. Nail


16. Nail Lacquers and Removers


17. Auxiliary Products for Nails


18. Tooth and Oral Cavity


19. Dental Care Preparations


20. Mouthwashes




: Provisions of Drugs and Cosmetics Act applicable to Cosmetics

APPENDIX-II : Most Often Used Ingredienrsof Cosmetics


APPENDTX-III: Bibliography


APPENDIX-IV : Model Questions



255 (v)


An Introduction The word 'cosmetics' arises from a Greek wotd 'kosmeticos' which means to adorn. Since that time any material used for beautification or improvement of appearanceis known as cosmetic. The urge to adorn one's own body and look beautiful has been an urge in the human race since the firibal days. Earlier both males and females were equal competitors for improvement of appearance. Males decorated themselves with animal parts and vegetable leaves etc. while women did so by wearing any coloured stones or, flowers round their neck and the wrists. At a later stage they employed coloured earth for faces and bodies and still later coloured ointrnents. Bangles and necklacesmade of baked earth also becamecommon in the early civilization as well as shells of various kinds obtained from nature. In digging up ancient Egyptian tombs much light has fallen on the ancient practicesof beautification. Pharaohian tombs have revealed that coloured earths were like malachite green. The copper ore was used as eye shadows. Lamp black was commo,n too for eyes. For dyeing of hairs red was also practised. The dancing ladies applied ointments perfumed with materials like myrrh to head so that when they danced the perfumed ointment would flow down their bodies emitting pleasant smell all over. 'I'he history also records that when Jehu went to the town of Jezebel she painted her face and looked out from window. The use of cosmetics in ancient Egypt reached heights with the famous queen Cleopatra who tried to beguile Caesar and Antony the Romans when they visited Egypt. Shakespeare has summarized it by this line, "Had Cleopatra's nose been lgnger, the shape of the world would have been different." The women of the world feel inspired when they have a mental feeling that they are looking good' Hence, the practice of adornment or improvement of appearancecontinued unabated across the centuries. Various kinds of natural materials were used for the purpose. The practice of use of cosmetics must have grown to an appreciable extent becausethe British Parliament enacted a Law in 1770, which still stands unrepealedand is as follows;


"That all women of whatever age, rank, profession or degree whether virgins, maids or widows that shall from and after such Act impose upon, seduce and betray into matrimony any of His Majesty's subjects by the scents, paints, cosmetics, washes, artificial teeth, false hair, Spanish .wool, iron stays, hoops, high heeled shoes, bolstered hips, shall incur the penalty of law in force against witchcraft and like misdemeanours and that such marriage upon conviction shall stand null and void." It is interesting to note that even materials like high heeled shoes, artificial denture etc. are classed as materials of adomment. One wonders how many females were so prosecutedand their marriagesnullified. It was an act of distinction between male and female subject5. Maybe the circumstances prevailing then were such that law was considered essential. In modern days cosmetics are the rage and are considered to be essentialcommodities of life. The role of cosmeticsin everyday life met greater acceptability after World War II. It was realized by social and medical scientists that cosmetics not only adore but they exercise psychological effect on users and specially on the skin. They keep the skin supple delaying the onset of wrinkling. They are also helpful in skin infections and prevention of sunburns. In the last 3-4 decades the use of cosmetics has increased exponentially not only among in females but the male population also indulges in their use. Hair dyes, powders, crearns are as popular with males as with females. Most countries have now laws to control, manufacture, labelling, sale etc. of cosmetics in such a way that use of cosmetics harmful to health is prevented. In India Drugs Act has been renamed as Drugs and Cosmetics Act and contains some sections to exercise control over cosmetics. The cosmetics in general are external preparations and are meant to be applied to external parts of the body. In other words they may be applied to skin, hair and nails for the purposes of covering, colouring, softening, cleansing, nourishing, waving, setting, mollification, preservation, removal and protection. The cosmetics may be classified into 4 main groups namely(l) (2) (3) (4)

Cosmeticsfor Cosmetics for Cosmetics for Cosmetics for

Skin Hair Nails Hygiene (Dental, Bathing, etc.)




All cosmeticsare formulatedas solids,semi-solidsor liquids. Their formuladesignis very akin to drug dosageforms. cosilETtcs



Powders compacts




Lotions Colourants tl I' Lipsticks I Lacquers Rouges ' Skinlotions Laquer Astringent removers lotions Vanisfingcreams Nail Cold creams polishes All purpose creams Cuticle Face powders removers and compacts, Body powders, Prickly heat powoers, Face pack

Hail remover Depilatories Epilatories Shavingprep.

Hairwaveprep Hairdressing Hairconditioner

Shampoos Eye lashprep Dyes Mascaras Hairlotions Eyebrowpencils Dandrufflotions Kohls

Fig. l-l Classification of cosmetics Cosmetics for the Skin The skin covers vast area of body and cosmetics are applied to many parts, most important part being the face. The skin cosmetics are -the formulated in the form of solids, semi-solids and liquids. The solids consist of powders with different degreesof flow and angle of repose or of compacts. The semi-solids may be emulsions or simple admixtures and liquids are both monophasic and biphasic. The solid products consist of face powders, body powders, compacts and moulded products like lipsticks. Face powders which are applied to the face consist of many ingredients besides covering agents like zinc oxide or titanium dioxide. They remove oily appearanceand give the face a smooth, dry and peach-like finish. The face powders as per their covering power are classihed as light, mediurn or heavy powders. Some face powers are slightly tinted on the pink side. Face powders are packed in elegant plastic boxes with lids.



The other category of powders consist of body powders or talcum powders which are applied to various parts of the body as well asto face and possessa good degree ofslip or spreadability. The quantity ofbody powders consurnedeach year is very high in comparison to face powders and other cosmetics. In these powders particle size is very small and all powders have large amounts of additives which provide and form the base of the powder. The compactsare round cakes of face powders generally with a slight pinkish tint. They are applied with a matching piece of fabric which is packed along with it. The compacts are prepared by compression of face powders containing some binders like mucilage of gums, soapsetc. and for application the piece of fabric is rubbed on the compact and then applied to the face as per needs. They are mounted in rcund casesone side of which is a mirror. In addition to compacts, 'Cake Make ups' have also been patented. Such cakes are dry and applied with a rnoistened pad. They contain some oily/waxy components (l to 25Yo), pigments (about l0%), fillers and water-soluble dispersing agents (l-13%). The fillers are talc, chalk, etc. The same are applied with a moistened pad. They are preparedby granulation followed by compression. Sorne 'liquid powders' have also been marketed as replacement for powders to whiten the shoulders,neck etc. for dances. phenazonewas at one time used for this (20% solution) tinted with a water-soluble dye. But use of phenazone on skin has raised eyes of dermatologists,their application is also a handicap. Hence, liquid powders carne into vogue. These are prepared with addition of glycerine (15%) to a face powder base consisting of chalk, zinc oxide etc. They also contain aboul 600/o water and viscosity is imparted by 0.5%oof rnethylcellulose. The colours may be shadesof red, yellow or brown pigments. An important category of skin cosmetics are the colouring agents which are used generally for coloration of lips, cheeks, eyelids (eye shadows) and mascarasfor eyelashesand eyebrow pencils. In colorants, lipsticks are used by masseswhile other products are used very selectively. Lipsticks impart an attractive colour and looks to the lips. Lips can also be made to look wider or narrower if it is applied intelligently and artistically. The basewhich is coloured to produce lipsticks consists of a judicious blend of oily and waxy materials, the important ones being beeswax, carnauba wax, ceresin, paraffin wax, vaseline, etc. The formula of each individual manufacturer varies. Some lipsticks include some zinc oxide (2oh) or titanium oxide (l%) to impart some covering




power. Most lipsticks are prepared by moulding. To give a glossy finish they may be exposed momentarily to small flame for the material to melt and set quickly. This is said to impart glossy finish. Next important category of colouring preparations are the rouges which are generally applied to cheeks to make them look rosy since rosy cheeks are considered to be indicators of good health. Rouges are marketed as solid compacts or as wax, anhydrous or hydrous creams and also as liquids. Compacts containing binders are prepared by compression or moulding. Generally soaps of ammonia-stearic acid and starch are used. The colours have to be certified colours only under Drugs & Cosmetics Act. In rouges an opaque base is more desirable' The bases may contain about 5Vo zinc oxide for imparting opacity. In cream-type rouges the anhydrous ones are prepared by vaseline, kaolin etc. The cream rouges may be vanishing or cold cream type. The liquid rouges are not very popular but all the same are marketed to some extent. They fre prepared in mucilaginous solutions of hydrocolloids like methylcellulose (2%) in water td which colour, preservatives, perfumes etc., besideswetting agents are added. The other coloured products are mainly for the areas of the eye amongst which commonly used products are: ( 1) Mascaras(eyelashes) (2) Eyeshadows(for eyelids) (3) Eyebrow pencils (for outline of eyebrows) (4) Kohls (eyelid inside) Mascaras are used for darkening and increasing apparent length of the eyelashesso as to increasebrightnessand expressivenessofthe eyes. Mascaras are marketed as cakes, creams or liquids. These products should be evenly applicable, should be non-sticking, should dry rapidly and be absolutely non-irritant and non-toxic. The colours used are bone black, carbon black or oil black. Fine powders of silver and aluminium are also used though the same are costly now. The most important and popular category of skin cosmetics are the various kinds of creamsrand milks. The first cream in the world is said to have been prepared by Galen in Rome for the royal ladies of the Roman Empire. It was a'beeswax-boraxtype. It was a superior product to the perfumed ointments which were applied until then. The water in the cream improved its elegance,application and also had cooling effect. Nowadays there is a plethora of formulae for creams and milks, all of which are emulsion type. The creams and milks are mostly o/w type products, but some w/o type products are also there' They are vanishing






tanning. Westernpeopleor peoplewith light skins like their skins to look slightly'tanned. Increasedtanning is also believedto take place after ingestionof some materialslike methoxsalenor extractsof Anmi magus.

(l) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Cold creams Cleansing creams Cleansing milks Cleansing lotions Vanishing creams Foundation creams Emollient creams Skin conditioning creams AII purpose creams Moisturizing creams

Sunburn Protection and Skin Tanning preparations Exposure of body to sunlight in moderateamounts may be beneficial but excessive exposure causesdamage to various extents. It may cause: (l) Irritability and depression (2) Inflammation (3) Sepsis (4) Malignant growth (5) Movement of melanin from base layer to stratum corneum (6) Release of dilators causing erythrema (7) Sunburns and skin diseases Ultraviolet part of sunrays is held to be most detrirnental for the skin.

should be non-toxic, effectively absorb or reflect erythemogenic light without undergoing chemical change, must not decompose ii 'roisture and perspiration and should not be absorbed through skin. The sunscreen preparations are marketed as oir, lotions, powders, cfeams or only as solutions of dyes. Sunscreensalso speed up skin

Hair Preparations Hair preparationsmay be functionally categorizedinto: (l) Preparations for dressingand settingofhair (2) Preparationsfor cleansing (3) Tonics (4) Preparationsfor hair removal (5) Preparations for colouring (6) Preparationsfor applicationto areaslike eyebrows,eyelids, either for colouringor upkeep. The hair dressingincludesbrilliantinesas helps in combingof hair, hair wave products,hair settingand fixing prodiicts. The most important hair dressingusedin India is the hair oil basedon vegetableor mineral oils occasionallyclaiming to contain herbals. Brilliantinesare wrxy having preparationsconsistencyof vaselines. Hair creamswhich are emulsionsare more commondressingsin the westernworld. Curly hair probablylooks more attractirlethan straight. Earlier hair waving lvas achieved by hot iron or boiling in water. These gave permanentcurls. Then waving was done by chemicalcomponentslike ammoniumhydroxidewith borax. Many thiol compoundshave also been suggestedfor waving hair. Reducingagentsare also said to be helpful. Thesedays cold waving methodsare more commonlike pin perms,rollers etc. Somereducing lotions may also be used. ' Shampooswhich are meant for cleansing of hair and scalp are becomingvery popularin place of soapsused earlier for the purpose. With the advent of syntheticdetergents,particularly the non-ionic type, therehas beena boom in shampoos.Most shampoosare clear liquids. But now creamand solid shampoosare also available. Hair Tonics aresuspiciousproductsin the eyesof public,scientific as well as non-scientific,becauseof the word 'tonics'. The preparations underthis group includesomeperfumesfor applicationto hair as sprays, someglosseningagents,preparations for dandruff,seborrhoea, baldness etc. Many productsare advertisedas growth promotersbut such claims are suspiciouslylookedupon.




Hair Removers consist of depils and epils which remove the unwanted hair by dissolution of hair shafts or help it in pulling out. Shaving creams which assist in hair removal by blades/ra"o., by softening the hair shaft of faces in males may also be distantly classified in this group.


Nail White products are used for giving white edges. They are marketed as pastes or creams containing zinc oxide, titanium oxide, kaolin, colloidal silica etc. Cuticle Removers are used for beautifiing nails and are available in market. The shedding of outer dead cells by skin gives some grooves around nails which detract the nail beauty. These are removable by use of alkaline solutions in water by small plugs of cotton, Potassium hydroxide is best for this purpose.

Hair Dyes have become very common. Somehow grey hair has been associatedwith old age. Nobody likes the black hair to turn grey on his or her head and many people continuously use hair dyes for

Dental and Oral Care Preparations Such products are normally consideredas hygienic products but since appearanceofteeth and good breath are consideredto be overall ingredient of a cosmetic personality, all kinds of products for cleansing of teeth and mouth washes are generally formulated and marketed by cosmetic companies. For design of such products one must be familiar with tooth and gum structures. The teeth are the grinders located at the point of entry of food matbrials in the body. The food which is being cut or chewed by the teeth, its small particles get lodged into various junctions between the teeth and between teeth and gums. These food crumbs if not removed regularly may become pockets for microbes to grow. Hence their dislodgement and removal is very essential for the safety, longevity and appearanceof the teeth. Historically teeth were cleaned by use of stems of some trees. The fibres of stems provided abrasive action and trees like Neem had antiseptic elements also. Messwah was another such tree popular in India. The common tooth ailments are tartar accumulation, gingivitis, dental caries and other minor kinds of dental eating away by bacteria. So any product, paste, cake or powder must have abrasive and antiseptic action besidesgood taste, flavour etc. and medication, if necessary. The common types of dental preparations are: (l) Tooth pastes (2) Tooth powders (3) Dentifrices

The preparations used on eyebrows, eyelashesand eyelids are very special products. The trade in them is of a very small order. Cosmetics for Nails The nails, in particular the nail plates of the fingers of hands and feet, have been subjects of decoration. The main decoration is in terms of shine or colour. The shine or polish is done by applicationof sorne alrasive rnaterialslike stannic oxide or powdered silica and rubbing with a chamois leather. wax porishes with abrasivesare arso Th" "orrroon. mo st popular nail d re s s i n gi s th e c o l o u re d n a i r l acquers or pol i shes which give a coloured coating to the nail plates. Generally they consist of nitro celluloses, plasticizers, solvents and colours. The nail polishesor lacquersshould be finely ground to distributethe dye and should have hardnessand plasticity. corour should not alter on keeping and when appried. Even drying shourd taiie prace within a few minutes. Enamel Removers have also come into market. They consist of mainly solvent capable of nitrocellulose dissolution. They may be marketedas such or as creams. Nail creams are in fashion too. They are appried to brittre nails. Cold, vanishing or all purpose creallts can also be applied. : Nail Bleaches are employed to remove stains of tobacco or other stains by oxidation or reductitrn: For oxidation hydrogen peroxide, chlorine compounds;perboratesor peroxidesare used. For reduction sulphiteswith dilute acid'are suitable.,


The tooth pastes and powders are similar in composition except that tooth paste is made pasty by addition of suitable additives. They basically contain: (l) (2) (3) (4)



Abrasives Fillers Antiseptic compounds Surface active agents/soaps



(5) (6) (7) (8)

Glycerine, hydrocolloids Flavouring agents Taste imparters Colours

The denfifrices are solid cakes and for application to teeth they rnay be taken on tooth brushes in a moist state.


The Skin

The mouthwashes are mainly solutions of antiseptic substanceswith various other additives. The same are not very popular. To get a comprehensive idea of the cosmetics the chart presentedon page 3 of this book may be useful. on the whole cosmetics are important group of consumer materials. Their flavours or smells are very significant in their selection bv the common man. Evaluation and Quality Control The cosmetics are very important. All the products should be evaluated for their performance, ingredients, etc. It is also necessaryto check whether the products have any sensitivity or toxic effects.

Since most of the cosmetic preparationsare meant to be applied on skin for beautification, protection or other purposes,basic knowledge of the skin and its functions is very much important for designing cosmetics meant for specific purpose of the skin. The skin, the heaviest single organ of the body, combines with the mucosal lining of the respiratory, digestive and urogenital tracts to form a capsule which separatesthe internal body structures from the external environment. It not only physically protects the internal organs and limits the passage of substances into and out of the body but also stabilisestemperatureand blood pressurewith its circulation and evaporation system. For an averagesix-foot, 70-kg human, the skin surfacearea is 1.9 m2 and weighs about 2100 gms. A typical square centimetre of skin covers l0 hair fcrllicles, 12 nerves, 15 sebaceousglands, 100 sweat glands, 3 blood vesselswith 92 cm of nervesand 3x106 cells. Normally the skin is very smooth. However, due to aging and exposure to heat and cold, sunrays,pressureand abrasion,dust and microbial infection, etc. the srnoothnessmay be lost and the skin becomesrougher and thicker. Aging also produces wrinklels on the skin surfaoe. pH of the skin varies from 4 to 5"6 and refers to the pH of the film of aqueous and other soluble materials present on the surface of the skin. Sweat and fatty acids secretedfrom sebum influence the pH of the skin surface. It is suggestedthat acidity of the skin helps in limiting or preventing the growth of pathogensand other organisms. Functions and Compositions of Skin Skin performs several functions including containrnentof body fluids and tissues; protection fi'om external stimuli like chemicals, light, heat and cold, radiation etc.; reception of stimuli like pressure, heat, pain; biochemical synthesis; metabolism and disposal of biochemical wastes; regulation of body temperature;controlling of blood pressure. ll



,""'6tin contains several chemical substanceswith specific functions like keratin, Iipids, fatty acids, proteinase,etc' Keratin is produced from polypeptides in the cytoplasm of epidermal cells by a high energy system at the granular layer of normal human skin. of Sebum is the product of the sebaceous glands and consists triglycerides, free fatty acids, waxes, sterols, squalene and paraffins' Free fatty acids are responsible for bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Skin also contains two essential fatty acids, called linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, which play an irnportant role in regulating the barrier functions. Skin synthesizeson steroid, vitamin D3, that subsequentlygets converted to the horrnone calcitriol which is important to normal calcium metabolism. in A proteinase has been isolated which is believed to play a role modulating the inflammatory responseto cellular injury' Anatomy and PhYsiologY T hehur nans k i n c o m p ri s e s o fth re e d i s ti n c tbutmutual l ydependent an tissues (Fig. 2-l), the stratified, avascular, cellular epidermis and Ha ir follicle Stratum corneum

Ha ir shaft



underlying dermis of connective tissue. At the bottom of the dermislies the fatty, subcutaneous laYer. Human skin displays two main types. Hairy skin encloses hair follicles and sebaceous glands, but there are no encapSulatedsense organs. Glabrous skin of the palms and the soles is made of a thick epidermis with a compact stratum corneum, but the integuments lack hair follicles and sebaceousglands and the dermis supports encapsulated sense organs A. The Epidermis The multilayer envelope of the epidermis varies in thickness,depending on cell size and the number of cell layers, ranging from about 0.g mm on the palms and the soles down to 0.06 mm on the eyelids. I stratum corneum I-l



epidermis Dermal vasculature Eccrinegland duct

of epidermis Fig.2-2 Magnification Sebaceous srarru Arrectores

Dermal vasculature

pilorum muscle

Living epidermis

Subcutaneous fatty tissue SLrbcutaneous vasulature

ofthe skin Fig. 2-l Schematiccross-section

Cells which provide epithelial tissue differ from those of all other organs in that as they ascend from the proliferative layer of basal cells they change in an ordered fashion from metabolically active and dividing cells to dense, dead, keratinized protein' Downward, the epidermis comprises of five distinct and separatelayers: (l) The horny tayer (Stratum corneum) : At the final stage of differentiation, epidermal cells construct the most superficial layer of the epidennis, the stratum corneum. Human beings owe their ability to survive in a non-aqueousenvironment to the almost impermeablenature of this refractory horny layer. on the general body areasthe membtane provides about 10-15 layers of much flattened, keratinized de_ad-cells, ttu"king them in highly organised units of vertical columns. The horny laye. may be only l0 pm thick when dry, but swells in water to several times this thickness. However, at friction surfaces of the body like palms and soles the thickness may be as high as seyeral hundred micrometres. When dry it is a very dense tissue' about i '5 gmlcrn3'



