A complete guide to coffee terms and their meanings.

August 12, 2017 | Author: PeterBaskerville | Category: Coffee, Taste, Drink, Coffeehouse, Agriculture
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95+ pages of everything you wanted to know about coffee. A comprehensive guide for baristas or anyone involved in the sp...


A Complete Glossary of Coffee Terms By Peter Baskerville

August 2009

Front Cover - A ninth century book boarder from Tymms, W. R.: “The Art of Illuminating As Practised in Europe from the Earliest Times” (1860) – Public Domain

© Peter Baskerville 2009

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Coffee - This invigorating drink which drives sad care from the heart

A A: (Grading) Capitalized letters that are used in coffee descriptors are grade indicators. They are usually given to identify the size of the Arabica variety of coffee bean because there is a general market belief that there is a correlation between been size and flavour. (“A” is the grade used in India to identify its largest sized bean. Other grading includes B & C. “AA”: This is the largest size grade used for coffees from Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Papua New Guinea. “AA+”: The “+” indicates that the coffee bean has been grown on an estate. This indicator is often used in Kenya’s coffee grades. “AAA”: This is the largest size grade of coffee beans given to coffee exported from Peru.) Abd al-Qadir al-Jaziri: (History - Writer) A Muslim writer who compiled a work entitled `Umdat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa” in 1587 which traced the history and the legal controversies surrounding the coffee drink. The Arabic word qahwa, said to mean both "coffee" and "wine", is the root of our word "coffee," through the Turkish word kahve, as referenced in this bilingual website. The standard story of coffee is that it originated in Ethiopia, was traded across the Red Sea to Yemen through the port of al-Mukha (Mocha, get it?), whence it made its way up the shipping routes to Mecca and Medina, and from there to Cairo, Constantinople, Vienna, Paris, Italian towns, and London. Since this all happened during the period just prior to release of Abd al-Qazir Al-Jaziri's book, one would like to read it, or at least a translation. Abyssinia: (History - Names) The name of an early coffee growing country now known as Ethiopia. Acerbic: (Cupping) The description of a taste fault in the coffee beverage that creates a sour sensation on the tongue often due to excessive heat during the holding process after brewing. Achilles, Gaggia: (History - Inventor) He is credited with perfecting the espresso coffee machine in 1947. He introduced a piston lever to the espresso machine that created a high-pressure extraction from the ground coffee that was placed in a single group. The machine was called the “Crema Caffe”. Acidity: (Cupping) This is one of the principal categories judged by professional tasters in the evaluation of the coffee bean. The other categories are flavor, aroma and body. Acidity is a positive highly desirable quality that refers to the pleasant high notes sharpness, brightness, snap, life and vibrancy contained of the coffee beverage. It is best described as the sensation of dryness on the back of the palate and under the edges of the tongue much like the desired sharpness of a dry white wine. Acidity is said to increases the overall experience of the coffee cup because without sufficient acidity, the coffee beverage would tend to be flat and dull. It is usually assessed and categorized as lively, moderate, flat or dull. This description is not to be confused with corrosive, bitter/sour as it is compared to a sweet, heavy, mellow flavour. Neither does it refer to the coffee beverage’s pH level. Coffee actually has a relatively neutral pH of between 5 and 6. Aging the green coffee bean and/or a darker roast will tend to reduce the acidity so old crop will have little acidity. Acrid: (Cupping) A harsh sour secondary taste further described as tart, sharp, or acerbic noticed on the posterior sides of the tongue. Typified by an unwashed Rio coffee from Brazil. Aden: (Region) See - Al Mukha or Mocca Affogato: (Drink) This is a term that literally means 'drowned'. It is the description of a shot of separately served espresso that is later poured over a the top of a scoop of © Peter Baskerville 2009

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vanilla ice cream or gelato. This beverage is usually served in a short drink glass and is a Italian desert favourite. Popular Affogatos include Vanilla Affogato, Mocha Affogato, and Peppermint Affogato. African Wild Coffee: (Botany) This is the common name of “Coffea racemosa Lour” which is a coffee species native to Ethiopia. Aftertaste: (Cupping) This is the ultimate judge on the quality of the coffee beverage. It is the aromatic impression that the coffee vapors leave in the mouth after swallowing and is sometimes called finish. The flavors released from the residue liquid remaining in the throat after swallowing can range in description from caramely, chocolatey, spicy to turpeny. Aged/Vintage Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) Traditionally this is a term used in the trade to identify green beans that have been held in warehouses for several years before being roasted – a common practice in Indonesian coffees. Usually, these green beans are aged by design but sometimes it is done so inadvertently. When held by design, the object is to promote enzyme activity that will reduce the acidity yet at the same time increase the body and mellowness of the coffee cup. Some say the taste generated is almost sweet whilst others say it is of a poor quality with an overriding taste of cork. Aged/vintage coffees are held longer in storage than those referred to as “old crop” or “past crop”. Agha, Suleiman: (History - Drink) He was the ambassador to Paris of the Sultan Muhammad the Fourth. This ambassador is said to have introduced coffee drinking to Louis 14th the King of France in 1669. Agtron: (Roasting) A specially modified spectrophotometer that analyses the degree of the coffee bean roast. Using a Near-Infrared energy band it measures the amount of ray absorbed by the sugar molecules in the roasted bean. This gives a reading which determines its position on the "chemistry index" i.e. the degree to which it is cooked. Agtron readings range from #95 (lightest roast) through #10 (darkest common roast). Air Roaster: (Roasting) See - Fluid Bed Roaster Air Sorting: (Green Bean Processing) In order to raise the quality of only size-graded coffees, various schemes are used to separate out the other imperfections. Some of these imperfections, including shells, "quakers" (immature beans), stones, etc., have different specific gravity’s (heaviness) than do the sound coffee beans, hence they can be separated mechanically. Various types of machines are used to separate out the light and heavier beans. Air separators are most commonly used. Other imperfections cannot be separated out by the specific gravity differences (i.e. sour black beans) and need to be sorted by other methods. Al Mukha or Mocca: (Region) The original coffee that was exported from the Arabian Peninsula received its name from this port city located on the northern side of the Red Sea. However, since the opening of the Suez Canal exporters have by-passed Mocca in favor of Aden, which is located at the tip of the peninsula. Coffee has not been shipped from Mocha’s silted up port for over 100 years. Alajuela: (Brand) This is the market name for one of the better shade grown, organiccertified, SHB (Strictly Hard Bean) coffees coming from the Alajuela province located in the North Central Valley of Costa Rica. Aldehydes: (Chemistry) These are the most delicate and volatile aroma compounds found in roasted coffee. The best Arabica coffees typically have a higher concentration of these aldehydes. These compounds give coffee its sweet, fruit/floral-like aromas. They are easily oxidized (changed into acid and water) or dissipated (air), especially © Peter Baskerville 2009

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when subject to increased temperatures, grinding and/or wet conditions. Some aldehydes were found to decrease by as much as 50% within fifteen minutes of grinding and being exposure to the open ambient air. Al-Jaziri: (History – Writing) See - Abd al-Qadir al-Jaziri Alkaline: (Cupping) Coffee beans exhibiting this characteristic tend to have a tallowy and leather-like odor creating a dry taste sensation mostly at the back of the tongue. This is generally caused by the coffee fats breaking down due to an excessive amount of heat being applied during the drying process particularly with the mechanical coffee bean dryer. It is not necessarily a disagreeable taste and is a characteristic of many dark roasts and some Indonesian coffees All About Coffee: (Research) This book is thought to be the single richest written source on the cultural and commercial history of coffee. Written by William H. Ukers of The Tea and Coffee Trade Journal Company in New York, the original edition was published in 1922 followed by a second edition in 1935. He classified his work into 6 books. It was later reprinted in 1976 by the Gale Research Company of Detroit, Michigan. Allogamous: (Botany) The botanical description of a plant requiring other partners in order to fertilize. i.e. Coffea Canephora (Robusta) Alpino, Paduan Prospero: (History - Writing) A famous Italian botanist and doctor who described the coffee plant in his book "De Planctis Aegyptii et de Medicina Aegiptiorum". Printed in 1591, he is credited with the coffee drink’s introduction to Italy after he brought some bags back with him from the east - probably Egypt. Alpinus, Prosper: (History - Writing) Credited with publishing two works on the coffee plant and beverage; (1) “De Medicina Aegyptorum Libri quatuor” in 1591 and (2) “De Plantis Aegypti Liber” in 1592. These works included notes about coffee discovered during his voyage to Egypt in 1580 and include the first published illustration of the coffee plant. Al-Razi: (History – Writing) See – Bunchum Altura Coatepec: (Brand) Is a market name for a respected washed Arabica coffee grown on the northern slopes of the central mountain range in the Veracruz State of Mexico. It is high grown coffee that comes from the historical town of Coatepec with its red-tiled houses and charming cobblestone roadways. The town is in the State of Vericruz 15km south of Xalapa, Mexico. Altura: (Grading) It is a Spanish word meaning “heights”. Most often used to describe the 2nd best grade of Mexican coffee and indicates that it has been grown at high altitude or “mountain grown”. Some fine Altura coffee examples include Altura Huatusco and Altura Orizaba. Ambient air: (Chemistry) This describes the air around us or in fact ‘the air we breathe’ and it contains about 20% oxygen. Tests show that given enough time only 14 cubic centimeters of oxygen (or 70 cc of ambient air) are enough to render a pound of coffee, dead stale. Ambrosia: (History – Writing) See - Belighi Americano: (Drink) See – Long Black Andean: (Region) See - Trujillo Angelo Rambaldi: (History – Inventor) See - Rambaldi, Angelo © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Angerona: (Estate) A Cuba coffee plantation established in the early 1800s that has since been declared by UNESCO as part of the Humankind Heritage. Animal-like: (Cupping) A taste fault giving the aroma similar to the smell of animals not fragrant like musk but an odour like that of wet fur, sweat, leather, hides or urine. It denotes a description of strong notes. Ankola: (Brand) One of the world's best and most famous Arabica coffees grown around the northern port of Padang in west-central Sumatra. It is noted for its deep richness, full body and long finish together with just enough interesting acidity. Ankola coffee beans are often associated with the market name Mandheling. They are both grown at altitudes of 2,500 to 5,000 feet and are dry processed but the dried husk are removed with a hot water process which many believe contributes to its unique flavour characteristics. Antestia: (Grading) Damage caused to the coffee bean by the Antestia bug which results in the coffee beans becoming slightly discolored and sometimes almost entirely black and shrivelled up. Antigua: (Brand) Is the market name for one of the best and most distinctively flavored coffees of the world. It is grown in the valley surrounding Antigua, which is the old capital of Guatemala. Aqua Pulpa Demucilage: (Green Bean Processing) A machine that is used in the wet processing system that strips the mucilage left on the green bean after the pulping process. It does this by a combination of friction and water. The Raoeng machine is the most well known of this process type. A number of naked (without parchment) and bruised beans may occur as a result of this process. Aquapulp/Aquapulping: (Green Bean Processing) See - Demucilage Arabia Felix: (History - Names) The previous name of the present day country of Yemen. Arabian Jasmine: (History - Names) The shape and scent of the coffee plant has a strong resemblance to that of the Jasmine plant. It is for this reason that in the 17th century the coffee tree was commonly called ``Arabian Jasmine ". Arabian Mocha: (Brand) A single-origin coffee cultivated on the mountainous regions and terraces of present-day Yemen and shipped from the port of Mocha. It is the world's oldest cultivated coffee bean and it is distinguished by its full body taste in combination with a unique rich, winey acidity. Arabica: (Botany) Coffea arabica L.- Pronounced as a-rã-bik-a or ar-a-bë-ka. Is the name assigned to a coffee tree species in 1753 by the Swedish botanist Linnaeus. It was first found growing naturally on the Arabian Peninsula in the country of Ethiopia (previously Abyssinia). It was the earliest cultivated species of coffee tree (Yemen) and is still the most common coffee species that is grown for commercial purposes. It contributes about 70% of today’s coffee bean market and is considered dramatically superior in cup quality to other species, including Coffea Canephora (Robusta). All fine, specialty, and fancy grade coffees come from the Coffea Arabica species. Arabica being grown on steep terrain makes mechanical harvesting impossible. The hand picking ensures a better quality of selection with less under/over ripe beans being selected. Cultivars of the Coffea Arabica tree include: Typica, Bourbon, Caturra, Catuai, Pache Comum, Pache, Catimor, Kent, Mundo Novo, Maragogype, Amarello, and Blue Mountain. Typica is the oldest Arabica cultivar and is the base from which many others developed. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Arabusta Hybrids: (Botany) These are coffee plants that are cross manipulations between the Arabica and the Robusta species. Arbuckle: (Marketing) See - ARIOSA ARIOSA: (Brand) America’s first national brand of roasted coffee beans created by Mr. John Arbuckle. Known as "the coffee that won the West" it was a major seller in America in the 1880’s and '90s. Armenia: (Brand) A market name for a coffee bean that is exported from Colombia. Named after the town located in the area , the estates are positioned some 140 miles from the capital Bogota. It is the “A” bean in the commonly exported blend of Columbian coffee - “MAM”. Aroma: (Cupping) This is the name given to the fragrance produced by any substance. Along with flavor, acidity and body, aroma is one of the principal categories used by professional tasters for the evaluation and the categorization of coffee. Aroma is based on four sensory categories: 1. Fragrance - How the dry coffee smells: floral or spicy. 2. Aroma - How the brewed coffee smells: fruity or herbal. 3. Nose - How the brewed coffee smells when it wafts from your tongue to your nose after sipping "retro nasal": nutty, caramel-like or maltlike. 4. Aftertaste - What remains on your palate after you swallow the coffee: a chocolate flavor, spicy or piney. The aroma or “the nose” adds to the basic taste sensations of sweet, sour, salty, and bitter, the subtle nuances such as caramelly (candy or syrup-like), carbony (for dark roasts), chocolaty, fruity, floral, herbal, malty (cereallike), rich, rounded and spicy. Arona: (Brand) One of Papua New Guinea’s most famous brand of Arabica coffee beans. It is grown in the Arona Valley in the Eastern Highlands Province. It is noted for its full body and its deep almost smoky like taste. Arroba: (Green Bean Processing) This is a weight term used in Central and South America – Usually equivalent to 12.5 kilos or 27.5 pounds. Arusha: (Brand) Is the market name for coffee beans grown on the slopes of Mt. Meru in Tanzania. The coffee tree was imported here by the Jesuit missionaries from Reunion Island at the turn of the 20th century. It has a reputation for producing some of the finest blends of coffee in the world. This area accounts for 75% of Tanzania’s total coffee bean exports. Ashy: (Cupping) An aroma descriptor like ashtrays or the odour of smokers' fingers. It is reminiscent of the smell from cleaning out a fireplace. It is not necessarily used as a negative attribute but may simply be used to indicate the degree of the roast. Darker roasts tend to have this characteristic in combination with a carbony flavour. Aspiration: (Cupping) A way of drawing a coffee brew into the mouth by vigorous suction in order to spray it evenly across the tongue and thereby release the vapours. Aspiration helps cuppers gain a better sensory evaluation of a coffee’s nuances. Astringent: (Cupping) An undesirable after-taste or acidity where there is a searing, sour, salty dry sensation on the sides of the tongue and often caused by the affect of the © Peter Baskerville 2009

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naturally occurring Tannic acid found in all coffee beans. It is typically found in dry processed Indonesian Robusta coffees. Atitlan: (Brand) A notable brand of coffee beans from Guatemala carrying a Fair Trade certificate and possessing a bright acidity. Atm: (Chemistry) Abbreviation for the pressure measure of ‘Atmospheres’ Autogamous: (Botany) A botanical description of a plant that is capable of fertilizing itself i.e. the Coffea Arabica species. Automatic Drip: (Coffee Maker) Coffee brewers that automatically heat and then filter the measured and heated water through the ground coffee to produce the coffee beverage. Automatic: (Espresso Machine Component) An espresso coffee machine that is pre-set to a shut-off once a predetermined volume of water flow had been dispensed. The temperature and pressure are also pre-set on an automatic machine. Avicenna: (History – Writing) See - Ibn Sina Coffee - The delicious libation we pour on the altar of friendship

B Baba Budan: (History - Plant) The legendary name of the Indian Moslem pilgrim who in about 1650 AD on one of his annual travels to Mecca smuggled some coffee seeds out of Arabia. He planted them in the Chandreguri Hills of Karnataka in India. Descendants of these plants today are still known as “Old Chick” Babycino: (Drink) Cappuccino styled drink served in an up-market café typically for children. It consists of warm milk in a small cup and topped with milk froth and chocolate powder. No coffee essence is added. Backflushing: (Espresso Machine - Maintenance) A system devised to clean the build up of burnt coffee essence that forms on the group heads of an espresso coffee machine. This is done by replacing the perforated coffee basket/filter in the handle with a blind filter (no holes) and putting in a small amount of coffee dissolving powder. By pulling a shot the pressurized water mixes with the powder and ‘backflushes’ against the group heads. Backflushing must only be carried on machines with the 3 - way valves (Pressure release valves). Bag: (Export - Trade) A burlap sack of coffee. It carries different weight connotations in different countries. As an example: In Brazil a bag of green coffee beans is 132 pounds (60 klio): In Hawaii it is 100 pounds (45 kilo): In Colombia it is 154 pounds (70 kilo) and in Angola it is 176 pound (80 kilo). Baggy: (Cupping) An off-taste characteristic of coffee stored too long in burlap (jute) bags or unsuitable conditions, causing the coffee beans to acquire a straw-like coffee bag flavor. Also used to describe light roasted coffee with mildewy qualities. Bahia: (Brand) This is a market name of a coffee bean supplied from Brazil and exported from a state bearing the same name. Located at the northern end of the coffee states in Brazil it is currently achieving breakthrough yield success with the introduction of a pivot irrigation growing system. Baked: (Cupping) Generally the description of a coffee taste and odour taint that has a flat uninteresting bouquet and a dull insipid taste. It is an unpleasant characteristic that ranks in order of intensity from cooked to baked to burnt. It is usually the result of too little heat in the roasting process over too long a period. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Balance: (Cupping) A well-balanced coffee that contains all the basic characteristics but at the right level of intensity. It is where no one single taste quality overwhelms all others. It is the satisfying presence of all the taste characteristics but there is still enough complexity in the coffee still to arouse interest. Depending on taste preferences, balance my not necessarily be a positive taste attribute as some people prefer coffees that have particularly strong flavor distinctions. It is a term that on occasion damns with faint praise. Balancing Siphon: (History - Inventor) See – Napier, Robert Bale: (Export – Trade) Another term for bag. See - Bag. Bani Mattar: (Region) See - Mattari Bani: (Brand) Is a city and market name for a good washed coffee with mild acidity that is produced in the region of Sierra Sur in the Peravia Province of the Dominican Republic. It is noted for it’s soft, mellow cup. Bar: (Espresso Machine - Component) This is a measure of pressure usually identified on gauges used in espresso coffee machines. Pressure is a measure of the force against a surface and is usually expressed as a force per unit area. Normal atmospheric pressure means that a column of air one square inch in area rising from the Earth's atmosphere to space weighs 14.7 pounds i.e 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi) = 1 Atmosphere (atm). The term “(1) bar of pressure” is equivalent to = 1 atmosphere or 14.7 pounds per sq. inch. The word comes from the Greek “baros” meaning weighty. It is the same root word that is used in “barometer” (an instrument measuring atmospheric pressure). Commercial coffee machines are usually set to 9-10 Bar in order to extract the coffee essence. Barahona: (Brand) Is the market name for a high grown coffee in the southwest of the Dominican Republic. Named after the city and province that bears the same name. It is considered by many to be the best coffee of the Dominican Republic and is identified by its increased acidity yet heavier-bodied cup. Baratti & Milano Caffe: (History - Coffeehouse) One of Turin’s most beautiful early Italian cafés that was opened in 1875 on the Piazza Castello. Barbeques: (Green Bean Processing) The term sometimes given to the concrete coffee yards where the harvested coffee cherries are dried in the sun. (i.e. in Jamaica) Barista: (Coffee Making) An Italian term for a skilful, experienced and professional espresso coffee maker. It is considered a respected job title in Italy where the average age is 48 years old but typically involves the sale of alcoholic beverages as well. Baron Goto Red: (Botany) A coffee bean cultivar that is very similar to 'Catuai Red'. It is grown at several sites in Hawaii. Basic Tastes: (Cupping) The four basic tastes are identified as 1.Sweet (e.g. sucrose), 2. Sour (e.g. tartaric acid), 3.Salt (e.g. sodium chloride), and 4.Bitter (e.g. quinine). Flavors detected by the tongue are known as primary tastes whereas flavors detected through the nose are grouped as secondary tastes. Each taste bud contains between 50100 taste cells, and each taste cell has receptors. While receptors are capable of recognizing all tastes, some tend to recognize sour foods and are usually located around the sides of the tongue. Sweet and salty foods are usually tasted best near the end of the tongue. Bitter foods are usually tasted at the back of the tongue. The middle of the tongue usually has no taste buds. Batch Roaster: (Roasting) A machine that roasts the green coffee bean in a given quantity (a batch) at one time. In effect, it is a roaster that does not continually roast © Peter Baskerville 2009

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beans. Continuous roasters produce roasted coffee at a fixed rate (lbs per hour) whereas with batch roasters, the beans are removed before roasting the next batch. With batch roasting, there is an identifiable start time and end time to the roasting process. Bean Belt: (Region) The area of the planet located roughly between the tropic of Cancer 23°30' north of the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn 23°30′ latitude south of the equator. These areas offer the best climate conditions for growing coffee commercially. Bean Probe: (Roasting) A probe thermometer used to accurately measure and monitor the surface temperature of coffee beans during roasting bean. Modern roasters use either resistance thermal detector (RTD), or thermocouple (TC), bean probes, along with electronic temperature controllers, to monitor and control the roasting process. Beany: (Cupping) A term to describe an insufficiently roasted coffee that has not developed its full aroma and flavour. Beddin, Scheha: (History - Writing) An Arabic historical writer from the 15th century who wrote about the coffee drink. Bedouins: (History) In the homes of the Bedouins, coffee is generally served plain with ginger or cardamom. It gives off a yellow color and a very sweet taste. Sometimes ginger is added instead of cardamom. The Bedouins would greet the guest in honour with "Allah wa Sablan", meaning, "My home is your home". Belighi: (History - Writing) A Turkish poet of the XVII century who wrote "the coffee bean, the perfume of ambrosia". Ambrosia is the food of the Greek gods closely associated with honey and often involve in the act of anointing mortals. Bella Vista: (Estate) This is one of the oldest coffee growing estate in the Tres Rios region of Costa Rica. Noted for its bright acidity and clean refreshing finish. (Now a Starbucks farm) Belly-buttons: (Marketing) A one-way-valve molded into the plastic flexible air tight roasted coffee bean bags, that allows the remaining carbon dioxide (degassing) to escape whilst preventing oxygen from the ambient air from entering the bag. Invented by Luigi Goglio in Milan Italy, it is sometimes referred to as the “conor system”. Beneficio: (Green bean Processing) Beneficio in Spanish means benefit or profit. Traditionally, a Beneficio is a local mill where farmer bring ripe cherries for further processing, bagging and export. Beneficios Secos: (Green Bean Processing) The name of coffee processing plants in Mexico that houses the machines that clean, wash, dry, and sort the green coffee beans. Bentz, Melitta: (History - Inventor) A housewife from Dresden who in July 8 1908, invented the first coffee filter using blotting paper from her son’s notebook and eventually patented it as the “Filter top device with filter paper”. This invention eliminated the linen or cloth filter and created an efficient disposal method for the coffee waste. Bernheimer: (Chemistry) See - Caffeol/Coffeol Bevanda Asiatica: (History - Writing) An Italian naturalist, diplomat and bibliophile who published ‘Count Luigi Marsili’ in Vienna in 1685. It is one of the earliest detailed accounts of the coffee plant. Bezzera, Luigi: (History - Inventor) The Italian inventor who in 1901 revolutionized coffee making by inventing (Italian Patent - Late 1901) an espresso coffee machine named the ‘Tipo Gigante’. The uniqueness of the machine at the time related to the fact © Peter Baskerville 2009

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that espresso coffee could be made ‘one cup at a time’. Financial pressure saw the sale of his patent/business to his friend Desidero Pavoni in 1903. Bird Friendly: (Farming) A marketing seal awarded by the Smithsonian Institution in the US and controlled by the National Audubon Society. Is a term used, when marketing coffee, which identifies coffee that is grown under a shady canopy or one that did not destroy the forest to create a plantation and meets the criteria established by the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center of the National Zoo. This canopy supplies a habitat for migrating birds and it particularly important to migratory birds passing through Central America. Usually 25c per pound of Bird-Friendly coffee is used to support Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center research and conservation programs. Bits: (Grading) Pieces of coffee beans crushed during processing. Bitter/Bitterness: (Cupping) An unfavourable taste descriptor that is perceived primarily towards the back of the tongue and is a characteristic of over-extracted, defective, and extra dark roasted coffees. It describes a harsh and unpleasant taste that is characterized by a solution of quinine, caffeine, and certain other alkaloids. The darker roasts generally develop this bitter characteristic intentionally. The Robusta (Canephora) bean variety is also generally described as more bitter than the Arabica bean variety. It is not used by professional cupers as a synonym for sour. Can be a desirable characteristic at a certain level. Black Beans: (Grading) it is used as the basic unit for counting sample imperfections (1 black bean = 1 imperfection) in the grading system used by the New York Coffee Exchange. Black Beans: (Green Bean Processing) A black or very dark unroasted coffee bean that is caused harvesting immature cherries, or by harvesting dead cherries that fell naturally from the trees. They can also be caused by exposure to water and heat, insect-damage, and metal contamination. An unroasted coffee bean that has more than 25% black, deep blue, or dark brown surface area, is considered a black bean. These beans have a detrimental effect on the coffee taste. Black Frost: (Farming) Between July 17-19 in 1975, Brazil was hit with a lethal combination of very severe frost and a drought. The coffee plantations died and appeared black from the air and so the period became known as the “Black Frost”. Coffee prices responded to the lack of supply that year by increasing almost 7 times on the previous year. Black Jack Coffee: (Export - Trade) This term describes those green coffee beans that have turned bad/black after picking or during the shipping process. Blackish: (Grading) These are wet processed beans that have been cut or bruised by the machinery during pulping. They have brown or black marks, caused by cuts from damaged or improperly configured pulping equipment. Discoloration develops by oxidation at the damaged areas and off-flavors may result. Blackish beans roast unevenly, age rapidly, and are susceptible to chemicals and adverse environments. Also called pulper-cut or pulper-nipped. Blade Grinder: (Grinding) Describes a domestic coffee grinder that uses propeller-like blades to pulverize the roasted coffee beans into ground coffee. Not considered conducive to producing a good coffee cup due to the inconsistent particle size. Bland: (Cupping) A flat, neutral, insipid or pale coffee flavor lacking coffee flavour and characteristics and is often found in washed Arabica coffees grown at elevations below 2,000feet/610m (e.g. Guatemala). Bland coffees range from soft to neutral. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Blank Filter: (Espresso Machine – Maintenance) See – Blind Filter Blawan: (Estate) See - Government Estate Blend: (Marketing) A mixture of two or more individual varieties of single-origin coffees either before or after roasting. It is done sometimes to disguise some bad characteristics in one or used to provide a more balanced coffee experience to the consumer by creating extra flavours, more body or more crema. Blind Filter: (Espresso Machine - Maintenance) A non-porous filter that fits in the portafilter and is used for espresso machine group-head cleaning “backflushing”. Also called the Blank Filter. Blotchy: (Green Bean Processing) An irregular greenish, whitish or yellowish patches on the unroasted coffee beans. Blotchy beans often result from the incomplete or uneven drying during the processing stage. Blue Mountain: (Botany) Coffea arabica L. 'Blue Mountain'. Also known commonly as Jamaican coffea or Kenyan coffea. It is a famous Arabica cultivar that originated in Jamaica but is now grown in Hawaii, PNG and Kenya. It thrives at altitudes above 3,000 feet (915m) and is inherently resistant to the “coffee berry” disease (the fungus Colletotrichum coffeanum). It is a superb coffee with a high quality cup flavor. It is characterized by a nutty aroma, bright acidity and a unique beef-bullion like flavor. Blue Mountain: (Brand) Authentic Blue Mountain coffee is grown in the Blue Mountain district of Jamaica and makes up about 15% of Jamaica’s total coffee exports. Only coffee processed through those works licensed by the Jamacian Coffee Board can use this trademark. They are Wallenford, Moy Hill, Silver Hill, Mavis Bank, Langley and more recently Old Tavern and RSW. BM&F: (Export - Trade) Acronym for (Bolsa de Mercadorias & Futuros). An exchange where coffee futures and options are traded in Brasil. See - Bolsa de Mercadorias & Futuros Bodum: (Coffee Maker) This is a trade name of a specific brand of plunger or cafetiere (French for "coffee pot") that though common usage has become synonymous with the term French press or plunger pot. It is a coffee making device that brews coffee by allowing the fine ground coffee to be steeped in boiling water. The spent grounds are then separated from the brewed coffee by pressing them to the bottom of the glass container using an internal fitted fine mesh plunger. A French Press is also called a "plunger pot". Body: (Cupping) The characteristic of body, along with flavor, acidity, and aroma, is one of the principal categories used by professional tasters in the cupping evaluation of a coffee beverage. This strong but pleasant mouth-feel descriptor does not refer to the density of the liquid but more the tactile impression of the weight, texture and consistency (viscosity, heaviness, thickness, or richness) the coffee has on the back of the tongue. (i.e. whole milk has a greater sense of body than water has on the tongue). The sensation of body in the coffee is related to the suspended oils and the solids that were extracted during the brewing process. Coffees with a heavier body will maintain more of its flavor when diluted with milk. Body descriptors range from watery, thin, creamy, medium, heavy, full and then all the way up to buttery and syrupy. South and Central American coffees (Mexican) tend to have the lightest body whilst the Indonesian and Sumatran coffees are noted as the heaviest. Coffees with body carry the flavour through the milk far better than coffees without. Black coffee drinkers usually prefer the lighter body coffees. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Bogota: (Brand) This as a brand of coffee beans grown in the eastern mountainous (cordillera) region of Colombia. Considered by some to be one of Colombia's finest coffees and it is definitely one of its most famous. It takes its name from the capital Bogota from which it is marketed. Boiler Heat Exchanges: (Espresso Machine - Component) These are coils immersed in the boiler where the in-feed water for the coffee extraction is driven by the pump through a coil that is totally immersed in the 3-12 liters of boiling water. This process brings the mains supply water up to the right temperature for coffee brewing. The temperature in the boiler is regulated by varying the boiler pressure that is controlled by the Manostat. Boiler: (Espresso Machine - Component) This is a pressurized cylindrical reservoir in the espresso machine that contains boiling water and steam. It is used in the brewing of espresso coffee and can range in size from 120ml in domestic machines to 12lt in the commercial ones. It can be made of aluminium, brass, stainless steel or copper Bolsa de Mercadorias & Futuros: (Export - Trade) The BM&F was founded in 1985. It is the trading exchange in Brazil where Arabica and Conillion (Robusta) spot and option contracts are traded by producers, roasters, as well as fund managers and speculators Boma Plateau: (Region) The name of a lone plateau near the Ethiopian border in the Sudan highlands far to the southeast of the country. The coffee plant was believed to be indigenous to this area. Boquete: (Region) Panama’s renowned coffee growing district in the province of Chiriqui, located on its western boarder with Costa Rica. Boston Tea Party: (History – Coffee Drink) The American tea/tax/British revolt that would forever change Boston’s and ultimately the American drinking preference. At the time in 1773 it was seen as a patriotic duty to abstain from drinking English tea and change to coffee drinking. Bottega Del Caffé: (Coffee House) The first Venetian coffee house opened in 1683. Bouquet: (Cupping) This is the combined affect of the aroma, fragrance, nose and the aftertaste of a brewed coffee. It is described as the total aromatic profile created by the volatile organic compounds releasing gases and vapors on the nose and on the pallet. Bourbon Santos: (Brand) Also marketed under the name of just ‘Santos’. It refers to a category of high-quality coffees from Brazil that are usually shipped through the port of Santos and that are grown in the state of São Paulo or the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais. The term properly describes the finest grade of Brazilian coffee produced from the Bourbon cultivar of Arabica. This cultivar tends to produce a softer, fruitier, smoother flavor with a medium body and more acidity than other varieties grown in Brazil. Bourbon: (Botany) Coffea arabica L. 'Bourbon'. A botanical variety or cultivar of Coffea Arabica which was first cultivated on the French controlled island of Bourbon, now called Réunion, located east of Madagascar in the Indian ocean. After Typica it is the second most commercialised variety of Arabica. Some of the best Latin-American coffees are descendants of the Bourbon stock. Bourbon varieties have greater genetic diversity than the Typica varieties, which are derived from just one plant - the original one from the Amsterdam botanic garden. The Bourbon varieties were derived from bushes introduced to the Isle of Réunion (called Bourbon Island at the time) in 1715 and 1718. For example, 60 young plants were introduced to Réunion in 1708. None of them survived. In a 1715 attempt only two could be saved. Subsequently, other plants © Peter Baskerville 2009

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were brought onto the island. Research confirms that the Typica and Bourbon varieties derive from separate genetic bases. The bourbon cultivar has about 20-30% more yield than Typica. It grows best at 3,500 (1070m) to 6,500 feet (1,980m), has more secondary branches and the cherries mature more quickly. It is a small and dense shrub that needs protection from strong winds. Like Typica, it has an excellent cup and ranks along side it for the title of “Original”. Cultivars to come from this variety include SL28 (Kenya), Caturra (Latin America; short tree mutation of Bourbon), Pacas (El Salvador; short tree mutation of Bourbon), Mundo Novo (Brasil; tall tree cross of Bourbon & Sumatra), Catuai (Latin America; short tree cross of MN & Caturra), Pacamara (El Salvador; cross of Pacas & Maragogype). It was heavily planted in Brazil because of its higher yields, but has been gradually replaced there by the 'Mundo Novo' cultivar. Brackish: (Cupping) A taste fault that gives the coffee beverage a salty and alkaline taste. Often caused by excessive heat after brewing. Brazilian Coffea: (Botany) Coffea arabica L. 'Mundo Novo'. The common name used to identify the coffee plant cross created from the “Bourbon" and “Typica” varieties. Brazils Naturals: (Export - Trade) A price group indicator recorded by the ICO and includes the price of coffee contracts traded in the coffee beans from Brazil, Ethiopia & Paraguay. This group accounts for 30% of the total coffee market trades. Bready: (Cupping) A sour taste fault caused by not roasted the coffee bean for a long enough period or not roasting it at a high enough temperature to bring out the flavour oils. This causes the coffee flavor oils not to fully develop leaving a bread-like or grainlike aroma. Can also be described as green or beany. Breve: (Drink) A term in Italian that means short and used to describe an espresso coffee drink made with a half-and-half light cream or semi-skim milk instead of full fat milk. Brew colloids: (Coffee Making) These are micro-sized oil particles that are nor soluble in the water but are forced out under the pressure of extraction process. Colloids give texture (mouthfeel) to the beverage and contribute to overall flavor of the coffee. Brew Head/Group: (Espresso Machine – Component) See - Group Brew Temperature: (Coffee Making) It is generally believed that the temperature of between 190 and 205F (at sea level) is needed to extract the most desirable coffee oil from the ground coffee beans. Brew Time: (Coffee Making) This is the time it takes to extract a shot of espresso from the ground coffee from the moment of engagement to shut down and is generally between 20 to 25 seconds. Brew turbulence: (Coffee Making) This describes the agitation and turbulence applied to the grounds held in the filter during the brew cycle. Factors affecting brew turbulence include the spray pattern, rate of water flow, pump pressure and the configuration of the basket. Brewing: (Coffee Making) Any method of making a coffee beverage using fresh water and ground roasted coffee beans. Bright: (Cupping) The effect of an enjoyable, pleasant and tangy flavour left in your mouth and is often described as bright. A typical characteristic of Central American coffees. This wine-like acidity sensation can also be described as dry, sharp or snappy. Briny: (Cupping) This is a salty sensation that is often associated with coffee beans that have been over roasted. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Brisures: (Grading) Coffee beans that have broken or cracked and are separated out by a screening process. Collectively they are also known as Triage. Broken: (Grading) Green coffee beans that have cracked and are registered as defective. Bucaramanga: (Brand) Is a market name for a respected coffee bean from Colombia. It is one of it’s most famous coffees possessing a low level of acidity, yet still rich in body and flavour. Budan, Baba: (History – Plant) See - Baba Budan Bugishu: (Brand) Is the market name for an Arabica coffee grown from the slopes of Mt. Elgon in Uganda near Kenya. It is considered by some to be the best coffee Uganda has to offer is contrast to the Robusta coffee which makes up most of Uganda’s coffee bean production. Bunchum: (History - Names) The name given to the drink made from boiling the coffee cherries. This is described in a treatise on medicine written in the ninth century by a physician named Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (850-922 CE). He was the first person to classify its use in an encyclopedic manner and mentioned the coffee drink under the name "bunchum." Bundles: (Export – Trade) Another term to describe a bale. See - Bag. Bunnu/Bunn/Bunc: (History - Names) The Arabic name commonly given to the coffee berry and coffee tree in Ethiopia and some other Arab States. Burnt/Smokey: (Cupping) A term sometimes used for a very dark-roasted coffee, which has a bitter, burnt, smoky, burning wood taste. Burr Grinder: (Grinding) An adjustable commercial coffee grinder with two identical, tempered steel, toothed discs with sharp ridges or burrs that are positioned facing each other. One is held fixed in the threaded collar of the machine (The STATOR) whilst the other rotates and is fixed to the motor shaft (the ROTOR.). The coffee bean drops down the open center of the disks and is flung into the fast rotating blades and ground. The motor shaft rotates at very high speed (900 to 1400 rpm), which means that prolonged use can cause overheating of the metal, and this may alter the flavor of the coffee beverage. Buttery: (Cupping) A rich full flavored oily feeling in the mouth that may bring to mind the richness of butter because of the substantial amounts of fat suspended in the coffee beverage. Most often a characteristic of high coffee-to-water ratio brews like espresso. Coffee - Favoured liquid which fills all my soul with delight

C C - Contract: (Export - Trade) A term used to describe a coffee contract traded on the New York Sugar & Coffee Exchange and consists of 32,500lb or 250bags of green coffee beans. Coffee beans are traded as $US cents per pound. C.S.: (Grading) Acronym for (Central Standard). See – Central Standard Café Capulín: (Green Bean Processing) The term used to describe natural processed coffee from Mexico Café Central: (Coffee House) Opens in 1860 in Vienna. Was a popular meeting place for Vienna’s intellectual elite, including Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Anton Kuh and Adolf Loos. Known as the "Chess School" until 1938 because of the many regular © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 14 of 89

chess players were regulars including the Russian revolutionary Leo Trotzky. Fully refurbished in 1986 Café de Altura: (Grading) Mexican highland coffee that is grown at 900-1,200 meters and receives a better-than-average price on the international markets Café de Colombia: (Marketing) See - Juan Valdez Café de Flore: (Coffee House) Opens in Paris in 1890 in the unique Saint-GermainDes-Prés district of Paris. A popular meeting place for intellectuals, writers, painters, publishers and filmmakers. The current furbishing dates back to the 1924-26 period. Café de Terreiro: (Green Bean Processing) Portuguese term to describe dry processed green coffee bean: Also known as natural/cherry (India) coffee Café Despolpado: (Green Bean Processing) The Portuguese term for a wet processed green coffee bean. Café Hawelka: (Coffee House) Opens in Vienna in 1939. Still with its artistic atmosphere it remains one of the few traditional Central European coffee houses. Café Lavado: (Green Bean Processing) The Spanish term for wet processed green coffee bean. Café Lave: (Green Bean Processing) The French term for wet processed green coffee bean. Café New York: (Coffee House) Opens in 1894 in Budapest Destroyed in World War II but in May 2006 the Café reopened in all its former glory with an inviting gallery, sophisticated ball lamps and ceilings decorated with frescos. Café No-lavado: (Green Bean Processing) Spanish term to describe a dry processed green coffee bean: Also known as natural/cherry (India) coffee Café Non lave/Café Naturel: (Green Bean Processing) A French term to describe a dry processed green coffee bean. Also known as natural/cherry (India) coffee Café Nouveau Obecni Dum: (Coffee House) Opens in 1912 in Prague An Art Deco Café in the basement of the Obecni Dum (House of Representatives) next to Prague’s Powder Tower. Cafe Procope: (History – Coffeehouse) The first true Paris coffeehouse opened in 1689 by a former lemonade vendor, Francois Procope. The cafe faces the Theatre Francais, where it drew the artists and actors of the day. Cafe Ristretto: (Drink) See - Ristretto Café Sanka: (Decaffination) See – Sanka Café Slavia: (Coffee House) Opens in 1863 in the Czech capital Prague. Located opposite the National Theatre, the Café is popular with Prague’s acting community. Café: (History – Coffee house) French word for "coffee". Cafeate: (Drink) Coffee made with milk. Cafestol: (Chemistry) One of the coffee lipids that create the shininess on the roasted coffee bean. It was once thought to be implicated in LDL (bad) cholestorol production. Cafetal: (Farming) A plantation of coffee trees. Cafetiere: (Coffee Making) See - Bodum. Caffè Americano: (Drink) See – Long Black. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Caffe Florian: (History - Coffeehouse) A famous Italian café still operating on the Piazza San Marco Venice. Opened by Floriano Francesconi in 1720 under the Procurative Nuove. Caffe' Freddo: (Drink) Chilled, sweetened espresso served in a tall glass, often on ice. Caffe Greco: (History - Coffeehouse) One of Europe's first coffeehouses that opened on the Piazza di Spagna in Rome Italy in 1760. Still trading today and boasting famous past patrons including; Keats, Shelley, Lord Byron, Goethe, Ricard Wagner, Franz Liszt along with Casanova, the infamous King Ludwi. Caffe Latte or “Latte”: (Drink) A ‘premium milk coffee experience’. NO FOAM – STEAMED MILK – ADJUSTABLE STRENGHT. Freshly steamed milk without foam served in a tall glass accompanied by a stainless steel jug holding a double shot (2) of coffee oil extract made on 24gm of freshly ground coffee producing 75ml of essence. Add coffee essence to taste. Traditionally served in glass. Caffe Mocha: (Drink) A combination of chocolate syrup and a shot of espresso, topped with steamed milk and a layer of micro-foam. Finished with a sprinkled of chocolate. Caffe: Italian for "coffee". Caffeine Synthase: (Decaffeination) The critical protein and enzyme that puts the finishing touches to the caffeine molecule and without which the coffee plant remains caffeine free. Researchers in Japan and Scotland reported the first successful cloning of the gene that codes for caffeine synthase which may lead to coffee plants that are free of caffeine. Caffeine: (Chemistry) Is an odorless, bitter white alkaloid naturally occurring in coffee beans and identified chemically as C8H10N4O2. German chemist Friedrich Ferdinand Runge first isolated caffeine in 1819. The amount of caffeine in a single cup of coffee is about 1.5 grams. Caffeine makes coffee addictive and is responsible for the stimulating effect a cup of coffee gives on the brain and nervous system. It stimulates the central nervous system and, in the right amounts, causes adrenaline to be released. The human body dissipates 20% of the caffeine in the system each hour. Caffeol/Coffeol: (Chemistry) Is the term used by Bernheimer in 1880 to describe the oily fraction of coffee distillate. He believed it to be a single compound, but we now know it is more like several hundred. Caffetannic Acid: (Chemistry) Described as the variety of tannin obtained from coffee berries and regarded as a glucoside. Defined as ‘The tannin in coffee’ by the 1913 Websters dictionary. Today there is conjecture as to whether a compound of this description actually exists. Canephora: (Botany) See - Robusta. Capitillo: (Estate) Is a respected and well known coffee growing estate in Guatemala. The best Guatemalan coffees have a very distinct, spicy even smoky flavor that sets them apart from all other coffees. Cappuccino Chiaro: (Drink) (AKA Wet or Light cappuccino): Cappuccino prepared with more milk than usual. Cappuccino Freddo: (Drink) (Iced Cappuccino) Cappuccino served over ice Cappuccino Scuro: (Drink) (AKA Dry or Dark cappuccino) Cappuccino prepared with less milk than usual. Cappuccino: (Drink) or “Cap”: A ‘traditional morning heart starter’. The name originates from several derivations one of which is from the Italian Catholic Capuchin © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 16 of 89

order of friars in 16th century whose mission was to bring Catholicism back to Reformation Europe. The Italian name cappuccino relates closely to "hood," which is said to describe the long, pointed cowl, that was worn as part of the Capuchin's habit. Cuppuccino is a shot of espresso together with steamed milk and topped with a velvet foam crested during the milk heating/aerating process. Often finished with a sprinkle of fine sweet chocolate powder. Cappucinatore: (Espresso Machine Component) See Froth Aider Captain John Smith: (History - Writing) The English adventurer that founded Virginia in America who makes reference to coffee (spelled "coffa") in his volume of travels published in 1603. Capuchin: (History - Names) The Monastic order of friars from Vienna who are said to be the inspiration for the name of the coffee preparation called cappuccino. One legend has it that a member of the order Marco d’Aviono played a saving part in the Battle of Vienna in 1683 and the drink was named in his honor. Caracas: (Brand) A class of coffees grown on the eastern coastal mountain ranges of Venezuela and shipped through the port of La Guiara. Quality ranges from fair to excellent. Caracol/Caracoli: (Botany) Taken from the Spanish word Caracolillo meaning ‘seashell’ and describes the peaberry coffee bean. See - Peaberry Caracolillo: (Botany) See - Peaberry Caramel or Caramelly: (Cupping) Used to describe the change that takes place in the green coffee bean during the roasting process. The coffee bean’s carbohydrate content becomes caramelized as heat is applied. It can also be a descriptor of an aromatic sensation created by a volatile of sugar compounds producing sensations reminiscent of cooked sugar syrup, candy or syrup on the tongue. Carbon dioxide: (Chemistry) Known as CO2. It is a gas that is formed in the cells of the coffee bean as a natural by product of the roasting process. Carbony: (Cupping) An after-taste of burnt charcoal overtones that occur in some dark-roasted coffees and created by a slightly volatile set of heterocyclic compounds. It describes a sensation similar to a creosol-like or a burnt substance. Also called "burnt" or "smoky". Cargill : (Export – Trade) See - Green Bean Traders Cargo Bags: (Export - Trade) Bags that have been delivered to the boat, the shipper or to the receiver. Cargo Slacks: (Export - Trade) Bags of coffee beans that have become slack due to leakage in transit. Carmelization: (Roasting) A process that occurs under heat when a sugar gives up water and carbon dioxide, changing the structure of the sugars and its taste. Carolus Linnaeus: (History – Writing) See – Linnaeus, Carolus Cascade type dryers: (Green Bean Processing) See - Stationary Driers Case Hardening: (Green Bean Processing) Occurs when moist green beans are subjected to high temperatures and the outer surfaces of the beans dry too fast, causing a hard shell to form. Such beans, even when they look completely dry, often cannot be hulled since the interior of the bean is still soft. They would not keep even if hulling were possible. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Catimor: (Botany) Is a coffee bean cultivar cross-developed between the strains of Caturra and Hibrido de Timor in Portugal in 1959. It is resistant to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). It is a small bush that grows best between 2,000 to 3,000 feet (610m to 915m). It produces a large fruit and seed and gives a very high volume yield. Known to have a very good cup quality when produced at low altitudes but is prone to growing problems above 4,000 feet.(1,220m) Catimor: (Botany) Newer cultivar selection with excellent yield but average quality. ' Catuai: (Botany). Is a cross between the Mundo Novo and the Caturra Arabica cultivars. It grows as a short bush with lateral branches. The fruit does not fall off easily and needs proper fertilization and good care. Known for its high yield and is characterized by either yellow (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuai Amarelo') or red cherries (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuai Vermelho' ). Caturra: (Botany) A relatively recently developed sub-variety of the Coffea Arabica species that generally matures more quickly, gives greater yields, and is more disease resistant than the traditional "old Arabica" varieties like Bourbon and Typica. It was developed in Columbia and is a mutation of Bourbon but smaller; early bearer and very productive. A short plant with a thick core that grows predominately in Brazil and Colombia between 1,500 to 5,500 feet. Said to be of good quality and holding a good cup. In Hawaii, Yellow and Red variants are identified. ' Caustic: (Cupping) A detrimental taste sensation of a burning, sour sensation registered on the posterior sides of the tongue. Mainly caused by alkaloids that increase the sourness of the acids and creating a high percentage of salts. CBB Damage: (Grading) Coffee beans that have been damaged by the Coffee Berry Borer. The Coffee Berry Borer, or Hypthenemus Hampei, is one of the most significant pest problems for coffee farmers. The CBB is a black, two millimeter long, beetle that bores holes through the seeds coffee cherries. As "Broca" is the widely used Spanish term for the coffee berry borer, CBB damage is also called "Broca damage". CC, C/C: (Export -Trade) An Acronym description for “Current Crop” or (Coffee making) This is a unit of measure equivalent to (1) millilitre (ml) or .0338 fluid ounces. Celebes Toraja: (Brand) Is a market name for one of the world’s finest coffees from Celebes (previously Sulawesi) in Indonesia. Celebes: (History - Names) Previously known as the Island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. Cellulose Material: (Botany) This is fibrous plant tissue constituting the major parts of the cell walls of the coffee bean. It accounts for approximately 75% of the green bean's total weight. Central Standard: (Grading) The standard grade used for El Salvador’s coffee on the Tokyo Grain Exchange. (C.S. for short) Cereal/Malty/Toast-like: (Cupping) The aromas characteristic of cereal, malt and toast. It includes the aroma and flavour of uncooked or roasted grain (including roasted corn, barley or wheat), malt extract and the aroma and flavour of freshly baked bread and freshly made toast. It describes a grain-type aroma.