Each thin polygonal cell measures approximately 0.5 to l.5 pm thick, with the diameter ranging from 34 pm on the foreheadto 46 pm on the thigh axilla. At normal relative humidities, a normal stratum corneum can take up moisture upto I 5-20% of its dry weight. But in water logged condition water content of sorne areas of, the body can be several times of the dry weight. When occlusive dressing or c.reamsare applied over skin, the stratum corneull can become highly hydrated due to prevention of natural evaporation of water. By this process some substancesmay become more soluble in it as well. Conversely as the stratum corneum dries out it becomes brittle. Thus the ultradry, inelastic tissue tends to split when stretched causing conditions like chapped lips, windburn and dishiran hands. One can distinguish two types of horny layers by anatornic site, function and structure. The horny pads of the palms and soles adapt for weight bearing and friction and the membranous stratum corneum over the remainder of the body is flexible but impenneable. The horny pads are at least 40 times thicker than the membranoushorny layer. Holbrook and Odland carried out an ultrastructural analysis of the stratum corneum to find out the regional differences in the thickness (cell layers) in humans (Table 2-l). The methodsthat were utilised for measurementof the layers were: (a) Scotch tape stripping to remove cell layers" The number of strippings were correlated with the nurnber of cell layers. (b) Treatment of paraffin embedded and frozen biopsies with alkali to cause swellins. hence better visualization and more accurate counting. (c) Application of standard chemical fixation, paraffin embedment and staining proceduresfor histological sections. Thickness was measured rry.itha micrometer eyepiece. TABLE 2-I Regional Differences in the Thickness and Cell Layers of the Straturn Corneum Bod.y Region

Abdornen Flexorforearrn 'I'high Biri;k

Thickness of S C. (pm)

Number of Cell Lqvers




8 .2 t2 9 t{ ).9 9 .4

5.9-98 8.tr- 16.2 7.7-t5 .3 8 .2 -r1 .3

18.0 21.6 19.3 15.8

Ilange 15.0-20.9 r 6.7-30.0 143-22.7 I 4.0-21l



Human beings constantly shed the outermost layers of the stratum corneum as lipid-soaked horny flakes with an average daily loss from the whole body surface of 0.5 to 1.0 kg. The stratum corneum plays a crucial role in controlling the percutaneous absorption of chemical substances. The selective permeability of its elegant structure provides a central theme in many aspectsof design of cosmetics. (2) Stratum lucidum : In the palm of the hand and the sole of the foot, an anatomically distinct, poorly staining hyaline zone forms a thin, translucent layer immediately above the granular layer. This region is the stratum lucidum. The cells are non nuclear. (3) Stratum granulosurn (granular layer) : This layer is above the keratinocytes. They manufacture basic staining particles, the keratinohyaline granules. This keratogenous or transitional zone is a region of intense biochemical activity and morphological change. The dynamic operation manufactures the keratin to form the horny layer by an active rather by a degenerativeprocess. (4) Stratum spinosum (prickly cell layer) : The cells of this layer are produced by morphological and histochemical alteration of the cells of 'basal layer as they moved upward. The bells flatten dnd their nuclei shrink. They are also called polygonal cells, prickle cells, becausethey are interconnectedby fine prickles. Each prickle enclosesan extension of tnd cytoplasm" and the opposing tips of the prickles of adjacent cells adhere to form intercellular bridges, the desmosomes. These links maintain the integrity of the epidermis. (5) Stratum germinativum (basal layer and dermoepidermal junction) : The basal cells are nucleated, columnar and about 6 pm wide, with their long axis at right angles to the dermoepidermaljunction, they are connected by cytoplasmic intercellular bridges. Mitosis of the basal cells constantly renews the epidermis and this proliferation in healthy skin balances the loss of dead horny cells from the skin surface. Thus the thickness of epidermis remains constant' The basal cells also include melanocytes which produce and distribute melanin granules to the keratinocy'tes required for pigmentation, a protective measureagainst radiation. Below the basal cell layer lies the complex dermoepidermal junction, which constitutes an anatomic functional unit. The junction serves the three functions of dermal-epidermal adherence, mechanical support for the epidermis, the control of the passageof cells and some large molecules acrossthe junction'



The barrier function of the junction can be consideredin terms of three species,small molecules,large moleculesand cells. There is no evidencethat the junction significantlyinhibits the passageof water, electrolytes,and other low molecularweight materials. B. The Dermis region The dermis, as indicatedin Fig. 2-1, is the non-descriptive fatty region- It lying in betweenthe epidermisand the subcutaneous consistsmainly of the densenetwork of structuralprotein fibres i.e. collagen, reticulum and elastin, embeddedin the semigel matrix of 'ground substances'. It is about 0.2 to 0'3 cm mucopolysaccharidic thick. The elasticityof skin is due to the networkor gel structureof the cells. It also consistsof the epidermisand reticularlayer,which is the maiir structuralbody of the skin. Beneaththe dermis,the fibrous tissue tissue. On opensout and mergeswith the fat containingsubcirtaneous ridges or into is formed the other hand, the upper layer of the dermis vessels, blood papillae projecting into the epidermis,which contains the into lymphatics,and nerve endings. Only the nerve fibres reach germinativezoneof the epidermis. C. SubcutaneousTissue tissue,known as the This layer consistsof a sheetof fat-richareol.ar structures. The underlying superficial fascia,attachingthe dermisto the veins are present layer is quite elastic. Large arteriesand subcutaneous only in the superficialregion. The rest of the portion containsa limited numberof capillariesand novital organs. D. Skin Appendages sebaceous with hair follicles and associated The skin is interspersed types of two regions glandsand in specif,rc glands,like pilosebaceous are these sweat glands, eccrine and apocrineglands. Collectively, referredto as the skin appendages. Hair follicles are distributedover the entireskin surfaceexceptsoles of the feet, the palm of the hand,the red portion of the lips, and selected portion of the sex organs. It consistsof concentriclayersof cellularand non-cellularcomponentsand is placed at an angle. Smooth muscle fibres, arrectores pilorum, attach the hair to the dermal connective tissues. The hair shaft is formed by a processof cellular division and migration of the cells similar to that which forms the stratumcorneum. Hairs are thus formed of keratinizedcells compactedtogetherinto plates and scales.



gland Each hair follicle is associatedwith one or more sebaceous which are referred as the acid mantle of the skin. ln some selected region of the skin theseexist in the absenceof the hair follicle. Their size varies from regionto region (200 to 2000 pm) and is highestin nose. It secretesoily material,sebum,which lubricatesthe skin and stratumcorneuinand also maintainsthe pH of the skin at 5' (l) Eccrine sweatglands : Eccrineglandsor salty sweatglandsare distributedover the surfaceof the body. They consistof simple,coiled tube as shown in Fig.2.l and have a density from 100 to 200 glandsper cm2 of the body surfacedependingon the body region. The secretionis dilute aqueoussolutionof salt and someother minor componentsand it has a pH of about 5. The principalfunctionof the gland is heatcontrol" It secretesdilute aqueoussolutionof salt and due to this it regulatesthe body temperature. (2) Apocrine glands : Apocrine glands are presentonly in the selectedregion of the body viz. axillae (armpits),in anogenitalregion and aroundthe nipples. They are ten times largerthan eccrineglands containingprotein,lipoprotein,lipids and a milky substance and secretes diverseproteins. The secretionis mainly stimulateddue to emotional stressand sexualstimulation. glands are responsiblefor the (3) Sebaceousglands : Sebaceous secretionof sebum,which constitutesthe majority of the fatty layer glandsare found in various coveringthe skin and hair. The sebaceous partr ofthe body like face,shoulders,upperchestand scalp,but are not found on the palmsand soles. They are available500-1000per square centimetre. (4) Hair : The hair shaft is basically the product of synthesized proteinfollowing cell division at the root of hair follicle. The number of hair per unit area varies at different parts of the body. The rate of growthalsovariesfrom siteto siteand variesbetween0.2 to 0'4 mm per day. Common Disordersof the Skin As we mentionedearlierthat cosmeticsare basicallyfor beautification and masking,preventionor overcomingcommon disorders,it is to havea knowledgeof commondisordersof the skin. Design npcessary and applicationof any skin cosmeticswill be guidedby the natureand siteof disorders.Commondisordersof skin can be classifiedas follows:



A.' Pigmentary Disorders This is due to disorder in pigmentation on the skin and it can be of hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation in nature. (1) Hyperpigmentation : This is the disorder due to abnormal pigmentation which occurs on a small area of the skin, mainly in Caucasians. This disorder is due to an increased local synthesis of melanin in the epidermis. This can be further stimulated by exposureto UV or X-irradiation. Various conditions are termed as ephelides, lentigens, moles, ochronosis. (2) Hypopigmentation : Synthesis of lesser amount of melanin in part of skin can cause hypopigmentation, which is called vitiligo, a patchy depigmentation of the skin afflicting a considerable number of non-Caucasians. It can also occur in Caucasians. A decreaseor total absenceof melanocytes in the depigmented areas has been observed. B. Disorders of the Sebaceousand Sweat Glands Disorders or malfunctions of sebaceousand sweat glands can cause various skin disorders like acne, prickly heat, etc. Acne like pimples, blackheads,whiteheads and boils are caused by the disorders of hair follicles and sebaceousglands and mostly occur in face, neck and upper portion of chest and back. Miliaria, most common of which is prickly heat or strophus, is caused by the disorder of sweat glands and commonly occurs in neck and large areas of the skin. C. Skin Scaling Disorders Skin scaling can be due to dandruff and psoriasis. (1) Psoriasis : This is a skin disease characterized by the formation of scaly red patches, particularly on the extensor surfaces of the body, mainly elbows and knees. The site is covered with silvery scaleswhich on removal show a small bleeding point. (2) Dandruff: This is characterizedby flaking of stratum corneum and mostly occurs on scalp. The reason suggestedfor this condition can be microbial infection, immunological or normal disorder at the surface of stratum comeum. (3) Effects of aging on skin : Aging affects the characters and functions of the skin. Cosmetics are used to partially repair, mask or overcome such changes. Various changescaused by aging are thinning of epidermis making older people more prone to injury and skin infec-



tion, reducing the sensitivity of the immune system causing further skin damage and infection, change in colour, lower melanin level makes it more sensitive to sun exposure,dry and scaly skin due to less secretion, cold skin due to low blood supply, decreasein elasticity of the skin and occurrenceof wrinkles. Skin : Its Nutrition and Care To ensure the maintenanceof normal condition of skin various steps practices should be adopted. They include cleansing, freshening or or toning, moisturising, nourishing and protecting the skin. For aging skin further care is required for overcoming the changesthat have occurred or for masking the skin characters" Advent of more and more knowledge about skin physiology and biochemistry has given the cosmetic manufactuiers more avenues for better skin care. Several creams are available for specific functions, overcoming specific disorder of skin in special cases. Nutrients of skin Various substancesare essentialfor maintenance of normal condition and function of skin. Some of these are systemically supplied and others are synthesizedby various mechanisms in the skin from raw materials. These include: (1) Proteins : Proteins are major componentssynthesizedin epidermis and hair follicle from amino acids. The amino acids are supplied by the blood by the breakdown of the dietary proteins at the digestive systgms. (2) Lipids : Lipid is another important substancesynthesizedin the skin by the sebaceousglands in the epidermis. Sebum is lipid secreted from the sebaceousglands and is made from mainly fatty acids' Lipids produced at the epidermis have a role in barrier function and structural integrity of the stratum corneum, and are made from acetate, amino acids, long chain fatty acids and carbohydrates. (3) Melanin : Melanin is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosin and is responsible for pigmentation at the skin. (4) Energy supply substances : The synthesis of proteins, lipids and melanin requires the supply of energy at the skin cells and is made available by energy processeslike oxidative phosphorylation of glucose or other monosaccharides. (5) Water : This is most important for normal function of the skin and movement of other nourishing substancesand metabolites.



(6) Others : Apart from the above substatpes various other substances like protein hormones, steroid hormones, corticosteroids and vitamins are also essential for normal maintenance of the skin. The above substancesare required to be supplied as skin preparations if they are not available through normal systemic process. Supply of these nourishing substancesrequires penetration through skin to reach the proper site. It is very important for the designer to ensure the cutaneouspermeation ofany such substances.The percutaneous permeation of amy chemical entity will depend on various factors like: (a) Physico-chemical properties and concentration of the permeant (b) Composition and characteristicsof the vehicle (c) Condition of the skin For poorly penetrable substances,some additive can be incorporated to enhance the penetration of the permeants. 'These are called 'Penetration Enhancers'. Various substancesare used as penetration enhancers like dimethyl formamide (DMF), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), ozone, alcohols and surfactants. Their funtions are attributed to their role to temporarily change the barrier systems of the skin by various mechanisms. Skin care preparations Various products are available and marketed for the care of skin. They are used for beautifrcation, skin care, masking or repairing of skin defects, etc. (1) (2) (3) (4)

Powders, face powders, compacts etc. Skin colorants like lipstick, rouge, eye mascaraetc. Various creams for care of skin. Sunscreenpreparationsfor skin protection.


Powders and ComPacts and comPreParations is Powders women bY onlY not care, and bodY as known also are which rowders, MedicomPacts' and [ace Powders


powdersusedfor specificpurposes' skin care preparationsin Fundamentallypowders diffpr from liquid theirphysicalcharacteristicsandtheirmostimportantcosmeticpropertiesaredeterminedexactlybythesecharacteristics.Veryfineparticle p"' unit weight which covers a large size produceslarge t"tfu"" -"u light dispersion' ,urf*" areaof the body and resulis in strong characteristics: The powdersshouldhavethe following power and so hide skin covering (l) The powdermust have good blemishes. to the skin and not blow off easily' '12; t, must adhereperfectly a few minutes to avoid (3) It must not be completely dissipatedin re-Powdering. preferably of a matt or (a) The finish given to the skin must be Peach-likecharacter' eliminated' (5) Shine on or aroundthe nosemust be completely (6) 'the Powdermust be absorbent' slip to enablethe powder to spreadon 1Zi fn"r" must be sufficient a blotchy effect' the skin by the puff withoui producing be such that a clown-like (8) The constituentsof the powder must be rather towards effect is impo'siUte' The preferenceshould one of transParency' Preparations Raw Materials for Powdersand Allied of powders is the The primary considerationin the manufacture 2l




selectionof proper raw materials. euality of the basic ingredientsis very important to achieve the intendedquality of the finished products and the effect to be obtained from the products. so, the quality of the raw materialsplays an important role in the ultirnate powder ro.-ut"tion. The knowledgeof variousraw materialsand their characters, role. shouldbe well known beforejudicious selectionof materials. The main substancesused to impart all the necessaryqualities are kaolin, zinc oxide, zinc stearate,titanium'dioxide, calcium carbonate, magnesiumcarbonate,purified talc (talcum), magnesiumstearateetc. Apart from the above, various colours and perfumesare also used to impart intendedcolour shadeand odour. The raw materialsto be usedfor manufacturingpowder shouldbe of good quality:(1) The materials should not be hbrd. If the materialsare crystals in nature they must not have any sharp edges or points. Thesecan damagethe skin. (2) Solubility of the materialsin water and fat mixture must be nil or least. (3) The materialsmustbe non-i*itatingandnon-toxicto the skin. (a) The materialsmust be chemicallyneutral and should not interact with each other. The raw materialsgenerallyused in manufacturingof variouspowdersare classifiedand discussedaccordingto their functions:(l) Materials imparting covering character , (2) Materials imparting adhesioncharacter (3) Materials imparting slip and softness (4) Materials imparting absorbencycharacters (5) Materials imparting peach-likefinish (6) Frosted-lookmaterials (7) Colouringsubstances (8) Perfumes All the materials are not required for every preparation. According to the need and purposeof the productraw materialsare selected. Some of the items are essentialfor every preparationsuch as covering materials, absorbents, adhesives,slips. (l) Materials for imparting covering character : One important characterexpectedfrom the materialsused in powders,particularly face


powders,is the ability to cover small skin imperfections,enlargedpores, etc. They should be in finely powderedform. Generally,the covering power per unit weight is stronger if the specific surface area of the powder is higher i.e. the particlesare finer. The efficiency of the covering agent can dependon the medium in which it is dispe?sed. Covering power is betteron dry skin than moist skin. Titanium dioxide is the bestcoveringagent. It is widely usedin facepowders. covering power of titaniumdioxide is 1.6 times more than the zinc oxide on dry ikin and 2.5 times more on moist and greasy skin. It is mostly propertiesare, however,inferior to physiologicallyinert. Its sunscreen zinc oxide. Zinc oxide is also a very good coveringagent.t,Thoughfiner particles have hetter covering power, but covering ptrwer of zinc oxide particlesdiminishesif the particle size is below 0'25 pm. In moist invironmentcoveringpowerof zinc oxide is 37Yoof that of dry powder and much lessin oily environment.Zinc oxide hasvery goodsunscreen propertiesas it has a protectiveeffectagainstultravioletrays. Kaolin, zinc stearate,magnesiumstearateand rice starch are other usedas coveringagents. However,they are not as good as substances titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. But combinationof the abovematerials, in different proportions,can be used to make productsof varying coveringability. (2) Materials imparting adhesion character : trpe5p...-5g.l0.stancss impart adhesioncharacter. Not only to the skin surfacebut also to the This iowder puff, which facilitates taking powder from its container. characteris essentialto cling the powder to the face or other skin surface. The materialsprimarily used for imparting adhesivecharactersare rnetal soapsprimarily zinc stearateand magnesiumstearate,talc, magnesium and calciumsaltsof myristic-acid. ' Magnesiumstearatehas better adhesiveproperty than zinc stearate and is more preferred in face powders. But zinc stearateis more predominantlyused in talcum powders. Super quality magnesiumand zinc stearatesare availablewith excellentcolour, texture and minimum of odour. 'Ihey also give a velvety softnessto the product^ As they are waterproof,they maintain the complexion intact in inclementweather. in facepowders. Magnesiumstearateis used3-10%s are also available for use for the calciurn and of lithium Stearates has also got good coverparticular, in stearate, Lithium sam.epurpose" texture. flufff ing propertiesand


A HANDBooKoF cosMETrcs

Magnesium and calcium salts of myristic acid are also used for their adhesion properties. Magnesium myristate has better adhesion character and a better texture. Cosmetic quality talc, which is a purified hydrated nragnesium silicate has adhesion properties. Though it is available in various corrntries, Italian product is the best and used for both face powders and body powders. The adhesion character of the powders can be increasedby incorporating l-2%o cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, glyceryl monostearate, petrolatum, lanolin or similar fats.



are colloidal kaolin, starch, bentonite, precipitated chalk (calcium carbonate), magnesium carbonate' colloidal kaolin is a fine, soft, white powder. It has a good absorbent capacity for aqueous and fatty substancesand good covering power also. It is non-toxic and non-irritating and inert. It has less slip property. Bentonite is mainly aluminium silicate and fine grey whitish powder. It has extraordinary swelling power and can swell upto 12 times of its own volume. Its use in cosmetics is comparatively less'

(3) Materials imparting slip and softneis : Slip is rhe quality of easy spreading and application of powder to produce a characteristic smooth feeling on the skin. This character is mainly obtained by using talc, zinc and magnesium stearates,and aluminium hydrosilicate. Talc is purified hydrated magnesiurn silicate (3MgO, 4SiO2, H2O). The proportion of Mg and Si can vary. Talc is produced by different countries but Italian, French and some lndian varieties are of very good quality and most suitable for powders specifically face powders. Sometimes talc contains pathogenic spores, particularly tetanus, so properly sterilized products are used in powder preparations. Talc is distinguished by its great softnessand slip and is almost neutral if adequately purified. It is not to be used in open skin as in wounds it can cause talcum granuomae. Talc cannot absorb any water. ,Alurninium hydrosilicate is a valuable basic material for powders It is smooth and fatty. It should be prepared properly by trehting with acid, washing with water and then dried. It also has certain cooling effect. It absorbs fatty secretions and small amounts of water. lt is completely non-toxic. Ofher substancesused for softnessand slip are zinc stearate,magnesium stearate,zinc undecanate,magnesiumundecanate. The undecanates, in particular, are soft and have excellent slip but are expensive. properly purified stearatesare extensively used. (4) Materials imparting absorbency characters : Powders should have ability to eliminate shiny skin in certain facial areas by absorbing sebaceoussecretions and perspiration. This character can be imparted by incorporating material with high absorptive capacity in face powders, dusting powders, baby powders, deodorant powders, foot powders etc. Face powders should also have a certain absorbency to prevent srnudging of make-up by perspiration The rnaterialswhich impart this property

preferred less than magnesium carbonate. various starches,like rice, wheat, corn, potato etc.,are comparatively less used nowadays. It has good moisture absorbing and swelling ability. It produces a sticky character but is completely non-toxic.

to get better effect.

not be used in excessof 30 Per cent.

aluminiurn,hronz*. (7) Colourimg substances : These are substancesmainly used ill Various face powders and cornpastsbut not in dusting or baby powders' used. are inorganic and organic pigments and certified organic lakes