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Cerrado: (Brand) A new high grade Arabica coffee coming from the high Savannah plains in the west of the Minais Gerais state in Brazil. Coffee was first cultivated here in response to the Black Frost of 1975 which wiped out much of the lower lying crops for that year. Certified Organic Coffee: (Farming) See - Organic Coffee. Certified: (Farming) See - EcoFriendly/Eco Cultivated Ceylon Coffee: (Farming) In 1868 Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) was the worlds leading coffee producer (export of 100 million lbs) but by 1885 it was all destroyed. The British coffee plantations were completely wiped out by a leaf disease Hemileia Vostatrix commonly known as ‘coffee rust’ or ‘coffee blight’. Cezves: (Coffee Making) See - Ibrik Chaff: (Roasting) Chaff is the little brown flakes of paper-like innermost skin of the green coffee beans (the silverskin) that lift off and float free during the roasting process. Most coffee roasters separate the chaff from the exhaust of their roasting machines by using cyclone separators that collect the chaff in a metal bin. Chagga Tribe: (Brand) The name of a tribe from Tanzania who grow a respected Arabica coffee on slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. The tribe are know as excellent farmers as they can grow a cash ‘coffee’ and food ‘bananas, yams, beans and tomatoes’ crops on the same plot of land known as a ‘shambas’. Chanchamayo Valley/Chanchamayo: (Brand) A south-central region of Peru and a market name for a Peruvian coffee with one of the best reputations. It is wet processed, light bodied but still flavorsome. Chandreguri Hills: (Region) See – Baba Budam Channeling: (Coffee Making) See - Tamper Chaoua: (History – Writing) See - Linschooten's Travels Cheek, Joel: (History – Drink) See - Joel Cheek Chemical Demucilage (Green Bean Processing) This is a chemically induced demucilage process used in the wet processing system to remove the remaining mucilage from the green bean after pulping. Certain alkali, such as caustic soda or wood ash are introduced into the pulping machine process and thereby removing the pulp and mucilage from the coffee beans in a few seconds in one continuous operation. Alkali-treated coffee beans do not loose any quality but they do add to the cost and can be hard on the human skin of the processors. Chemical/Medicinal: (Cupping) An aroma or odor reminiscent of chemicals, medicines (such as formaldehyde) or the smell of hospitals. Cherry Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) Term used in India to describe Dry Processed coffee green bean: Also known as natural coffee © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Cherry: (Botany) Is the common used term for the description of the ripe fruit taken from the coffee tree. Each cherry usually contains two coffee beans. It is called as such because of its resemblance to the cherry fruit. Chiapas: (Region) The name of a coffee-growing state in southernmost part of Mexico. The best coffees from this state are grown in the southeast corner near the border with Guatemala. They often carry the market name of Tapachula after the town of the same name. These coffees are typically well balanced with a chocolatey brightness, and are more comparable to high grown coffees from Guatemala. Chicory: (Drink) (Cichorium intybus) A member of the enormous sunflower family (Asteraceae), and is a common roadside weed in the United States. Ground chicory roots can be added to coffee to reduce the bitterness, enhance the flavour or stretch limited coffee supplies. It is a bitter-acid/sweetish tasting additive derived from roasting the root of the blue flowering chicory plant. It can be used as a filler or blended with coffee to create a beverage popular in New Orleans, Louisiana. The leaves of the plant are often used in salad preparation. Chief Boki: (History – Plant) Credited with introducing coffee into Hawaii in 1825 when as Governor of Oahu he brought seeds back from Rio de Janeiro. The first coffee plantation in this state started much later in 1863. Chipinga/Chipinge: (Region) Is a town in south-eastern Zimbabwe on the slopes of the Chimanimani mountains in the Eastern Highlands near the border with Mozambique. The region produces the best and most admired coffees from Zimbabwe produced under the market name Zimbabwe Salimba, or Zimbabwe Salimba Estatem which has a rich flavor comparable with other fine African coffees, is well balanced and has a good aftertaste. Chocolate-like/Chocolatey: (Cupping) A aromatic aftertaste created by a moderately volatile set of pyrazine compounds that brings to mind the richness and sweetness of chocolate, vanilla or cocoa powder. Whilst rare in coffee aroma the Yemen Mocha Mattari are know for this characteristic. Chop: (Export - Trade) Is a division of the total invoiced shipment. A particular chop number is given to each division of the shipment. Cibao: (Brand) Is the market name for a good coffee from the Dominican Republic. Described as full-bodied with moderate acidity and yet carrying uncomplicated flavors. Cichorium intybus: (Drink) See - Chicory Cinnamony: (Cupping) A term given to a coffee taste that gives the impression of a spicy, sweet cinnamon flavor. City Tavern/Merchants Coffee House: (History - Coffeehouse) The name of a famous coffee house in America. Located in Philadelphia it is famous as the gathering place for political leaders such as Washington, Jefferson, and Hamilton. Classica: (History – Espresso Machine) In 1948 it was the 2 group version of the first “Crema Caffe” espresso machine model introduced by Gaggia to the market. Clean: (Cupping) Is a coffee cupping or tasting term used to describe a coffee sample that is free from flavor defects and with a refined texture in the mouth. Can also mean coffee without any off-flavor and possessing unpolluted and clear flavors. It is the opposite of dry. Cleistogamous: (Botany) The botanical name given to a plant that pollinates itself when flower closed. Coffea arabica is self-pollinating and often Cleistogamous. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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CO2: (Chemistry) Acronym for Carbon Dioxide. See - Carbon dioxide Coatepec: (Brand) See - Altura Coatepec Coating: (Marketing) See - Glazing Coban: (Brand) Is a market name for a respected high-grown coffee from north-central Guatemala. Noted as one of world’s best and most distinctively flavored coffees. Cocoay: (Cupping) A taste of coffee described as stale. The flavor of cocoa. Coda di topo: (Coffee Making) An Italian term to describe the look of the coffee oil as it leaves the port-filter and means “mouse tail”. A correct extraction will have this appearance. Coffea Arabica: (Botany) See - Arabica Coffea Canephora: See - Robusta. Coffea Congencis: (Botany) See – Congencis. Coffea DewevreiIt: (Botany) See - DewevreiIt Coffea DybowskiiIt: (Botany) See - DybowskiiIt Coffea Excelsa: (Botany) See - Excelsa Coffea Liberica: (Botany) See - Liberica Coffea Mauritiana: (Botany) See – Mauritiana. Coffea Neo-Arnoldiana: (Botany) See - Neo-Arnoldiana Coffea Racemosa: (Botany) See – Racmosa. Coffea Stenophylla: (Botany) See - Stenophylla Coffee Basics: (Research) Book by Kevin Knox is a great introductory to coffee. Coffee Bed: (Coffee making) See - Coffee Pack. Coffee Berry Borer: (Farming) The Coffee Berry Borer (CBB), or Hypthenemus Hampei, is one of the most significant pest problems for coffee farmers. The CBB is a black, two millimeter long, beetle that bores holes through the seeds coffee cherries. "Broca" is the widely used Spanish term for the coffee berry borer. Coffee Berry Disease: (Farming) Colletotrichum Coffeanum. A major fungal disease of the coffee seed that is common in cold temperature. Severe attacks were recorded in Kenya and the Congo in 1920. The Kenyan coffee hybrid Ruiru 11 is resistant to both coffee berry disease and leaf rust. Jamaican Blue Mountain also shows inherited resistance to this disease. Coffee Cherry: (Farming) See Cherrie. Coffee Cupper's Handbook: (Research) Book by Ted Lingle on cupping. Coffee Exchange of NY: (Export - Trade) The coffee exchange in America until 1882 when it became the NYBOT. Coffee Fest: (Trade) The coffee industries largest trade show. Coffee Fest has been held annually in Seattle since 1992 and is also held in Las Vegas, Chicago, and Atlanta. Coffee Fruit: (Botany) This is the cherry that contains the coffee seeds (beans). Coffee Future: (Trade) A contract to buy green coffee beans at a specified price for delivery at a specified future date. Coffee futures are used by roasters to secure an © Peter Baskerville 2009

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adequate supply of coffee until the next harvest and as an insurance to "lock-in" reasonable prices. Coffee Jug: (Coffee Making) An ancient form of coffee making where boiling water is added to ground coffee in a jug and let to fuse for over 5 hours. Coffee Makers, 300 Years of Art and Design: (Research) Book by Edward and Joan Bramah Coffee Oil: (Chemistry) This is the essence of coffee. It is formed in the bean during the roasting process. Coffee Pack: (Coffee Making) This described the volume of ground coffee contained in the portafilter that is used for the extraction of a shot of espresso. Coffee Rust/Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR): (Framing) Hemilaeia Vastatrix. A major fungal attack of the coffee tree leaf that only affects Arabica Coffea and not Robusta. First discovered in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) in 1860 but now prevalent in many areas around this world. It destroyed the Brazilian crop in 1970 as it did previously on the Islands of Java and Sri Lanka nearly a century before.. CLR has since spread to every coffee growing region of the world. Sri Lanka replaced their crop with the variety Robusta. The Kent's Coffea Arabica cultivar is resistant to this disease. CLR may be prevented with copperbased fungicides. Also called ‘la roya’ in Spanish). Coffee Sommeliers: (Cupping) A term taken from the wine tasting and refers to professionals of the highest level in coffee tasting whose task it is to identify coffee’s characteristics and determine its quality. Coffee: A Guide to Buying, Brewing and Enjoying (5th Edition): (Research) Book by Kenneth Davids. Cold-Water Method: (Coffee Making) A method of brewing coffee where ground coffee is soaked in a proportionally small amount of cold water for up to 20 hours. The grounds are then removed leaving a concentrated form of coffee that is mixed with hot water as required. This method produces a light-bodied cup with low acidity. Colletotrichum Coffeanum: (Farming) See - Coffee Berry Disease Colloids: (Coffee Making) See - Brew colloids Colonos: (Green Bean Processing) The name still used to describe coffee pickers in Brazil. Originally given to immigrant workers whose passage was often paid by the plantation owner in return for work in picking coffee. Coltelli, Francesco Procopio: (History – Coffeehouse) See - Le Procope Columbian Milds: (Export - Trade) Is a price group indicator recorded by the ICO and includes the price of coffee contracts traded in washed Arabica coffee from Columbia, Kenya and Tanzania. Columbiana: (Botany) A cultivar originating in Columbia. It is vigorous, heavy producer but average cup quality. ' Columnaris: (Botany) A tall tree that is an excellent producer, grown mostly in Puerto Rico under shade. ' Commercial Coffees: (Export - Trade) These are packaged pre-ground (pre-brewed in the case of instant or soluble) coffees sold by a brand name. The term is also used by some producing countries to differentiate between those coffees that the locals consume and those that are to be exported. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Commercial Machine: (Coffee Making) An espresso machine designed for continual use and generally characterised by its solid durable housing and components, at least 2 groups and containing a volumetric pump. Commercial Policulture Farming: (Farming) This method resembles traditional polyculture, except that some shade is removed to allow more coffee shrubs. To obtain higher yields farmers use fertilizers, pesticides and other chemical inputs. This farming technique often includes other commercial crops like macademia trees, citric trees, avocado trees, etc.. Complexity: (Cupping) A tasting term describing the harmonious multiplicity of sensation (as opposed to simple) that shifts during the smelling and tasting of coffee. Coffees whose taste sensations shift and layer pleasurably, and give the impression of depth and resonance are said to have complexity. It is the perception of multiple flavors and found least often in Mexican coffees and yet also a common characteristic of Yemen Mocha and Sumatran coffees. Generally, agreeable complex flavors are most often achieved by blending two or more complimentary single origin coffees. Con panna: (Drink) Like the beverage "macchiato", but whipped cream is substituted for steamed milk. Congencis: (Botany) Coffea Congencis - Coffee bean cultivar from the banks of Congo, it produces a good quality coffee but it is of low yield. Not suitable for commercial cultivation Congo coffee/tree: (Botany) See - Robusta Conical Grinding Blades: (Grinding) These are two blades of different shape. The first is a truncated cone-shaped blade which is fitted to the motor shaft. The second is cylindrical on the outside, but on the inside it is the reversed shape of the flat blade. This blade is fitted to the threaded collar. The speed of the cone-shaped blade is much slower than that of the flat blades described above (400 to 600 rpm). Conilon: (Botany) Name of a Coffea canephora variety from Brazil. Conor System: (Marketing) See - Belly-buttons Consumer Machine: (Coffee Making) A lightweight espresso machine designed for home use. Usually characterised by a single group, a vibrating pump and made of semi durable parts. Continous Roaster: (Roasting) Usually a large commercial coffee roaster that roasts coffee continually as opposed to a start/stop batch roaster. Contract: (Export – Trade) See - C-Contract. Control Panel: (Espresso Machine Component) The front part/panel of the espresso machine used by the barista for drink preparation and containing a power switch, brewing control switches/buttons, hot water dispensing unit and steam controls. Controlled Demucilage: (Green Bean Processing) This is a controlled fermentation process used in the wet processing system to remove the remaining mucilage from the green bean after pulping. Similar to Natural Fermentation except that certain commercially produced enzymes are artificially introduced to both speed up the process and prevent the natural build up of putrefactive bacteria which can turn the beans sour. Reduces the fermentation time by half. COOCAFE: (Export -Trade) Costa Rica's only certified Fair Trade Coffee Cooperative was founded in 1988 with support of the German government. COOCAFE works to © Peter Baskerville 2009

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benefit 3500 coffee growers in nine co-operatives in the country's rural areas. The average farm is only 1.3 hectares. Corretto: (Drink) Espresso "corrected" with a touch of grappa, cognac, sambuca, or other spirit. Course: (Cupping) A coffee taste creating a rough sensation on the tongue. Creamy: (Cupping) A moderately high level of oily material suspended in the coffee extract caused by a pronounced amount of fats being present in the beans. Crema Caffe: (History – Espresso Machine) See – Gaggia. Crema: (Coffee Making) Is the creamy caramel, reddish-brown coloured micro-foam layering the top of a recently extracted shot of espresso. A thick head of creme indicates that the espresso coffee has been correctly extracted. Crema is the combination of air and emulsified oils (colloids and lipids) that have been forced out from the ground coffee by the pressurised hot water applied by the espresso machine. The crema 'caps' the espresso helping it to retain its flavor and aroma. Crema is rich with coffee flavor and can release aroma from the throat for up to an hour after drinking espresso. Cremonesi M: (History - Inventor) A technician in an Italian coffee grinder factory who in 1938 developed and patented a piston pump in a coffee making machine that forced hot, not boiling, water through the ground coffee. The piston pump improved the coffee making process by eliminated the burnt taste of coffee which often occurred in the earlier designed Pavoni machine. Creosol: (Cupping) A predominantly scratching taste sensation at the back of the tongue. Usually caused by the high percentage of phenolic compounds inherent in a dark roast. Crible: (Green Bean Processing) Name of a French coffee grader. Crivello: (Green Bean Processing) Name of an Italian coffee grader. Crops: (Export - Trade) Old crop: Is a coffee cropped two or more year ago. Past crop: refers to coffee cropped during the previous year. Current crop: Is the coffee in process of being cropped. New crop: Is the next crop. Within these definitions a crop can be the Main Crop or the Fly Crop (secondary crop). Crust: (Cupping) This is the thick saturated bed of coffee particles that rises to the brews surface when water is poured directly onto the fine coffee grounds during a coffee cupping (tasting). Breaking and agitating this crust allows the cupper to note the unique characteristics of the coffee. The crust is usually remover before tasting takes place. Also known as a cap. CSCE: (Export - Trade) Acronym for (Coffee, Sugar, Cocoa Exchange) a division of the NYBOT where Arabica coffee futures and options are traded. Cucuta: (Brand) The market name for a coffee grown in north-eastern Colombia, but often shipped through Maracaibo Venezuela. Cultivar: (Botany) A cultivar is a new variety of an existing plant usually created by combining two others. The name is given in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). i.e. Typica and © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Bourbon are cultivars of the Arabica tree. Cultured coffee: (Brand) Market name In 1919 Floyd W. Robison, Detroit, is granted a United States patent on a process for aging green coffee by treating it with microorganisms to improve its flavor and to increase its extractive value. Cup Testing: (Cupping) The term to describe the judging process of the merits of a coffee. A freshly ground and brewed coffee sample is sipped in this process. Cup Tray: (Espresso Machine Component) The stainless steel area on top of the espresso machine holding the cups. These cups are automatically warmed by the boiler sitting underneath. The warm cup ensures no heat loss and that the coffee is served at the correct temperature (especially the small demitasse cups). Cupping Spoon: (Cupping). An oversized rounded silver soup spoon used to taste coffee in cupping evaluation. Similar to the tastevin that is used by wine judges and is sometimes called a Goûte-café. Cupping. (Cupping) A term used by coffee professionals to describe their activity of sensory evaluation by sipping brewed coffees in order to grade their qualities. Coffees are graded on the quality of Aroma, Acidity, Body, and Flavor. Curing: (Green Bean Processing) The final stages of preparation of the coffee that takes place at a special plant just before the coffee is sold for export. The coffee is hulled, to remove the parchment, then passes through a number of cleaning, screening, sorting and grading operations. This final stage is common to both wet and dry processed coffee. Current Crop: (Export - Trade) Is the coffee process in the current crop year and remains so until the year is out. Coffee from a previous harvest year is referred to as old crop or past crop. Custepec: (Estate) See - Estrictamente Altura Cutting Hullers: (Green Bean Processing) This method is considered better because no heat is generated during the hulling process. After the parchment skin (or hull) is removed, considerable amounts of silver skin are still attached to the green bean. This is especially true when the hulling is done by cutting action. Cyclone Separator: (Roasting) A cyclone separator is used in the roasting process to separate particulates, such as chaff, from the exhaust. The exhaust from cyclone separator is typically passed through a thermal oxidizer (incinerator) to burn the smoke. Roasters equipped with both a cyclone separator and thermal oxidizer emit a clean, smoke and a particle free exhaust. Coffee - The enchanting perfume that a zephyr has brought

D Daklak: (Region) One of the two original coffee pilot provinces planted by the French colonialists in 1922. It is located in the Western Highland of Vietnam and lies about 300 kilometers northeast of the capital, Ho Chi Minh City. Starting originally with less than 2,000 hectares under coffee cultivation, Daklak now accounts for 70% of Vietnam's mostly Robusta coffee bean output. Dark Roast: (Roasting) This is coffee that has been roasted to a dark brown to almost black color and is typically more pungent with a distinctly burnt flavor and less acidy than medium or light roasted coffee. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Dead: (Cupping) A term used to describe lifeless coffee that is flat and lacking in any good flavor or aroma. Decaffeinated Coffee: (Decaffeination) Coffee beans that have had its naturally occurring caffeine removed. USA and EU laws only allow this description to be applied to coffee beans that meet the 97% removal benchmark. The decaffeination (decaf) process involves immersing the unroasted coffee beans in a solvent to remove the caffeine, separating the solvent from the coffee beans, and then processing the solvent to isolate the caffeine. Commonly used solvents include, water (see Swiss Water Process), benzene, ethyl acetate, methylene chloride (MC), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Decaffeination Process: (Decaffeination) This is the process used to decaffeinat coffee (remove 97% of the natural caffeine) in its green bean state. Caffeine is removed either by a direct method or indirect method. Direct method involves the caffeine solvent coming in direct contact with the green bean (Supercritical Carbon Dioxide) whereas the indirect method involves solvents being used to extract caffeine from the heated water (Swiss Water Method) used initially to remove the caffeine from the green bean. Both methods are consistently successful in removing all but a trace (2% to 3%) of the resident caffeine. Defects: (Grading) A term used in the green bean grading process to identify unacceptable beans caused by natural and human failures in the picking, processing, drying, sorting, storage, or transportation stages of green coffee bean production. In cupping terms, harshness and sourness are two of the most widely used negative epithets. Harshly flavoured coffees are unpleasantly bitter, sharp, or irritating. Many other terms are used in cupping to even more dramatically describe the undesirable flavour characteristics. Degassing: (Roasting) A natural occurring process in which recently roasted coffee releases carbon dioxide gas. This occurs intensively in the first 48 hours and then slowly over the next 7 to 10 days. Delicate: (Cupping) A subtle flavor descriptor perceived on the tip of the tongue that produces a very fine, yet fragile sweet-subtle sensation. Typified by the washed New Guinea Arabica coffee beans. Delivery Group: (Espresso Machine – Component) See - Group Demitasse: (Coffee Making) A small or three-ounce cup primarily used for serving a traditional shot of espresso. The term is taken from a French word "demi de tasse" meaning, a 'half cup'. The demitasse can be made of glass, stainless steel, ceramic or porcelain. Demucilage: (Green Bean Processing) Is the term used to describe the procedure in the “wet processing system” where the remaining thick layer of sticky fruit pulp (mucilage) covering the coffee bean after pulping is removed. There are five methods now being used to remove this mucilage: natural fermentation, chemical demucilaging, mechanical demucilaging, enzyme action and hot water demucilaging. There is a greater weight loss in the bean using the fermentation method as opposed to the mechanical method. Depth: (Cupping) A subjective term used to describes a sensual coffee taste that resonates or produces a sort of ringing or echoing finish. In contrast other coffees may simply stand pat or even fade. Dervesch: (History - Drink) The name given to Muhammedan monks from Yemen in the first century who were some of the earliest recorded partakers of the coffee drink.

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Descalers: (Espresso Machine - Maintenance) Over time the boiler and brew lines can build up deposits of calcium and magnesium carbonates and sulphates from the reaction of the minerals in the water supply with the metal components of the Espresso machine. Descalers are typically organic acids (citric, tartaric and sulfonic acids) which dissolve these build ups when they are added to the incoming water supply in maintenance. Whilst they are generally ‘food safe’ the boiler and the decomposed scaling must be flushed out thoroughly before the machine is used to make coffee again. Desiderio Pavoni: (History – Inventor) See - Pavoni, Desiderio Detergents: (Espresso Machine - Maintenance) Espresso machine detergents in conjunction with the blind filter are used for backflushing (cleaning) of the group heads. It is usually a granularly white powder based on tri-sodium phosphate and because of its corrosive properties it should never be added to a water-tank or boiler. Detrimental coffee taste sensations: (Cupping) Common to natural coffees. Often the result of sugars being ingested by the coffee tree as the cherries remain on the branches while drying. Tastes can range from medicinal to caustic. Devza: (Coffee making) A long-handled open pot also known as cezva, pronounced "keffa." where the coffee is poured into tiny demitasse-type cups. In Turkey this pot is called an Ibrik. DewevreiIt: (Botany) Coffea DewevreiIt. A coffee bean cultivar discovered growing naturally in the forests of the Belgian Congo. Not considered suitable for commercial cultivation. Dhul-Nun: (History - Drink) See - Sufis Dichloromethane: (Decaffeination) A decaffeination solvent used extensively in the early 1970's because of its lower toxicity and its ability to selectively dissolve caffeine without removing the sugars, peptides, and flavours. Possessing a low evaporation point (40°C) it was easily removed from the processed coffee with the application of steam. It is no longer widely used due to the suggested evidence that it may be carcinogenic. Dichloromethane: (Decaffeination) See - Ethyl Acetate Diffusers: (Espresso Machine – Component) See – Showers. Direct Contact Decaffienation: (Decaffienation) – Describes the decaffination process where the solvent for the caffeine comes in direct contact with the coffee bean. Disolving agents in this method include Triglycerides, Methylene Chloride and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Diseased: (Grading) These are disease damaged coffee beans mostly caused by fungus (mold). The most prevalent coffee diseases facing the worlds coffee farmers are Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR), Coffee Berry Disease (CBD) and Coffee Berry Borer (CBB). Dispersion Screen: (Espresso Machine – Component) See – Showers. Diterpene Alcohol Esters: (Chemistry) See – Lipid. Djimmah/Djimah: (Brand) A Ethiopian Arabica bean from the Region of Kaffa. This coffee is grown at 1500-1800m in forests/semi-forests in the south/west part of the state. Washed Djimahs have an excellent mild acidity whereas dry-processed Djimah is a lesser coffee of unrefined and zesty flavor possessing a strong winey aftertaste. These are coffees grown on the original indigenous coffee plants. Dominican Republic: (Coffee growing regions) The government has established seven official coffee-growing regions in the Dominician Republic: Barahona, Cibao, Neyba, Noroeste, Sierra Central, Sierra Occidental, and Sierra Sur. © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 27 of 89

Don José Antonio Gelabert: (History) Credited with introducing coffee cultivation into Cuba in 1748 Doppio: (Drink) Italian term for double. Double Espresso or twice the amount of coffee and twice the amount of water. Basically it describes two shots of espresso in one demitasse container. Dorothy Jones: (History) A woman of Boston who in 1670 became the first American coffee trader when she was granted a license to sell coffee. Dosage/Dose: (Coffee Making) The amount of ground coffee dispensed from the grinder in order to make espresso coffee. Doser Forks: (Grinding) The holder protruding from the grinder which holds the portafilter in exact position during the dosing of the ground coffee. Doser Grinder: (Grinding) A machine that grinds the coffee beans, capturing it in a container that dispenses a measured amount of ground coffee, or dose. Doser: (Grinding) This is a spring-loaded lever located to the side of the specialized commercial espresso grinder (Burr or Conical) which dispenses the pre-set amount of ground coffee into the portafilter for the making of a shot of espresso coffee. Dota Valley: (Region) A coffee growing region located high in the mountains of the Tarrazu region of central Costa Rica. Double Basket: (Espresso Machine Component) The filter basket designed to hold about 14 grams of ground coffee that is designed to make two cups of coffee (twin spout portafilter) at one time. Double Picked: (Grading) Is an acronym in coffee processing and grading to describe a coffee that has been "double picked". It means that the coffee has been subjected twice to scrutiny (rather than just the standard once) by hand pickers who remove the imperfect beans, pebbles, and other foreign matter. Doyle Dane Bernbach: (Marketing) See - Juan Valdez DP: (Green Bean Processing) Acronym for (Double Picked). See – Double Picked Drip Method: (Coffee Making) A brewing method that allows heated water to settle into and drip through a bed of fine ground coffee held in by blotting paper. Mr Coffee was the first automatic drip-brew coffeemaker for home use and was introduced in 1972. Filter-drip coffee makers are the most popular type of home coffee brewer used today. Drip Tray: (Espresso Machine Component) The stainless steel tray that sits directly under the brew groups that is designed to catch spillage and the expulsion of excess water after a shot is completed. A centre hole in the tray allows for the fluids and coffee grains to drain away. Drum Roasting: (Roasting) Most coffee roasting equipment uses the rotating drum technique. Heat source is typically a gas (or wood) flame which roast a batch of coffee beans as they tumble in a rotating drum. As the drum spins, hot gasses transfer heat to the drum and the drum conductively heats the tumbling coffee beans whilst others have perforated drums that allow hot gasses to pass through the drum and convectively heat the roasting coffee. The rotating ensures an even roast throughout. It is best described as a cross between a hot-air popcorn popper and a clothes dryer. Most commercially available coffee is either air roasted or drum roasted.

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Drupes: (Botany) This is what botanists prefer to call the cherry fruit of the coffee tree because it has skin, flesh and a concealed stone fruit. Some botanists argue that the existence of two seeds precludes it from being called as such. Dry cherry: (Green Bean Processing) The term used to describe the dry processed coffee before it has been hulled. – French term (Café en coque), Portuguese term (Café em coco) and Spanish term (Cereza seca). Dry fermenting: (Green Bean Processing) A step in the processing of green coffee beans where after extracting the coffee bean in a demulage process the coffee beans are fermented overnight without the use of added water. A practice employed by some Sumatran farmers. Dry Method Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) See - Dry Processed Coffee Dry Processed Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) It is a process where the red coffee cherries are laid out to dry on patios in the sun after harvesting. The cherries are then raked continually until they develop a dry hardened husk. Finally they are passed through a hulling machine to remove the dried pulp and so extract the coffee beans. It is a cheaper process than the wet method but is subject to the weather for good quality outcomes. The process takes about two weeks and the cherries must be raked while drying to avoid mildew. This method can produce coffee beans that are complex, fruity, and deeply-dimensioned but equally they can be sour, crushed or split when the picking and drying are performed carelessly. Mostly they are generally considered as inferior to the washed and fermented beans but it is often the only process available where water and capital are scarce. The best and most celebrated dry-processed coffees are Yemen coffees and the Harrar coffees of Ethiopia as well as the finest traditional Brazilian coffees. Other dry processed coffees include 95% of the Arabica coffee produced in Brazil, most of the coffees produced in Haiti and Paraguay, as well as for some Arabicas produced in India and Ecuador. Almost all Robustas are processed by this method. (Also known as The Natural Process) Drying: (Green Bean Processing) The process of bringing the moisture content of the coffee bean down from about 50% to 12%. At this point it can be bagged and stored safely for a few years if required. In the dry processing method the bean is dryed within the cherry fruit whilst under the wet method the bean is dried after the pulping and demulage stage. Drying is done by sun or mechanical drying or a combination of the two. Dufour, Philippe Sylvestre: (History - Writing) He published in Lyons in 1671 the first substantial work on coffee in French called “De l'Usage du Café, du Thé et du Chocolat. Dialogue entre un médecin, un Indien, et un Bourgeois” Dull: (Cupping) A coffee that lacks any outstanding character. It has taste but lacks character. It is simply an impression of roundness and is close to being described as flat. DybowskiiIt: (Botany) Coffea DybowskiiIt. This coffee bean cultivar comes from the group of Eucoffea of inter-tropical Africa. Not considered suitable for commercial cultivation Coffee - The stream in which we wash away our sorrows © Peter Baskerville 2009

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E E.D. & F. Man. : (Export – Trade) See - Green Bean Traders E.P.W.: (Grading) Acronym for (Extra Prime Washed). See - Extra Prime Washed E.S.E system: (Coffee Making). Acronym for (Easy Serve Espresso). It is a pre-packed serving standard that was introduced onto the market by Illycaffe together with a consortium of important espresso machines manufacturers and coffee roasting companies. It involves pre-packing ground coffee in pods and then using espresso machines specifically designed to take them. Recognized by the E.S.E trademark on the packing and machinery. E-61 Group: (Espresso Machine - Component). The first model of the "continuous delivery" espresso machines was designed and patented by Ernesto Valente and released to the market by Faema in 1961. This group introduced unprecedented temperature control to the commercial espresso machine and reversed the previous system of the spring compression of hot water. Its extraction head and filterholder is still the standard design by which most machines of today are produced. Earthy/Earthiness: (Cupping) A tasting term describing the undesirable taste of coffee and has the odour of freshly turned wet soil or musty humus tone (aftertaste also referred to as dirty and groundy) or raw potatoes. It is caused when fats in the coffee beans absorb organic materials from the ground in the drying process due to careless and primitive processing conditions. While it is a flavour defect deriving from careless, primitive processing, in some contexts it may be seen as a virtue. So, this taste characteristic is not necessarily a negative characteristic and typical of the spicy, “of the earth” Indonesia semi-dry processed coffees from Sumatra, Sulawesi and Timor. Some Harrar coffees may also have a hint of wildness or earthiness to them. Easy Serve Espresso: (Coffee Making) See - E.S.E system Eco-Friendly/Eco Cultivated: (Farming) The name given to coffee that is cultivated under environmentally-conscious methods which help protect the ecosystem. Estates that adhere to these practices can have their coffee marketed under certain marks including “Certified, Fair-Trade, Fairly-Traded, Organic, Shade-Grown, Sustainable Coffee, and Triple Certified” which can give a competitive advantage with consumers. ECO-O.K. Certification: (Farming) The trademark of The Rainforest Alliances coffee certification program. To gain certification a farmer must maintain forest cover over his coffee plants, control erosion, carefully manage agro-chemicals (most shaded coffee farms use few if any pesticides) and take prescribed measures to protect surrounding forests, streams and wildlife. Workers must be paid according to the law, treated fairly and given environmental education and training. All solid, liquid and organic wastes must be properly managed. The standards cover every aspect of production that could affect the environment. Edward Lloyd: (History – Coffeehouse) See - Lloyd Edward Edward Loysel de Santais: (History - Inventor) In 1843 he built the first large coffee making machine capable of making up to 2,000 cups per hour. It was based on Louis Bernard Rabaut’s idea (forced steam through the coffee). Edward exhibited his machine at the Paris Exhibition in 1855. Electromechanical Temperature Control: (Espresso Machine - Component) A system of controlling the temperature in the boiler by way of a bimetallic thermostat made from two metallic sheets of differing thermal properties. Known to be a less © Peter Baskerville 2009

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precise method than the electronic temperature control for maintaining the precise temperature required for consistent espresso coffee making. Electronic Sorting: (Green Bean Processing) Sour beans and some types of black beans are not able to be separated from the coffee by way of specific gravity methods and must be identified either by eye or by electronics. In this sorting method electronic devices separate the coffee according to color but do not do as good a job as hand sorting because the color differences between good and bad beans are not always sufficiently distinct for accurate electronic discrimination. Electronic Temperature Control: (Espresso Machine - Component) The more precise and more expensive system of controlling the temperature of the brewed water in coffee making. This system uses a combination of sensor and digital reference to perform the thermostatic on-off heating function in the espresso machine’s heat exchanger. Elephant Bean: (Botany) See - Maragogipe/ Maragogype Elford's "white iron" machine: (History) Invented in 1660 for roasting coffee and was much used in England. Described as being "turned on a spit by a jack." EM1881: (History) Harvey Ricker, Brooklyn, introduces to the trade a "minute" coffee pot and urn, known as the Boss, name subsequently changed to Minute, and later improved and patented (1901) as the Half Minute coffee pot—a filtration device employing a cotton sack with a thick bottom. En Pergamino: (Export - Trade) Describes wet-processed coffee from Mexico that is shipped with the dried parchment skin still adhering to the bean. The parchment is often removed prior to roasting in a step called milling. Endocarp: (Botany) This is a very resistant parchment-like envelope that protects the seeds (beans) at the center of the coffee cherry. It is more commonly referred to in the trade as 'the parchment.' Endothermic: (Roasting) A term used in the coffee roasting process that identifies a period when the coffee beans are still absorbing heat. EP: (Grading) Acronym for (European Preparation). See - European Preparation Ernesto Valente: (History – Inventor) See – Valente, Ernesto Espresso Breve: (Drink) See – Breve. Espresso Coffee, The Chemistry of Quality: (Research) A book by Andreas Illy and other researchers about espresso coffee. Espresso Coffee, The Science of Quality: (Research) A book by Rinantonio Viani of Nestle Research Laboratories in Switzerland and Andreas Illy of Illycafe and Nestle about espresso coffee. Espresso con Panna: (Drink) A variation of the macchiato by substituting a dollop of whipped cream for the milk froth. Basically a Starbucks invention. Means in Italian "espresso with cream”. Espresso Lungo: (Drink) American term where a shot is extracted longer for a bit of extra espresso. Tends to maximizes the caffeine but will mostly produce a more bitter cup. Espresso Macchiato: (Drink) See - Macchiato Espresso method: (Coffee Making) Is the method of extracting a coffee beverage that involves pushing very hot water at 202F under 9 atmospheres of pressure through finely ground coffee. © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 31 of 89

Espresso Pull: (Coffee Making) See Pull Espresso Ristretto: (Drink) See - Ristretto Espresso Romano: (Drink) Espresso served with a lemon peel on the side. Whilst not a typical accompaniment in Italy it is commonly served with the espresso beverage in America. Espresso: (Coffee Making) Derives from the Latinate root for "Press", or "Under Pressure" and describes a way of making coffee that extracts coffee oils by subjecting finely ground coffee to hot pressurised water. Commonly mispronounced "expresso". Espresso: (Coffee Making) Describes the method of making coffee where a pumpdriven machine forces hot water through finely ground bed of coffee at around nine atmospheres (bars) of pressure. Espresso: (Coffee Making) The term is believed to come from the Latin word Expresere, which means, "to press out". Can also be used to describe a one-ounce shot of intense, rich black coffee made that is served to order. Espresso: (Drink) The term used to describes the full range of coffee cuisine from short black to caffe latte. Espresso: (Research) A book by Ken Davids on espresso coffee. Estate Grown: See - Single-Origin Coffee Estrictamente Altura: (Grading) Quality Mexican coffees grown at altitude of over 5,500 feet that are full of flavor (including a distinct nuttiness). Predominant plantations in this group include; Custepec, Prussia, Liquidambar and Santa Cruz. See Liquidambar MS Ethyl Acetate: (Decaffeination) A caffeine solvent used in the 80's and early 90's as a replacement for the suspect but then popular 70’s solvent dichloromethane. Decaffeinated coffee bean sellers touted ethyl acetate as "natural" because it was a natural occurring substance found in fruit. Euronext.Liffe: (Export – Trade) See - LIFFE European Preparation: (Grading) A term used to describe a process where the imperfect beans, pebbles, and other foreign matter in the green coffee beans have been removed by hand. This is done because the coffee buyers of France, Italy and Spain are more particular about the quality of their coffee imports. Also known as the acronym EP. Excelsa: (Botany) Coffea Excelsa – A coffee bean cultivar discovered in 1904. Possesses natural resistance to diseases and delivers a high yield. Once aged it can deliver an odorous and pleasant taste, similar to var. Arabica. Suitable for commercial cultivation. Excelso: (Grading) A grade of coffee bean. It is Colombia’s second best grade behind supremo. Excelso coffee beans are large, but slightly smaller than Supremo coffee beans. Exocarp: (Botany) This is the botanical name for the coffee cherry's outer thin red skin and is 100-300 micrometers thick. It is tough enough to withstand some degree of handling and has a slight bitter flavor. Exothermic: (Roasting) This is the latter stage in the coffee roasting process where the coffee bean actually becomes heat producing not just heat absorbing. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Exotic: (Cupping) A taste description of unusual aromatic and flavour notes. i.e floral, berry, or sweet spice-like. Best examples of exotic coffees come from East Africa and Indonesia. Extra fancy: (Grading) The best grade of Hawaiian coffee followed next by Fancy. Extra Prime Washed: (Grading) The standard grade used for Guatemala’s green coffee beans traded on the Tokyo Grain Exchange. (E.P.W.) Extraction Chamber: (Espresso Machine – Component) See - Group Extraction Time: (Coffee making) See Brew Time Extraction: (Coffee Making) The resultant brew obtained by forcing hot water through finely ground coffee. The extraction contains flavors, oils, colloids, lipids and other elements and forms the basis of espresso coffee drinks. Coffee - Soothes you softly out of dull sobriety

F F.H.B.: (Grading) Acronym for (Fancy Hard Bean). See - Fancy Hard Bean Faded: (Grading) Unroasted coffee beans that have lost much of there original color, a characteristic of old crop and beans that were dried too rapidly. Processed coffee beans will slowly fade from green to pale yellow, if stored too long before roasting. Also called "soapy" or "bleached". Faema: (Espresso Machine - Manufacturer) An espresso machine manufacturing company that produced the first pump driven espresso machine in the 1960’s, replacing the previous spring compression system that had dominated the market. Ernesto Valente of Faema invented the concept and the first manufactured machine was called the Faema E61. Fair Traded Coffee: (Export - Trade) A certification given to coffee beans that have been purchased from peasant farmers at a price defined by international agencies as "fair". It is intended to help ensure equitable trading arrangements for disadvantaged small holders who are organized into cooperatives Also used to promote sustainable agricultural and farm management practices without the use of agrochemicals or genetically modified organisms. See - Eco-Friendly/Eco Cultivated Fancy Hard Bean: (Grading) (F.H.B.) The second highest grade for Guatemala’s green coffee beans traded on the Tokyo Grain Exchange. Fancy: (Grading) Hawaii’s second best grade of coffee behind extra fancy. FAQ: (Grading) Acronym for (Fair to Average Quality). Fazenda: (Farming) The Portuguese name of a farm. Coffee plantations in Brazil are called Fazenda. Fazendero: (Farming) A proprietor of a fazenda (coffee plantation). Fermentation Vat: (Green Bean Processing) These are large water filled pools that are used in the “wet processing system” to remove mucilage from the coffee bean after they have been pulped. It is usually made of either wood or concrete however wood has the advantage that it holds the natural heat generated by the fermentation process better than concrete. Steam generally must be introduced into the vats made of concrete as a means of warming the fermenting beans. Fermentation: (Green Bean Processing) This is the most common process used to remove the sticky pulp mucilage remaining on the coffee bean after pulping. The © Peter Baskerville 2009

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pulped green beans are rested in vats filled with water where the natural bacteria and fungi decompose the remaining mucilage in temperatures of between 80°F and 90°F. The process takes 14-18 hours but is faster in warmer and slower in colder climates. Fermented: (Cupping) A sour taste sensation that describes compost-like, rotten-fruit, oniony, harsh, mouldy, musty, or medicinal beans. Often a taste characteristic of overfermented coffee where the enzyme activity in the fermentation process is not stopped as soon as the remaining parchment (husk) is no longer slimy. Filter Basket: (Espresso Machine - Component) See - Filters Filter Holder: (Espresso Machine – Component) See - Portafilter. Filter Method: (Coffee Making) See – Drip Method Filter-Drip Method: (Coffee Making) See - Drip Method Filters: (Espresso Machine - Component) These are the round, flat bottomed metal perforated stainless steel baskets which hold the pre-measured amounts of ground coffee and are clamped into the portafilters by a sprung steel ring. Only the coffee essence produced by the pressurized water is able to pass out into the cup through the finely perforated holes. Espresso machines typically have two filter baskets, one for brewing a single serving and one for brewing a double serving. Fincas: (Farming) The name of coffee plantation/estates in Mexico and Venezuela. Fine Cup: (Cupping) The description of a coffee that in tasting terms has good, positive characteristics. Fine Wash: (Grading) See - Lavado Fino Fine: (Cupping) A prefix used in coffee cupping to convey positive quality characteristics such as acidity, body, flavour, etc. Finish: (Cupping) A wine connoisseurship tasting term that when applied to coffee refers to the resonant taste sensation of the aftertaste that lingers on the palate after the coffee is spit out or swallowed. Descriptions range from brief to long and it is tied closely to the body of the coffee i.e. heavier-bodied Sumatran coffees will have a much longer finish than the lighter-bodied Mexican coffees. First coffee house in Christendom: (History - Coffeehouse) Believed to have been established in Oxford in 1650 by a Jew called Jacob at the Angel in the parish of St Peter in East London. First Crack: (Roasting) A first of the defining moments in the bean roasting process where at bean probe temperatures of about 400ƒF the heat causes the internal pressure of the coffee bean cells to rupture and almost double in size. The beans make a sound similar to popcorn, and then diminishes, and sometimes stops momentarily, before the start of "second crack" at the higher temperatures. Flat Grinding Blades: (Grinding) See – Burr Grinder Flat White: (Drink) “White Coffee” - ‘uncompromising taste’ CRÈME TOPPED – STEAMED MILK – MEDIUM STRENGHT. A uniquely Australian term for one shot of espresso together with steamed milk and topped with a fine layer of velvet milk foam sitting just under the rich caramel crème. Flat: (Cupping) A taste term to describe lifeless coffee. A real lack of acidity, aroma, and aftertaste and is without distinct taste or smell. Describes a taste that has a range of gases and vapors present in almost imperceptible strength. The aromatic compounds © Peter Baskerville 2009

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have been lost in the staling process after roasting or the in holding process after brewing. Flavor Defects: (Grading) See - Defects. Flavor: (Cupping) Is the most ambiguous term of all. It is the total overall aromatic and taste compound perception of the coffee once it has covered the tongue and been swallowed. Acidity, aroma, and body are the three main components of flavor, but it is the balance of these agents that creates the overall perception of flavour. . Flavored Coffees: (Marketing) Roasted coffee beans that have been sprayed with flavoring agents. Flavored coffee is generally made using inexpensive, low quality, beans. Flavour Influencing Components: (Chemistry) It is accepted that wine has about 150 different flavour influencing components while coffee oil has about 800. Flip-Drip: (Coffee Making) A coffee making device in which water is heated in the bottom compartment of a two compartment brewer. When boiling is achieved the device is flipped over and the water then drips down through the ground coffee located in the middle stainer and drips into the opposite compartment. Also known as a Macchinetta. Floaters: (Grading) Those cherries that when placed in the water channels after harvesting float to the top usually because they are shrivelled, dried, damaged, deformed over-ripe or immature. The best and heaviest coffee cherries will sink. Theses floaters are usually sent directly to the drying patio to be sold to the local market and are processed separately from the top grade coffee. In Kenya this coffee bean is called Mbuni. Also called "lights". Floral: (Cupping) An aromatic taste description which describes the fragrance of flowers; typically honeysuckle, jasmine, dandelion and nettles. Mildly floral aromas are found in some coffees and are generally perceived along with fruity or herbal notes. Floriano Francesconi: (History – Coffeehouse) See - Caffe Florian Fluid/Fluidized Bed Roaster: (Roasting) Is a roasting machine that simultaneously heats and agitates the green bean by suspending in fast streams of hot air. The beans are carried through the roaster on a column of forced hot air. Similar in operation to a popcorn maker and sometimes called the Sivitz Roaster in America after its inventor Michael Sivitz. Also called an air roaster. Most commercially available coffee is either air roasted or drum roasted. Fly Crop: (Farming) Describes the secondary crop produced in the harvesting season after the main crop. Foam enhancer: (Espresso Machine Component) See Froth Aider Foam: (Coffee Making) See Froth. FOB: (Export - Trade) Acronym for (Free On board). Describes goods that are delivered to the customer free of any transport or other charges. Foreign: (Grading) A term that generally covers a number of imperfect flavours coming from contamination. (i.e. rubbery or mouldy) Foul: (Cupping) Used to describe a rank, strong, fermented flavour or any other strong, unpleasant defective flavour, such as hidey or oniony. Four M's formula: (Coffee Making) The key Italian terms used to describe the elements in perfect espresso preparation: The 4 M's are described as: (1) M as © Peter Baskerville 2009

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"Miscela" (Must have the right blend), (2) M as "Macinadosatore"(Must have the right grind and doser settings), (3) M as "Macchina espresso"(Must have the right Espresso Machine setup), (4) M as "Mano dell'operatore"(Must have the expert hand of operator – The Barista) Foxy: (Grading) Unroasted coffee beans with a brown or rust color caused by faulty fermentation, improper washing, over drying, or by harvesting over-ripe cherries. Also called "brown". Fragrance: (Cupping) Is a specialized term in the cupping evaluation of coffee. It is the smell of brewed coffee as gases are released from the coffee and inhaled through the nose. Descriptions range from sweetly floral to sweetly spicy, but may also be described with terms such as nutty. Francesco Illy: (History – Inventor) See - Illy Francesco. Francesco Procopio Coltelli: (History – Coffeehouse) See - Le Procope Franceso Pedrochin: (History – Coffeehouse) See - Pedrocchi Francisco de Melo Palheta: (History - Plant) A Lt. Col. that was dispatched to French Guiana ostensibly to mediate a border dispute between the French and Dutch but also for the successful purpose of obtaining coffee seedlings for Brazil. Franz Georg Kolschitzky: (History – Drink) See - Kolschitzky, Franz Georg French Balloon: (Coffee Maker) A patent filed in 1841 by Madam Vassieux of Lyons consisting of a double glass globe assembly of the vacuum pot brewer coffee making method. French Mission: (Botany) A cultivar originated from seed imported into Kenya in 1893. It has since been extensively planted in Tanzania. ' French Press Pot: (Coffee Making) See - Bodum. Fresh: (Cupping) A positive taste characteristic where the flavor is particularly vivid and highly pleasing. Freshness: (Coffee Making) Green coffee beans can stay fresh for years, roasted whole bean coffee for weeks in an airtight container at room temperature and ground coffee will only stay fresh for several hours once exposed to air. Coffee Freshness is lost over time, at a rate that depends on how it is stored. Friction Hullers: (Green Bean Processing) These are hulling machines that remove the parchment by means of friction. These hullers generate considerable heat and so the operation is completed in three stages, with the beans subjected to air blasts between the stages to cool them. This air blast also removes the chaff. The quality of the coffee is impaired if it is overheated at any stage. Froth Aider: (Espresso Machine Component) This is an optional steaming device that can be attached to an espresso machine that automatically produces milk froth. It is also called a foam enhancer, cappucinatore or pannerello. Froth/Foam: (Coffee Making) The dense, creamy thick layer that forms on top of milk after it has been steamed and aerated using a combination of high velocity hot steam and air. Used to create various espresso products i.e. Cappuccino. Frothing Knob: (Espresso Machine Component) See Steam Knob. Frothing Pitcher: (Coffee Making) Especially designed stainless steel jugs used in conjunction with the steam wand of an espresso machine by baristas to steam and froth © Peter Baskerville 2009