Various synthetic or natural inorganic pigments used are iron oxides for yellows, reds, and brov,,nsand ultramarine for green and blue. ;Toxic lead and arsenic compounds are not used. Organic lakes and pigments produce better brilliance but should be selected from certified dyes. The organic'pigments must not bleed in oil or water and should be light-fast. phoice of colour is mainly users' taste. Various colours with various shadesare used to fulfil the satisfaction ofthe users. The colour of the thin film of the pigment may be different from the colour effect given by the powder viewed in bulk. (8) Perfumes : rrPerfume is an essential component of powders. Users put more importance to perfume. But it should not be over emphasized at the time of manufacturing. Normally the products are perfumed lightly, particularly face powders and compacts. The odour must be fragrant and pleasant.I Various perfumes or fragrance which are used, either flowery fragrance or synthetic odour. Selection of proper fra.grance is very vital for the products. Sometime combination of fragrances gives a better appeal. Compatibility of perfume with other constituents of the formulation -is to be checked properly before use. Constituents of powder preparation may change the character of fragrance. POWDER PRODUCTS (1) FACE POWDERS Face powder is an indispensable article of a lady's cosmetic range. From the mask-like covering in ancient times to the natural look which is the choice of the presentday, face powders have been and still rernain one of the basics of the cosmetic industry. A great deal of changes have taken place in face powder fashion during the last couple of decades. Tinted, shiny, enhanced by our modern cosmetics, the woman of today is able, with only modest effort, to be more attractive than she has ever been in the past. A face powder is basically a cosmetic product which has as its prime function the ability to complement skin colour by imparting a velvet finish to it. A good faie powder should produce a smooth t-rnishto the facial skin, masking visible imperf'ectionsof the face and shine due to moisture or grease from perspiration or secretion of sebaceousand sweat glands or fron preparations used on the skin. The powder must produce a



lasting effect, so that frequentapplicationis unnecessary.The preparation should make the face pleasantto look and touch. The degreeof opacity can vary from opaque, in case of clown make-up,to almost transparent.It must adhereto the skin and be reasonablyresistantto the mixed secretions of the skin. since no singlematerialcan haveall the'requiredpropertiesdesired in a facepowder,a mixture of different substancesis norrnallyemployed to get the following essentialcharacteristic's of a good product(a) Covering power : The ability to mask skin imperfectionssuch as skin shine,enlargedporesand minor blemishes. (b) Slip : The characterof spreadingover the skin without dragging, and giving the characteristic of smoothfeeling. (c) Adhesiveness : The ability to cling to the face. (d) Absorbency : The ability to absorbskin perspirarionand oily secretionwithout showingthe effectof suchabsorption. (e) Bloom : The ability to imparta velvety,peach-likefinish to the face skin. (f) Colouring : To imparta coloureffectaccordingto the need. (g) Perfuming : To produce a pleasantodour. The proportion of variousingredientsusedcan be alteredto have slight variation in the properties of the powder and their effect, but, as a practice, f-acepowders are classified in to three categories dependingon the natureofthe skin and correspondingly cover_ ing ability requiredfrom the products. (i) Light type (ii) Mediumtype (iii) Heavytype Skin to be powderedcan be classifiedinto three categories:dry, normal or moderatelyoily, and very oily. (i) Light type : Dry skin requireslight powder, a powder of slight covering power as dry skin secretesvirtually no oil and little moisture.fhey normally contain large quantity of talc. (ii) Medium type : Medium powders,having comparativelyhigher coveringpower,are appliedto normal or moderatelyoily skins, which are shinier due to skin secretions. They contain some_ what lessertalc and balancedby zinc oxide. (iii) Heavy type : Heavy powdershave more coveringpower and are used for extremelyoily skins which have a greatdeal of shine



and thus require great covering power. They normally contain still lower quantity of talc and high quality of zinc oxide. General preparation : The preparationof powdersis simple as it is simply a matter of dry mixing of finely powderedmaterials. Add the perfume with part of the absorbentmaterialslike calcium carbonateor with magnesiumcarbonateand keep it aside for some time. Mix the colour with part of the talc properly and add the other powdersand then the perfume mixture. Mix and sieve the powder mixture using a silk mesh or an old washednylon cloth. Formulae of Face Powders POWDER WITH REDUCING COVERING POWER Forihula I

Zinc stearate Zinc oxide I Calcium carbonate(light) ,Talc Titanium dioxide . Magnesiumcarbonate(light) Colour Perfttme

5.0 gm 10.0gm 20.0 gm 57.3gm 2.0 gm 5.0 gm 0.2 gm 0.5 gm

LIGHT POWDER Formula2 Talc Kaolin Calcium carbonate(light) Zinc oxide Zinc stearate Magnesiumcarbonate Colour Perfume

63.0 gm 20.0 gm 5.0 gm 5.0 gm 5.0 gm 1.0 gm 0.5 gm 0.5 gm

3 Formula Zinc stearate Zinc oxide Calcium carbonate(light) Talc Colour Perfume

7.0 gm 10.0gm 20.0 gm 62.3 gm 0.3 gm 0.4 gm



Formuh4 79.0 gm 5.0 gm 5.0 gm 10.3gm 0.3 gm 0.7-gm

Talc Zinc oxide Zinc stearate Rice starch Colour Perfume MEDIUMPOWDER Formula5 Talc Kaolin Calcium carbonate(light) Zinc oxide Zinc stearate Magnesiumcarbonate Colour Perfume

39.7 gm 39.5 gm 5.0 gm 7.0 gm 7.0 gm 1.0 gm 0.2 gm 0.6 gm

Formula6 5.0 gm 15.0gm 2.0 gm 15.0gm 15.0gm 47.2 gm 0.3 gm 0.5 gm

Zinc stearate Zinc oxide Titaniumdioxide Precipitatedchalk Rice starch Talc Colour r Perfume Fo r m u l a 7

Zinc stearate Zinc oxide Calcium carbonate Talc Colour Perfume

15.0gm 17.5gm 20.0 gm 47.0 gm 0.2 gm 0.3 gm

HEAVY POWDER For m ula8 Magnesium stearate Kaolin (light) Zinc oxide

5 . 0gm 20.0gm l 5 . 0 gm


30 Calcium carbonate(light) Talc Colour Perfume


39.0 gm 20.0 gm 0.5 gm 0.5 gm

For m ula 9

Titanium dioxide Zinc oxide Magnesiumstearate Calciumcarbonate(light) Kaolin (light) Talc Colour, Perfume

5.0 gm 15.0gm 5.0 gm 15.0gm 25.0 gm 34.0 gm 0.4 gm 0.6 gm




(a) Dry binders : They are metallic stearate-slike zinc stearate, stearate'The use ofdry binders needs increasedpressurefor magnesium firm compacting. and (b) Oil binders : Oils such as mineral oil, isopropyl myristate' commaking for agents lanolin derivatives are widely used as binding pact powders.

prevent pact powders. A preservative is essential in gum medium to rnicrobiological growth in the preparations' (d) Water-repellant binders : These are widely used in compact lanolin fa"" io*d"rs and include mineral oil, various fatty esters, and aid in to derivatives in combination with a considerableamount of water agent may the formation of a smooth, solidly pressedcake' A wetting throughout also be incorporatedto help to uniformly distribute moisture the powder.

Methods of PreParation

I B asi cal l ythreem et hods. of pr epar at ionof com pact f acepowder sar e adopted.

t s int lin g a g e n ts :T h e b i n c l e rs u s e d i n compactpow dersareseveral i n nurnber'. "l'he1'can be ciassified into five types-(a) DrY trit'rdi:rs (b) {)i1 bindq:rs qc) Water-soluble binders binders (cl) Vy'nter-rePellant ie) kirnulsi'llnbinders

(l )W etmetho d: lnt hism et hodbasicm at er ials, colour sand and airUinieis are kneaded into a paste with water, pressed into moulds other and cracks produce can it as dried slowly. It is not much used lbults.

anolamine stearate with lanolin and cetyl alcohol'

33 \



(3) Damp method : In this method the base powder, colour and perfume are mixed uniformly. The mixture is then wetted down with liquid binders like aqueousmucilagesor mucin rich o/w emulsion binders and blended until the proper plasticity of the mass is attaine(. The powder is then screenedan/ compressedby machineand dried ht elevatedtemperature. This method is a widely acceptedmethod and is usedcommercially. FORMULAE OF SOME BINDERS Formula l0

Gum Arabic Glycerol Water Preservative

1.0 gm 5.0 gm 94.0 gm q.s.

Formulall Gum tragacanth Glycerol monostearate Mineral oil Sorbitol Water Preservative

2.0 gm 6.0 gm 4.0 gm 5.0 gm 83.0 gm 'q.s

Formula12 Gum tragacanth Glucose Water Preservative Formula13 Mineral oil Polyoxyethylenestearate Water Preservative

2.0 gm 5.0 gm 93.0 gm q.s. 1.0 gm 2.0 gm 97.0 gm q.s.

Formulae of Conpact Face Powders Apart from the formulae mentionedin face powders,which can be convertedto compactby using suitablebinder, the following additional formulae are suggested. As the amount of binder, colour and perfume will vary accordingto need,they are not mentionedin specific amount.


Formulr l4

Talc Kaolin Titanium dioxide Zinc stearate Colour Binder Perfume Formule 15

Talc Calcium carbonate Zinc oxide Zinc stearate Colour Binder Perfume Formulr16 Talc Kaolin Chalk, PreciPitated Titanium dioxide Zinc stearate Colour Binder Perfume Formula17 Talc Kaolin Zinc oxide Zinc stearate Magnesiumcarbonate Colour Binder Perfume Formuhl8 Talc Mica Titanium dioxide or mica

69.0 gm 18.0gm t.0 gm 5.0 gm q.s.. q.s.' q.s. 79.0 gm 9.0 gm 7.0 gm 5.0 gm q.s q.s. q.s. 60.0 gm 12.0gm 12.0gm 12.0gm 4.0 gm q.s. q.s. q.s. 62.0 gm ll.0 gm 14.0gm 5.0 gm 8.0 gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

70.0gm 20.0gm 10.0gm

35 34


Colour Binder Perfume

q.s. q.s. q.s. Formula"lg

Talc Syntheticpeari Titanium dioxide Zinc stearate Colour Binder Perfume

54.0 gm 10.0gm 30.0 gm 6.0 gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

(3) BODY POWDERS Amongst the various cosmetics, body powder is one of the widely consumed cosmetic preparations. Body powders are also known as talcum powders or dusting powders. They are used for multiple purposes. The main use of body powders or talcum powders is to absorb moisture or perspiration specifically after bathing particularly in warmer countries. These also provide good slip, a cooring effect and efficient lubrication, and prevent i'itation of skin due to chafing. The very fine particie size of these covers cause a rarge surface ur.u p". unit weight and can cover a large body area which results in strong -light dispersion and therefore visual covering of the skin underneath. The surface covered by the powders is much more than the surface uncovered which leads to a cooling effect if the ingredients of the powder have good heat conductivity. These fine powder particles with light weight'adhere to the skin by the stickiness of the fat film. Noimally,lhey contain covering material, adhesives, absorbency material, slip, antiseptics and


Body powdersconsistmainry of talc, with smail proportionsof a metallic stearate,like zinc stearate,aluminium stearate,etc., and precipitated calcium carbonate(chrilk) or magnesiumcarbonate(right). For antiseptic action boric acid, chlorohexidinediacetate,bithionll ur" usedto suppressproliferationof microorganisms responsiblefor"t". devel: opment of perspiration odour. Talcum powders containing antiseptic substances are also usedfor prickly heatand fungusinfectiois. Absorbencycharacteristicis impartedby the inclusion of kaolin, magnesiumcarbonate,precipitatedchalk and starch. Slip will be conferred by talc, zinc stearate. The presenceof kaorin, zinc oxide or

AND COMPACTS Ch.3 POWDERS characteristic' contributes to adhesive magnesium stearate

Colour is not

o."--din bodY Powders' ploperly and keep it GeneralPreParations with oil Mix the perfume 'nug"&iu'n -carbonate

i"i*,"::1, tt' iT'""'$"1$1: iderorsometime''#,,';;;; as m *i*: carbonate to thls the perfumed magneslum and Pack it in contatners' BODY POWDER FORMULAE OF Formula20

75.0 gm 10.0 gm 5.0 gm 5.0 gm 4.0 gm 0.3 gm 0.7 gm


c6ttoiaAkaolin Colloidal silica Magnesium carbonate Aluminium steafate Boric acid Perfume Formula2l Talc Calcium carbonate ,Zinc stearate Boric acid Perfume oil Formula22 Satinex Talc carbonate (light) ri"gn..iut Boric acid

Perfumeoil Formula23 Zinc stearate oxide Zinc "f"rug"tti urn carbonate(li ght) Tale Perfume Formula24 Zinc oxide (light) Cui"i"* carbonate

70.0 gm 25.0 gm 4.0 gm 0.3 gm 0.7 gm 6.0 gm 88.0 gm 5.0 gm

0.3gn 0'7 gm 5'0 gm 5.0 gm 15'0 gm 74.5 gm 0'5 gm 4.0 gm 8.0 gm


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Talc Perfume

87.5 gm 0.5 gm

DEODORANTPO}VDERS Formulr 25 Zinc oxide 5.0 gm Zinc stearate 5.0 gm Chlorhexidinediacetate 0.3 gm Calcium carbonate(light) 10.0gm Talc 79.3 gm Perfume 0.4 gm Formula26 Zinc oxide Zinc stearate Bithional Calciumcarbonate(light) Talc Perfume

10.0gm 5.0 gm 0.5 gm 5.0 gm 79.2 gm 0.3 gm


Talc Magnesiurnstearate r Magnesiumcarbonate(light) Boric acid Perfumeoil

87.0 gm 5.0 gm 5.0 gm 2.5 gm 0.5 gm

Formula2t Talc Kaolin Magnesiumstearate Boric acid Satinex Perfumeoil

70.0 gm 20.0 gm 4.0 gm 2.5 gm 3.0 gm 0.5 gm

Talc Kaolin Boric acid Satinex { Perfumeoil

Formula 29

84.0 gm 10.0gm 3.5 gm 2.0 gm 0.5 gm



SodiumproPanedioate7 Talc Boric acid

20.0gm 78.0gm 2.0 gm


Boric acid Kaolin Talc Menthol Formule 32

Boric acid Starch Talc

10.0gm 44.5 gm 45.0 gm 0.5 gm I1.0 gm 20.0 gm 69.0 gm z

Evrluation of variouspowder productsparticularly Evaluationand assessment judge the quality of the loose face powders,compactsare essentialto at differentlevels.onthe finishedproducts. Intensivetestingsare done include.tests q""iiry of the products. Tests tuti b" thorough and must apparentdensity'moisturecontent'limits ilipunitf" size,abrasiveness' for colour, etc. extensiveand Apart from the common test of contentdetermination' contro|ledstabilitytestarecarriedouttodeterminethattheformulated time during shelfproJuct will remain stable for an extendedperiod of stability test can be life. For this purpose' if necessary,accelerated for face powdersand carriedout. other testswhich are doneparticularly compactsthe are the followingdetermine (1) Shadc control and lighting : This is to control and and with the standardthe variation of colour shadeiom batch to batch Prop.rtestistobedonetopreventvariationinshades'Onesuch of the body of the powder with methodis comparisonof tn. appearance a white paper backa standardwhen it is spreadout *a flattened on of the sample comparison is evaluation ground. The otheiln"iftod of be applied should Powders undertone. with the standardby skin tone or the final is This pack' finished for bt ;; samepuff tlat is to be used colour for used is lighting j,rOJ"rn"n for the shade test' Artificial dvaluation.



(2) Dispersion of colour': Colour should be homogeneouslydistributed in the powder base. There should not be segregationor bleeding of colour. This can be tested by spreading the powder on a white paper and checking it with a magnifoing glass. (3) Pay-off : The pay-off character,i.e., adhesion with the puff, of a compact or pressed powder should be tested on the skin. High pressure will make the cake so hard that the poryder will not rub off the cake easily enough and thus there will be insufficient adhesion of the material to the puff. Too low pressure will make the cake soft and thus have a tendenoy to crumble and break. (4) Pressure testing : Pressure applied to compact powder should be uniform to prevent air pocket and thus breaking or cracking. Uniformity of the hardness can be tested by penetrometer. Reading on hardness is checked, at various points of compact tablet to see the uniformity of hardness. (5) Breakage test : This is carried out by dropping the compact tablet of powder on a wooden surface several times from a height of 8 to 10 inches and checking the breakage or clipping of the compact. If the cake is unbroken it is indication of the resistance asainst travel and normal handling. (6) Flow property : This is very important, particularly for body powders as they should come out easily from the containelfor easy application. This can be studied by measuring angle of repose of powder product by allowing to fall on a plate from a funnel and measuring the height and radius of heap formed. Also, the powder may be allowed to fall from a funnel and noting the time taken. (7) Particle size and abrasiveness : Particle size can be determined by microscope, sieve analysis or by using sophisticated instruments and techniques. Abrasiveness can be studied by rubbing the powders on a smooth surf'ace and then studying the effect on the surface using microscope. (8) Moisture content and limits for colour : These can be estimated by using suitable analytical methods.


Skin Colorants an ancientpractice Colouring skin, particularly skin of face and lips' is the use of.such days' present In going Uit to irehistoric period' texture' lustre colours' of shaded of iroAi.t, has increasedand choice from the observed be can This ir"ve been changedand becomewider' to colours of shades of fact that lipsticls are marketed in hundreds satisff the demandsof women" Apartfromnormaldailylife,skincolorantsarealsousedfordrama' ci."us,danceetc'Thepresentchapterwillbasicallydiscusstwospecific skin colorants. (1) LiPsticks (2) Rouge are The skin colorantsare also called as'Beauty Aids'but-they is colorants skin of differentfrom other cosmetics. The sole purpose cosother whereas ;il;;;,i"t of appearancefor enhancedattractiveness' or promotion of the meticshave other specific functionsof maintenance skin health along with or without decorativefunctions' skin' Decorative Skin colorantsor beautyaids must not damagethe of aging' preparationsare used to tride small blemishesor symptoms demonstrate and :fhay ur. also usedto createa well-groomedappearanpe to attract opposite the desireto impressupon others. They are applied as psychological' sexandto be noticedupon. The motivescan be termed pleasantlyfragrant' Manufacturerstry to make these as decorative, main activeingredicoloured,non-tackyand harmlessas possible' The are also essentialto ent in such preparationsis dye but oiher materials and auxiliary hold the dyainlhe preparationsand for easeof application effects. (l) LIPSTICKS usedby women' Lipsticks,also termedas lip cosmetics,are widely that they decades of couple last f ,iprtrcf.shave become,o popul"t in the


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cosmetic-product' Its are now probably usedmore than any other single flooded b" gauged from the fact that market has been popularity of productswith hundredsof shades' ,riift pf"nty""n matter in a base Lipsticks are basically dispersions of colouring waxei suitably perfulned consistingof a suitableUienaof oils, fats, and in a'case' n"uo-ur"d,moulded in the form of a stick and enclosed glossy and moist -J Lipstick is usedto impart an attractivecolour' and the to the lips, accentuatingtheir good points and disguising lips can be made to "pp"riun"" O""l*,t. By properiy applying a iipstick broader look as broad lips' An look as nalrow or narrow^lipsmay be changedto the apparent facial change ini"ffig"ntly applied lipstick can totally lips which chapp-ing.of and upp""i"""". It'also helpsto preventcracking also lipsticks for used base can lead to the Uacteiial infection' The producesan emollient action' LipskinSkinofthelipsischaracterizedbyanexceptionallythin developedand the corneal layer. The stratumlerminativum is strongly just below the surface' rlood content are very much glands ls but salivary of the lips' moisture the ra maintain entirely almost are lips sparsely,the to dry tends layer comeal free from fat. In very cold or dry weatherthe very is lips ofthe layer out and producecracled lips' Sincethe corneal on applied substances thin, and further, crackedin ary condition' alien is This germinativum' the lips can quite easily penetrateto-the stratum ingrediand selecting ;l*"i, to be kept in mind while making lipsticks ents for it. characteristics: Characters A lipstick should have the following gloss and last for (l) It should cover the lips adequatelywith some long time. (2) It should make the iiPs soft' being brittle and (3) The film must adherefirmly to the lips without tackY. (4) It shouldhave a good degreeof indelibility' without any (5) It should have high retention of colow intensity changein shade' be non-drying' (6) It shouldbe completelyfree from grittinessand (7) It should be non-initating to the skin of lips'




(E) It shouldhave a desirabledegreeofplasticity'

(e) It shouldhave a pleasantodour and flavour' have the following Apart from the above, a lipstick should also llorage characteristics:( l) A smoothand shinYaPpearance' (2) Freedomfrom bloom or sweating' of (3) A suitable degree of firmness during reasonablevariations climatic temPerature' (4) Retain plasticity without any tendencyto dry out or crumble'

.,lltT'oli.ti# mainrv rhestick composition frltTilt'*:T::