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cold milk. They range in size from 12 ounce upward and may also be known as a milk warmer or steaming pitcher. Frothing Tip: (Espresso Machine Component) The one to four hole perforated tip on the end of the steaming wand. This tip is responsible for turning the steam from the boiler into tiny jets that facilitates proper frothing of the milk. Frothing: (Coffee Making) The process of making a velvety hot foam from milk using a jug and the steam wand of an espresso machine. A Barista uses the steam wand to draw air into the milk until the foam becomes thick and velvety. Fruity/Citrus: (Cupping) The flavour or aroma of coffee that is reminiscent of fruits and is either the natural dry sensation of berries or the sweet sensation of citrus. A coffee’s acidity, or wine-like brightness, is often related to fruit, or citrus and is found in many coffees. This does not describe the aroma of unripe, or over-ripe, fruit. Fukunaga-type Demucilage: (Green Bean Processing) A machine used in the wet processing system that strips the mucilage off the green bean left after pulping by vigorously agitating the beans in luke warm water (110-120°F). A new machine in this process it has a rotary motion, little vibration and can be made portable. It also has the advantage in that it is easy to clean. Full: (Cupping) A prefix to identify intensity characteristics for acidity, body or flavours. It indicates a strong character in the taste, indicating gases and vapors are present at a moderately pronounced strength. Full-sun Farming: (Farming) This farming method removes the upper tree canopy completely and its sole objective is producing maximum coffee outputs for sale. They are highly productive farms using unshaded, employing intensive management techniques and often with the aid of chemical. Furfurylmercaptan: (Chemistry) See – Mercaptans Coffee - The autocrat of the breakfast table

G Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu: (History - Plant) The importer of the coffee tree from France to Martinique in the Caribbean in 1723. Eventually, 90 percent of the world's coffee trees spread from this one plant. Gaggia Achilles: (History – Inventor) See - Achilles Gaggia Galeras: (Region) See - Narino Galla tribe: (History) Members of an Ethiopia in 1,000AD notice that they get an energy boost when they eat a certain type of berry, ground up and mixed with animal fat. Gaskets: (Espresso Machine – Component) See – Group Gasket. Gastrointestinal Caffeine-absorption: (Chemistry) This is the time it takes for caffeine to be absorbed by the body to its maximum concentration. Caffeine reaches the highest level about 15 to 45 minutes after ingestion. Gayo Mountain: (Brand) Is the market name for coffee exported from a large processing centre and mill in the Aceh Province, Northern Sumatra. Coffee here utilizes a combination of both the wet and dry processing systems.

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Genetic Manipulation: (Botany) GM. A process of using recombinant DNA technology and tissue culture techniques to genetically produce plants with any combination of features required by introducing new genes. See - Caffeine Synthase George Constant Washington: (History – Drink) See - Washington, George Constant GHB: (Grading) Acronym for (Good Hard Bean). See – Good Hard Bean. Ghimbi/Gimbi: (Brand) A market name for coffee grown in Western Ethiopia. Usually wet processed or “washed” and is noted for its winey overtones. Gian Francesco Morosini: (History - Drink) An ambassador of the Venetian Republic to the "Sérénissime" in Constantinople (Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul). Credited with described in a report (perhaps the first in Italy) in 1582-5, the operation of the public coffeehouses in Eastern Turkey and the dark hot beverage that was consumed in them. Gicleur: (Espresso machine – component) A small orifice used in espresso machines to limit the flow of hot water through the group. The term gigleur is an Italian derivation of gicleur, which is French for "jet" and derived from the French verb gicler (to squirt). Gisher: (Drink) A centuries old brewed drink that is still made in Yemen today from boiling the coffee husks. Glazing: (Marketing) The act of coating the roasted bean as a way of preserving its natural flavour and freshness. It was believed that coffee bean freshness could be lengthen by keeping air away. Many different compounds were tried in the coffee trade but Arbuckle Bros. in the USA (1880’s) settled on a sugar based glaze. With the advent of oxygen impenetrable packaging and the Pure Food & Drug Act (1906), glazing fell out of fashion. It still retains a market in Spain and South America and is referred to as "torrefaction coffee”. Also known as coating. GM: (Botany) An acronyms for (Genetic Manipulation): See - Genetic Manipulation God Shot: (Coffee Making) A popular term that describes a perfect shot of espresso coffee. Goglio, Luigi: (Marketing) See - Belly-buttons Good Cup Quality: (Cupping) Describes coffee with good, positive all-round characteristics. Good Hard Bean: (Grading) A grade of coffee grown at altitudes above 3000 feet (915m). The term varies depending on the country where the bean is grown. In Costa Rica it refers to coffee grown at altitudes between 3,300 (1,000m) and 3,900 feet (1190m). It is the second highest grade for Costa Rica’ green coffee bean traded on the Tokyo Grain Exchange. Government Estate: (Estate) Generally the name given to the old estates planted by the Dutch colonials and now owned by the Indonesian Government and include; Blawan, Jampit, Kayumas, Pancoer and Java. Grade: (Grading) Classification of beans as a measure of quality. Usually done according to size or number of defects. While there are many exceptions, coffee beans grown at higher elevations tend to be denser, larger, and have better flavor. The process of determining coffee bean size, or grading, is done by passing unroasted beans through perforated containers, or sieves. The method of grading coffee (classifying coffee quality) varies by country, and may include bean size, bean density, number of defects, growing altitude, taste, etc. Grady: (Cupping) A term mostly used in the USA describing a background flavour of dirtiness but not quite qualifying as dirty. © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 38 of 89

Grand Lares: (Brand) Along with Yauco Selecto it is one of the world’s great coffee beans supplied by Puerto Rico. Grown in the south central part of the country it is noted for its balanced body, bright acidity and fruity aroma. Grand Vizier Kuprili: (History) In 1656, during the war with Candia, and for political reasons, suppresses the coffee houses and prohibits coffee. For the first violation the punishment is cudgeling; for a second, the offender is sewn up in a leather bag and thrown into the Bosporus. Grande: (Drink) Italian for "large" and usually reserved for the 16 oz coffee drink. Grassy/Green/Herbal: (Cupping) A odor taint giving the coffee beans a distinct herbal character similar to freshly mown alfalfa or reminiscent of freshly cut lawn. It is created by the prominence of nitrogen compounds in the green beans while the cherries are maturing. It is typically the taste of unripe beans or of certain freshly harvested coffee batches and often corresponds to the beginning of the harvest season. Green Bean Traders: (Export - Trade) These are the main traders of green coffee beans on the worldwide market. Currently they are Neumann Gruppe GMGH, Volcafe, Cargill and E.D. & F. Man. Green Beans: (Green Bean Processing) The coffee beans emerge from the fermentation tank soft and light in color but as they begin to dry they turn dark amber. As the drying process continues they turn to a very light, lettuce green. During storage the light green gradually turns to a darker green shade. This is the colour from which the name green coffee comes. These are coffee beans that are in a ready-to-be-roasted state. Green: (Cupping) A taste result caused by either under roasting (not long enough) or harvesting new-crop cherries too early, giving the coffee a sharp, herbaceous taste and herbal character. The under-roasting causes an incomplete development of the sugar carbon compounds in the coffee bean. Grind: (Coffee Making) The particle size of ground coffee. The recommended grind depends on brewing method. The grind should be adjusted to create the desired amount of coffee extraction. Grinds Bin: (Coffee Making) The clear container on the coffee grinder below the hopper that houses the ground coffee. Group Gasket: (Espresso Machine - Component) This is the cylindrical rubber ring inserted in the group (brew-head) that maintains a water-tight, non-leaking seal with the portafilter. Over time the group gasket will harden and must be replaced when leaking occurs under pressure. Most seals are made of Viton® a Registered Trademarked product of DuPont Dow Elastomers. Group: (Espresso Machine - Component) Sometimes called the brew-head or brew group. It describes the area of the espresso machine where the ground coffee in the portafilter meets the water heated for the extraction process. It is made up of two parts (1) the upper block (grouphead) and (2) the filter-holder (portafilter and filter baskets) The group is called the Gruppo in Italian Gruppo: (Espresso Machine - Component) See – Group. Guadalupe: (Botany) A cultivar of Coffea Arabica that is currently being evaluated in Hawaii. Guatemala Coban: (Coffee Growing Region) Coffee grown in the Guatemalan highlands, near the town of Coban. Guatemala Coban is sold under the market name © Peter Baskerville 2009

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"Tanchi", and is comparable to other bright and fruity Guatemalan coffees, but often with unique characteristics, such as bittersweet spicy notes. Guatemala(n): (Botany) A cultivar of Coffea Arabica that is being evaluated in other parts of Hawaii. See - Kona. Gumilla, Jose: (History - Plant) A Spanish Jesuit priest who noted in his book ‘The Illistrated Orinoco’ in 1730, the cultivation of coffee on the Colombian mission on the banks of the Meta River in Orinoco. Gustation: (Cupping) See - Sensory Evaluation. Gustav Kessel: (History -

) See - Kessel, Gustav. Coffee - Gentle panacea of domestic troubles

H Hacienda: (Framing) The Spanish name for a farm or ranch. Hakm and Shams: (History - Coffeehouse) The name of the two Syrians who opened the first coffee shop in the district of Talchtacalah in Constantinople in 1555. Half Caf: (Drink) A coffee drink with half the caffeine, made by blending equal parts of decaffeinated and "regular" coffees. Also called "half and half" or "split shot". Half-life Caffeine: (Chemistry) This is the time necessary for humans to eliminate from the blood half the quantity of caffeine introduced into it. Caffeine’s half-life varies but in the average adult it takes some 4-6 hours. Ranging from 3hrs for smokers up to 13hrs for women taking oral contraceptives. Hammerhead: (Drink) A coffee drink only served in the USA. It is an American term for a shot of espresso in a coffee cup that is topped up with drip-filtered coffee. Hand sorting: (Green Bean Processing) This is the most common method used to separate out the defective beans from the export quality green coffee beans prior to them being bagged and shipped. This is not a suitable process in areas where labour costs are high. Harar/Harrar: (Brand) A Ethiopian Arabica bean that is grown at 1500-2200m in the northern part of state. The state produces two distinct varieties, the Longberry Harar which is considered to be the more desirable taste to the second shortberry variety. It is garden grown and cultivated from the species obtained from the south-west of the state. They are considered to be one of the world’s most prized coffees because they possess a complex medium to light acidity with full body and a unique winey/fruit wildblueberry-like aroma. The beans are dry processed and have a slightly yellowish-green colouring. Hard Bean: (Grading) (H.B.) The third highest grade for Guatemala’s coffee bean export and the standard grade for Costa Rica’s green coffee beans traded on the Tokyo Grain Exchange. It denotes coffee grown at relatively high altitudes (4,000 - 4,500 feet) (1,220m – 1,370m) or at least above 3000 feet (915m). Hard beans are believed to produce a more flavorsome cup due to their less porous, slow maturity nature caused by the lower growing temperatures. Hard Bean Synonymous with "high grown (HG)", Hard: (Cupping) A secondary coffee taste sensation that strikes the palette with mixed sensation and where the bitterness and astringency in the brew are not offset by roundness of body. In other words, a hard coffee is poorly balanced. It is also characterized by a predominantly stinging, sour sensation on the posterior sides of the tongue. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Harsh: (Cupping) A term used to describe a coffee flavor that creates a disagreeable taste sensations of a caustic, clawing, astringent and raspy effect at the back of the tongue. A taste that is pungent and disagreeable, such as a low quality bitter Robusta. Often due to imperfect beans in the mix. Harvest Machine: (Green Coffee Processing) Coffee harvest machines are used mostly on flat plantations at lower elevations. Robusta is harvested mostly by machine, while Arabica, which is normally grown at higher elevations, is typically hand picked. Hawaii Kona: (Brand) See - Kona Hawaii: (Coffe Growing Region)coffee is grown primarily on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai, with the coffees of the Kona region of the island of Hawaii being the most highly prized. The Kona region possesses an excellent environment for growing Arabica. The best estates grow beautiful, large, flat beans, which produce a mediumbodied brew, with buttery, spicy characteristics. HB: (Grading) Acronym for (Hard Bean). See - Hard Bean Heat exchanger: (Espresso Machine - Component) This is a smaller cylinder or cartridge built inside the boiler chamber, through which the cold water from the main water supply is drawn. The cold water is heated by the hot water surrounding it in the boiler as it passes through to the group head when the coffee making process is being conducted. Both the heat exchanger and boiler are generally made of copper. Heat Up Time: (Coffee Making) The time needed after turning on a commercial espresso machine to heat up the boiler to a point that proper extraction of coffee can occur. Most commercial machines take about 30 minutes or more. Heavy: (Cupping) The mouth-feel descriptor that identifies the high level of solid materials suspended in coffee brew. It result from the fine particles of bean fiber and insoluble proteins being present in pronounced amounts in the brew. Hecienda San Pedro: (Estate) See – Yauco Selecto. Hekem of Aleppo: (Coffee House) Opened, in 1554, the first coffee house in Constantinople with Shemsi of Damascus Hemilaeia Vastatrix: (Farming) See – Coffee Rust Herbal/Herby: (Cupping) A taste reminiscent of (1) aromatic vegetable such as onions or (2) legume, grass, dried herbs, cabbage or fresh foliage. Heredia: (Estate) Is the market name for a respected and famous coffee brand from Costa Rica. Hess-type Demucilage: (Green Bean Processing) A machine used the wet processing method that strips away the mucilage left on the bean after the pulping process. This is achieved by mutual friction. (i.e. one bean knocking against another) HG: (Grading) Acronym for (High Grown). See - High Grown HGA: (Grading) An acronym for (High Grown Andes) coffee. See - Lavado Fino. HGC: (Grading) Acronym for a coffee grade meaning (High Grown Central). Hibrido de Timor: (Botany) This is a cultivar that is a natural hybrid of Arabica and Robusta. It resembles Arabica coffee in that it has 44 chromosomes. Hidy or Hidey: (Cupping) An imperfection in the coffee taste where the tallowy smell and taste of leather or animal hides is noticed. It is most often caused by the coffee beans being stored close to animal hides. It can result from the breakdown of fats in the © Peter Baskerville 2009

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coffee beans, due to an excessive amount of heat being applied in the drying process during harvesting. (usually when dried with a mechanical dryer). Hidey notes, for example, may be found in some east African coffees. High Grown: (Grading) (H.G.) This is the standard grade for Honduras, and the second highest grade for El Salvador’s and Mexico’s green coffee beans that are traded on the Tokyo Grain Exchange. Typically it refers to Arabica coffee beans grown at altitudes of between 2000 (610m) to 4000 (1,220m) feet above sea level, but usually over 3,000 feet (915m) and higher. It is identified in grading terms as a better quality than the coffee beans grown at lower altitudes. The term is used in many Central American grade descriptions. Can also be known as Altura. High Mountain: (Grading) A grade of Jamaican coffee that is of lesser quality than “Blue Mountain” as it is grown at a lower altitude. Highland Coffee: (Botany) See – Stenophylla. Highland: (Grading) This descriptor indicates that the coffee bean has been high grown, or mountain grown. Hills Bros.: (Coffee bean) 1900 Coffee traders from San Francisco, are the first to pack roast coffee in a vacuum tins under the Norton patents, spelling the end of the ubiquitous local roasting shops. Home Coffee Roasting, Romance and Revival: (Research) A book by Kenneth Davids. Honoré de Balzac: (History) A famous nineteenth-century French writer that drank up to 40 cups of coffee per day! Hopper: (Grinding) The container that sits on the top part of the grinder that holds unground coffee beans. Housing: (Espresso Machine Component) This term referrers to the main body of the espresso coffee machine that bolts in all the internal components. Huehuetenango: (Region) (Pronounced way-way-te-non-go) Huehuetenango is an approximation of an Aztecan term for "place of the ancients". This is one of the better Arabica coffee brands from Guatemala. It is less celebrated than others but it is still of good quality. Grown in the extremely remote region in the north of Western Guatemala at over 5000 feet it is noted for its legendary completeness, lively full flavor and delicious orange-peel fruitiness. Hulling: (Green Bean Processing) If the coffee beans have been processed under the wet method this then term describes the process of removing the silverskin or parchment. This is usually achieved by friction. If the coffee beans have been produced under the dry method then this term describes the action of removing the dried husks from the coffee beans (although this process is generally known as husking). Husking: (Green Bean Processing) The process of removing the dried husk from the coffee cherry that has been naturally sun dried. Hygroscopic: (Chemistry) This describes the ability of a substance to absorb the smell and moisture of other food substances. Roasted and ground coffee are very hygroscopic. Coffee - The fire which consumes our grief

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I Ibn Sina: (History - Drink) (980-1037 CE) Named by the Latins as Avicenna. This well-known Islamic physician and philosopher of the eleventh century explained the medicinal properties and use of coffee beans, which he called "bunchum". He detailed the use of coffee grown in Yemen and wrote that coffee was being used as a medicine in his report titled “al-Qanun al-Tibb” and “the value of bunchum the drink”. He was known in the west at that time as the "Prince of Physicians". Ibrik: (Coffee Making) The small ancient long handled Turkish coffee pot originally designed to be heated in desert sand in order to brew coffee. It is also called in Arabic a “cezves”. Icatu: (Botany) A cultivar which mixes the “Arabica & Robusta hybrids” to the Arabica cultivars of Mundo Novo and Caturra. ICO: (Export - Trade) Acronym for (International Coffee Organisation). ICO The International Coffee Organization (ICO) is the main intergovernmental organization for coffee, bringing together producing and consuming countries to tackle the challenges facing the world coffee sector through international cooperation. ICO makes a practical contribution to the world coffee economy and to improving standards of living in developing countries.

Ideale Coffee Machine: (History – Machine) See – Bezzera. An espresso machine designed by Bezzera, this invention was patented on 1st September 1902 and duly registered at the Milan State office on 19th September 1903. The vertical coffee making machine had a boiler kept at a constant pressure by a gas-ring on which it rested. It had side brewing groups (from 1 to 4) supported by inside hooks and had a filter for ground coffee. See - Regio’s I-II-III: (Grading) Size grading for the Robusta coffee bean. Illetta: (History - Machine) Was the name of the first espresso coffee machine invented by Francesco Illy in 1935 that was unique at the time for substituting compressed air as the force for extracting the coffee oil rather than steam pressure. See - Illy, Francesco Illy, Francesco: (History - Inventor) In 1935 he invented the first automatic coffee machine called it the illetta which substituted compressed air for steam. He also developed Illy's unique pressurized packing system for preserving coffee. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Indian Mysore: (Brand) See - Mysore Indirect contact Decaf: (Decaffienation) – This describes the decaffeination process where the solvent for the caffeine does not come in direct contact with the bean but removes the caffeine from the hot water that has previously dissolved the caffeine from the bean. (i.e. the Swiss water method) Infusion time: (Coffee Making) This is the time it takes for heated water, forced under pressure, to pass through the ground coffee in order to extract the soluble flavors and aroma substances from the coffee. Generally this takes between 25-30 seconds. Insipid: (Cupping) A taste fault that gives the coffee extract a lifeless character. This is due to a loss of organic material in the coffee bean and is thought to be caused by oxygen and moisture penetrating the porous roasted coffee bean prior to extraction. Instant: (Drink) A taste characteristic of freeze dried instant coffee. Many find the taste of instant coffee objectionable. Ironically, instant coffee is commonly served in Colombia and Brazil, the top coffee exporting countries. Intensity: (Cupping) A qualitative amount that measures the number and relative strengths of the gases and vapours that are present in the bouquet of the coffee brew. Intercropped: (Framing) This describes the process where coffee is grown in conjunction with other food crops on the same land. i.e with bananas and mangos. Interspecific Hybrids: (Botany) Hybrids of the coffee plant species and include; ICATU (Brazil; cross of Bourbon/MN & Robusta), S2828 (India; cross of Arabica & Liberia), Arabusta (Ivory Coast; cross of Arabica & Robusta). Isaak de Luca: (History - Coffeehouse) A key player in the early introduction of coffee into Vienna. Known as the “der bürgerlicher Cavesieder” or "citizen coffee-maker," he was granted Imperial Privilege in the late 1680’s to make coffee. Ismaili: (Brand) Is the market name for a respected coffee grown in central Yemen. (Cultivar) It also describes a traditional botanical variety of Yemen coffee which has a round, pea-like bean and is noted for its superior cup quality. It is Coffee, A Celebration of Diversity: (Research) A book by Italian biologist /photographer Fulvio Eccardi and the Trieste based green coffee trader Vincenzo Sandalj. Ituri: (Region) A coffee growing region of Zaire (formally named Belgian Congo). Coffee - At once a pleasure and a medicine

J Jamaican Blue Mountain: (Brand) Is a single-origin coffee grown above 3,000 feet (915m) in the Blue Mountain District of Jamaica. It is noted for its exceptionally rich, complex and bouillon-like flavour. This balanced, classic coffee contains a rich flavor, full body and a smooth yet vibrant acidity. This exceptional taste quality coupled with its short supply, has made it one of the world's most celebrated coffees. Jamaican Blue Mountain: (Cultivar) Also carries its own tag as a variety of the Arabica bean. Jamal-al-Din: (History – Writing) See - Sheikh Jamal-al-Din al-Dhabhani Jampit: (Estate) See - Government Estate

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Jardin des Plantes: (History - Plant Spread) The name of the French king's Royal Botanical Garden in Paris in which the first greenhouse in Europe was constructed to house the coffee plant. Jasminum Arabicum Laurifolia: (Botany) The botanical name originally given to the Arabica coffee plant growing naturally in Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the primary centre of origin and genetic diversity of the Arabica coffee plant. Java: (Brand) a market name for all Indonesian coffees The Dutch were the first to establish the large Arabica coffee farms or estates in Java in the 17th century until Rust Disease wiped out the crop. Java at the time was the 2nd great commercial coffee plantation region after Yemen. Today the plantations are managed by the government and the coffee is wet-processed using modern methods. The best coffees from Java display the low-toned rich characteristic of other Indonesia coffees, but are usually lighter in body and with slightly more acidity. Estate Java is a wet-processed coffee that is more acidic, lighter in body and quicker to finish than other coffees in the region. Smoke and spice are flavors often associated with this coffee's acidity. Some Javanese coffee is stored in warehouses for two or three years and is referred to as Old Java. This aging process causes the coffee to lose acidity and gain body and sweetness. Java: (Drink) the ‘slang’ name of any cup of coffee. Java: (Geography) (Indonesian “Djawa”) An island of Indonesia. Jean de la Roque's: (History - Writing) In 1716 he wrote one of the most important and widely read works on coffee called “Voyage de L'Arabie heureuse”. It was translated and published in Amsterdam ion 1716, in Leipzig Germany in 1717, in Venice in 1721. The English editions were published in 1726, 1732, and 1742. Jinotega: (Brand) Is the market name for a respected Nicaragua coffee. Joel Cheek: (History - Drink) The former wholesale grocer who in 1886 named his popular instant coffee blend "Maxwell House," after the hotel in Nashville Tennessee where it was served. Johann Sevastian Bach: (History – Writing) See - Kaffee-Kantate Johannes Diodato: (History - Coffeehouse) An Armenian who is believed to be one of the first to open a coffee house in Vienna in 1685. John Arbuckle: (History) In 1865 introduces to the trade at Pittsburgh, roasted coffee in individual packages, the forerunner of the Ariosa package. He is granted a United States patent for a roasted-coffee coating consisting of Irish moss, isinglass, gelatin, sugar, and eggs and founded Ariosa, which was the first successful national brand of package coffee to be put on the United States . Also granted a United States patent on a coffee-cleaner-and-grader EF1874. John Smith: (History – Writing) See - Captain John Smith Jonathan's Coffeehouse: (History - Coffeehouse) The coffee house in which the London stockbrokers first met. Jose Gumilla: (History – Plant) See - Gumilla, Jose Jose Mariano De Conceicao Veloso: (History - Plant) A botanist who in 1727 started cultivating coffee in Para Brazil. Juan Valdez: (Marketing) The mythical farmer immortalized in the logo developed by the ad agency Doyle Dane Bernbach in March 1981 that was first introduced to the © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 45 of 89

trade in September of the same year. Featuring Juan Valdez (the quintessential cafetero), his mule, and the Colombian mountains in the background with the words "Café de Colombia". Coffee - A wine which no sorrow can resist

K 'K7', 'SL6', 'SL26', 'H66", 'KP532': (Botany) Promising new cultivars that are more resistant to the different variants of coffee plant disease like Hemileia. Kaanapali: (Brand) A market name for a coffee grown in Hawaii. Kadi of Mecca: (History) In 1524 closes the public coffee houses because of disorders, but permits coffee drinking at home and in private. His successor allows them to reopen under license. Kafano: (History - Coffeehouse) The name of the small coffee shops that operated in the old state of Yugoslavia. Kaffa: (Region) A province of Ethiopia where coffee is grown. Kaffee Hag: (Decaffeinated) The name of the company formed in Bremen in 1906 to market the decaffeinated coffee brand called "Sanka" See – Sanka Kaffee-Kantate: (History - Writing) The name of a musical number composed by Johann Sevastian Bach and devoted to the coffee drink and its effects. KaffeeKlatsch: (History - Coffeehouse) The derogatory term originally coined in Germany to describe a women's gossip session at afternoon coffee. It has since been broadened to mean relaxed conversation in general. Kahveci/Kahveci Usta: (Coffee Making) The title of a skilled preparer of Turkish coffee. Kahveh/Kahve: (History - Names) This is the Turkish name for coffee. It is believed that all European words to describe coffee are derived from the pronunciation of this Turkish word. Kahveol: (Chemistry) One of the coffee lipids that creates the shininess on the roasted bean. It was once thought erroneously to be implicated in human LDL (bad) cholesterol production. Kair Bey: (History) In 1511 Governor of Mecca, after consultation with a council of lawyers, physicians, and leading citizens, issues a condemnation of coffee, and prohibits the use of the drink. Prohibition subsequently ordered revoked by the sultan of Cairo. Kaldi/Khalid: (History – Drink) According to legend, one night in Eastern Africa, (most likely modern day Ethiopia) coffee was discovered by this Yemeni goat herder when he noticed his goat herd’s lively behaviour after eating the red cherries from a coffee bush. Kalossi: (Region) A coffee growing region in the southeastern highlands of Sulawesi/Celebes. It is distinguished by its full body, expansive flavor and a low-toned yet vibrant acidity. Some beans from this region can display the unpleasant hard, earthy or musty flavours. © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 46 of 89

Karnakata: (Region) See - Mysore Karnatka: (Region) A coffee growing region (formerly Mysore) in India that produces 80% of India’s total coffee harvest. Kauai: (Brand) A market brand for a coffee grown in Hawaii. Kaven Kanes: (History - Coffeehouse) This is the name given to the first coffee houses that were established in Mecca. Kayumas: (Estate) See - Government Estate Kent: (Botany) A cultivar of the Arabica coffee bean that was originally developed in Mysore India and grown in East Africa. It is a high yielding plant that is resistant to the “coffee rust” decease but is very susceptible to coffee berry disease. It is being replaced gradually by the more resistant cultivar’s of 'S.288', 'S.333' and 'S.795'. Kerala: (Region) A coffee growing region in India. Kessel, Gustav: (History - Inventor) A German, who in 1878, lodged the first patent for a machine that contained separate controls to cause the water followed by the steam to pass through the coffee. The coffee was held in a filter holder with a bayonet type fitting. The design incorporated the now false notion that steam was needed to get a full extraction of coffee oils. Khair Beg: (History - Coffeehouse) In 1511 this corrupt governor of Mecca attempted to ban coffee as he feared that its influence might foster opposition to his rule. The Sultan on hearing this, declared that coffee was sacred and ordered the governor's death. Khat/Kat/Qat: (History - Drink) A plant growing naturally in Arabia whose leaves were used by ancient Muslims to create a simulating drink. Later the coffee cherries were boiled as a substitute for this drink, probably due to lack of supply or because of the severe side affects caused by the leaves. Kilimanjaro: (Region) The market name for coffee grown on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. King Frederick the Great of Prussia: (History) In 1777 issues his celebrated coffee and beer manifesto, recommending the use of the latter in place of the former among the lower classes. In 1781 establishes state coffee-roasting plants in Germany, declares the coffee business a government monopoly, and forbids the common people to roast their own coffee. "Coffee-smellers" make life miserable for violators of the law. Kinjibi: (Brand) The brand name of a coffee grown in the Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea by the Kimjibi tribe who process their Arabica beans using a combination of both the wet-pulped and sun-dried processing methods. Kiv Han: (History - Coffeehouse) This is the first coffee shop believed to have opened in Constantinople (later Istanbul) in 1475. Kivu: (Region) A coffee growing region of Zaire Knockbox: (Coffee Making) A term that describes a bin, draw or box with a rubber or wooden bar supported across a wide opening. It is used to dispense with the spent puck after an espresso shot has been brewed. The portafilter is knocked against the bar, and the coffee puck is “knocked” out into the bin.

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Kolschitzky, Franz Georg: (History - Drink) A Polish immigrant and spy who is said to have saved Vienna from a Turkish siege. Afterwards, he was granted the right to open Vienna’s first coffee house which he named “The Blue Bottle” and where he used as his starting supply, the 500 coffee sacks left by the retreating Turks. Kona: (Brand) A single-origin coffee from the Kona coast of the Island of Hawaii. The best Kona coffee displays a classic balance between a medium body, a good acidity and culminating in a rich complex aroma and flavor. Kona: (Cultivar) This is the main Hawaiian variety that was introduced over 100 years ago as 'Guatemalan' (var. typica). Variations include 'Kainaliu', 'Kealakekua', 'Kuki', 'Eleele', 'Honomalu', 'Maki', 'Kekaha Lanai', Lahaina', and 'Waikapu'. Kopi Luwak: (Green Bean Processing) These are the coffee beans that are gathered from the droppings of the Indonesian mammal called Luwak or Civet after these mammal have eaten the ripe coffee cherries, digested the fruit, and excreted the seeds. Owing to its obvious limitations on volume production, the Kopi luwak coffee bean is now one of the most expensive in the world. Kouillou: (Botany) Name of a Coffea canephora (Robusta) variety whose name comes from a river in Gabon in Madagascar. Kraft: (Export - Trade) See - Manufacturers KVW: (Trade) Acronym for Kaffee Veredelungs Werk. KVW is a reputable German company that, among other things, decaffeinates coffee beans. KVW decaffeinates large quantities of coffee beans, most notably by the Methylene Chloride (MC) solvent method. Kwilu: (Brand) This is a market name for coffee beans grown in the Congo (Zaire). It is a washed natural Robusta. Coffee - This honest and cheering beverage

L La Guiara: (Region) See - Caracas La Minita: (Estate) One of the most famous coffee growing estates in the Tarrazu district of Costa Rica. The quality of the coffee bean is linked predominately to its meticulously preparation. La Pavoni: (Espresso Machine - Manufacturer) The name of an espresso machine manufacturing company (La Pavoni Spa) that was founded in Milan in 1905. The founding principal, Desiderio Pavoni, operated from a little workshop in Via Parini with Luigi Bezzera to develop the first espresso coffee machine for a bar called "Ideale". These units were mass produced and in 1927 they ignited a cafe revolution. The first one to appear in America was at at Caffe Reggio's. la Roque, Jean de: (History - writing) See - Jean de la Roque's Langley: (Brand) See - Blue Mountain

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Laterals: (Botany) These are the side branches (plagiotropic) of the coffee tree which often grow in a horizontal dimension and produce leaves, flowers and other new laterals. Latte Art: (Espresso Coffee Making) Creative designs made on the surface of an espresso drink. Latte art may be made by skillfully pouring milk through espresso, or with the aid of toothpicks, chocolate syrup, and sprinkles. Latte Macchiato: (Drink) Steamed milk served in a tall glass rather than a cup that is “stained” by a shot of espresso coffee. Latte: See Caffe Latte. Laurina: (Botany) A drought resistant cultivar possessing a good quality cup but with only fair yields. Lavado Fino. (Grading) Translated "Fine Wash" - This the grading standard used by the Venezuelan government to signify the best grade of coffee for export. This High Grown Andes (HGA) coffee is of superior quality in every way and is grown predominantly in the state of Merida. Le Procope: (History - Coffeehouse) This was the first coffee house in Paris. It was opened in the Latin quarter in 1689 by Francesco Procopio Coltelli of Sicily, a former lemonade vendor. It is still trading today but more as a restaurant than an espresso bar. Its notable guests have included Voltaire and Napoleon I. Leohard Rauwolf: (History – Writing) See - Rauwolf Leohard Lever: (Espresso Machine Component) This refers to a specific type of espresso machine. Lever espresso machines are manually operated brewing devices that use a lever to push down a piston which provides the pressure needed to brew a shot of espresso. The pump eventually replaced the ‘Piston’ to produce the pressure for espresso coffee making. LGC: (Grading) Acronym for (Low Grown Central). Liberica Coffea: (Botany) “Coffea liberica Bull. ex Hiern” This coffee plant species is native to the forests of Liberia and the Ivory Coast and is characterized by quite flat and uneven bean. It is comparable to Robusta in quality, however only a few percent of all coffee comes from this low altitude growing plant. It is grown commercially in Malaysia and in West Africa, but only very small quantities are actually traded on international exchanges. Whilst its flavor characteristic is considered of low value its positives include: being more resistant to parasites attacks, twice the size of most other beans and a good graft-holder for obtaining new coffee tree varieties. It is also described as Coffea arnoldiana De Wild or more commonly as Liberian coffee. Libras: (Export - Trade) See - Quintal Lifeless: (Cupping) A term describing a coffee taste that is void of acidity. LIFFE: (Export - Trade) Acronym for the (London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange). Generally, Arabica coffee is traded on the New York Board of Trade and Robusta coffee is traded on the LIFFE exchange. This exchange has been a Spot & Options market for producers, roasters, fund managers and speculators since 1958. © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 49 of 89

Limu: (Brand) The market name for a respected Ethiopian Arabica coffee bean that delivers a winey aftertaste with a vibrant balanced cup and sharp acidity. It is a wetprocessed (washed) coffee that is grown at about 1400-1900m in forest/semi forest farms. These are the coffee beans that are grown on the original indigenous coffee plants. Linnaeus, Carolus: (History - Writing) (1707-1778). The Swedish botanist that first described the coffee genus (plant) in 1753 in his publication “Species Plantarum” Linschooten's Travels: (History - Writing) This publication contains the first mention of coffee (called chaoua) consumption in English and was translated in 1598 from the Dutch language and published in London. Lintong: (Brand) Market name for the most admired coffee of the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. This coffee grows in the Lake Toba area toward the northern end of the island. Whilst it is a term used to describe a broader group of coffee beans, it properly only describes coffees grown in a relatively small region just southwest of Lake Toba in the Kecamatan or the district of Lintongnihuta. Small plots of coffee producers are scattered over the high, undulating plateau of fern-covered clay and is grown without shade or chemicals of any kind. Lipid Oxidation: (Chemistry) A process of coffee staling where oxygen reacts with the coffee oil and a new flavour destroying chemical called peroxide is formed. Lipid: (Chemistry) This is the description of a fat substance. Whilst an espresso coffee brew contains between 60-160 mg lipids per 150-ml cup, filtered or boiled coffee only contains 7 mg per 150-ml cup. Triglycerides and diterpene alcohol esters are the major lipid classes found in coffee brewed from the ground coffee beans. Liquidambar MS: (Estate) A estate marketing name for one of the better coffees to come out of Mexico. Translated, it mean "Liquid Amber" and is grown at over 5,500 feet. It is part of the premium group of Mexican coffees labelled “Estrictamente Altura”. See - Estrictamente Altura Lively: (Cupping) A coffee taste containing a high perception of acidity on the palate. Lloyd Edward: (History Coffeehouse) He opened a coffee house on Tower Street in London in 1685. Later his son transferred the establishment to 16 Lombard Street which was very close to the Stock Exchange and the center of English maritime trade. It was from this coffee house that Lloyd' s of London was established which eventually became the largest insurance company of the world. Locking Collar: (Espresso Machine - Component) Is the metal fixed component of the brew-head in the espresso machine into which the detachable portafilter is locked during the extraction process. London Coffee Terminal Market: (Export - Trade) A market originally used by coffee merchants to hedge their financial risks and guard against adverse price fluctuations but it is now part of the London International Financial Futures and © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Options Exchange LIFFE. This new exchange is now the main trading market for Robusta coffee beans. Long Black: (Drink) Often called the “American”. It is the ‘benchmark coffee without milk’. It is pure coffee made from one & one half shots of coffee extract made on 16gm of fresh ground beans producing 50ml of essence blended with steamed water. Served in a pre heated vitrified ceramic cup with the essence floated over the top of a cup filled with hot/boiling water. It is a standard espresso (Short Black) but lengthened by the addition of hot/boiling water. Longberry harrar: (Brand) A grade of coffee from Ethiopia whose bean size is larger than shortberry harrar. Longberry is the more desirable bean for its taste qualities. Los Volcanos: (Estate) A respected Arabica coffee growing estate in Guatemala. Louis Bernard Rabaut: (History – Inventor) See - Rabaut, Louis Bernard Louis Camille Maillard: (Roasting) See - Maillard Reaction Ludwig Roselius: (History – Writing) See - Roselius Ludwig Luigi Bezzera: (History – Inventor) See - Bezzera Luigi Luigi Goglio: (Marketing) See - Belly-buttons Lungo: (Drink) An espresso made by purposely allowing more water to flow through the ground coffee than usual. (sometimes called an Americano or ‘long’). Luwak, Kopi: (Brand) See - Kopi Luwak Coffee - Lovelier than a thousand kisses

M Macchiato: (Drink) Meaning “stained” - Described as ‘strong, marked or stained’. A touch of steamed foamed milk added to a double shot of coffee extract made from 24gm of fresh ground beans producing 75ml of essence. Served in glass. Macchina Espresso: (Coffee Making) See - Four M's formula Macchinetta: (Coffee Making) See - Flip-Drip Machine Drying: (Green Bean Processing) A system of drying the coffee beans after they have been extracted under the wet process method. Machine drying replaces or compliments sun drying methods by using either large heated rotating drums or by heated cascading silos or trays. Macinadosatore: (Coffee Making) See - Four M's formula Madam Vassieux: (Coffee Making) See - French Balloon Madder Family: (Botany) The common name given to the botanical family Rubiaceae. Madder is a word that has been used for more than a millennium to refer to a red vegetable dye that has been used since prehistoric times and found in greatest concentrations in the species of Rubia. (Rubia tinctorum, and Rubia cordifolium). The family name, Rubiaceae was derived from this generic name. See – Rubiaceae Made sound: (Export - Trade) Identified as coffee that has been damaged but which has now been cleaned and available for sale. Maillard Reaction: (Roasting) Discovered by French scientist Louis Camille Maillard in 1912. What food technologists and cooks commonly call “browning” is not caused by the burning of the product but rather the reaction between the amino compounds © Peter Baskerville 2009

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(amino acids) and carbonyl/carbohydrates (reducing sugars) once the right amount of heat is applied. These two compounds exist in the green coffee bean and so the Maillard Reaction is what takes place in the roasting process. This complex network of reactions produces flavours in the roasted coffee across the five flavour notes: woody/smoky, roasty/burnt, caramel/nutty, bouillon and meaty/animal. This process is also called nonenzymatic browning and is distinct from caramelization. Main Crop: (Farming) This is the primary harvest (largest) period of the coffee crop. It is followed latter in the season by a lesser harvest in a secondary or fly crop. Malawi: (Region) A small coffee growing region in Africa west of Mozambique. It is distinguished by a rather soft and round profile. MAM/MAM’s: (Brand) An acronym for three (3) of the most famous and best of Colombia’s brands (Medellin, Armenia, Manizales). These are typically sold together to simplify large volume coffee contracts. Mandheling Lintong: (Brand) See – Lintong or Mandheling. Mandheling: (Brand) Is a more comprehensive designation that refers to both Lintong coffees and to any coffees grown under similar conditions in the region of Diari, north of Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia. It is recognised as one of the world’s most famous coffees. It is also the name of a Coffea canephora variety that was cultivated in the same area of Indonesia. Manizales: (Brand) A marketing name for a thinner bodied coffee grown in Colombia. These coffees are typically sold under the MAM classification. Mano dell'operatore: (Coffee Making) See - Four M's formula Manoa Valley: (Region) See - Oahu Manostat: (Espresso Machine - Component) See - Boiler Heat Exchanges Manual: (Coffee making) This can refer to a class of espresso machines where the operator or barista manually provides the pressure needed to brew a proper shot of espresso. Lever or piston espresso machines are manual espresso brewers. The Pavoni Professional is an example of a manual machine. Manufacturers: (Export - Trade) Companies that turn coffee beans into ‘value added products’. The main four that dominate the world coffee market are Nestle, Procter and Gamble, Kraft and Sara Lee. Maracaibo: (Brand) A coffee from Venezuela named after the town and port from which it is shipped. These coffee beans contain many of the characteristic and distinguishing aspects of coffees from that country – aromatic, soft and with a light acidity. Maraciabos: (Brand) See - Tachira Maragogipe/ Maragogype: (Botany) Coffea arabica L. 'Maragopipe'. Also known as “Elephant Bean”. A mutant variety of Coffea Arabica (Typica) which was first discovered (1884) in Maragogype County in the Bahia state of Brazil. This variety has since been planted in Mexico and Central America. It is distinguished by an extremely large and porous bean. It has a low production yield and tends to produce a thinner bodied cup. Also called "ears", due to their often ear-like appearance. Mat: (Export - Trade) Coffee beans exported from Java are bundled in mats weighing about 67 pounds (30 kilo).

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Matagalpa: (Brand) The market name for a respected coffee from Nicaragua possessing a light aroma but with a full bodied feel. Mattari: (Brand) The Market name for one of the most admired coffees from Yemen. Grown in the Bani Mattar area west of the capital city of Sana'a, it is usually a winier, fruitier and sharper version of the Yemen chocolatey style. This coffee is dry processed. Mature Coffee: (Green Coffee Processing) These are green coffee beans that are still in parchment but held in warehouses for two to three years. Mature coffee is held longer than old crop coffee, but not as long as aged or vintage coffee. It is done deliberately to reduce acidity and at the same time with the hope of increased body. Maui: (Brand) A market name for some coffee beans from the 2nd largest Hawaiian island located in the south central part of the state. Mauritiana: (Botany) Coffea Mauritiana. A coffee bean cultivar that creates a bitter cup. Not considered suitable for commercial cultivation Mavis Bank : (Brand) See - Blue Mountain Maximilian Frederick: (History) Elector of Cologne in 1784 issued a prohibition against the use of coffee, except by the rich, is issued by Maxwell House: (History – Drink) See - Joel Cheek Mazagran: (Drink) A French drink composed of cold coffee and seltzer water. First created by the French soldiers in 1840 in the town of Argelia. A variation includes iced coffee made with maraschino. MBCF: (Export - Trade) Acronym for a bag branding mark meaning (Mavis Bank Central Factory). It is a coffee processing center built in 1920 by the Munn family and licensed by the Jamacian Coffee Board to sell genuine Blue Mountain Coffee. Mbeya: (Brand) See – Pare. Mbuni: (Grading) Coffee beans from Kenya that are dry processed and of poor quality. See - Floaters MC: (Decaffienation) Acronym for (Methylene Chloride). See - Methylene Chloride Mechanical Demucilage: (Green Bean Processing) This is a mechanical solution used in the wet processing system to remove the remaining mucilage from the green bean after pulping. The most common machines used are the "Aqua Pulpa" or the “Hesstype” coffee washer. They each use a combination of friction and water jets to remove the mucilage. This speeds up the wet processing method considerably but requires considerable power (18 to 24 hp), high volumes of water and the machines are difficult to clean. Mechanical Drying: (Green Bean Processing) In recent years, artificial drying has become increasingly more popular. On some plantations the beans are dried in the artificial drier right after washing. However, in most places, a combination of sun drying and artificial drying is practiced. Here the bean is first dried in the drying yard for 24 to 48 hours or longer, after which it is placed in the artificial drier. There are several types of dryers in use and include the rotary type, stationary type or cascade type. Medellin: (Brand) The market name for a brand of coffee from the north west of Colombia. One of its most famous Colombian coffees with its heavy body, rich flavor and a finely balanced acidity (sometimes with a pronounced nutty flavour). Marketed as part of the MAM group. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Medicinal: (Tasting) The smell of medicine, or iodine. A medicinal flavor with notes of iodine which can result from cherries drying while still on the coffee plant. Medicinal flavors cannot be hidden well by blending. Melanodins: (Chemistry) Are brown polymers formed by the Maillard Reaction during the roasting of coffee beans and ultimately account for up to 25% of the roasted coffee bean composition. They are the components that give the roast coffee much of its flavour and colour. Melitta Bentz: (History – Inventor) See – Bentz, Melitta. Mellow: (Cupping) This is the description of a full, rounded, smooth, mild and wellbalanced coffee with low to medium acidity and caused as salts in the coffee combine with sugars to increase the overall sweetness. It is a characteristic found most often in washed Arabica coffees grown at elevations below 4,000 feet (1,220m), such as the Kona coffee from Hawaii. Mellow ranges in description from mild to delicate. Mercaptans: (Chemistry) These are the other sulfur compounds that increase through the oxidation process as the roasted coffee bean ages. When the concentration of the mercaptan (furfurylmercaptan) is between 0.01 and 0.5 ppb (parts per billion–very small amounts), it is perceived as freshly roasted coffee, but in higher concentrations it is perceived as staleness in the coffee. See - Sulfurous compounds Merchants Coffee House: (History – Coffeehouse) See - City Tavern/Merchants Coffee House Mérida: (Brand) Is the market name for one of the most respected and most characteristic Venezuela coffees. It is described as delicate and sweet in the cup yet full bodied with a mellow rich flavour. Mesocarp: (Botany) The thin layer of fleshy sugary mucilaginous jelly-like pulp located just under the red skin (exocarp) of the coffee cherry. Methanethiol: (Decaffienation) (also known as methyl mercaptan) is an aromatic compound in the roast coffee bean that has been shown in numerous studies to have a large impact on the consumer perception of coffee freshness. It also helps conceals the less desirable aromatics, such as the “green pea” aroma. It is a substance that is highly susceptible to dissipation as well as oxidation. When ground coffee is exposed to ambient air, the reduction of methanethiol can be perceived within one day and 70% is gone within three weeks. Methylene Chloride: (Decaffination) This is a dissolving agent used in the Decaffeinated coffee process to extract caffeine. Generally regarded as safe for human consumption. Since Methylene Chloride boils at 104 degrees Fahrenheit, any traces of solvent left in the beans would be boiled away during roasting, as the beans reach temperatures above 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Michael Sivitz: (Roasting) See - Fluid Bed Roaster Michel Varnier: (History - Inventor) One of the early inventors of the coffee machine with patents lodged in 1822. Middle Eastern Coffee: (Drink) See - Turkish Coffee. Mild coffees: (Export -Trade) This is a trade term used to describe high-quality Arabica coffees traded on the NY Sugar & Coffee exchange. These Arabica coffee beans are further categorized as either Colombian Milds and Other Milds depending on their source. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Mild: (Cupping) This is rounded and balanced coffee that is free of the harsh flavor and possessing harmonious delicate flavours yet without being described as pungent or dry. It is a taste sensation characterized by a predominantly sweet tingle just past the tip of the tongue. It is caused by high concentrations of both sugars and salts. Typified by washed Sumatran and fine high-grown Latin American coffees. Milk Warmer: (Coffee Making) See Frothing Pitcher Milling: (Green Bean Processing) The mechanical operation used to describe the removal of either the dry parchment skin from wet-processed coffee beans (also called hulling) or the entire dried fruit husk from dry-processed green beans (also called husking). Minas Gerais: (Region) See - Bourbon Santos Miscela: (Coffee Making) See - Four M's formula Mocha: (Brand) Coffee from the Harrar region of Ethiopia, which resembles Yemen coffee in the cup-character of rich, winey acidity and intriguing nuance. Also describes a small single-origin irregular olive green bean grown in Yemen which has a unique acid character and sometimes called Arabian Mocha. Mocha: (Drink) Can also be the name of coffee beverage where espresso coffee is mixed with milk and chocolate. Mocha: (Region) The name of coffee beans that were shipped from the ancient port of Mocha/Al-Mukha in Yemen. Mocha-Java: (Marketing) Traditionally, a coffee bean blend of one part Yemen Mocha and two parts Java Arabica coffee. In this traditional form, Mocha-Java is the world's oldest coffee bean blend. Combining the full bodied Java bean with the acidic Yemen Mocha gave a more balanced espresso experience. Moisture Content: (Green Bean Processing) The moisture content of green coffee beans immediately after washing varies from 50 to 55 percent, depending upon the amount of surface moisture. The dry green export beans must have a moisture content of about 12 percent. In general the moisture varies from 11 to 13 percent. Green coffee © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 55 of 89