:d melting Point and viscositY' The between36oC to 38'C with liPs rf the liPstick must have a melting between55"C to 75oC PreferablY |andexPosureto hot climates' 'l'he basic raw materials required for formulating lipsticks can be classifiedas(l) Wax mixture (2) Oil mixture (3) Bromo mixture (4) Colours fragrances,surfactantsand other additives (5) Preservatives, (l) Waxes thl characGloss and hardnessof lipsticks are largely dependent9n the compositionof the wax toristicsand quantityof the waxesused' So' mixtureisofprimeimportance.Bestcharacteristicscanbeobtainedby and adjustingthe mixture of *u*", of different melting points ;*i"; melting " point by incorporatinga sufficient amount of high iinoirn"fting"Various lipsticks' in used are waxy materials l,ii", **' and useful cornponentof (a) White beeswax : It is an-iTpgf* It usefullybinds oils and llpstick basewith *"tting point of 62-64'C' of the total formula' It 10% to high melting point waxesl it is u'ed in 3 mouldedproducts' At of rhrinks on cooling and thus helps preparation and causesthe appearance higher concentrationii producesa dull waxy rticks to crumbleduring use' 65-6.9'Cand is used (b) Candelilla wax : It has a meltingpoint of is very good for ln 5-10%. A mixture of candelilla** "ttd beeswax



making lipstick. If candelillawax is used a little in excessthan beeswax the product gets a smooth and glossy appearance. (c) Carnauba wax : It increasesthe melting point of the base and hardens the lipstick. It needs to be used in small amounts' It brings an attractive lustre to the product. It's melting point is 80 to 88"C. (d) Ozokerite wax : It is also mainly used to increasethe melting point of the base. It melts at 60-80"C and is used in 3-l0o/o' If it is used in excess the sticks tend to crumble during application. (e) Ceresin wax : it is also called paraffrn wax or mineral wax. It's melting point is 60-75oC and is used in about 5Yo to increase melting point. (f) Cetyl alcohol and cetostearyl alcohol : These two substances are used in small amounts, in 2-3o/o,in the lipstick for emollient action on the lip skin. The melting points are 45-50"C and 42'45"C respectively. At higher concentration (above 5%) they give a dull appearanceto the lipstick which develops to a 'bloom' on storage. High concentration also leads to crystal formation, on storage,on the surface of the stick"

(2) oils The oil mixture is required to blend properly with the waxes to provide a suitable film on the applied lip skin. It also acts as a solvent for eosin dyestuffs or as a dispersing agent for insoluble pigments. An ideal rnixture is one which enables the product to spread easily and produces a thin film with good covering power. (a) Castor oil : Castor oil is used in many lipsticks becauseof its good qualities, though nowadays some other oils or solvents are being used. A refined grade castor oil is of good colour and is odourless and tasteless. Castor oil is a very good plasticising agent. An antioxidant is to be added to the castor oil against rancidification though it is not as prone to rancidification aS other vegetable oils like olive oil or almond oil. High viscosity of castor oil makes the dispersion of pigments long stable during the mixing and moulding stages of manufacture. Normaliy, about 40-50% of castor oil is used. But when a higher proportion is used the proporlion of high melting point waxes needs to be ad.iusted to get a high melting point base mixture. (b) Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and its esters : This alcohol and its esters like acetate, stearate, ricinoleate are also used in lipstick preparation. The acetate has very good solvent prclperty for the eosin dye. But the volatile property of the solvent can lead to smudging of the outline by evaporation from the hotter inner surface and deposition on

t'h 4 liKrNcoLoRANTS


lhc cooler edges. The acetate has an unpleasant taste and odour. But tlourate and ricinoleate are lood and non-volatile but their solvent ptopcrty is a little less. (c) Fatty acid alkaylamides : They are non-volatile and have no rrrrgrlcasant taste or odour. They increasethe stability of the lipsticks but do rrot have emollient action. They help in dispersing the pigments. (d) Paraflin oil : It is used in not more than 5To to give a glossy Hpl)caranceafter application. In higher proportion the oil will come off llrc lips and run around the lips. It also acts as lubricant to facilitate rerrrovalof sticks from the moulds after pouring. (c) Isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate and butyl stearate : llresc are also used to facilitate smooth application. Due to their low rrrrlirce tension they have a good wetting effect on insoluble dyes and pigrncnts,and also act as mutual solvents for oils and waxes. Presence ol hinders is required to incorporate isopropyl myristate, otherwise it trruyseparateout becauseof its low surfacetension. Apart from the waxes and oils, sometime fats are incorporated in the llJrslicksto serve the purpose of giving more body to the film on the lips, rrrroothingthe skin of the lips or softeningit. It also helps in dispersion ol'irrsoluble pigments. The substanceswhich are normally incorporated sle cocoa butter (theobroma oil), hydrogenatedvegetable fats. 'l'hc use of acetoglycerideshas also been recommendedin lipsticks to Irrrprovethixotropic properties of sticks and to maintain constantviscoslly cvcn in higher temperature. They also improve the plasticity of the fl l ttron the l i ps. (l) Rromo Mixture 'l'he bromo mixture is, essentially,a solution of the staining dyestuff Itr n fatty material to enable the dyestuff to remain either wholly or gtnrtinllyin solution. Apart from the fatty rnaterials mentioned earlier, carluin other fatty materials have a specific function as a constituent of hrurno mixture. This is the portion of the product which imparts an Itrrlclible stain as distinct from the opaque film of colour given by Inroluble pigments. As the present-daychoice is the product with high rteining qualities instead of the product whioh covers the lips with a lltlck film of vividly coloured materials, bromo mixture is widely used. 'l'hc dyestuff of bromo mixture, known as bromo acids, consists of fluuresceins,halogenatedfluoresceins and related water insoluble dyes. (l ri gi nal l y the br om o acid nam e was given t o acid eosin, telrnhromofluorescein. Bromo acid colours can be classified broadlv


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stain, into two groups,thosewhich are red and give a red or reddish-blue yellowish-pink give pink a to stain. and thosewhich are orange,red and In general,lipstick formulationsare not high stainingtypes,about2-37o of bromoacid is used,normally,in castoroil and butyl stearatemixture.

Also their water solubility character poses problem for formulation. llut when water soluble dyes are converted to the free sulpho acid form, tltoy become water-insoluble, lipophillic and suitable for use as staining dycs.

Other solventsused are tetrahydrofurfurylalcohol and esterslike acetate, stearateand benzoate,glycerol derivatives like glyceryl glyceryl monolaurateand diethyleneglycol monostearate. monostearate, Propyleneglycol, triethyleneglycol and polyethyleneglycol are also usedas suitablecolour solvents.

(b) Insoluble dyestuffs and lake colours : These are the colouring ngentswhich cover the thin layer over the lips. They consist of calcium, hnrium, aluminium and strontium lakes. Calcium and barium lakes prcpared from azotype dyestuffs are also used. These are called lake frttrcrs. These dyestuffs are used in 10-15% depending on the shade and opncity of the film. Aluminium lakes are not usually preferred because ol'lheir lack of opacity, but they can be used in transparentlipsticks.

A typical exampleof bromo mixture is given below: 15 gm Bromo acid 200 gm Propyleneglycol 100 gm Propyleneglycol monomyristate First a clear solution of bromo acid and propylene glycol is tq be made by adding the bromo acid to propylene glycol. To this solution propylene glycol monomyristate is to be added. This blend gives a solution of bromo acid that easily mixes with mineral oil and castor oil and produces a homogeneousmass with waxes. (4) Colours The colour of the lipstick is most important from commercial and appealing points of view. Up to 1920 carmine was widely used as a lipstick pigment. As of today lots of dyestuffs and lakes are available to choose from. The colour is imparted to the lips in two ways(a) By staining the skin with a srclution of dyestuff which can penetratethe outer layer of the lip skin. (b) By covering the lips with a coloured layer which serves to hide any skin roughness and give a smooth appearance, The first requirement is met by soluble dyes and the second one is met by insoluble dyes and pigments which make the film more or less opaque. Modern lipsticks contain both to achieve the combined effect. The colours should be from the list of certified dyes under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act. (a) Staining dyes : The rnost widely used staining dyes are fluorescein, eosin and often halogenated fluorescein, which have been mentioned under bromo acids. Fluorescein and its derivatives can produce sensitization or photosensitization leading to cheilitis (inflammation of the red portinn of the lips).

While making of lakes, the possibility of incompatibility with the hnsehas to be considered. 'l'itanium dioxide is often used at levels up to lYo as white pigment tirr brightening the colour, obtaining pink shades,and giving opacity to thc llhn on the lips. This substanceshould be added with great care to nvoid formulation problems like oily exudation, streaking, dullness and coarsetexture. (5) I'reservatives, Fragrances, Surfactants and Other Additives It is very much essentialto include a preservative in the product to Itrcvcnt microbial growth. 0. l% propyl parahydroxybenzoate,in 0.1%o, ic used for this purpose. Higher concentration of 0.2o/ocan cause a rlightly burning sensation or can initiate an eosin allergic reaction. Otlrer oil soluble preservativesalso can be used but compatibility has to he considered. Perfumesare an essential component to mask the odour of the fatty lft wix baseas well as to impart an attractive flavour. Perfumesare used Itt the concentration runge of 2-4%. Special considerationis to be given kr sclect perfurnesfree of irritating effect and without disagreeabletaste Ettd flavour. Since the users apprehendthe perfume in the mouth and nosc, flavour must be taken care of along with odour. Perfume should hc stable and compatible with the other constituentsof the lipstick base. 'l'ltr, fiagrancesshould not be very strong as to clash with or overpower ollrcr perfumes that may be used concurrently with the lipstick. Floral etttl light spicy fragranceare much used and acceptable. Perfumesof the lirrit flavour type have been advocated as well. Also something edible cntt be used. Normally antioxidants are also suggested to be incorporated in lipstick formulations to prevent rancidifioation of oily base during stor-



age. Cornbination of proper antioxidants are preferred for this purpose. Antioxidants commonly used in lipsticks are butylated hydroxyanisore (BHA), propyl gallate, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), citric acid, 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone etc. Surfactants are occasionally added to the lipstick. They are used to promote wetting and stabilize the dispersion of insoluble pigments in the base. But such additives may influence the consistencyof the stick. Some other materials have been suggested for use as additives to enhance the value of the make-up. oil-soluble sun-screensare used to filter the suns rays and protect lips from sun blisters. A silicon fluid can be used as a fixative and to prevent colours from bleeding on the lips. Polyvinyl pyrolidone is known "to form film on the lips and reduce tendency towards allergenic reaction and is used in 0.5 to l%o. It also helps in binding of dyestuff. Isopropyl linoleate is used to prevent drying effects. General Preparation of Lipsticks Successful preparation of lipstick shades depends largely upon adequate dispersion of the lake colours in the lipstick mass. It is advisable to preparedispersionsof the lake colours in castor oil. Dispersions are preferably preparedby milling, generally as25Yoconcentrations, in castor oil. Also ready-made dispersions are available in the market from manufacturersof cosmetic colours. A general outline for the manufacture of lipsticks followsIf a solvent is used for bromo acid, this solution is first prepared and set aside until required. If commercial colour pastes (as mentioned above) are not being used the lake colours are first dispersedby mixing with suitable quantity (as 25%ow/w) of castor oil, and the colour paste obtained is passedthrough a triple roll mill until it is smooth and free from agglomeratesand gritty particles. If titanium dioxide is used in the formula, the same is also made into a paste similarly and mixed with the colour mix. The colour mixtrlre is then mixed with the bromo-acid mixture. All the ingredients of the base are identified and arranged in order of increasing melting point. The lower melting point fats and waxes are next melted together and mixed with colours and bromo mixtures at the same temperature. This mixture is re-milled until perfectly smooth. The preservative and antioxidant is dissolved in any remaining oil and added to the mix. The high melting point waxes are now melted and added to the bulk at the same temperature. The perfume is f-rnally added anul the mass stirred thoroughly blrt gently to avoid



enlrilpmentof air. The mass should not be melted after the high melting point waxes have been added. Gentle stirring is coritinued until the mass lr lurrnogeneousand it is then poured in lubricated moulds. Automatic ejection mould is preferable for large quantities and split trrouldsare satisfactory for small-scaleproduction. The mould is lubriurtcd with liquid paraffin or isopropyl myristate before'pouring the rnnss. No excess lubricant should be left in the mould surface. The ttrixcd mass should be poured into the mould at as low a temperatureas ltrssible to prevent settling down of colours. Also the moulds may be wnlrned before pouring the mass to avoid formation of ridges. After porrling the mass the moulds are chilled to achieve contraction of the wnxcs to facilitate easy removal of the sticks. Automatic ejection moulds are fitted with a water iacket which is lqctl to warrn or chill the mould as required. l ,l l tsti ck Formul ae scveral representativelipstick formulae are listed below. Each forrrrrlrrcan be modified by a slight modification in proportions of oils and tvnxcsand other ingredientsto adjust proper melting point, spreadability, nrrtl thickness of the film on the lips according to the particular characf*r'islics required. The formulae can vary in proportions of lake colours enrl bromo acids. Titanium dioxides may or may not be part of the lorrrrrrladependingon the requirement. perfume, preservativeand antirrrrirlnntshould be added in proper quantity to achieve the best effect. For m ulaI Castor oil Lanolin, anhydrous Candelilla wax Isopropyl myristate White beeswax Carnauba wax Ozokerite wax Eosin Lakes Rose flavour Antioxidant Preservative

54.0 gm 11.0gm 9.0 gm 8.0 gm 5.0 gm 3.0 gm 3.0 gm 2.0 gm 5.0 gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

For m ula2 Beeswax Ozokerite wax

15.0gm 10.0gm



Carnaubawax Ceresinwax Lanolin Lanolin, anhydrous Isopropylmyristate Diethyl sebacate Castoroil Eosin Colour lakes Antioxidant Perfume Preservative Formula3 Camauba wax Candelilla wax Ozokerite wax (white) Bepswax, yellow Paraffin Hexadecyl stearate Castor oil Lanolin oil Oleyl alcohol Tenox II Colour Perfume Antioxidant Preservative



5.0 gm 4.0 gm 5.0 gm 14.0gm 10.0gm 10.0gm 15.0gm 2.0 gm 10.0gm q.s. q.s. q.s. 3.5 gm 7.5 gm 3.5 gm 4.0 gm 2.0 gm 8.0 gm 15.4gm 30.0 gm 15.0gm 0.1 gm 10.0gm 1.0gm q.s. q.s.

Formula 4

Castoroil Beeswax Paraffin oil Lanolin Cetyl alcohol Isopropylmyristate Ozokeritewax Carnaubawax Propyleneglycol Propyleneglycolmonoricinoleate Eosin

27.0 em 20.0 gm 3.0 gm 5.0 gm 2"0 gm 3.0 gm 10.0gm 2.5 gm 11.0gm 4.0 gm 2.5 gm -l



l0'0 gm Colour q's' Perfume q's' Antioxidant q's' . Preservative properties' l'lrc aboveproductis non-greasytype with good staining Formula5 Castor oil Beeswax Lanolin Isopropyl mYristate Ozokerite wax Carnauba wax Propylene glYcol Candelilla wax Glycerin monostearate Acetylated monoglyceride (solid) Acetylated monoglyceride (liquid) Eosin Colour Perfume Antioxidant Preservative

39.0 gm 5.0 gm 3.0 gm 2.0 gm 5.0 gm 4.0 gm 6.0 gm 7.0 gm 3.0 gm 7.0 gm 5.0 gm 2.0 gm 12.0gm q.s. q.s. q.s.


Fo.mula6 wax Carnauba Candelilla wax Ozokerite wax Beeswax Lanolin Castor oil IsoproPYl mYristate Halogenatedfl uorosceins Lake colours Propyl-p-hYdroxY benzoate Perfume

2.50 gm 6.00 gm 2.50gm 6.00 gm 8.00 gm 55.00gm 4.00 gm 3.00 gm 12.00gnt 0.20 gm 0.80gm

Formula7 Castor oil Butyl stearate Abracol l.S.L. Emulsenel2l2

15.0gm 5.0 gm 7.0 gm 2.0 gm



Beeswax Spermaceti Petroleumjelly Hydrogenated palm kernel oil Acid eosin Titanium dioxide Lake colour Perfume Antioxidant Preservative

20.0 gm 10.0gm 12"0gm 15.0gm 1.0gm 1.0gm 12.0gm q.s. q.s q.s.

(2) ROUGE ,.Rouge can be defined as the cosmetic preparations used to apply a colour to the cheeks. lThe colour can vary from the pur"rt orpint, to tt deep blue reds but the conventionar roug" contains a high proportion of" red or reddish brown pigments. The tint or colour may be achieved by us ing wate r-i n s o l u b l e c o ro u rs s u c h as i ron oxi des and certai n organic pigments or by using water-sorubre organic colours which actually stain the skin. products containi colours are used as toners for specii should be selected carefully to avo proportion of a suitable bromo acir and attractive blushing effect. Over the years lots of changes have occurred in rouge composition. Ancient people used to colour their cheeks with a .olot, ,"u**"d o, cinnabar' people started using red ochre, vermitiorr,'"oct ineat or extracts of-Later sandalwood or brazilwood. In the early tweniies the tiquid rouges' dry rouges or greaserouges basicaily containing i"."'ni.", etc. were used. "ori", One of the oldest forms of rouge is the type known as cream rouge. I,T^:od"rl rouge preparations the pigments or corours are present in different form of carriers unrt uc"ordingry can be classified into four types but dry rouge is the most .o-rnoJy und *id.ly ur.a fp"_ (l) Powder rouges (2) Anhydrous cream rouges/wax based rouges (3) Emulsion cream rouges (4) Liquid rouges (l) Powder rouges :r-powderrouges are normally marketed as loose powders and compressedpowders or compacts. They contain pigments



talc, nrrrl lakes in dry form, mixed with standardpowder materials like additionally rouges Compact carbonate. magnesium and rirr: stcarate rilrrtlrin a binder and are compressedin tablet form. Compact rouges are Irrolc popular than loose powder becausethey dust less on application nrrrlrrtlherebetter to the skin dtte to presenceof binders' According to the intensity of the pigment and the intended colouring the ellct:t of the powder, the pigment content is usually 5 to 20Yo of by replaced partly or wholly sometimes, are, lrrw(lor mass. Pigments in lesser used are and effect colour intense i'kes which produce more rilrrrrrtities.Rouges, sometimes,additionally contain water-soluble dyes' stain IrEtrlrrblecolorants remain on the skin, whereas, the soluble ones Some non-permanent. and loose tlre skin tissue itself. Stain should be given lllrrstrative examples of powder rouges and compact rouges are l rr' l ow : lrreparation Add the perfume with magnesium carbonateor starch rrr'otlrer adsorbent,mix properly and keep it covered for half an hour' Mix the remaining powders thoroughly and sieve through fine muslin' carbonate and then the required colour' Mix Arld the -ugn"rirand store in a suitable oontainer' llrrrroughly FOWI}ER ROUGE,S For m ulaI Zinc stearate Rice starch Talc Pigments Perfume

14.5gm 14.5gm 55.0gm 14.0gm 2.0 gm

FormulaJMagnesium carbonate (light) Precipitated chalk Zinc oxide Rice starch Talc Pigments Perfume

8.3 gm 16.6 gm 8.3 gm 12.4 gm 37.4 gm 15.0gm ,.9 E!

Formula p

Zinc oxide Lanolin

8.5 gm 25.5 gm



Magnesiumcarbonate(light) Talc Pigments Perfume

17.0gm 34.0 gm 13.0gm 2.0 gm

Formula l l

Kaolin Zinc oxide Magnesiumstearate Zinc stearate Magnesiumcarbonate Talc Colours Perfume


16.0gm 12.0gm 2.0 gm 1.0gm 3.0 gm 60.0 gm 6.0 gm q.s.

Compact rouges can be made by dry process or wet process. In dry process the powdered binder, such as tragacanth, acacia, is added in the mix and compressed. The binder is used as l% of the total mass. As an alternative binding material small amounts of a lanolin derivative and isopropyl myristate can be used. Zinc oxide is also used, in 5-r0yo, to increase adhesion. Metallic stearatesare arso essential components of compact rouges as dry binders and to increase adhesion of the products to the skin. In wet process the binding agent is prepared separatelyand is made of materials like tragacanth gum, a mixture of soap and tragacanthgum, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone. The binding agent is mixed with other materials and compressedto cake.

Formula12 Talc Kaolin Zinc stearate Zinc oxide Magnesiumcarbonate Rice starch Titanium dioxide Colours Perfume

48.0 gm 16.0gm 6.0 gm 5.0 gm 5.0 gm 10.0gm 4.0 gm 6.0 gm q.s.

Mix the perfume with magnesium carbonate and keep aside with cover. Mix other ingredients thoroughly. Add magnesium carbonate and mix. Add colour and mix and then compress.




Formul*!l' Kaolin Calcium carbonate Magnesiumcarbonate Zinc stearate Talc Pigments Perfume Binder

5.0 gm 5.0 grn 5.0 gm 5.0 gm 75.0 gm 5.0 gm q.s. q.s.

BINDER IsopropYlmYristate Lanolin absorPtionbase

50/o wlw 50ohwlw

perfume with magnesrum Mix the binding materials together' Mix Add to the remaining materials' lnrhonate and add ,o tt'" bindilng godets' into compress irrgrcclientsand mix well' Grind and formulae of dry rouges l;or compactsby wet process,any of the basic agents: binding r urr hc mixed with the following l '0 gm Tragacanth 2'0 gm Alcohol 97'o gm Water o/oof the above 0'2 Methyl parahydroxy benzoate add water in a continuous Mix the tragacanth with alcohol and then with stining occasionhours 24 blrcunl and stir well. Allow to stand for be dissolved in water is to nlly, and pass through muslin' Preservative wiilr hcat before adding to the tragacanth' l '3 gm Tragacanth gm 4'o Soa! chips gm 94'7 water o/o above the of 0'2 Methyl parahydroxy benzoate chips with suffrcient hot Itropare a concentrated solution of the soap paste' Add the remaining wrrlcr atrd use this to-prepare a tragacanth wrrlcr in a continuous stream and mix well' occasionally' and pass Allow to stand tbr 24 hours with stining preservativein water with the tlrrorrghmuslin before use' Dissolve the mix' ,ri,l ,,1 heat before adding to the soap tragacanth 'l'lrc binding agent is added, in sufficient amount' to the coloured pressed into a fairly damp paste' This is then lrowtlcr mix to prepare or pressure moulded to gorlcls hy subjecting it to a graOuatty increasing at normal temperature in a e rlclinite shape' The Uio"tti are thln dried

i'i 54


current of air. Undue heating should be avoided as it can split thc product and can vaporize the perfume. During drying they are kept on blotting paper to absorb excess moisture. After drying they are trimmecl with a special rotating knife to give a perfectly smooth finish to the surface. Then they are stuck with a suitable adhesive to the base of the container. (2) Anhydrous cream rouges/wax based rouges : In this type the base is wax type. They resemble the lipstick but are normally of bigger size. In these rouges the colours are dispersed in a fat-oil-wax base. They have advantages over powder rouges. They form a coniinuou, film on the skin which looks more natural than loose powder;' As these basesare water-repellentthey avoid the risk of perspiration and making the make-up run. The melting point of the base should not be below 40"C and is often 60oC or above. Occasionally these rouges are formulated as thixotropic preparation, so that, they can be solid in the container but liquefu when pressed on the skin and spread easily. To achieve the thixotropic character high melting point waxes are required to form a skeleton to accommodate the oil. Microcrystalline waxes or amorphous substancesto prevent the sweating of the oils. Formula 14 Beeswax Petrolatum (short fibre) Castor oil (semi-hydrogenated) Paraffin oil Lanolin (light) Lakes Perfurne

16.0gm 4.0 gm 54.0 gm ll.0 gm 5.0 gm 10.0gm q.s

Forrnula 15

Petrolatum(short fibre) Isopropyl myristate Lanolin (light) Glyceryl monostearate Lakes Perfume

40.0 gm 35.0gm 5.0 gm 12.0gm 8.0 gm q.s



16.0gm Stearicacid 5.5 gm Lakes q.s. Perfume oils' fats' and waxes in Mix and grind the lakes together' Mix just abovethe meltingpoint of the lrrrrcrrsingmeltingpoint and heai to melt andgrind the mixturea i,igf tn'"tring**. Stit pigmentsinto th: '"*t perfumetowardsthe end of lew tirrreson a heated,.ipf" iofftt mill' Add l l f( l (rcsq.

popular because of their (J) Emulsion cream rouges : These are cold cream or of the vanishing ente rtf application unJ "* b"eof the point of view' these preparationsare , r.,,,rl typ". From a dermatological wetting and emulsiffing.agents rr,,t n., teneficial as in the preience of skin through hair follicles and the penetrate allitl rlye particles "u'ity "un irritation' So' qlrrrll fissures. If not remtved soon it can also cause while using this j,r,,i,., with cleansing cream is very important "f"*lng ly;rc rl[' rouges. preparationsto stain the Water-solubledyes are often used in these also used but must be as finely clttt. llowever, insoluble pigments are colours are used' it is necesrlt'.1telscdas possible' When water-soluble of hygroscopic substanceslike silrv lo incorporate sufficient quantity of water and darkening gir'.",.trt,glycols, sorbitol to preYentevaporation made using beeswaxbe can rl llrc cream surface. The preparations agent' emulsiffing lrorirx combination or by using a separate Formula 17

Lanolin Cocoa butter Beeswax Liquid paraffin Cetyl alcohol Water Borax Colour Perfumes Preservative Formula 18

Petrolatum (short fi bre)

Formula 16

Ceresin Petrolatum(short fibre) Paraffin oil

32.5 gm 13.5gm 2.5 gm

Beeswax IsopropYl mYristate

4.0 gm 4.0 gm 14.0gm 26'0 gm 1.0 gm 44.2 gm 0.8 gm 7'0 gm q.s. q.s. 20.0 gm 14.0gm 30.0gm



Cetyl alcohol Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate Borax Water Propyleneglycol Lake Perfume Preservative

3.0 gm 0.4 gm 1.0 gm 21.6 gm 12.0gm 8.0 gm q.s. q.s.

Dispersethe finely powderedcolour basewith the melted fats and oils. Preparea solutionof borax in water at about 7s"c andmix with the first one slowly with stirring untir emulsionis formed. Finallv mill it. Preservative shouldbe addedto water. Formula19 A. Arlacel C (Sorbitansesquioleate) 2.0 gm Lanolin (anhydrous) 2.0 gm Mineral oil 16.0gm Petrolaturp(white) 30.0 gm Preservative (oil soluble) q.s. B. Arlex 5.0 gm Brilliantred (c-10.01 3) 10.0.gm Water 35.0 gm Perfume q.s The aboveis a water-in-oiltype rougeand providesa productwhich is soft and creamyand possesses excelrentspreadingproperties.Sinceit is of the water-in-oiltype, it has lesstendencyto dry oui. Mix the ingredientsof 'A' and preservativetogetherand heat at about70oc. In a separatevesselheatingredientsof 'B' to 70-75"c and add 'B' to 'A' slowly with constantstirringto makean emulsion.Allow to cool and add the perfumeat 35"C. Mill it. Formula 20

A . Stearicacid

Isopropylmyristate Lanolin Beeswax Glycerolmonostearate B. Propyleneglycol Glycerin Water

14.25gm 2.25 gm 3.25 gm 4.50 gm 7.00 gm 4.75 gm 3.00gm 56.00gm




C. Pigments Perfume (watersoluble) Preservatives

5.00 gm q.s. q.s.

SepaMix together the ingredients of 'A' and heat at about 70oC' tn| e| yrni xthei ng r edient sof . B'andheat t osam et em per at ur eof . A' Pigments are to be tlrixtrrrcand add to 'A' slowly with constant stirring' dispersedin part of nrklcrl to the semi-processedproduct, preferably as at 35oC' propylcne glycol. Allow to cool and add the perfume or hydro(,1) Liquid rouges : The liquid rouges consist of aqueous must be highly nl.r,lr.rlic colour solutions. The colours selected but do attractiveness some have they errhrilnrttiveto the skin. Though is application Their rouges' dry or lot lurvc as good appeal as the iream ueur.r.l fup-pti "At nt f ut t yt heycanpr oducever ygoodef f ect 'Nor m ally easy application' It rr wick is attached at the neck of the container for should also dry and slrrrrrltlhave good viscosity for easy application rl rti ckl y. the colour in Aqueous preparationsare basically made by dissolving thickener' synthetic gum or rr visrrottsaqueous medium containing a I ilvccrirr is also incorporated sometimes' Formula2l

0.5 gm Erythrosine gm 20.0 glYcbl Propylene gm 10.0 Ethyl alcohol gm 69.5 Rosewater mixed-with l'hc colour is first mixed with propyleneglycol and then a suitable in stored then is It sotulion. a otlrer ingredientsto make I i l nl i l ttl er.

Formula22 Sodium alginate Calciunt citrate Wetting agent Water soluble dYe Rose water Preservative

0.45 gm 0.15 gm 0.20 gm 0.20 gm 99.00 gm q.s.

'l'lrc: wetting agent, sodium alginate and dye are first dissolved in n| xl tl | 6()ml rosewat er . Calcium cit r at eisslur r edinanot her 30m lr ose of the alginate rvrrrcrilnd added to the first portion when thickening volume made' and sillrrtiorrstarted. Preservativesare added afterwards



Then store in a suitable container. The viscosity can be altered b1, varying the proprrrtion of alginate and calcium citrate. Formula23 Methyl cellulose Wetting agent Water Water-soluble dye Perfume Preservative

2.0 gm 0.1 gm 97.5gm 0.4 gm q.s. q.s.

This can be prepared by simple mixing. perfume and preservatives are to be added later. preservative can be dissolved initiaily in water. Methyl cellulose can be replaced by 0.4 gm tragacanth. Evaluation It is very essential to maintain a uniform high standard for lipsticks and rouges, for which severar tests have to be carried out incruding identification and their individual proportions. Special tests are also to be carried out for lipsticks and rouges. Tests for Lipsticks The finished lipsticks are required to be subjected to various tests. Identification of ingredients and their quantity can be determined by normal chemical analysis tests, though it is not a very easy task as a variety of ingredients are present. (i) Melting point : Determination of merting point is important and it is determined by capiilary tube method by keeping the size of capillary, length of fill, and rate of heating constant. Another impofiant test of similar nature is yierd point or droop point. Droop point is th" temperature at which the lipstick, rying flat in its case, wrtt-mett within the case and ooze out oil or flatten out. This is a indication of the rimit of safe storage. Droop point should preferably be above 50oc for safe handling and storage. Merting point should be higher than the droop point.


(ii) Breaking point : This test is done to determine the strength of the lipstick" The lipstick is heli horizontally in a socket % inch above the base and weight is applied on the lipstick, t/z inch away from the edge of the support. The weight is gradually increased by a specific value (say 10 gm) at a specific interval of 30 seconds and the weight at which the iipstick breaks is considered as the breaking point. The test should be done at a specific temperature (say 25"ci and the ripstick

t h { 'sKlN CoLoRANTS


elrlrrll hc stored at that temperature for at least 30 minutes prior to the tFrl tlll) 'I'hixotropy character : This is an indication of thixotropic qttrrlrtyarrd is done,by using penetrometer. A standardneedle of specific tllurrrclt:ris allowed to penetrate for 5 seconds under a 50 gm load at !r"t' 't'lrolipstick is kept at25oC priorto the experiment. The depth of perrrlrulionis a measurementof the thixotropic structure. Penetrationof I trr l().-5mrn is indicative of a soft and thixotropic structure. A lrroduct of high droop point with soft, thixotropic structure will Brarrr c good application characteristics. (lv) Force of application : This is a test for comparativemeasurement r,f llrr' lirrce to be applied for application. Two lipsticks, end cut to get llnl trrllhce, are kept opposite way by mechanical holders. Lower llprlrr'1, standingupright and fixed. Upper lipstick is moving downward, lry rrree:hanical means under a given weight, to the flat surface of the lrrrverslick. A strip of smooth paper is attached to a dynamometer and b rltrrwn between the two lipstick ends at a constant speed. The force tFrlrre(l to pull the paper against a given specific weight is measured Frr'l r orrrparedwith those made on other sticks of same diameter. Altcrrratively a piece of coarse brown paper can be kept on a shadow grrr;rlrbllance and the lipstick can be applied, at 45" angle, to cover a I rr;rrurc inch area until fully covered. The pressure reading is an Irrrlilrlion of force of application,though it may dependon the operator. (v) Aging stabilify : The product is stored at 40"C and periodical rrhqetvirtionof oil bleed, crystallization of wax on surface, and applicallnn t ltirr:rcteristics is made. (vl) Perfume stability : This is also done by storing at 40"C and S,rriorlicirllycomparing, after bringing the temperaturedown; with a fl erl r l i psti ck. (vla, Oxidative stability : Oxidative stability is predicted by standard rlolerrrrination of peroxide value after exposureto oxygen under given r rttrl i li rl rs, hlil) Surface anomalies: This is studiedbythe surfacedefects,such qn lorrrrirlionof crystals on surface, contamination by moulds, fungi etc. lrr111111i,rrt of wrinkles, exudation of liquid substancesand of solid fatly ttccS . --ttl rr,l rt

1lr) Accelerated stabilify test : Accelerated stability test aging can l,a',trrrliedat higher temperature(45'C) or alternatelykeeping at 45oC 4il,1(t'(' :rnd observinsthe chanses.



Tests for Rouges Apart from general tests for identification and estimation. bv sorrr, chemical or instrumental analysis, of ingredients, som€ other specrtr, tests are to be carried out to evaluate and control the products. (i) Melting point : Melting point is determined,specifically li,r cream rouges, by capillary tube method. The melting point preferalrrr should not be below 50oc for good storage and apprication point .r view. (ii) colour dispersion : colour dispersionis checkedunder micr, scope and no particle, above 50 p, should be there. colour particrc., above 50 p size may cause agglomeration and corour particles may rr,. easily identifiable.


Skin Creams the sh in care is the age old necessityof mankind. This necessitylead to ('rlrtinuous modification and invention of more and more skin care r'rtsnreticpreparations'

(iii) Aging stability : This is done by keeping the product ar ovcr 40"c for a one month period and noting the changesand comparing wirrr fresh products. Also product can be periodically kept at 40oc,'.oo,,, temperature and in refrigerator for a specific period, about 2 weeks arrtl noting the changes. (iv) Container compatibirity : As theseproducts,particurarly crear' rouges, are marketed in plastic tube, compatibility of the product witlr plastic is to be checked. This can be studied at higher'temperaturc (accelerated stability test) to predict the compatibility at no.-ul ,h.11, life. (v) Sedimentation of riquid rouges : This is to judge the sedimen. tation rate characterof the liquid rouges, as sedimentatio-nmay be there. viscosity of the product is impoftant to have srow sedimentation.

tlre skin and to design better skin care preparations' with the availability of wide spectrum additives, like emulsifing preparation of [gcnts, etc., and development of various techniques, emulsion type are the creams Mostly, I reiunshas become very simple. solid' a spreadable to liquid a rurdconsistencycan vary from All the skin care creams can be classihed on different basis( l) According to functiofl, €.8. cleansing, foundation, massage'etc' (2) According to characteristicproperties, e'g' cold crearns' vanishing creams,etc. (3) According to the nature or type of emulsion' l'he most widely accepted classification is based on function' According to the functions the creams can be classified as follows(l) Cleansing and cold cre.uns (2) Foundation and vanishing creilns (3) Night and massage ueilns (a) Hand and bodY creams (5) All-purpose and general creams 6l




(l) CLEANSTNGAND COLD CREAMS Keeping the body clean is the most important and primitive need on account of personal hygiene and beautification which leads to the need of cosmetics. Though the natural process of constant sloughing off ol the uppermost horny cells maintains some cleanliness,but it cannot be regarded as adequate from the cosmetic point of view. Modern people derrand a higher degree of cleanliness. Cleansing cream or lotion is required for removal of facial make-up, surface grime, oil, and water and oil soluble soil efficiently, mainly from the face and throat. A good and properly formulated cleansing cream should be able to remove, quickly and efficiently, applied cosmetics as face powder, rouge, foundation bases,cake make-up, and lipstick. The excessive increase in eye make-up also necessitatesuse of cleansing products specially formulated to remove such make-up.

l L


Although adequate washing with soap and water will perform the cleaning action but a cleansing cream has certain advantages. Washing with soap-water makes the skin look dry. The cleansing cream can readily remove the chemical substances of the facial make-up by dissolving or lifting away the greasybinding materialsholding pigments or grime on the skin. Studies have indicated that solidified skin oil, sebum over sebaceousor pilosebaceousorifices are resistantto removal by scrubbing with soap and water, but can easily be removed by the use of various commercial cleansing creams, polyethylene glycol 400, and olive oil. Various fat solvents such as acetone, chloroform, glycerol, kerosene, white gasoline, dioxane, and 95o/oethanol were found to be effective in removal of surface oil layer, but not the slid sebum plaques. This may be due to the superior efficacy of cleansing creamsto dislodge and remove these plaques from the orifices of the sebaceousducts. Ease of application is an irnportant feature of the cleansing cream and so most of these creams are liquids so that excesscream and soil are then easily removable with tissue. The resultant layer left on the skin must not be occlusive but should be sufficiently emollient to prevent drying. Cold creams on the other hand must primarily have an emollient action. It is also expectedthat they should produce a cooling sensation in ustl and the resultant oil fiLn on the skin should be non-occlusive. r\ cleansing crearn should be easily applicable and spreadable. It should cause low irritation to the skin. In addition to the primary functiorr of cleaning, a multipurpose character can Lreimparted by adding appropriate ingredients to bring abilities to soften, lubricate, and protect.



('hrracteristics A good cleansing cream should have the following characteristicswater( l) It should effectively be able to remove oil-soluble and and face specifically skin, soluble soil and ,uif^"" oil from the throat.

(2) As a cosmetic it should be stable and have a good appearance. ( 1) It should melt or soften on application to the skin' (4) It should spread easily without too much drag' During application, it should not feel greasy or oily' not (5) After evaporation of any water, the cream residue should become viscous. ((,) Its physical action on the skin and pore openings should be that of flushing rather than absorption' (7) A light emollient film should remain on the skin after use of the cream. 'l'hc method of use of cleansing cream is standard' The cream is to stroke he irpplied to face and throat with fingertips' A rotating upward is cloth soft or paper rrt tlrc lingers is used to spreadthe cream' A tissue creams' cleansing tlrr.rrrrscdto remove the residue. In case of washable with or without tlrr ( rr::urt residues may be removed using tap water prr,rr l rseof ti ssue. I r'prcsof Cleansing Creams l'r'rrditionally,cleansing creams are classified into two categories( | ) White, emulsified cold cream (beeswax-boraxtype)' (.1) 'lranslucent, liqueffing type, anhydrous in characterand consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbon oils and waxes' emulsiffAs a result of the development of several newer and better are made creams cleansing type emulsion nowadays many Irrg rrp,.cuts, r+llllotrlbeeswaxand borax. (l ) tlceswax-borax type : The beeswax-boraxtype is a most imporare usually r,ilrt lrrrnrulationamong cleansingcreams. The typical creams a firm have creams The graininess' rrlrrlc. ol'high lustre, and free from with spread and skin the to r,,l.,i',lc:ucy.- They liquefy on application cleansing for oil mineral of Frr,,.' I'ltcsecreams contain high percentage the elltr rrt'y. Basically, they are oil-in-water type of emulsion' After evaporates water of quantity rterrilr:iilrc rubbed on the skin, a sufficient action t'r lrrl)nlt arphase inversion to the water-in-oil type' The solvent



of the oil, as external phase, imparts the cleansing properly. ln this beeswax-borax type preparation borax reacts with the free fatty acids present in the beeswax and produces soft soap which acts as the emulsifiing agent and emulsifies the oil phase, containing beeswax, mineral oil, paraffin etc., in the aqueousphase. \ General procedure for manufacturing : As thesq preparations are ernulsion type, the total ingredients can be classified into oil phase and aqueous phase. Ingredients of oil phase should be taken in increasing meltiqg point. The materials of least melting point should be taken and melt it. Add the other oil or wax gradually in increasing melting point and melt them with continuous stirring. Take separatelythe ingredients of aqueous phase and mix them and heat to same temperature as oil phase. Emulsifoing agents should be added to specific phase. Mix the two phases with continuous stirring until a,smooth cream is formed. Finally the product can be milled by triple roller mill. Preservative should be dissolved in the water before making cream. Perfume should be added after the primary cream is formed and cooled but before final





1.0gm 32.0gm q.s.

B. Borax Water Preservative


C. Perfume

Heat first five materials (A) and next three materials (B) separatelyin glass containers at about 75oC. Add the second mixture to the first mixture slowly with continuous stirring until the thick stable emulsion is formed. Add the perfume when the temperature has fallen to about 35"C. Stir again, mill and store in a suitable container' \4ormuia A.

Beeswax Almond oil Lanolin


2.0 gm 50.0gm 0.5 gm


C. Perfume

'ff,rmutas A . Beeswax Mineral oil Paraffin wax Spermaceti Borax Preservative


C . Perfume

{rn.11u a A. Beeswax Ceresin wax Mineral oil Lanolin Water Preservative


C . Perfume Formula 5

Wheat-germ oil SPermaceti Beeswax

B. Water Borax Preservative (1. Perfume Formula 6

A. Beeswax Mineral oil Parafftn wax CetYl alcohol

9.0 gm 4.5 gm 52.0 gm 0.5 gm 0.7 gm 33.3gm q.s

B. Borax


10.0gm 50.0 gm 5.0 gm 3.0 gm 28.4 gm 0.6 gm q.s.

B. Water

millins. BEESWAX-BORAXCOLD CREAM TYPE F o rmu l aI 28.0gm Mineral oil 14.0gm lsopropyl myristate 2.5 gm Acetoglyceride 7.5 gm Petroleum jelly

2.0 gm 35.5gm q.s.

B. Borax Rose water Preservative

48.0 gm 15.0gm 15.0gm 21.5gm 0.5 gm , q.s, q.s. 8.0 gm 49.0 gm 7.0 gm 1.0 gm


B. Borax

0.4 gm 34.6 gm , q.s. qs.

Water Preservative

c A



Beeswax Mineral oil Spermaceti Ozokeritewax Lanolin


Borax Water Preservative

12.00gm 50.25gm 5.00 gm 5.00 gm 2.00 gm 0.75 gm 25.00gm q.s.

C. Perfume


(2) Lique$ing creansing creams : Thgs-eare transrucentliqueffing anhydrous type of creansinl creams oi-thixotropi" .r,"o.t".] They consist of a mixture of oils and waxes and have such consistency trrat they liquefr when gently massaged on the skin. The materiars used for preparing these creams .are^mineral oil, paraffin, petrolatum, w:xes. Occasionally vegetable oils, fatty acid esters,or lanolin are also in"o.po_ rated in small amounts. Proportion of various materials should be decided properly and formulation should be done carefully. Thixotropic wax like paraflin. The proportion of

tum for crystalline ones. mineral oils.


80.0 gm Mineral oil 15.0gm jellY Petroleum 5.0 gm ()zokeritewax g.s. I'reservative q.s. Perfume Cool with stitring' ll'nt all the oils and waxestogetheiat 65"C' in a suitable and perfumeafteicooling at 40oC' Store Arll prcservative r.otrlttittcr.