beans that have a moisture contents higher than 13 percent will eventually turn opaque white when stored. Moka Pot: (Coffee Making) A manual method of making a coffee on a stovetop and brews by forcing hot water through a bed of coffee using the power and pressure of steam. A typical moka pot brews using 1.5 atmospheres of pressure (modern espresso machines use roughly 9 atmospheres, or BARs) Moldy: (Cupping) Green coffee beans that may acquire a moldy taste if they are kept in poor conditions during the pulping and cleaning processing stages and may have the light green or white fur-like texture characteristic of mold. Moloka'I/Molokai: (Brand) A market name for a coffee bean from an island named as such in Hawaii. Monsooned Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) This is a dry-processed single-origin green bean from the south of India that is deliberately exposed to the moisture-laden monsoon winds in an open warehouse for up to six months to a year. During this time the coffee is periodically rotated for even exposure. Monsooning is done to recreate the flavor of coffees once transferred by slow sailing wooden ships from India to Europe around the Cape of Good Hope. This action turns the green beans to a pale golden colour. This process causes the beans to swell which is said to increase body and reduce acidity and thereby creating a mellow taste but with an aggressive musky flavour. The best example of this is Monsoon Malabar. Moriondo Angelo: (History - Inventor) An inventor from Turin who lodged a patent in Paris on the 23rd October 1885 for a bulk coffee brewer capable of producing fifty cups. It was the first Italian coffee machine to actually separate the idea of steam and water into two distinct functions. It may have been the basis of Bezzera’s later patented single cup espresso machine. Moshi: (Brand) Is the market name for coffee beans grown on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. It is named after the local town that has today become famous for its coffee bean auction markets. Mottled: (Grading) Unroasted coffee beans with blotchy discolorations, associated with uneven drying during processing. Mouldy: (Grading) Coffee may acquire a mouldy taste if it is kept in poor conditions. Moldiness also can be affected by the processing conditions during the pulping and cleaning of green beans. Mouthfeel: (Cupping) See - Sensory Evaluation Moy Hill: (Brand) See - Blue Mountain Mt. Hagen: (Region) A coffee growing region in the western highlands of New Guinea. Originally planted in 1937 with beans imported from the Blue Mountains of Jamacia it is noted for its mild and mellow flavours. Mt. Kilimanjaro: (Region) See - Chagga Tribe MTGB: (Grading) A acronym used in the coffee trade that stands for (Medium To Good Beans). Mucilage: (Green Bean Processing) This is the thick layer of sticky fruit pulp that is still remaining on the coffee seeds after they have been pulped under the wet processing method. This mucilage is insoluble in water, is slimy and makes drying difficult so it must be removed by fermentation or demucilage machines before the drying stage. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Muddy: (Cupping) Description of a thick, dull and bland flavour and characterizes a large quantity of particles in suspension in the brew. Mufti: (History - Names) The name given to a muhammedan priest. Muhammedan Monks: (History - Drink) See - Dervesch Mundo Novo: (Botany) A natural hybrid originating in Brazil as a cross between the varieties of 'Arabica' and 'Bourbon'. It is a very vigorous plant that grows well at 3,500 to 5,500 feet (1,070m to 1,525m), is resistant to disease and has a high production yield. Tends to mature later than other cultivars. . Munn Family: (Export - Trade) See - MBCF Musty: (Cupping) A coffee with a slight stuffy or moldy smell that tastes and smells of mildew. Describes the pleasant "old" or "cellared" aroma sometimes found in aged coffees. Usually associated with drying the coffee too slow or storing unroasted coffee in a damp environment. Monsooned and aged coffees sometimes have an almost musty flavor. Mysore: (Region) (now the state of Karnakata) A market name for good-quality sweet washed India coffees that is grown in the south/central part of the country. Noted for its moderate body and acidity with an occasional intriguing lift probably from the affects of the monsoons. (also known as Indian Mysore, Mysore Nuggets, Mysore Straight) Coffee - A restorative of sparkling wit

N Napier, Robert: (History - Inventor) A Scottish naval engineer who invented a version of the Vacuum Pot Brewer called ‘the Balancing Siphon’ in the 1840’s. Commonly called ‘The Napierian brewer’ it was the preference of choice for coffee makers in England into the early part of the twentieth century. The stunningly beautiful silver-plated version has since become a collectors item. Napierian Brewer: (History - Inventor) See – Napier, Robert Nariño: (Estate) A coffee growing producer from the extreme south of Colombia on the boarder with Ecuador. It produces certain particularly admired vibrant medium body coffee with strong fruity floral acidity. It is grown around the volcano ‘Galeras’ and has an inverted crop harvesting cycle compared to the rest of Columbia with the Fly/secondary crop being harvested in October to December. Narrow-leaf Coffee: (Botany) See – Stenophylla. National Audubon Society: (Farming) See – Bird Friendly Natural Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) Is the name given to the dry processed green coffee bean. It is also known as Unwashed or cherry coffee (India) – in French (Café non lavé Café naturel), Portuguese (Café de terreiro), Spanish (Café no-lavado, Café natural). See - Dry Processed Coffee. Navarro: (History) Coffee was brought into Costa Rica from Cuba by a Spanish traveller, Navarro, in 1779. Neapolitan Macchinetta: (Coffee Making) See - Flip-Drip © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Nectar of the Gods: (Marketing) A popular marketing term used to describe the best tasting espresso coffee. Originally it was used by the ancient Greeks, including Aristotle, to describe honey or the alcoholic drink Mead. Fine espresso coffee today shares this description with most alcoholic beverages including mead, wine and the beer Guinness. Neo-Arnoldiana: (Botany) Coffea Neo-Arnoldiana is a coffee bean cultivar that is grown in some parts of the Congo because of its high yield. It is not considered suitable for commercial cultivation. Nescafé: (Marketing) Commercial volumes of instant coffee were first created by the Nestlé company in 1938 as it assisted the Brazilian government in solving its coffee surplus problem. Nescafe (Freeze Dried) was developed and first introduced into the Swiss market. (Export - Trade) See - Manufacturers Neumann Gruppe GMGH: (Export – Trade) See - Green Bean Traders Neutral: (Cupping) A flat flavored tasting coffee beverage with the absence of a predominant taste sensation on any part of the tongue. This coffee type can be used as a base for other blends of coffee where it can be a positive attribute but generally it is not a sort after taste as stand alone. It is a common characteristic of washed Ugandan Robusta coffee that has been wet processed and some coffees from Brazil and Colombia. New Crop: (Export - Trade) These are green coffee beans that have been delivered for roasting soon after being freshly harvested and processed. These coffees are at their brightest (or rawest) tasting profile where the acidity is quite pronounced. New York Board of Trade: (Export – Trade) See – NYBOT. New York Sugar & Coffee Exchange: (Export – Trade) See - C - Contract Nganda: (Botany) Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner 'Nganda'. Where the upright form of the coffee plant Coffea Canephora is called Robusta its spreading version is also known as Nganda or Kouillou. Niaouli: (Botany) This is the name of a traditional Coffea canephora cultivar given to it in Togo and Dahomey Nippy: (Cupping) A secondary coffee taste characterized by a predominantly sweet, nipping sensation at the tip of the tongue. Nitrogen Flushing: (Marketing) This is the process of forcing the inert Nitrogen gas over the beans in the packing process in order to displace the ambient air containing the taste destroying oxygen gas. No #18: (Grading) A descriptor of a bean size along with #17 … #12. In the case of #18 it means that this is a large bean that will not pass through a mesh with an opening of 7.14mm square. No.1: (Grading) This is the top grade of Jamican Blue Mountain Coffee and is equivalent to a #17/18 screen size. No.2 grade is #16/17 in size and No.3 grade is a #15/16 screen size. Noble Tree: (History - Plant) The name often given to the single coffee plant that was given by the Dutch to the French King Louis XIV in 1715. This tree was the father of over a billion trees in over 60 countries world © Peter Baskerville 2009

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wide when it was taken to the west by Gabriel Mathiew de Clieu and planted in Martinique in 1723. Nose: (Cupping) The sensation of the vapors released from brewed coffee as they are exhaled while swallowing. The flavors can range from caramelly to nutty to malty. Nozzle: (Espresso Machine – Component) See - Steam Wand Number One: (Grading) Hawaii’s third best grade for green coffee bean exports. Nutty: (Cupping) This aroma descriptor that is reminiscent of roasted nuts (distinct from rancid nuts), typically associated with poor quality beans. Coffees from South America commonly have a nutty flavor. NY8: (Grading) Acronym for (New York 8); A term given by the New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange relating to the grading of green coffee beans. NYBOT: (Export - Trade) Acronym for the (New York Board Of Trade). A market where coffee beans are bought and sold. It has operated since 1882 and trades Arabica contracts (Spot & Options) between producers, roasters, fund managers and speculators. NYCSC: (Export - Trade) Acronym for the (New York Coffee Sugar and Cocoa ) exchange which deals mostly in coffee contracts involving the Arabica coffee bean. Coffee - Grave and wholesome liquor

O Oahu: (Brand) A market name for a wet-processed coffee (var. Typica) from the north shore of this island in Hawaii. The first Hawaiian coffee is believed to have been planted here in the Manoa Valley in 1825. OAMCAF: (Export - Trade) Acronym for the French name (Organisation Africaine et Malgache du Café) or the (African and Malgache (Republic of Madagascar) Coffee Organisation). It represents members from 16 countries in the pursuit of suitable markets and they include; Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo (Rep.) Côte d’Ivoire,Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Madagascar, Togo, Philippines, Sierra Leone, SriLanka, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda and Vietnam. Oaxaca Pluma: (Brand) This is one Mexican coffee grown on the southern slopes of the central mountain in the Oaxaca state that is highly regarded by the speciality trade. Oaxaca: (Region) This is the market name for coffee coming from the southern Mexico state of Oaxaca. This state is ranked 4th in production of the 12 Mexican States. Coffee makes up 30% of this state’s economy. Ocoa: (Brand) The market name for one of the better-respected, well balanced coffees from the Dominican Republic. It is a wet-processed coffee that is noted for its sweetness. Most of this coffee is exported to European markets. Old Arabicas: (Botany) These are the botanical varieties or cultivars of the Coffea Arabica species that can trace their geanology back to the native forests of southwestern Ethopia. The two main varieties are “var. bourbon” and “var. typical”. Many new hybrid varieties have been developed from these “old Arabicas” in an effort to increase disease resistance and production yield. Old Chick: (Botany) These are the direct genetic descendants of the original coffee trees that were planted in India by Baba Budan in 1650AD. These plants still produce around a third of India's coffee production even today.

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Old Crop: (Green Bean Processing) These are green coffee beans that have been held in warehouses before shipping for up to 2 years. Old crop differs from aged or vintage and mature crop in that it has not been held for as long a period and it was not kept in this state by intended design. Some would argue that old crop is superior in cup characteristics to the new crop version of the same coffee. Old Java, Old Government, Old Brown: (Estate) These are mature crop coffees from Indonesia that have been processed to mimic the flavor characteristics of the original Java coffee, which was inadvertently aged in the holds of eighteenth century ships during their passage to Europe. Old Tavern Coffee Estate: (Estate) A small, highly regarded producer of certified Jamaica Blue Mountain coffee that uses the traditional wet processing methods. See Blue Mountain Olfaction: (Cupping) See - Sensory Evaluation Open-Pot Method: (Coffee Making) This is one of the oldest methods of coffee making. It is performed by leaving the ground coffee in an open pot where it is steeped (not boiled). Finally the grains are separated from the brewed coffee by settling or straining. Organic Coffee: (Farming) For a coffee to carry the organically-grown label it must be certified by an international agency as having been grown without synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides, or herbicides. “Organic” has become an important marketing term in the contemporary coffee world and can usually command a higher premium price. However the lower yields coupled with the costs of the certification process soon account for the extra margins achieved. Organic Farming: (Farming) Intensive (up to 2,500/ha) coffee growing including diversified shade, employing compost and organic pest control procedures and also terracing to minimize soil erosion. See - Eco-Friendly/Eco Cultivated Organic: (Grading) An important descriptive term in the contemporary marketing of coffee. These coffees are organically-grown without synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides, or herbicides and are certified by an international. Their higher selling prices more than offsets the lower yields and the considerable cost of the certification process. Organoleptic Characteristics: (Cupping) Those characteristics relating to the qualities of taste, colour, odour, and feel of a substance that stimulates the sense organs. Other Milds: (Export - Trade) The name given to washed Arabica coffees from 21 countries that are traded on the NYBOT (Not including Brazil or Columbia which are traded separately). The average price traded in this category is recorded as a price indicator by the ICO. These countries include Bolivia, Burundi, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Malawi, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Rwanda, Venezuela, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Otro Suave: (Green Bean Processing) The term used to describe washed Mexican coffee. Over Extracted: (Coffee Making) A term used to describe coffee that has brew or been exposed to ground coffee for too long. Over extracted can make the coffee taste bitter or burnt. Oxidation: (Chemistry) Oxidation is any reaction in which one or more electrons are moved from one chemical substance to another and thereby producing two different compounds. In coffee, the most common process is that of an oxygen molecule that © Peter Baskerville 2009

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donates two electrons to another compound and then bonding with hydrogen to form water. Coffee - Triumphant stream of sable

P P.W.: (Grading) Acronym for (Prime Washed). See - Prime Washed Paca: (Botany) Created by El Salvador’s agricultural scientists, this cultivar of Arabica is shorter and higher yielding than Bourbon but many believe it to be of an inferior cup in spite of its popularity in Latin America. Pacamara: (Botany) An Arabica cultivar created by crossing the low yield large bean variety Maragogipe with the higher yielding Paca. Developed in El Salvador in the 1960’s this bean is about 75% larger than the average coffee bean. Pache Colis: (Botany) An Arabica cultivar being a cross between the cultivars Caturra and Pache comum. Originally found growing on a Guatemala farm in Mataquescuintla. Pache Comum: (Botany) A cultivar mutation of Typica (Arabica) developed in Santa Rosa Guatemala. It adapts well and is noted for its smooth and somewhat flat cup Paduan Prospero Alpino: (History – Writing) See - Alpino Paduan Prospero Pales: (Grading) Unroasted yellow coffee beans that stink when crushed or ground. Pales may result from drought or from harvesting immature coffee cherries. Pancoer: (Estate) See - Government Estate Pannerello: (Espresso Machine Component) See Froth Aider Parchment coffee: (Green Bean Processing) This is a term used to describe wet processed coffee after it has been pulped. Known in French as (Café en parche), Portuguese as (Café em pergaminho) and Spanish as (Café en pergamino). Parchment Coffee has had the skin and pulp removed, but with the parchment (hull) still attached. Dried parchments are transferred to hulling facilities where the hulls are removed and the beans are packaged in large burlap bags ready for export. Parchment: (Botany) Is the endocarp (skin) of the coffee fruit that lies between the coffee cherry flesh and the bean’s outer silverskin. It is a final thin, crumbly skin covering wetprocessed coffee beans after the berries have had their pulp removed and the beans dried. Just prior to roasting the parchment layer is removed in a process called milling. While the parchment skin is removed from the coffee bean, the silver skin, also called chaff, usually remains until it floats away, burns away, or is otherwise separated during the roasting process. Pare: (Brand) Is the market name of a coffee grown in the south of Tanzania. Also called Mbeya after the town in the area. Parenchyma: (Botany) Sitting just below the Mesocarp of the coffee cherry is a slimy golden yellow layer called the Parenchyma. Pascal: (History) An Armenian who in 1672 was the first to sell coffee publicly at St. Germain's © Peter Baskerville 2009

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fair, Paris, and opens the first Parisian coffee house. Pasilla: (Grading) The lowest grade of Columbian coffee. Pasqua Rosee: (History - Coffeehouse) He was a Greek servant of a Turkish Merchant who opened one of the early London coffee houses in 1652. It was located in St. Michael’s Alley Cornhill and was made famous for its first known coffee advertising in England. The original advertisement ‘The Vertue of the Coffee Drink’ is on display in the British Museum. It is believed that he opened the shop in partnership with Christopher Bowman. Past crop PC, P/C: (Export - Trade) Refers to coffee cropped during the previous year. These coffee beans are older than one generation but are still kept in parchment during storage. Past crop, old crop, old, or oldish are also used as a taste terms to describe coffees stored for more than a year. Past crop coffees tend to have a woody, strawy, or hay-like, flavor and less acidity. Patio Drying: (Green Bean Processing) This is the more traditional process of drying coffee beans, which involves spreading and raking the coffee cherries in thin layers on open patios and utilising the heat of the sun. This is done directly after harvesting in the dry-processed method or after the pulp removal and fermentation stages in the wetprocessed method. An alternative to this drying method is machine drying. Pavoni Desidero: (History - Inventor) He was a close friend of Bezzera who purchased his patent/business in 1903 and brought the espresso machine to market as the “Ideale” espresso coffee machine. Pavoni added the ‘steam relief valve’ (French & German patients) to Bezzera’s original design and exhibited the machine under the Bezzera name at the 1906 Milan International Fair where it won a gold medal. His company (La Pavoni Spa) that was founded in Milan in 1905 from a little workshop at Via Parini Peaberry: (Botany) A small rounded bean that is formed occasionally when only one seed, rather than the usual flat sided pair, develops at the heart of the coffee cherry. It is a mutant bean that is often found at the tip of young branches. These beans are often separated from normal beans and sold as a distinct grade of a given coffee. New Guinea and Tanzania are some of the more popular Peaberries on the market. Typically they have quite a distinctive taste to other beans with a brighter more acidic point. Also known as 'perla' and 'perle, Caracol, Caracoli or Caracolillo. Pedrocchi: (History - Coffeehouse) A famous neo-classical Italian café in Padua that was started by Franceso Pedrochin in 1760. Pedrochin Franceso: (History – Coffeehouse) See - Pedrocchi Penny Universities: (History Coffeehouse) The 17th century coffeehouses were dubbed as such because a penny was the price of a cup of coffee. These places became popular forums for the learned and the not-solearned to discuss all manner of topics including politics and current affairs. Percolation: (Coffee Making) Technically, any method of coffee brewing in which hot water percolates, or filters down through, a bed of ground coffee. The pumping percolator utilizes the power of boiling water to force water up a tube and then to allow gravity to draw the water through the bed of ground coffee. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Pergamino Coffee: (Export - Trade) (Spanish for parchment) It is coffee that has been dried with the parchment still attached. It reaches this stage after the pulping and fermenting process in the wet extraction method. See - Parchment. Peroxides: (Chemistry) These elements are formed when oxygen connects with the lipid (fat) molecule in the coffee bean which then create breakdown products that are undesirable substances. These new substances then attack the unoxidized lipid molecule to re-form peroxide. Peroxide acts as a catalyst so that the more peroxides present the faster the oxidation. Stale flavor in roasted coffee beans are significant after only 2 weeks of storage in the presence of oxygen and the process will accelerate until all possible paths are exhausted and the coffee is dead stale. Phenols: (Chemistry) These aromatic compounds are present to a greater degree in darker roasted coffees. They give us the spicy/clove-like, astringent aromas however the spicy phenols tend to evaporate quickly in the brewing process. Philippe Sylvestre Dufour: (History – Writing) See - Dufour, Philippe Sylvestre Pieter Van dan Broecke: (History) First person to bring coffee from Mocha to Holland in 1616. Pino Riservato: (History - Coffeehouse) Beleieved to have opened a coffee house in 1953 known as “The Moka” coffee bar on 29 Frith Street, London. It was reputedly the first Soho Espresso Bar in London and used one of Gaggia’s early coffee machines. Pipe: (Espresso Machine – Component) See - Steam Wand Pipil: (Brand) The market name for a brand of Fair Traded and Certified Organic coffee from the San Mauricio District of El Salvador. This bourbon variety is only wet processed. Piquant: (Cupping) A secondary coffee taste sensation characterized by a predominantly sweet and prickling sensation on the tip of the tongue. It is usually caused by a higher-than-normal percentage of acids in the brew, which is actually sweet to the taste instead of the expected sourness. Typical of Kenyian AA coffee. Piston Machine: (History - Invention) This is an early development of the espresso machine. A piston in the machine is operated by a barista pulling a lever or spring that forces the brewing water at high pressure through the compacted bed of ground coffee beans and so the coffee oil is extracted. Plantation Bukoba: (Estate) A notable plantation in Tanzania noted for its well balanced flavours. Plantation coffee: (Green Bean Processing) A term used to describe the wet processed green coffee bean from India: Also known as washed coffee and in French as (Café lavé), in Portuguese as (Café despolpado) and in Spanish as (Café lavado). Also known in some countries as parchment coffee. Plantations: (Framing) A term to describe monoculture coffee farms ranging from 5 to 5,000 ha. The average size of coffee plantations in Brazil is about 1,000ha. All together, plantations contribute about 30% of worlds green bean supply. Plots: (Farming) A term used to describe small coffee farms ranging from back yards to 5ha area farms. The total of these plot farms contribute about 70% of the worlds green bean coffee supply. Plunger Pot: (Coffee Making) See - Bodum.