Formule9 IsoproPYlmYristate Mineral oil l'etroleum jellY Paraffin wax Preservative Perfume Formulal0

General procedure.of manufacturing : Melt the waxes first. Add petrolatum and finally the liquid oils. sti thoroughly, add the perfume after cooling to about 45'c. The melted mixture should be firtered. Finally it can be passedthrough u .ott"r rnitt.

42.0 gm 18.0gm 12.0gm 14.0gm 14.0gm q.s. q.s.

White mineral oil White PetroleumjellY Spermaceti Ozokerite wax Oetyl alcohol Preservative Perfume Formula ld

The pe

For emollient character normally lanolin or its derivatives, cetyl alcohol, spermaceti and cocoa Uutt". ur" lncorporated. Sometimes an opaque appearance is preferred and can be obiained uy in"o.p-uting agents like zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, magnesium stearate,zinc stearate' or hydrous ranolin. These substun"., u.. normalry used at 2%o concentration.

25.0 gm 25.0 gm .,. 30.0 gm 20.0 gm q.s q.s

Mineral oil l)ctrolatum l)araffin wax llccswax l'reservative l'crfume (2) FOUNDATION

62.5 gm 18.75gm 12.5 gm 6'25 gm . q.s. q.s.



widely used for- various .purVirrrislringand foundation creams are to the functions' :i',-r"' names have been derived according 1r,,u". when applied and crearns ur" nut"d so as they disappear Verri,,lrirr;,, creams serve as a foundation rrrl,lrrrl irrto the skin. Whereas foundation




base for the make-up acting as an adherent base for application of makeup powders. rthey also provide emollient action, and a protective actiorr against environment by leaving a semi-occlusive residual film on the skin which is neither too greasy nor too drying. It can also be mentioned here that another nomenclature, 'Day Creams', is used as these preparations are used during the day in contrast to heavy-night creams. All these creams must not damage the skin, should be stable and have a good consistency. Normally these preparations are based on stearic acid but can be varied also. Some suitable additives may be incorporatedto impart skin protecting properties. The formula can be modified suitably to make genuine skin conditioners with emollient or depth effect or cleansersof the massage cream type. The composition of stearatecreams intended for daytime use (day creams) is usually very simple.



tilrrorr *usYTd.:f vllltlenature-,::fl ;:tJ:r:::TlJ: H|ien; itesru r*-,'r",,r,ir.' cre; buttt" ot':1-"Tl?:":ffl dtscolour 'irry*r,ir.'."'-^1:.0*ffiffiJ$r3ff to discolout to tendency tJ, a ,.ra"ncy t ( ) g r a l n '. P l r , l , 'r r ,Y "*ith


: mc - ^ _ ^ +i time' it aftersome




intain i' 1,:?-:""11T'lt"11"t"nrffi*: ;,;;;' no,o"*aing107.1 j,*JTfu1#'""1""ii:J; mlnute !*e;'*-o'jr'ry, F||tIqIBtc||cy an-d-q!3lg+-,#*^O.=;Ol ,,,,:l::ili;'"ffi ication, forming o,f absorb artematrve usingaltemative by using bv fiElrrrr,,it rnay +.o iJ ou"'"o*" ^rercorn€ i'1"1,"::H:#H;LJ;;; l',1,',..1'., lil much wanted' ing creams is very The materials tain the fearliness' sPermaceti' u'" iio"ia Paraffin' ' nond oil'

Vanishing Creams They are called vanishing creams because they seem to disappear when rubbed into the skin. These preparationsare stearic acid basedand part of the stearic acid is saponified with an alkali and rest of the stearic acid is emulsified with this soap in a large quantity of water. iAfter* application the cream leaves a dry but tacky residual film which also has a drying effect on the skiil Because of this reason the stearic acid soap based creams are still favoured for use with greasy skin conditions and particularly in hot climatesT-which cause perspiration on the face and where more emollient creanis are not suitable. $inest quality triple-pressed stearic acid of melting point of about 55"C is normally used. The high quality stearic acid plovides an oil phase,which melts above body temperatureand crystallizes in a suitable form, provides an invisible and non-greasy film and can produce a very attractive appearance) Normally 20-3Oo of free fatty acids is neutralized by using alkali,'either potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide) Characters of the creams vary according to the proportion of the stearic acid present {!e total proportion should not exceed 25Yo, and best preparations are obtained using l6-207o neutralizatior| fne consistency and texture of the cream also depends on the amount of acid saponified and the nature of alkali used.(Sodium hydroxide makes a harder creams than potassium hydroxide) The amount of alkali is required to be calculated on the basis of 6mount of free acid available. from potassi um hydrox ide, trglbqplquoing.-is -also an exceI lent (pa,t alkali to prepare good quality creatns. Use of triethanolamine makes the

red in airtight contalners'


Formula 12

A. Stearic acid CetYl alcoholTriethanolamine

20.00gm 0.50 gm 1.20gm






Sodiumhydroxide Glycerin Water Perfume Preservative

0.36 gm 8.00 gm 69.94 gm q.s q.s

Formule13 '/ Lanolin Cetyl alcohol Stearicacid Propyleneglycol Potassiumhydroxide

2.00 gm 0.50 gm 10.00gm 8.00 gm 0.40 gm

Water Perfume Preservative

79.10gm q.s. q.s.



\ h r N ( 'r i l ; A M S

Sodium hydroxide 'l'riethanolamine ll

(i l yce r in Water [)erfume l'reservative

0.36 gm l.2O gm 8.00 gm 69.94 gm q.s. q.s.

Formula 17 o/ Stearic acid l)otassiumhYdroxide ll

(i l ycer in Water l)erfume l'reservative

20.0gm 1 . 4gm 4.0 gm 74.6gm q.s. q.s.

Formula 14 A

12.0gm 0.5 gm 5.0 gm 3.0 gm 1.0 gm

Stearic acid Cetyl alcohol Sorbitol syrup Propylene glycol Triethanolamine

B. Glycerin

0.3 gm 78.2 gm q.s. q.s.

Water Perfume Preservative

p*lrrure wltcn ths temperatureis about 35"C' Mill it' Fspnrl nl krn(l ream s

' Formula 15

A. Stearic acid Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Cetyl alcohol Propylene glycol

B. Glycerin

15.00gm 0.50 gm 0.18 gm 0.50 gm 3.00 gm 5.00 gm 75.82gn q.s. q.s

Water Perfume Preservative

Stearic acid Cetyl alcohol

l l re l rrrtrrrl :rlitcr ) lteam scan be of t wo t ypes| | 1 I'rlirrtcntedcreamswhich are coloured I '1 t lrrpigmentedcreams

Formula 16


rlc,, rl,,eqlrtrlpin retentionof powder. '

20.00gm 0.50 gm

l*Frrsrill ;lrocedure of manufacturing : Heat ingredients of oil phase separatelyto 75oC and mix the latter to the l,lia-e ,rrr,l,,,1,,.t.,u, the ii,r+*r',rl,,r*'lv with continuousstirring. Cool while stirring' Add



perfumewhen the temperatureis about 35oc. preservative shoultlr,r addedto waterbeforemixing with oil phase.Finally a milling will 1,,,u a good product.

A. Liquid paraffin

2.00 gm 0.50gm 10.00gm 0.40 gm 8.00 gm 79.10gm q.s. q.s.

For m u l a 1 9

Cetyl alcohol Lanolin (anhydrous) Glyceryl monostearate Triethanolamine

B. Water

1.00gm L00 gm 2.00 gm 18.00gm 1.58gm 76.00gm 2.00 gm q.s. q.s.

Sorbitol Perfume Preservative Formula20 A.


Glyceryl monostearate Colours B. Water Glyceryl Perfume Preservative Formula2l A. Glyceryl monostearate Mineral oil Cetyl alcohol Isopropyllinoleate B. Glycerin Water

ri l i l N C ]R E A M S

q.s. q.s.

Perfume Preservative Formuls 22

Formule 18 <

A. Lanolin Cetyl alcohol Stearicacid " Potassiumhydroxide B. Propyleneglycol Water Perfume Preservative



A. Lanolin Mineral oil Stearic acid Glyceryl monostearate ll.

Glycerin Triethanolamine Water Perfrtme Preservative

1.00gm 10.00gm 2.50 gm 3.00 gm 5.00 gm 0.50 gm 78.00gm q.s. q.s.

t0undrtlon Make-uP to hold the powder Ar loundation cream is used as a base make-up process' The idea of *lrle trp above it, the total make-up is a two-step processand the.troumake-up came to overcomethis two-step lirrrrrrlrrriolr forms, particularly-liquid, hls rvrrlt il. Foundation make-up in various it has replacedthe foundacountries in some heqlrr'r'(lrncso popular that The reason being the liquid ltrr (tcurils and loose powder altogether' than powder and a smooth firrrrr,lrrlittnmake-up is much easier to apply of surfactants may presence the Though can be obtained. Bplre-nnlnco hair follicles and fissures of rrtrrlc tlrc colours or pigments penetite the it has some popularity' u1,i,t",,,,i,if not compllt"ly ,.-on"d, still

5.00 gm 20.00 gm 3.00 gm


67.00gm 5.00 gm q.s. q.s.

' lt.

Formula23 Lanette wax Stearic acid Water Glycerin Powder base Colour Perfume Preservative

8.00 gm 8.00 gm 64.00gm 10.00gm 10.00gm q.s q.s. q.s

20.00gm 5.00 gm 2.00 gm 1.50gm

colour and perfume with llrul c:omponentsof 'A' to 85o-90oC' Mix Add 'B' i{t "\' and llre lxrwder base, then dispersethis in the glycerin' l ri l r l l rrtrotl ghlY.

8.00 gm 71.00gm

formuh 24

Butyl stearate Stearicacid

1.00gm 12.00gm


Sorbitanmonostearate 2.00gm Polyxyethylenesorbitanmonostearate 1.00 gm Propyleneglycol 12.50gm 2.00 gm Talcum 8.00 gm Titanium dioxide 2,00 gm Iron oxide (red) 1.00gm Water 58.00gm Perfume q.s. q.s. Take the first four substancesand heat it at about 70oC. Heat water and sorbitolliquid to sametemperature and makeemulsion. Add colour and perfume with talcum and then mix with propvleneglycol and sorbitolliquid and mix with the emulsion,cooledat 35oC. Homogenize the whole preparationin an ointmentmill. Formula25 A. Stearicacid Span60 Isopropylpalmitate B. Tween60 Propyleneglycol Water Dry powders(titaniumdioxide, talc, inorganicpigments) Perfume Preservative

15.0gm 2.5 gm 2.0 gm 1.50gm 10.00gm 54.00gm 15.00gm q.s. q.s.

Mix the pigment and talc to dispersethe colour properly. Heat componentsof 'A' to 85oc and componentsof 'B' to 90"c in separate containers.Add 'B' to 'A' with continuousstirring. cool slowly with stirring. Add perfume when the temperaturecomes down to 35"C. Preservative should be addedin water of components.B' beforecream is made. (3) NIGHT AND MASSAGE CREAMS

( lr I



orrc arrother. The common feature is that they are generally applied on tlrt' skin and left for several hours, say overnight, and all of them assist Irr tlrc repair of skin which has been surface damaged by exposure to vnlious elements or exposure to detergent solution or soap. 'They rrolrrally contain high quantity of oily and fatty materials together with r,rrrolliontssuch as lanolin or lanolin derivatives and are preparedeither sr oil-in-water or water-in-oil or as mixed emulsion systems. Skin acts ns l barrier between the body and its environment maintaining a controlIt'rl rlynamic equilibrium. Various stressesimposed by the environmental Irrt:lorscan cause changesor damage to the skin. The major function of llrcsc creams is to help to reverse these changes and maintain a normal lrcrltlry skin. They are easy to apply but not too easy to rub in. These ('rcilrns are also not to rub in. They are sticky and greasy due to lrrcscnceof oil/wax but this charactercan be avoided by using materials .,rrc:h as fatty acid esters,acetylatedglycerides and other oils which have pood spreading properties. The objective of using such creams is to eovcr the skin with a well dispersed, and consequently thin residual occlusivefilm which is not greasyor sticky. When this film is allowed kr rcrnain,the loss of moisture is slowed down comparatively. As normally these creams are applied at night time, the time norrrurlly assigned-toskin preservationand feeding, they are called night ('rcarns. But they can also be used in clay time as a base for applying lrrcc powders. These preparationsare also used to supplementhormones ol vitamins to the skin and they may be termed as hormone creams or v itarnin creams respectively. Composition Emoliient and moisturizing substancesare one imporlilnt component of these creams. To rectiff the dryness and maintain the llcxibility of the skin emollients are used. Emollient action can be uchievedby two mechanisms. (l)

Prevention of water loss from the skin and thus building up of water content from within.

(2) Supplementing the water content of the skin by attracting the water from the atmosphereby means of a humectant material. The mechanism of zrttracting water from the atmosphere and thus rrraintainingthe water content of the skin is called moisturizing. All the rnoisturizing creams thus contain a humectant. Most common si6stances used as humectants are glycerol and other polyhydric alcohols like ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and sorbitol. Solutions of sodium lactate,glucose, fructose,glucosamine,deoxyribose,


* rhtN ('RliAMS +=fr



and ribose also show healing, soothing and keratoplasticactivity on skin-


Ferlrrrile:iluruldbe added after cooling and milled through triple roller nfl l I lrr rrsc of isopropyl myristate or isopropyl palmitate is recom*tFillF'l ;r'. lltcy give additional body to the cream. Formula26



Lanolin and its derivatives, stearic acid, wool wax alcohols, wool wax steroids, beeswax, artificial preen gland oil, vegetable oils like groundnut oil have found use in these creams. Various esters like isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, or isoalcohols are also incorporated. Vitamins or hormones are incorporated in these creams for nourishment to the skin and they can thus be termed as vitamin crealns or hormone creams. The vitamins which are used for this purpose are vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E or some water soluble vitamins. The name vitamin F has been given to a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid, linolenic acid and is arachidonic acid, and used in creams for treatment of skin. They are normally used as alkyl esters like isopropyl ester, etc. Estrogen, progestin, pregnenolone and androgens are all claimed to have sh&n limited restorative effects on aged skin. Though there is fear that the hormones may be absorbed and can produce systemic side effects but as the concentrations at which they are used in these creams are very low, so the chances of side effects are not there' A suitable vehicle is required to dissolve hormone and for this purpose oil of persic, vegetable oils, benzyl benzoate, ethyl alcohol, propylene glycol may be used. Suitable perfume is incorporated according to the choice or acceptability. As these preparations are emulsions and contain good amount of watei, preservatives are also to be incorporated. Methyl parahydroxy benzoate in combination with propyl or butyl parahydroxy benzoate are widely used for this PurPose. If the preparations contain unsaturated esters or oils, antioxidant should be incorporated to prevent rancidification' As these preparations are General procedure of manufacturing emulsion typi, they contain two categoriesof ingredients,oil and similar substances and water and other water miscible ingredients. Both should be taken separately and heated nearly to same temperature to get all in liquid state. Mix the two with continuous stirring until cream is formed.


White beeswax I)araffin wax l,anolin

38.0 gm 8.0 gm 15.0gm 1.0 gm 2.0 gm

Borax" Water Perfume Preservative Antioxidant

1.0 gm 35.0 gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

Mineral oil Petroleumjelly

Formula27 A . Beeswax Mineral oil Lanolin oil Isopropyl palmitate Acetylated glyceride Lanolin

It. Borax Water Perfume Preservative Antioxidant

8.0 gm 15.0gm 7.5 gm 10.0gm 2.0 gm 2.0 gm 0.5 gm 35.0gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

lleul componentsof 'A' and 'B' separatelyto 75"C' Add 'B' to 'A' perfume elnwly with continuous stirring. Cool while stirring and add in added be should Preservative Wherrtlre temperatureis about 35oC. * E l E r l )l ul sc . Formula28 A. Groundnrlt oil Mineral oil (light) PetroleumjellY Lanolin Beeswax Borax

15.0gm 20.0 gm 30.0 gm 5.0 gm 5.0 gm 0.3 gm



B. Water

t i

243 gm q.s q.s q.s

Perfume Antioxidant Preservative



A. Vegetable oil Isopropyl myristate Acetoglyceride S/C Acetoglyceride LIC Oleyl alcohol Lanolin Isopropyl linoleate Stearyl alcohol Stearic acid Lecithin Beeswax Borax

B. Triethanolamine

21.00gm 8.00 gm 7.50gm 5.00 gm 3.00gm 2.50gm 2.00 gm 1.50gm 1.00gm 1.00gm 8.00gm 0.25 gm 0.50gm 38"75gm q.s. q.s

Water Perfume Preservative



ghl ttl

B. Borax Water Perfume Antioxidant Preservative

1.0gm 37.0gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

l l oru W ate r l'crfume Arrtioxidant I'tcservative

0.8 gm 40.7 gm q.s. q.s. q.s.



Mineral oil 40.0 gm Beeswax yellow 15.0gm Lanolin 0.5 gm Isopropyl myristate 5.0 gm Acetylated lanolin 0.5 gm Concentrated solution of vitamin A & D 1.0 gm

1.0 gm 31.0gm 8.0 gm 2.5 gm l l.0 gm 5.0 gm

l 'r"('.

Formula30 A.

Formula3l linoleate lsopropyl Mi rre r aloil lsopropyl palmitate l ,l rnolin llccswax Microcrystalline wax

l l prrt ,otttponent sof 'A'and'B' separ at elyt o 75oC' and add 'B't o I eh,rrlr,with continuousstirring. Cool while stirring,adding perfume

Heat componentsof 'A' and 'B' separatelyat about 75"C. Mix 'lI to 'A' with continuous stirring. Cool while stirring and add perfurrr, when cooled to 35"C. VITAMIN CREAMS


tt tN ( t(t:A M S

Formula32 Acctylated lanolin lsopropyl myristate Mineral oil (heavy) Ilorrnone(in vehicle) llcoswax (' ctyl alcohol Stcarylalcohol lrruulsiffing agent (o/w tYPe)

15.0gm 3.0 gm 4.0 gm 1.0 gm 7.0 gm 3.0 gm 3.0 gm 15.0gm

W atcr I' crl ir r ne Itrcscrvative A rrl ioxidant

49.0 gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

lliqaillvr.rctlrrisiteamount of estrogenicsubstancein a suitable solrEfif arill rr,,t.il in 'A'. Heat componentsof 'A'and water separatelyat .,lrrrvlyirtld water to'A' with moderatebut continuousstirring. rti | t rmliltr; ',trttitrp,while coqling and add perfume at 35oC' FRUIT JUICE CREAMS Formula33 A

oil S rrrr llower t i l yc : cr in

5.0 gm 5.0 gm




Orange juice or grape fruit juice Emulsifuing agent (emulsene)

24.0 gm 16"0 gm

Water Perfume (orange oil) Preservative

50.0 gm q.s. q's.

Heat components of 'A' at 75"C, except juice. Heat water r'vrtl' preservativeat sametemperatureseparatelyand add to'A'with Corlitrrr ous stirring. Cool while stirring. Add juice and perfume whett llr, temperature is at about 35oC.

tt r bl l ri ( l tl rAM S


are expectedto be: llrF |'riilil lirnctions of hand and body creams water loss fiom the surface { | ) l{cplace water loss or reduce the ol the skin. skin' { ') l'rovide an oily film to protect the ( l) Kccp the skin soft, smooth but not greasy' t | ) lrlsY to aPPlY"

LANOLIN JUICE CREAMS Formula34 Lanette wax Myristyl alcohol Giycerin Lemon juice Water Oil of lemon Preservative

12.0 gm 5.0 gm 6.0 gm 20.0 gm 57.0gm q.s. q.s.

Heat lanette wax and myristyl alcohol and mix together at 15"( Heat water with preservative at same temperature but separately. A'l'l water to first mixture with continuous stirring. Stir in the lemon jtrr,, and glycerin after emulsion is formed. Finally add lemon oil wlr' " temperature is about 35"C.

l | rl er hl t used in these preparaVdrl,ril',tttittcrials,in variable proportions'are lrr,,ltlirirl different functions' lfuiit==

(4) HAND AND BODY CREAMS Softness of the skin is very important and also wanted. Sebunr. ' substancewhich is secretedfrom the skin, acts as a natural lubricant arr,l keeps the skin soft and conditioned. The film produced by secrctt''l sebum also helps to keep the skin wet by preventing the evaporation "l moisture. The repeatedor constant contact with soap and detergentdot the damage or causesremoval of the film sebum. Frequent removal of this sebum makes the skin dry, scaly and lc" ' protective against bacterial infection and can, ultimately, lead to dernrrr titis. Some natural moisturizing agents are also secreted by the skirr controlled use of soap or detergent does not make the skin much drr and scaly, but frequent and prolonged use of soaps or detergents,dryirrl' winds and indoor atmospheresmake the skin much dry and scaly' A protection is required to maintain the skin in normal condition.

Fl * rr


A HANDBOoK oF cosMtirr( ,

Incorporation of alkyl fatty acid esters helps to prevent drag rrr,,r excessiveoiliness. The alkyl fatty acid estersmake the oil phase 1,.,, viscous and so enablethe skin to be coveredwith a thinner oil film ri,.,,, would otherwise be possible. Sometimes a healing ingredient, like allantoin, urea, uric acicr, r incorporated in hand and body creams to enhance granulation of rlr,. skin. A bacteriocideis incorporatedto prevent bacterialinfection ofrlr, skin. In modern type of creams,alkyl estersof polyunsaturatedC1g fatrr acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid are addedto preventscaling of rl,, skin surface. As these preparations are mainly oil-in-water type emulsions, ()rl evaporation these leave the skin feeling relatively non-oily and n,rr sticky. creams or lotions based on natural or synthetic film formers ar. not popular because on evaporation of water the preparations beconr,. sticky due to increase in concentration of gum. However. this can lrt. prevented by presenceof humectant. Since these creams and lotions contain water and materials that art. highly prone to decompositionby rnicrobialcontamination,they must bt. protected against such contamination and thus addition of preservativcs is a must. The selectionof preservativesshould be such thai thev shoukl


;!l tr i I l l l AM S

E !

gives an extra edgeto f'er,lrrrl'p,!ttl'oolour is a fascinatingthing' It colours l'. lr()ltrconsumeracceptancepoint.of view' Though ft ;,r,,,lrrr body and for hand == r,,t r,,,1 rrr ltand creams but can be selected blue, red' are :=4,,,: \',il r()Uscolours which are consideredacceptable = !r,, " r t r' (' n i n di ffere ntshades. can be of various naturesI lr.'., prr'gt:ttlrtions tl t I t,lttitl crelms: Consistencyis of liquid nature' r 'r ,\i,,lrtlcrenms : Consistencyis higher' type: Not containingany aqueousmedia' r t1 Nrtrr'ttqtteous are also l:plr'ntl proccdure for manufacturing As these creams prepared are they phase' aqueous and tr 1,,'contzriningoil phase :;::,rr=i,,il temp-erature :. ',,.trir|, ,rr lrcating both the phasesseparatelyto same Perfume is formed' is cream till i ,rri',n1'rvillt continuousstiriing -==. a good for done is milling ..tfe*l rll, r ,ooliltg the product' Finally .'==l i l tF

LIQUID CREAMS Fo r m u l a 3 5 l';opropyl mYristate Mirrcral oil


S t t 'r r r i ca c i d I r r r r r l s i l y i n gw a x | ;rrtolin il

3.0 gm 1.0 gm 84.225gm q.s. q"s.

{ ilyccrin I r ie thanolamine Wr t t c t I 't 'r l i t l n e

aqueous phase rvhereaspropyl ester is dissolved in oil phase. Butyi ester may be used in place of propyl ester in same concentration. choice of a perfume for use in hand and body creams is basedsoleiy on aesthetic value. Proper perfume increasesacceptanceof the product. But perfurne should not be excessiveor too strong. perfumes should bc compatible with other ingredients and stabilize the preparations. perfumes from different sourcescan be selected. (l) Synthetic aromatics like phenylethyl alcohols, geranoil, pine, hydroxycitronellal,amyl cinnamic aldehyde. (2) Essential oils like geranium bourbon, rose de mai absolute. lavender. (3) Compounded perfume oils of a liliac type, light floral type are also used.

4.0 gm 2.0 gm 3.0 gm 0.275gm 2.5 gm

I 'rt 's c r v a t i v e Formula 36 t

t ilyccrol monostearate t 'r 't y l a l c o ho l : l i l i c o r r r :o i l l ; r r r o l i r to i l \ 1 r : r r rt l 0 I rvt:ctt (r0


l-,othitol solution (70%o) W: t l t 't -

2.7 gm 1.5 gm 1.5 gm 2.0 gm 0.5 gm 2.5 gm 10"0gm 19.3 gm



Perfume Preservative

F.f i

q.s. q.s.

Alcohol Water l)erfume l)reservative(onlY methYl parahydroxy benzoate)

Heat componentsof 'A' and 'B' separately. Mix 'B' to .A' wrtl, continuous stirring. cool while stirring. Add preservative with stirrrrrl, when cooled to 35oC. SOLID CREAMS Formula 37

A. Stearicacid Isopropylmyristate Potassiumhydroxide

15.0gm 2.0 gm 1.0gm

B. Sorbitolsolution(70%) Water Perfume Preservative

18.3grn 63.7 gm q.s. q.s.

Formula 38 Cetyl oleyl ethoxylate

12.0 gm 73.5 gm q.s. q.s.

Mix l rlliolvc preservative in glycerin with gentle heat if required' perfume' glycerin and lhe trngnt'itttit, *itlt the alcohol and add the slowly, part by solution the add and water in acid tllae,rlvt. lltc boric paste, with gentle stirring' ir*l tl tlrc lragacanth Formula40

2.0 gm 10.0gm 0.2 gm 87.8gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

'l'ragacanth Glycerin 'l'itanium dioxide Water l)erfume Clolour l)reservative

Melt stearic acid and isopropyl myristate and potassium hydroxirl,. with stirring. Keep it at 75"C. Heat components of .B' at sarrrt. temperature and mix with 'A' with continuous stirring. Add perfurnt. when cooled to 35oC.


b h t N ( l {l i A M S

9.0 gm

Polyethyleneglycol 400 monostearate 14.0 gm

Mineral oil Siliconeoil Paraffin wax Petroleumjelly Isopropylmyristate B. Water Perfume Preservative

12.0gm 1.0 gm 8.0 gm 4.0 gm 8.0 gm

NON-AQUEOUSTYPE For m ula4l wax l)araffin l'ctroleumjellY I)erfume

46.0 gm q.s. q.s

Formula42 l,anolin (lcresin wax Amber resin l)araffin wax l'ctroleumjellY

Heat components of A andwaterseparately at75"C. Add waterto A with continuousstirring. Cool with stirringaddingperfumeat 35"C. JELLIES Formula39 Tragacanth Boric acid Glycerin

1.0 gm 1.5 gm 12.0gm

26.0 gm 74.0 gm q.s.


9.0 gm 18.0gm 4.5 gm 18.5gm 50.0gm q.s.

point' lrlell rrrtd rnix the material in increasing order of melting about at mass Ferllrlre:,lrottld be added last after cooling the mixed t i "l



Fh i

non-aqueoustype preparationsalso, sometime,chlorophyll, tnir:,rr _In mallow leaves, essential oils, turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, etc. can rr,. added.



( lUiAMS

rri|er trlrr..,iuc also used as can be seen from the following formulaeFormula43 Wool alcohols Ilard parafhn White soft paraffin l.iquid parafhn l'crfume Antioxidant

(s) ALL_PURPOSE CREAMS In recent times there has been a tremendous increasein the consunrlr tion of preparations which are normally known as al-purpose crear),, These were also known as ,sports cream' as they *"r" ,r.d by sport, men in skii'g and outdoor activities. They are somewhat oilv brrr non-greasy type and can spread easily on the skin to give a protectiv,. film. They can also function, when applied excessively, as a skinfood ,,, nourishing cream' or night cream or protective cream for prevention .r alleviation of sunburn, or for the treatment of roughenei skin area, Also, when applied sparingly, they function as hand creams or founda. tion creams. Thus they are called as all_purposecreams. So, the composition of these creams is such that it can act-(a) As a foundation cream to provide a fbundation base for makc. up.

6.0 gm 24.0 gm 10.0gm 60.0 gm q.s q.s

trl,lr rlrt. irbove ingredientstogether and stir until cold. Add perfume sher ,,rr,lr'rlro 35"C with stirring' An equal amount of water can be rdJr,l tr, llrrs baseto form the cream known as hydrous ointment' Formula 44

(b) As a cleansingcream and liquefy easily. (c) As a hand cream and should have emollient


2.5 gm Wool alcohols Microcrystallinewax (m.p. 140'-145"F) 6.0 gm 21.0 gm Mi ner al oil 5.0 gm I'clroleumjellY


( i l yce r in Magnesium sulPhate Water l'crfume Mcthyl ParahYdroxYbenzoate I'ropyl ParahYdroxYbenzoate llrrtylatedhYdroxYanisole

character. (d) As a protective cream and should form a continuous non-occlusive film. (e) As a cream to smooth the rough surface of the skin.



5.0 gm 0.7 gm 59.8gm q.s q.s. q.s q.s

t o 75'C' Add'B't o'A' s 'A'and'B' separ at ely l l l rl rorttl l otl entof Add perfumewith 45"C. about at Homogenize d itlr r rntllrotts stirring. cream' making before of 'B' water in +tifrirrp Atltl prcservative

These preparationsare mainly based on woor arcohols, which consisl of the alcoholic fraction obtained by saponification of the grease of the wool of sheep and contain not less than2gyo of cholesteror. Its varue as a water-in-oil emulsifier is due to the properly of absorption of water. But this character can be lost due to oxidation and thus an antioxidant, like hydroxyanisole, is to be used. If oxidation occurs water _butylated can be lost from the base and can seep out. As these preparations need to spread easily, microcrystalline wax can be used. Minerat oils, paraffin are used to get protective layer. Magnesium sulphate is used to enhancethe stability of the creams by the p."r"n"" of magnesium ions in aqueous phase. Methyl and propyl parahydroxy benzoates can be used as preservatives to prevent microbial groMh. Suitable perfumes are also to be added. The preparations are normally water-in-oil but the

Formula45 ,,\

I lartolite ('ctyl alcohol Microcrystalline wax l,iquid paraffin


( i l ycer in Magnesium sulPhate W l ter l )crfu m e I'rcservative A rrtioxidant


3.75 gm 0.75 gm 7.60 gm 19.70gm 2.60 gm 0.70 gm 64.90 gm q.s q.s q.s.



Heat and melt componentsof 'A' at75oc and also heatcomponerrrr of 'B' to sametemperature.Mix 'B' with 'A' with constantitirring Homogenizeand cool to 40oc and add perfumewith stirring. The ab.ve is an exarnpleof, o/w generalpurposecream. Formula46

A. Stearicacid Lanolin Beeswax Mineral oil Myrj 52

15.0gm 2.0 gm 2.0 gm 24.0 gm 5.0 gm

B. Sorbitalsolution Water Perfume Preservative Antioxidant

10.0gm 42.0 gm q.s q.s q.s

Heat and mix components of 'A' at above75.c. Add preservative trr water and sorbital solution and heat to 75oc. Mix 'B' to .A' witlr continuousstining. Cool and add perfumewhile stining. Formula47 A. Wool alcohol Cholesterol Petroleumjelly Paraffin wax Mineral oil Sorbitansesquioleate

1.0gm 1.5gm J.5 gm 5.0 gm 20.0 gm 1.0 gm

B. Glycerin Magnesiumsulphate Water Perfume Preservative Antioxidant

5.0 gm 0.5 gm 58.5 gm q.s q.s. q.s

Heat componentsof 'A' and 'B' independently to 75oC. Add ,B, kr 'A' slowly with continuousstirring. when temperpture has comedown to 45"c passthrough homogenizer.continue stirring to cool to 35o(, and add perfume. Preservative shouldbe addedin wa-terof ,B'.



6ote productsare usedwidely and for variouspartsof the body, cvaluationand quality controlis essential. ftom generaltestslike quantitativeand qualitativedeterminaInjrodlents,someothertestsare important. lhrology : Rheology is very important as these creams are ln tubes or containers. The rheology or viscosity should nonttont. As these productsare normally non-newtonianin frc vlscositycan be measuredusing viscometersusedfor such funrltlvity : As various types of ingredientsare used with ft urc of antiseptics,hormones,etc., there is a possibility of of the skin. This should be tested or photose-nsitization 'Ihis test is normallydoneby patchtest on skin and can be or occlusive. The test sample is applied alongwith a mtrkct productat different placesand effect is comparedafter a

tf tlmc. tlologlcal testing : This is particularlyessential fof products lntiseptics,hormones,vitamins,etc.

r r l l t',r l t l r l r N I'R EPAR ATI O N S





and =il aflr, r.,l tt:lls is responsiblefor the dilation of blood vessels can proliferation of the basal cells of the skin for =; rlerl,r iitrrrrrrlation leads only not =!..,,,., ,rr lr is also known that excessivesolar radiation radiatiOn :. j ,li:.qil,.rtrOil [o cancgrbUt tO Skin CanceritSelf. EXCeSSiVe t' .!;,trrr1, vi rami n D pr esentin skin f at and pr oducessom e t oxic ,rlrrrlr irr the long run causethe connectivetissueof the corium :!=r{,iJ.. r,vlrichis manifestedin a coarseningof the skin relief and !.. rleErrrr.r,rtt. F.rl rati rrr ,,1 rvr i ttkl gs.

Sunlight reaching the surface of the earth contains visible r{s (rrrrl wavelength between 400 mp-740 mp), rays with shorter wavclr.rrlrr, (280 mp-400 mp) called ultraviolet, and rays with longer wavelt.rrl,rt, (750 mp- 5300 mp) called infrared. Ultraviolet rays, particularly r,,rt, wavelength below 320 mtrt,are responsible for most of the therapeutr, , well as noxious effects that we attribute to sunlight. The ovcr,,ti beneficial effects as well as harmful effects of sun rays on the hrrrrr,,, body depend on the length and frequency of exposure, intensity ot rl,, sunlight and sensitivity of the individual concerned. Lower the n;i', length, more the energy of the rays. These rays stimulateblood circulation in the derma,causethe clcr,I opment of vitamin D from provitamins, through the activatiorr ,,r 7-dehydrocholesterol,contained in skin fat. Sunshine increasesrl,, formation of haemoglobin and may also promote a decreasein frr,,,,,i pressure. These rays are also supposedto shift the redox potential ol rrr, epidermal tissue towards more intensive reduction, which, in turrr I believed to lead to an activation of various vitamins, hormones",r,,1 enzymes and a favourable effect on the visceral nervous system. srrn rays have been used in the treatment of tuberculosis of some glar,l bones and skins and also in the treatmentof skin psoriasis. Sunligrir, also known to exert a beneficial influence on the autonomous nerv(,rl system and reduce the susceptibility to infections. Moderate exposur(,r,, sunshine produces better psychological feelings, sense of fitness rr,,l peace of mind. Sun rays cause thickening of the skin by producr,,1, melanin which increasesthe body's naturalprotectivemechanismagairr,r sunburns. On the other hand solar irradiation is damagingin case of excessrr, exposure. It can have short term and long term adverseeffects. It ni:rr cause sunburn with symptoms of mild irritation to serious inflammarr,,r, from a slight erythema to blistering on skin. There can be shiverii,r, fever and nausea, and sometimes pruritus. Releaseof histamine by tlr,


tr,rrrrr1,tlrr. latent period preceding the appearanceof effects of of r::rF'lrr. t,lr.locltemicaldegraclationproducts formed by the effect radical free of series a off trigger to irr,r,lr,rti()il believed are :*l*r iEr ti'rr l,,rilrrrl',to the formation of the biologically active substances diffuse into tire dermal blood vesselsand produce the =lri,t, rrltrrrr,rlt.ly :1rilrl=rrrlrt'r:;t'syrnptomsmentionedabove. ll,- | rr,r$'lt'tlgc of long-termhazardsof sun-rayshas led to manufacr=rirrp,rl ,r \,r'r:rloosllleticpreparationsto protectthe skin from sun rays' | ,.=rrr.lrr1,r,'Prtt;ttions should protect the skin as effectively as possible E;,fi, rlrr rr(,\r()useffects of radiation without reducing the beneficial l i ()n agai n stult r avioletr ays is also occasionallyr equir ed = ti .,ri l ,r,rtt.t =i:iiu,l,r,trr p;rrlicttlarly clrugindustry' mountaineering,and armed forces' ttf this effect has led to suggestion to incorporate i t+c I rr,,rrl,'rlp,,-: r.!ri:,r. r,,, rr rttllke-up bases, face porvders' creams and after shave in alcohol and silicone oil afford i.,riilr,= | rlilryclroxybenzophenone =+.pilfIt |lrillt.ttion for people highly photosensitive"Presentlyseveral have launchedcold or vanishing creamsor lotions = :rrret.ir, r,ntP:tttics ,..r ,1 r i r r i l r l '

l l l l " ( 'l ( 'C n

agen t s .

rt-r, l,r, l):rtirtionsare used to achieve suntan faSter to inCreaSemore a .t.'l :!l l "l l

Fl,tettlr, il4i,il *l4i,r=l

M t t 'h a n i s m of th e Ski n l\\'(l lactors are responsible for natural protection of skin 'rillrtllll

(l I llriekncssof the stratumcon"leuln r ' I I' rrrnr:ti tation of t he skin i' li., 1,,r'rr rt:l)oltedthal thickening of the stratum corneum occurs i: r il, r r r,l solar irracliationby increasingrnitotic rate nf epidermal of erythemogt-nic to the passag'e rlrrr',rrrrkingit mnre itnperviousr -,,,,==i,,,', |

alst' iilCreaseSthe !, | , rrr rrrcl;rninCcntent of the epiCler"lr,iS of ef caLI ges Cessf q; nr 3: 11in . ,' t," \\' ' r ' rl !l .c Skl, - 1.t i\ l r aeliat i, Dn






melanin which migrates upward towards stratum corneum and llr( 1" surface and thus increases the resistance. Suntan prep?rotions "r't facilitate this excess formation of melanin. Principle of Effectiveness of Sunscreens r'1rl It is a fact that the exposureof unprotectedskin to sunlight 1111 in sunbttrtt ,,'' produces the desired therapeuticeffect but also results ihe subsequentpeeling off of the comeal layer is a cosmetic problerl I' principle, this problem can be treated in different ways. (l) A protective layer can be provided to the skin that prevcrrl, rl'' UV-rays to reach the skin either by absorbing or by reflecting llr' ," Some of the materials used in powders do actually reflect a c('rl''" amount of UV-rays and are thus incorporated in suntan pt€porlrlr,rr'; Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide both have such property but the lirrrr," is better than the laffer. Preparationsreflecting UV-rays zlrevery t'll" tive and used widely. However, these preparationshave the disadvrrrrr',;. of eliminating the beneficial rays along with the harmful ones.



(4) Substancesthat cause or acceleratetanning of the skin crtrrt'' applied. Dioxyacetone causestanning by forming a brown complex * 'rl' the keratin of the corneal layer. 8-methoxypsoralene when lrrl,." 10-20 rng internally 2 hours before exposure to the sun, accelct;tt,, tannins and avoids sunbum.

SUNBURN PREPARATIONS Cosrneticsunbum anctrsuntanpreparationsmay be classifiecl','r, three groups: (1) Sunscreeri preparations (2) Palliativespreparations (3) Sinrulativepreparations


ll ; \urrscreen Preparations I lrr':;t:are the most important group of preparations. Sunscreens =lr,,lhl t.itlrer scatterthe incident light effectively, or they should absorb rly t.rytlrctlal portion of the sun's radiant energy. Various factors other tlrrrrrllrt. tluration of exposureare also to be taken into account' For Flryul'lc, background is important. Snow has a better effect on the as it reflects a higher proportion of ultraviolet radiationthan Irrrlrvrtlrr;rl ( )paque powder materials, either used in dry state or in a vehicle, -r1r{l ,rrll ',t'rvcto scatterthe ultravioletlight falling upon them' Of them zinc ,rrrrlt. i:j rnost effective and superior to titanium dioxide. Other less r.llr'rtivt: substancesare kaolin, calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide, trrlr t.tr Particle size of these substancesin these preparationsis also an l ri l l )')tl i i l l l factor.

llrc iclcal sunscreenagent should have the following characters( | ) Absorb light preferentialiy over the range of 280 mp-320 mp' {.') l}e stableto heat, light and perspiration' ( l) lle non-toxic and non-irritant.

(2) To incorporate substancesin preparations to filter the sttrrr.,'by absorbing medium range UV-rays (280 mp-320 mp) but allon rr,g rays of higher wave lengths to pass. All modern suntan preparatiorr',.r'* based on this principle arrd contain such substances. (3) Biologically effective substancescan be used effectively 1o 1". vent symptoms of inflammation without reduction of tanning. As alt, ',1' mentionedearlierthat damageof the cells by sunbum liberateshislittrr,',. in the tissues, attempts have been made to treat it with antihistarrrr,"' substancesto avoid inflammation. Because of their ?flti-inflamnt;rl,'rr action, hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons may be useful in treating .rr', burn but they are not recommended in suntan preparations.



('l) Not be rapidly absorbed. t" ) l l c neutral . trr) lle readily soluble in suitablevehicles. llrcro are numerous substances which are suitable for use as ;rtlll\(


l L'CIlSi

( | ) l)ara-aminobenzoicacid, its derivatives and glyceryl esters,like cthylpara amino benzoale,glyceryl para-amino benzoate,etc' ( ') Salicylates,like amyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, benzyl, menthyl, glyceryl, etc. (l) (linnamic acid derivatives, like benzyl cinnamate, menthyl cinnamate,etc. t,l) l)ihydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives tr) 'frihydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives ((r) Certain hydrocarbons ( /) l)ibenzalacetoneand benzalacetophenone (x) l)ihydroxy-napthoic acid and its salts (')) Coumarin derivatives t lo) I)iazolesand triazoles t I l) Quinine salts t | -l) Quinine derivatives



(13) Uric and violuric acids (14) Tannic acid derivatives (15) Hydroquinoneetc.

l i





some other compounds also have been reported to be effective :;r,,, screens. They are hydrazines of ortho- or para-aminobenzaldehyde,rrr,,i of ortho- and para-aminoacetophenones. Also acetylated ami.,, cinnarnates, a reaction product of carbethoxyethyr-triethoxysilaneu,irr, p-aminobenzoic acid, have been reported to be useful as sunscreen. As all the above substancesare of low molecular weight, they rrr, quickly removed from the skin with water, necessitatingrepeatedapPrr cation. This led to the developmentof water-insolublebut alkali-solrrlrl, polymeric sunscreens.Thesepolymers are producedby reactingat lcrr,,r two essentialco-monomers. (l)


An ethylenically unsaturatedcompound, capable of absorbirrl, ult r av i o l e t ra d i a ti o n . l i k e c e rta i n substi tuted acryl art.,, methacrylates,benzoates,ethers of 2,4-dihy droxybenzopheno rr,. 2,2,4-Irihydroxybenzophenone, and ethers of benzotriaz,t, derivatives.

(2) An acidic co-monomer, an ethylenically unsaturatedcarboxrrr, acid containingat leastone free carboxyl group like acrylic aci,l methacorylicacid, itaconic acid, crotonic acid, etc. These polyrneric sunscreens have been found to be resistftfll r. removal by fresh or sea-water. But they can be removed easily b1, ., slightly alkaline solution like soap-waterrvhich conveftswater-insolulrl, polymer to water-solublealkaline salts due to presenceof free carboxr lic acid group. Different sunscreen agents are used in different concentratr.rr accordingto their effectiveness.Sorneare used in higher eoucentrailorr 6-BYoand others at low concentrations like 2vo. suitabie base can be used to make a final product of an aqueous,,, aicoholic lotion, a [email protected] cream, oil, or an emulsion" 'rhe vehicle ;rr,r selection ol- other cornponentsof the procluct may contribute to r eff-ecf iveness. certain natural oils such as coconut oii, peanut , ,,r muster-seedciil and olive oil have a fairly high absorptionabilit_r,ol'i iight, bur mineral oil cloesnot ha'e such property. An antioxidant * be irrcorp,:ratedif a naturai oii is used to ;rreventranciditv, lrffecti""ehasc:g;:a.n be preparedLr1,using lnixturesof natura!oils ,r ;nineraj oils. or by.' blending these with fatty acid Bljferrisu/,1,


r &ts ,:ril,,r t(titrNPREPARATIoNS


i:'. fri,'l'\ l1r;rlrrrilate.Some effective protection from sunbum is also yi,,.i,lr,l I'y white or yellow petroleum jelly and lanolin. All these FrE F4i ' rrr' ,| | ,;conta' n som e per f um e and pr eser vat ive,if r equir ed. | il r a=i'il;rllVcoloursare also used. llrr' 1r1,111111'1 can be simple oil type, creamtype, lotion type, aqueous * * l rri i ul tl pt' , gel typ e. lrlsa rrl I'r.ocedurefor Manufacturing llr,-',, prt:lrarationscan be aqueous or oily solutions, creams or hrtion and gel type, the generalmethod will be different. Erinrl.!i',r. Fr,r111111111 types, aqueousor oily, can be preparedsimply by mixing lrc,ltr',,lvirrg the sunscreenand other ingredientsin the vehicle, i.e., +dlFr,,r ,'rl, l)crfumeshould be added all of last. I rFirnr l)rcparationsare emulsion type and are prepared by taking irrgrerlrr=rrtr ol'oil phase and aqueous phase separatelyand heating to lirlrrll ,rr tlissolveall ingredientsand then mixing them together with stirring till the cream is produced. Perfumeshould be added ',irttrr,'u,, 1flsl , rr'lrrr11the cream to near room temperatureand milling further. lrrrr,rr., can be solutions or emulsion type and can be prepared **rrr1111t';t (iels are highly viscous aqueouspreparations.Thickening rgent rr rlispcrsed in water separately. Other ingredients are mixed irrperlrrriul(l dissolvedin water. Then the dispersionof thickening agent ie rri.ll n,itlr otherswith stirring to preparegel. '.,rrrrr'rrsclirlformulaeare mentionedbelow: OIL TYPE Formula I I lomomenthyl salicylate Mineral oil l)erfume

8.0 gm 92.0 gm q.s.

For m ula2 I lornomenthyl salicylate Mineral oil Isopropyl myristate l'crfume

8.0 gm 80.0 gm 12.0 gm q.s.

Formula 3

lsopropylmyristate Antiviray

90.0 gm 10.0gm

I h F

;!IIIII.t I( IIl N


Mcl hyl parahydroxy benzoate I'ropyl parahydroxybenzoate

q.s q.s q.s

Perfume Colour Preservative

Water Perfume Methyl parahydroxy benzoate Propyl parahydroxy benzoate

Formula7 mYristate lsopropyl Antiviray l'oilct spirit I' crl ume ('ol our (alcohol-soluble)


8.0 gm 7.5 gm 2.0 gm 5.0 gm

Stearic acid Isopropyl myristate Abracol PGS (emulsifuing agent)


8.0 gm 1.7 gm 6.0 gm 3.5 gm 0.8 gm 80.0 gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

B. Triethanolamine Water Perfume Preservative Colour


Tween Cetyl alcohol Isopropyl myristate Mineral oil B. Glycerin Water Perfume

For m ula8 l ri l trosolA 1000 Mineral oil Stearicacid I'araffin wax lleeswax l'ctroleumjelly S i l i conefluid l'olyethylene glycol monostearate

5.0 gm 10.0gm 2.0 gm 1.0 gm 2.0 gm 5.0 gm 8.0 gm 5.0 gm

l'riethanolamine Water I)erfume l)reservative

2.0 gm 60.0 gm q.s. q.s.

of 'A' to a temperature of about 70"C' Heat llflrt rrrp,.r'cdients ol''B' to Sametemperatureand add slowly to the mixture of iirgrr,lrr.rrt:; { ',lrr rrrrtilcool. Add perfume when the temperaturecomes down to

Formula6 A . Antiviray

2.0 gm 10.0gm 88.0gm q.s. q.s.

I tr,,u,,lvcrtttttvtray in isopropyl myristate. Dissolveperfume and .rrl um l rt ^.pi ri t. Mi x b ot h.

5.00 gm 72.50gm q.s. q.s. q.s.


A. Antiviray




B. Glycerin


rllr lol,r.tlrct.the ingredientsof 'A' and heat at about 70"c. In a :=t'4fdt.v,",'.cldissolvethe preservativesin the glycerin with the aid of i:itle hF:rl Arltl the remaining ingredientsof 'B' and heat it to about jl I A,Ll rnixture of 'B' to 'A', slowly with continuousstirring. Stir .ri rti lr rr' 1.,r,Ll i rtgthe per f um eat about 30oC.

Isopropyl myristate may be replaced by isopropyl palmitate. Preparation is simply. by solution technique. Mix the perfume, colour, preservative with isopropyl myristate and sunscreenagent with oil and mix both together.

Formula4 A. Homomenthyl salicylate Non-ionic emulsifier (tween) Mineral oil Spermaceti



5.0 gm 7.5 gm 1.0 gm 15.0gm 17.0gm

cE rttl Ii "(


AQUEOUS SOLUTION TYPE Formula9 7.0 gm l;iltrosol B 0.5 gm Methyl cellulose

1.0 gm 54.5 gm q.s.




2.0 gm 10.0gm 80.5 gm q.s

Glycerin Ethyl alcohol Water Perfume

Dissolve filtrosol 'B' in ethyl alcohol and methyl cellulose in watcr and glycerin mixture. Mix the two parts. Methyl cellulose is added t,, increasethe viscosity.

r h l,



I'rrlliative preparations are either aqueous solutions or oil-in-water errrrrlsionsand should be able to produce both protective and cooling *llct:[ to relieve the sunburn. These preparationsshould not be greasy or illy bccausethey will retard the antiseptic effect as the antisepticswill ,,,,1l,.r irble to mix with secretionsto prevent bacterial growth' I hcse sunburn correctives are generally familiar as calamine or

Formula l0

FiltrosolB Distilled extractof witch hazel Propyleneglycol Water Perfume Watersolubledye Methyl parahydroxybenzoate

5.0 gm 10.0gm 10.0gm 75.0 gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

Dissolve the preservative in propylene glycol and add the remaining ingredients. Mix well. GEL TYPE F o rmu l al l Carboxy vinyl polymer Propylene glycol l'riethanolamine Filtrosol B Water Perfume Methyl parahydroxy benzoate

2.0 gm, 9.0 gm 1.5 gm 5.0 gm 82.5 gm q.s. q.s.

Dissolve the sunscreenagent (filtrosol B) in a small portion of water. Dissolve carboxy vinyl polymer in the triethanolamineand gradually add the main proportion of water. Eissolve the preservativein the propylene glycol and add to the earlier mixture. Then add the solution of sun screen agent. When the gel is uniform add the perfume. (2) Palliative Preparations These preparations are used for the relief of initation and other problems resulting from sunbum. As sunbum causes damage to skin cells, in several cases it can be as serious as steam burn, there is always a possibility of secondary bacterial infection. So, all these preparations should also be antiseptic.

qnr,,ilivcarea of skin. Formula 12

Calamine Zinc oxide Camphor Alcohol Glycerin Rose water Methyl parahydroxY benzoate

15.0gm 5.0 gm 1.0 gm 10.0gm 10.0gm 59.0 gm q.s.

Mix the calamine and zinc oxide to a smooth paste with the glycertn. ltilrv ildd suffcient amount of rose water to make a crearn. Dissolve the ililil|)ltot. in the alcohol and mix the cream and add water to volume. To g"r ,, lilvourable shadewith calamine a small amount of fenic oxide may lrr irtltlod.

Formula13 8'0 gm Zinc oxide 8'0 gm Preparedcalamine 7'0 gm glYcol400 Polyethylene glycol 400 monostearate3'0.gm Polyethylene 60'0 gm Lime water 14'0 gm Water q.s. Preservative tv'lix the powder materialsthoroughly and add polyethyleneglycol and add lime water to make a cream' with stining. ltlil ilr()nostearate



Add further lime water and make volume with water. preservative can be dissolved in water. Formula 14 Triethanolamine stearate Liquid paraffin Water Zinc phenosulphonate

4.8 gm 10.0gm 83.2 gm 2.0 gm

Mix triethanolamine stearate and liquid paraffin properly adding to water and heat it to 70"c with continuous trituration to achieve an emulsion.


F o rmu l a1 5 Calamine Zinc oxide Mineral oil/vegetable oil Emulsiffing wax Camphor

B. Glycerin Rose water Methyl parahydroxy benzoate Propyl parahydroxy benzoate

10.0gm 5.0 gm 25.0gm 5.0 gm 1.0gm 5.0 gm 49.0 gm q.s. q.s.

Mix the emulsiffing wax and mineral oil and heat it to about 70"C. Take water preheated ar 70oc and add to the first mixture with continuous stirring to prepare a cream. Dissolve the preservative and camphor in the glycerin and mix the calamine and zinc oxide to a smooth naste. Add water to a creamy consistencyand mix with previously prepared cream. (3) Simulative Preparations They are also termed as artificial suntan preparations. There is a good demand of such preparationsto obtain a suntan. The purpose of enhanced colour may be to prevent skin damage by absorption of erythemal radiation or to indicate the well-being of the health. An artificial suntan normally is obtained by staining of the skin, whatever may be the purpose. Though several natural materials, like walnut juice, olive oil extract or cudbear and henna, were used from ancient times for skin stain, they are not favourable nowadays. Now mainly synthetic staining materials are used. (a) Systemic suntan : Some substanceshave been found to increase pigmentation and thus producing suntan. The need to speed up the rate


ht rN 5('l (l i l l N P R E P AR A TION S


the active af alilr tirrrrrirrgled to try out such substances. Psoralens, folk-mediEgyptian ancient an rrirEtlllr'nts isolated from ammimajus, pigmentation and thus tanning' 'iile lr,rvc bcon reported to enhance has {ll,rrp',1 tlrt:scalkoxypsoralensand-particularly 8-methoxypsoralen administraoral for formulation, l,ee,r.,t,'tr:;ivcly studied and a tablet of ,rf l{ rrrcrhoxypsoralenhave been marketed in USA' Ingestion 11,11i of exposure on pigmentation tlt !l lrt,ol this substanceled to increased rl i fi l rr ' ,rrrrl i gl w rt i thi n 2 - 4 hour s. can be obtained by lhl Slnining preparations : An artificial suntan like it€intrl, tlt., skin with some chemical substances' Chemicals produce to used are etc' erythrulose juglone, lawsone, ,lihr,lr,,ry:rtctone, I =Frl l l rr'l l l i tnent

stai n.

white crystI Ittltwlroxyqcetone (l-3-dihydroxy-2-propanone) is a It is a taste' sweet a and odour r+llilr lrrrwtlcr with a characteristic skin in present acids, amino itqrrlnp ;rgcnt and it reacts with certain application' after hours 3-6 IEl4tilr. iilr(l produces a brown stain within is not lhe , rrlrrutis I'urtherincreasedby exposureto light' If application even an get To staining' ql.,1r.1,r'ltctly it can produce an uneven lf emulsion' as formulated ,,rd staini.tj, it can preferablybe .g3,1,,,,t,,,,, to stabilize glycol a i* ,'',,',1rrssolution, the preparation should include 'give rhu a,,lrrliottand provide a continuousfilm' As this stain cannot incorporated be can ciri I'tillc(tion against sunburn, a sunscreenagent also for int,r tlrr' llrcparation to achieve a quick tanning effect and to 4'0o in 3'0 used Fi,,lr,lr,rrtrrgainstsunburn' Dihydroxyacetone'is Higher t .,t the solution is to be adjusted between 6'0-6'5' *i,,1 1,1 8'0 no I rifrrr'illr;rliotrat lower pH producespatchy staining' At pH above I rl rrur t' r prrtduted. (2-hydroxyI ii ) lttglone(5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthaquinone)or lawsone gives good I I l,rl,lrtlr:rquinone)in combination with dihydroxyacetone is obtained =[ainrrF lrrgloneis obtained from walnut shells and lawsone also isopropanol in 50Vo dihydroxyacetone of filflf r f lr'nnit. 307o solution F,,rffirffrnp.0.035% juglone or llawsone is normally used as artificial =r4iillil[',1lrcparation. in cosmetic trrrl l')n'lhrulose is also used as artificial staining agent according 0'5-10% used is It l,l-|rilirlr()n. lt is butane-1,3,4-triol-2-one' t,r llrr=rlcgt'ccof browning required. system ',lrrrrrirtgsubstancesare taken in a suitable solvent or vehicle marPreparations etc' sorbitol glycol, *irtrrrrinH alcohol, propylene cream For (emulsion)' type cream or !.t.,1 rrrc cither solutions



*I r

preparations suitableemulsifring agentsor surfaceactiveagentsshorr,l be selected' Also the preparationsshould have suitable pJrfumesu,,,r preservatives. Formula 16 Dihydroxyacetone Ethanol (95%) Sorbitol syrup (70%o) Boric acid powder Methyl parahydroxy benzoate Allantoin Water Perfume

4.0 gm 28.0 gm 3.0 gm 1.0 gm 1.0gm 0.3 gm 60.7 gm 2.0 gm

Dissolve the dihydroxyacetone in sorbitol syrup. Make the solutiorr _ of other things in water and add alcohor and mix with first part. Adjusr pH at 6.0 by addition of lactic acid. Formula lZ Dihydroxyacetone Propylene glycol Alcohol Water Perfume Methyl parahydroxy benzoate

3.0 gm 6.0 gm 3.0 gm 88.0 gm q.s. q.s.

the preservative and dihydroxyacetone in propylene ,Dissolve glycol and part of water. Add arcohol and perfume and remainder of iater. Mix and adjust the pH at 6.0 with the uaartion of lactic acid. LOTION TYPE Formula lg Sunscreenagent (water soluble) Dihydroxyacetone Propylene glycol Alcohol Water ,. Perfume Methyl parahydroxy benzoate

A. Mineral oil

10.0gm 3.0 gm 5.0 gm 25.0 gm 57.0 gm q.s. q.s.


Non-ionic emulsifier (tween)

10.0gm 10.0gm




l)ihydroxyacetone l'opyleneglycol Water Itorfume Mcthyl parahYdroxY benzoate l'ropyl parahydroxYbenzoate

3.0 gm 6.0 gm 71.0 gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

Fornrula20 Sunscreenagent (oil soluble) Non-ionic surfactant(tween) llthylene glycol monostearate

10.0gm 2.5 gm 2.0 gm

l'ropyleneglycol I)ihydroxyacetone Water I)erfume Methyl parahYdroxYbenzoate I'ropyl parahydroxYbenzoate

8.0 gm 3.0 gm 74.5 gm q.s. q.s. q.s.

r l ::r I 6 111


lI .

\lrr logcther ingredientsof 'A' and heat to 75oC' Dissolve the rllln,lr,ryrcctone and preservativesin propyleneglycol and water" Heat cont inuousst ir r ing. Cool while i t ,i 1,,,t(; 75.,C . A dd, B't o'A'wit h to .l-5oCand add perfurne' -ririint, I r rrl rrnl i oh \ . rrr ;rrty other preparations.identification and quantitative determirr,ltr,,ilr)l various ingredientsare essentialfor evaluation and quality ..,iltr,,1Poirrlof view. Apart from theseroutine tests sornespecialtests for thesetypes of products. ir, rl'., rrt:ccssary

t,. ,t,.t(.ililinccl and comparedwith any other standardsutrstance. tlt l'lrvthemal dosage : It is importantto estimatethe erythemally . nr r trvt. r''diation or F;-vitons/cm2,transmitted by a suntan preparation. |,1 (.rvthclnai energy is the prnduct of the soiar energy transrnitted



through the film ofsuntan preparation and the effectivenessfactor at tlnr wavelength. (3) Sunscreen index : This is evaluation of the relativ€ scr€cnrrr;: activity of the sunscreencompounds. This is measurementof extinctr,," coefficient (El'i.,,)


at 308 mp wavelengthand comparisonwith otlr,r

308 mp is the peak wavelength for effective sunburn. (4) In-vivo skin testing : This is a direct test on animal sl r' particularly rabbit, the site normally used is either backsideor abdorn,,, as these sites have maximum sensitivity. Preparationsare applied or' , specific site and exposed to radiation along with a control unprotc(t, ,l site, for a specific period of time. The effectsare observedat the errrl,'t the period. Several factors or variables are to be taken care of durinl, tl,, test as they may influence the results. Such variables or factors.", radiation source, size of the test field, etc.

Hair have irr strrrl) and design hair preparationsit is very much essentialto and body the parts of l.rr.,rvl.:dgeof hair. Haii is one of the vital sebawith along , ,,n',itlcrcdto be accessorystructure of the integument r ,'r,rrsglands, sweat glands and nails' They are also known as epidermal ,lr,,u,,tives as they originate from the epidermis during embryological of rllvclopment. Hair is an important component of the overall appeal tlr,' lrtrinan body. Presenceof hair in odd place can make a negative of a ellr.t I, whereashair on head is a part of overall attraction and beauty or Irrrnurrrbeing. So, people take a lot ofcare of hair to make an impact i rgrpci tl . llnlr und Hair Follicles llclirre puberty the hair is mainly present on the scalp, the eyebrows places rrrrrtcyolashes,irrespectiveof sex. At puberty hair grows in other the lalr.iixillae, over the pubes in both sexes and in male as beard on from lirrc. 'Ihough all rnammals have hair but hair in man is different nl l rcts. I lairs can be found nearly all over the surface ofthe skin except over o,rrrrc.specificsites like the sides and soles of the feet, the palms of the lrrrntls,the sides of the fingers and toes' the lips, and portions of the ,'rtcrnal genitalia. There are about 50,00'000 hairs on the human body ,rrrrl ()8 per cent of them are on the general body surface and about l,(x),(x)0-1,20,000are on the head. Population density of normal adult rt.rrlJrhair is reported to be between 225 hair cm2 on average with uilrirrble.ung" o? 175-300 hair cm2. The rate of hair growth has been of rr'rrtcd to 6e varying with sites. Scalp and chin have highest rate per mm A"27-0'40 p.rowtlr. The rate of growth of scalp hair is between ,t,,y 'l'he growth rate of axillary hair is nearly same' The growth rate l,,r lrair on Uody surface is about 0'2 mm per day' Though the daily vilriations of temperature have no effect on the growth rate but the study there rrrrlit:utcdhigher growth rate of beard in summer than winter. Also in hair r.; (lnc study report which indicated that the growth of scalp 105


A HANDBOoKoF cosMll.nl, f h,

women is faster than men. The growth rate of scalp hair is more rr, young and adults and declines in old ase. Cuticlecovering hair shaft Sebaceous gland


Connectivetissue Glassy membrane

i l A tR


( l ) l lrt: internal root sheath that surrounds the hair root and the rlct:pcrportion of the shaft. I lrc cxternal root sheath that extends from skin surface to the l rrri rrnatri x.

t 't

r 1) | lrc glassy membrane,a thickened basementmembrane wrapped irr a dense connective tissue sheath. frr tlrc ;rrlult integument there are two types of hair-

Externalroot sheath Rool hair plexus

lnternalroot sheath

Fig. 7-1 Schematic structure ofcross_section ofhair Hair production is 'a processof mutual inv.lvement of both dermi:; and epidennis and originatesfrorn hair foilicres. A schematicstructurt.
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