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Pod Portafilter: (Espresso Machine Component) A portafilter specifically designed according to E.S.E. specifications (Easy Serving Espresso) for use with espresso pods. Pod: (Coffee Making) A self-contained, pre ground and pre pressed puck of ground coffee usually supplied inside a perforated paper filter and individually wrapped and sealed to maintain freshness. Illy was the brains trust behind this system which became known as the E.S.E. specifications (Easy Serving Espresso). Polishing: (Green Bean Processing) An optional procedure performed at the end of the coffee processing and milling operations. It is a procedure designed to remove the silverskin by rubbing the green bean with special polishers. This process may improve the appearance of the bean but it is not considered necessary to enhance the taste. Portafilter: (Espresso Machine - Component) Is the detachable metal cupped bakealite, wood or plastic handle of the espresso machine that holds the metal mesh filter and the ground coffee. It also has spouts that directs the coffee essence into the cup. It is fastened to the upper block of the espresso machine with a hook-like device in order to form an air tight chamber. Usually made of brass or copper and coated with chrome. Also known as ‘groupo’. Positive Displacement Vacuum Pump: (Espresso Machine - Component) This unit generates the water pressure (approximately 9 atm or 132 psi) that is required to make coffee in a commercial espresso machines. Post C. W.: (Drink) See - Postum Postum: (Drink) The caffeine-free beverage mix that was originally created mostly from wheat and molasses by company founder C. W. Post in 1895 and marketed as a healthful alternative to coffee. Ppb: (Chemistry) Abbreviation for the measure of ‘Parts per billion’ Pre Infusion: (Coffee Making) the act of pre-wetting the bed of ground coffee inside an espresso machine before actually commencing the brew. Some espresso machines do this by using the pump; water is pumped to the coffee for a second or two, then halted for another second or two. After this pause, the pump activates again, and continues brewing the shot. Super automatics and some automatic machines use this pre-infusion. Another type of preinfusion is called "natural" or progressive preinfusion, and occurs in machines equipped with an E61 grouphead. When the pump is activated, a secondary chamber must fill prior to full pressure being applied to the bed of coffee. This gives a 3 to 7 second saturation time for the grounds before the pressure builds up. This type of preinfusion is preferable to pump and pause active preinfusion. There is a school of thought that progressive preinfusion improves overall extraction from the coffee. Preanger: (Botany) A coffee plant cultivar currently being evaluated in Hawaii. Pressure Relief System: (Espresso Machine Component) (also 3 way solenoid) on most commercial machines, prosumer machines, and many higher end consumer espresso machines, a 3 way valving system exists to immediately remove pressure from the portafilter once your espresso shot is completed. A check valve is electrically controlled: it is closed when the machine is not under operation; it opens a passage between the boiler and the grouphead and portafilter when you are brewing; and it opens a passage from the grouphead to your drip tray (or other "waste" area) once you end the brew. This system allows for quick successive brews, without any worry of a "portafilter sneeze" where the excessive pressure that remains inside a portafilter can spray hot, wet grounds all over should you remove the portafilter too soon after brewing a shot of espresso. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Pressurestats: (Espresso Machine Component) On most prosumer and commercial espresso machines, the temperature of the boiler is not maintained with a thermostat but with a pressure gauge control that activates the boiler's heater once the measured pressure drops too low and shuts off the heater when the pressure reaches a pre-set point. Pressurestats are almost always found in heat exchanger espresso machines. Pressurized Filter: (Coffee Making) A crema enhancing device is built into the actual filter basket, usually through the function of channeling all the brewed coffee through a solitary pin hole. This action creates a jet-like effect that boosts crema production, even in stale coffee or coarse ground coffee. The Solis machines use pressurized filters. Pretoria: (Botany) A coffee plant cultivar currently being evaluated in Hawaii. Primary Market: (Export - Trade) The coffee bean market in the country in which the coffee is produced. Primary Taste Sensations: (Cupping) See – Basic Tastes. Prime Washed: (Grading) (P.W.) This is Mexico’s standard grade of green coffee beans that are traded on the Tokyo Grain Exchange. It is a grade used in Mexico to identify most of their fine coffees without giving them a specific classification Primo Lavado: (Grading). See - Prime Washed. . Processed: (Green Bean Processing) Unroasted coffee beans that have been sorted, pulped, dried, and separated from the hull. Procon: (Espresso Machine - Component) See Rotary pump Procter and Gamble: (Export - Trade) See - Manufacturers Prosper Alpinus: (History – Writing) See - Alpinus, Prosper Prosumer: (Coffee Making) These are the espresso machines positioned somewhere between the domestic and commercial. They often incorporate commercial equipment materials or qualities but are sold, packaged and finished for the home consumer market. Prussia: (Estate) See - Estrictamente Altura Psi: (Chemistry) Abbreviation for the measure of ‘Pounds per square inch’ Puck: (Coffee Making) The puck is the disc shaped cake of coffee that is left behind after brewing. It should be firm, cohesive and dry when knocked out of the portafilter into the waste container. Also known as the biscuit or spent puck. Pull: (Coffee Making) An earlier espresso making term used to describe brewing a shot of espresso on the older piston type machines. It describes the action used to prepare espresso in the 1950s, 1960s where pulling on a lever was required to extract the espresso coffee. Also called Espresso Pull, Pull a Shot. Pulp: (Green Bean Processing) This is the mucilage located between the coffee cherry skin and the pit (coffee beans). Coffee cherry pulp has a texture similar to that of grapes and is normally dried or fermented to allow its easier separation from the coffee beans. Pulped Natural Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) See - Semi-Dry-Processed Coffee Pulper Nipped: (Grading) Wet processed beans that are cut or bruised during pulping with damaged or improperly configured pulping equipment.. Pulper cut beans will usually show brown or black marks. Discoloration develops by oxidation at the damaged areas and off-flavors may result. Pulper damaged beans roast unevenly, age © Peter Baskerville 2009

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rapidly, and are susceptible to chemicals, dust, and other adverse environments. Also called "blackish" or "pulper cut". Pulping: (Green Bean Processing) Pulping refers to the process of separating the green beans from the cherry. This is done using a pulping machine. The internal pressure of the machine is monitored to ensure that it is just at the right amount of pressure is used to break open the red ripe soft cherries without damaging the coffee seeds. The coffee seeds that are released pass easily through a screen and are collected for further processing on the other side. Green berries cannot be pulped since they are too hard and too large to pass through the screen. So, together with the pulp, they pass to the end of the barrel system and may eventually be used as compost. Pulsing pumps: (Espresso Machine - Component) These are smaller and cheaper than the rotary pumps and are mostly used on machines designed for home or the office. This pump consists of a hydraulic system where a piston oscillates inside a cylinder. With no return circuit and valve system means that pressure is not maintained at the outlet. These are also known as Vibrating pumps. Pump: (Espresso Machine Component) This is a component of the espresso machine used to deliver the pressurised water required for proper espresso brewing (135 PSI). The two types of pumps used in commercial espresso making are (1) the rotary pump, or (2) the vibratory pump. Pungent: (Cupping) This term applies essentially to a full-bodied and slightly aggressive coffee tastes. It denotes strong and penetrating effect on the palate and are perceived at the back of tongue. Generally used to describe the overall bitterness of the coffee brew. Purpurescens: (Botany) A coffee plant cultivar that is characterized by its unusual purple leaves. Putrefactive Bacteria: (Green Bean Processing) This unwanted bacteria develops in the fermentation process if the beans and mucilage are left too long in the fermentation tanks. They attack the proteins in the bean itself rather than just work on removing the mucilage covering the bean. They are especially dangerous to quality when the bean has been damaged by the mechanical pulper. This bacteria discolours the beans and tends to generate a foul odour in them. These beans are referred to as “sour beans” Pyradines: (Chemistry) These aromatic compounds are present to a greater degree in darker roasted coffees. They give us the smoky/ash aromas. They are more stable than other componds but are negatively perceived when in too great a concentration Pyrazines: (Chemistry) These aromatic compounds are present to a greater degree in darker roasted coffees. They give us the earthy/musty aromas. These componds, some of which are the key odorants of Arabica coffee, are highly volatile and subject to dissipation upon exposure to air and non-enzymatic browning. Pyrolysis: (Roasting) This term describes the transformation of a substance that is produced by the action of heat. This chemical breakdown and transformation process © Peter Baskerville 2009

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occurs during the roasting of the green coffee been and begins at about (around 465F/240C). Fats and carbohydrates change in composition under heat into delicate oils that ultimately provide the aroma and most of the flavor of the brewed coffee. The process is identified by the darkening in the color of the bean. After roasting, if the coffee beans are not cooled quickly, heat from pyrolysis will bake, or even burn, the coffee. A short period of water quenching (water mist) is the conventional method of halting pyrolysis in large batches. This process is also known as volatilization. Pyrroles: (Chemistry) These aromatic compounds are present to a greater degree in darker roasted coffees. They give us the smoky/dark roast. Pyrroles are dissolved in the naturally occurring coffee oils but are subject to oxidation. Coffee - The revolutionary beverage

Q Qahveh Khaneh: (History - Coffeehouse) The name of the 16th century public coffee houses in the Ottoman/Persian Empire known as ‘schools of wisdom’ because they were the meeting places of men of arts and literature. Qahwa/Al-Qahwa: (History - Names) A Yemen term used in the 14th century and commonly applied to the beverage that was made by boiling the fruit of coffea arabica. Prior to coffee consumption the word was in common use and denoted the idea of making something repugnant or lessening one’s desire for something. Some medieval Arab lexicographers gave qahwa the meaning of wine or dark stuff. QAI: (Export - Trade) Acronym for (Quality Assurance International) which is an organic certification agency. Qat: (History – Drink) See - Khat/Kat/Qat Quad: (Drink) An espresso drink made with four shots of coffee. Quaker/Quakers: (Grading) This term is applied to any defective coffee bean (unripe, immature, blighted or underdeveloped) in the batch and tends to have a lower density than the safe beans. Quaker beans are unripe, immature, coffee beans, often with a wrinkled surface. (Roasting) A name also given to those coffee beans that fail to roast properly. Quakers do not darken well when roasted. Quakery: (Cupping) A taste taint that gives the coffee brew a pronounced peanuty flavor. It is caused by the presence of light colored, underdeveloped roasted coffee beans. It can also be caused by picking unripe, green, coffee cherries during the harvesting process. Quenching: (Roasting) The process of adding water (flushing) to the beans at the end of the roasting process to halt roasting. Quintal: (Export - Trade) A traditional unit of weight in France, Portugal, and Spain. The Spanish quintal is 100 libras (about 46 kilograms or 101 pounds). In Mexico/Costa Rica it is the equivalent of 100 pounds (46 kilos) of green coffee. A quintal of parchment coffee is equal to 57.5 kilos, being the quantity of parchment coffee that, once processed would be equal to the 46 kilos of green coffee. A quintal of coffee © Peter Baskerville 2009

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cherries is equal to 250 kilos. Thus the weight of a quintal depends on the form in which the coffee is found but will be the equivalent of 47klo of green beans. Coffee - The drink ever glorious

R Rabaut, Louis Bernard: (History - Inventor) A Frenchman, who in 1822, invented a machine which forced hot water through the coffee grounds using steam instead of a gravity drip. A larger commercial machine, based on Rabaut's idea, was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1855 by Edward Loysel de Santais. Racemosa: (Botany) Coffea Racemosa – A coffee bean cultivar that looses its leaves during the dry season and re-grows them at the start of the rainy season. It is generally rated as poor tasting and not suitable for commercial cultivation. Ragged: (Grading) Coffee with a ragged appearance. Harvesting both mature and immature cherries, or drought-affected cherries, can result in beans with a ragged appearance. Rainforest Alliances: (Farming) See - ECO-O.K. Certification Raisins: (Grading) These are the coffee beans that are removed during the grading process. The rippled nature of the bean is caused by it being left to dry on the tree for too long before being picked. See - Floaters Rambaldi, Angelo: (History - Writing) He published the works - “Ambrosia Arabica overa della Salutare Bevanda Café” in Bologna in 1691. This work concerned the coffee’s origins, cultivation, roasting, and preparation. Rancid/Rotten: (Cupping) A coffee aroma that has a strong and highly displeasing sour flavor and odour often caused by the deterioration and oxidation of the coffee fats. Professional coffee cuppers are careful to not describe a strong and unpleasant aroma as "rancid", if there are no other signs of deterioration. Rauwolf, Leohard: (History - Writing) A physician, botanist and traveller from Augsburg Germany who published his travelogue “Aigentliche beschreibung der Raiß ... inn die Morgenländer in Lauingen” in 1582 after voyages in 1573-1576 through Jerusalem, Libya and Tripoli. Rauwolf's account of his journeys represented the earliest printed reference to coffee in Europe. Razi: (History – Writing) See - Bunchum Recovery Time: (Coffee Making) This is know as the time it takes for an espresso machine to be ready to extract a new shot after the completion of a previous one. Machines with larger boilers, more powerful heating elements, or with heat exchanger systems often feature quicker recovery times than machines with small boilers. Red E Coffee: (History – Drink) See - Washington, George Constant Reduced or specialized shade Farming: (Farming) This method of farming uses a single, pruned canopy species to provide shade (usually Inga, Erythrina, Gliricidia, or Grevillea). Under this system, farmers plant coffee shrubs more densely, giving farms a manicured look. However, since the over-story consists of only one or two species, there is less species diversity. Regio's Bar: (History - Coffeehouse) This is the name of the café in Greenwich Village New York noted for being, in 1927, the location of the first espresso machine installed in the United States. The original "La Pavoni" machine remains on display there even today. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Relationship Coffee: (Export - Trade) A type of Fair Traded coffee that is not certified by a third party. Relationship coffee refers to an acceptable level of trust and understanding between the farmer and the buyer. Re-passed Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) These are coffee cherries that float and are separated out from the production and processed separately. Some experts believe that these coffees posses a sweeter profile that the bulk of the harvest. Réunion: (History – Plant) See – Bourbon. Rich/Richness: (Cupping) A taste term used to describe an interesting satisfying fullness in flavor, body or acidity. Also described as a coffee that has luxurious aroma with intense and complex flavors in highly pronounced strengths. (i.e. Sumatran coffees are the richest in body with Yemen Mocha richest in acidity. Mexican coffee would rarely be described rich) Rio/Rioy: (Cupping) A class of dry-processed coffees from the Rio district of Brazil which possess a very pungent medicinal character and an iodine-like flavor. It is said to be caused by the continued enzyme activity when the coffee beans remain in the fruit too long and is invaded by a micro-organism during drying process. The term Rioy or Rio-y has since come to be applied to any coffee with similar taste characteristics. Generally considered a taste fault but it is still sought after by consumers from the Balkan and Middle-Eastern countries Ristretto: (Drink) (Ristretto in Italian means "restricted, shrunk or short”) It is the richest and most concentrated espresso drink where less water but the same amount of coffee is used to make the beverage and creates a less bitter espresso. The extraction time is shortened producing as little as 3 oz of liquid per serving. Pure and intense espresso served in a demitasse cup. Roast Master: (Roasting) Individual in charge of coffee selection, blending, and roasting operations. Roast Taste/Roasty: (Cupping) This term describes the characteristic of the collective complex flavors of the darker roasts. The acidity overtones are replaced by pungent notes combined with a subtle bittersweet smoky or carbony/caramel flavor. Some people call this often-unnamed group of sensations "roast taste" or the "taste of the roast." Robert Napier: (History – Inventor) See - Napier Robert Robusta: (Botany) Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner 'Robusta'. A coffee species, discovered by a Dutch botanist and found to be native to the Belgian Congo (Zaire or Republic of Congo). It is high in caffeine but is generally regarded as an inferior cup quality to Coffea Arabica. It grows best at lower altitudes (sea level to 2,000 feet, 610m), is a higher-yielding tree and is more resistant to disease than Arabica. It is produced primarily in Indonesia, West Africa, Brazil, and Vietnam. It is the second most widely cultivated coffee plant currently producing about 30% of the world's coffee. Robusta is cheaper than Arabica to process and is used by many commercial coffee companies as a basis for instant coffee. Is can be used in the specialty coffee trade as a taste-enhancing component in some Italian-style espresso coffee blends. Robusta is the upright plant form of this species. Also known by botanists as Coffea bukobensis A. Zimm., Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. kouilouensis Pierre ex De Wild., Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. sankuruensis De Wild., Coffea robusta L. Linden (GRIN), Coffea robusta L. (Smit). Is commonly known in the trade as Congo coffee or Congo coffee tree (USA). © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Robustas: (Export - Trade) A Price group indicator recorded by the ICO that includes the price of coffee contracts traded in Robusta coffee beans. These beans come mostly from Africa and S.E. Asia countries including Angola, Congo (Dem. Rep.), Ghana, Guinea, Indonesia, Liberia, Nigeria and OAMCAF Member countries. Roselius, Ludwig: (Decaffienation) A German coffee importer who turned a batch of ruined coffee beans over to researchers who then discovered a way of making decaffeinated coffee in 1903. Rotary Pump: (Espresso Machine - Component) The pump type used in most commercial espresso machines and requires the machine to be plumbed in to the mains supply. This pump type is necessary for making a large number of coffees or more than one cup at a time. Taking water from the mains supply these pumps create enough pressure in the circuit to allow the water to pass through the ground coffee. They use rapidly oscillating vanes inside a sealed container to push water through at high pressures A by-pass connection allows the pump to keep water pressure in the system at the required level. It is usually set between 8 and 10 atmospheres (or “bars”) Sometimes referred to as a volumetric pump, or by a trade name, Procon. Rotary Type Dryer: (Green Bean Processing) The most popular machine type used to dry coffee beans. Consisting of two concentric perforated drums in which the beans are placed in the outer area whilst hot air is forced through the inner drum. The escaping hot air will pick up moisture as it escapes through the perforations on the outer drum. Rotor: (Grinding) See - Burr Grinder Rough: (Cupping) A secondary, sharp, rasping, salty sensation on the palette or tongue. Rough. Caused by the additive property of salt taste sensations. Round, Rounded: (Cupping) A balanced coffee whose reduced range of gases and vapors is present but at a moderately perceptible strength. The basic organoleptic characteristics are just at the right level, with none particularly apparent, giving the impression of roundness. RSI: (Coffee Making) Acronym for (Repetitive Sprain Injury) RSW: (Brand) See - Blue Mountain Rubber-like, Rubbery: (Cupping) This odour descriptor is characteristic of the smell of hot tyres, rubber bands and rubber stoppers. It is not always considered a negative attribute but has a characteristic strong note highly recognizable in some coffees. It is usually associated with natural processed Robusta coffees grown in Africa and can be the result of coffee berries that have dried on the shrub before they are picked.. Rubia: (Botany) See - Madder Family Rubiaceae family: (Botany) Botanists have classified the coffee plant in this family, which also includes gardenia, quinine and other useful substances. The common name given to this family is Madder. Ruiru 11: (Botany) Is a new dwarf hybrid which was developed at the Coffee Research Station at Ruiru in Kenya and launched on to the market in 1985. Ruiru 11 is resistant to both coffee berry disease and to coffee leaf rust. It is also high yielding and suitable for planting at twice the normal density. Runge, Fedrich Ferdinand: (Decafination) It is understood that the first successful extraction of caffeine from the coffee beans was achieved in 1820 by this German chemist after his friend, the poet Goethe, had asked him to analyze the constituents of coffee to discover the cause of his insomnia. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Rustic Farming: (Farming) The least intensified, least expensive, low-maintenance and low-yield of the coffee farming systems. The coffee shrubs are planted in the existing forest with minimum alteration to the native vegetation. This style is typically used by small family-owned farms that aim to only produce a modest crop of coffee. Coffee - The aromatic draught

S salt/Saltiness: (Cupping) A basic taste that is characterized by solutions of chlorides, bromides, iodides, nitrates, and sulfates of potassium and lithium or other salts. Samuel Carpenter: See Ye coffee house San Miguel: (Estate) A respected coffee growing estate in Costa Rica. Classified as SHB and is 100% washed Arabica. All production is European Processed. San Ramon: (Botany) Coffea arabica L. 'San Ramon'. It is a dwarf variety of Arabica var typica. A small stature tree that is wind tolerant, high yield and drought resistant. Sanani: (Brand) A market name incorporating several growing regions located west of Sana'a, the capital city of Yemen. It tends to be a lower-toned, somewhat less acidic version of the Yemen style. It is noted for its full body and chocolate undertones. Sanka: (Decaffination) (a contraction of the French name "sans caffeine" or nocaffeine). This decaffeinated coffee brand was introduced into the US in 1923 with the marketing tag line “Lets You Sleep”. It was first sold in Germany in 1909 and was marketed there as Kaffee Hag and as Café Sanka in France. It was a patent of Dr. Ludwig Roselius that was granted in 1906. Sans Caffeine: (Decaffination) See - Sanka Santa Ana: (Estate) See – Yauco Selecto. Santa Cruz: (Estate) See - Estrictamente Altura Santo Domingo: (Brand) The former name of the Dominican Republic. Coffee from this republic is often marketed under the old country name because of its more romantic sound. Santos: (Brand) See - Bourbon Santos. São Paulo: (Region) See - Bourbon Santos Sara Lee: (Export - Trade) See - Manufacturers Sator: (Grinding) See - Burr Grinder Satori Kato: (History - Drink) A Japanese-American chemist from Chicago who is credited with inventing the first soluble "instant" coffee. He presented his discovery in 1881 at the Pan-American World Fair and obtained a patent for it in 1903. SC: (Grading) Acronym for (Standard Central). SCAA: (Grading) Acronym for Specialty Coffee Association of America. The SCAA is a trade association for the specialty coffee industry, one of the fastest-growing food industries in the world. Specialty coffee — sometimes called "gourmet" or "premium" coffee — is grown in the world's most ideal coffee-producing climates and prepared according to exacting standards. One of the SCAA's primary functions is to set the industry's standards for growing, roasting and brewing. Members of the SCAA include coffee retailers, roasters, producers, exporters and importers, as well as manufacturers of coffee equipment and related products. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Scheha Beddin: (History - Writing) See - Beddin, Scheha Scorched: (Roasting) An odor taint that gives the coffee brew a slight aftertaste of phenolic and pyridine character. It is the result of applying too much heat too quickly during the roasting process causing a charring to the surface of the bean and an underdevelopment of the caramelized compounds. Scorched Roasted coffee with burn marks caused by inadequate tumbling or by roasting too hot. Also called "tipped" or "charred". Second Crack: (Roasting) The second of two distinctly different periods of cracking sounds during roasting when the coffee beans are giving off their own heat and expanding suddenly. Second crack begins around 440 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, as measured by roaster bean probe. Secondary coffee taste sensations: (Cupping) Includes descriptions like: Piquant to nippy, mild to delicate, tangy to tart, soft to neutral, rough to astringent, hard to acrid. Secondary Crop: (Farming) Those countries like Colombia and Kenya where the division between wet and dry seasons is not so clearly defined, may have two flowerings a year, creating a main and a secondary crop (sometimes called a fly crop). See - Demucilage See - En Pergamino See - Government Estate See - Spermoderm Selective Picking: (Farming) This is a harvesting process that involves making three to four passes of the coffee tree at intervals of between eight to 10 days so that only cherries which are at their peak of ripeness are taken. Semi Hard Bean: (Grading) (S.H.B.) The forth highest grade of Guatemala’s green coffee beans that are traded on the Tokyo Grain Exchange. Semi-Dry-Processed Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) This method of bean processing takes some of the steps from both the wet and dry methods of preparation. The outer skin of the coffee fruit is removed first in a process called pulping followed by the sun drying (no fermentation) of coffee bean complete with the parchment and silverskin still attached. After drying, the coffee beans are dehusked (dehulled, separated from the parchment), sorted, and placed in burlap sacks for export. It is a practice followed extensively in Brazil and to a lesser extent in Sumatra and Sulawesi in Indonesia. Seminaries of Sedition: (History - Coffeehouse) This was the name given to the coffee houses in England by the authorities who eventually ordered them closed in 1675. From 1663 all coffee houses in England had to be licensed. Semi-Wet-Processed Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) See - Semi-Dry-Processed Coffee Semperflorens: (Botany) A cultivar noted for its continual flowering and production. Sensory Evaluation: (Cupping) The method for tasting coffee to evaluate its quality using the three forms of: Aroma (Olfaction); Taste (Gestation); and Body (Mouthfeel). Shade Grown: (Farming) A heavy marketed concept by the SMBC of growing coffee under a forest canopy and thereby giving a beneficial effect to the migratory birds. Other environments benefits of this method include farm diversification, local species © Peter Baskerville 2009

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diversity, farm ecology, landscape security and carbon sequestration. Certifications for this method of farming are given under the SMBC and the Eco-OK initiative. Shade Spectrum Farming: (Farming) This is a five-category continuum of "management spectrums for coffee," covering the various types of shade and cover. This basic shade gradient, devised by Mexican coffee researchers and technicians, has become a familiar centerpiece in discussions on quantifying shade. They are (1) Rustic (2) Traditional polyculture (3) Commercial polyculture (4) Reduced or specialized shade and (5) Full-sun or unshaded monoculture. Shade-Grown: (Farming) See - Eco-Friendly/Eco Cultivated Shambas: (Farming) See - Chagga Tribe Sharp: (Cupping) A taste description identifying greater "acidity" in the coffee. It is a taste sensation created when acids in the coffee combine with salts to increase the overall saltiness or sharpness. It is a characteristic found most often in unwashed Robusta coffee and can range in classification from rough to astringent. Shathilya Order: (History - Drink) See - Sufis SHB: (Grading) Acronym for a grade called (Strictly Hard Bean). This is the highest green coffee grade of Guatemala and Costa Rica. See - Strictly Hard Bean or Semi Hard Bean. Sheik Gemaleddin: (History) The mufti of Aden in 1454, having discovered the virtues of the berry on a journey to Abyssinia, sanctions the use of coffee in Arabia Felix. Sheik Omar: (History) A disciple of Sheik Schadheli patron saint and legendary founder of Mocha, by chance discovers in 1258 coffee as a beverage at Ousab in Arabia. Sheikh Jamaluddin Abu Muhammad bin Said: (History - Drink) He was the Grand Mufti of Aden who in the 15th century recommended his fellow Sufis use the coffee drink to enable them to pass the night in prayer and devotions. He had previously discovered coffees stimulant benefits along with its medicinal properties after a journey to Abyssinia in 1454. Shell: (Grading) A common defect where the coffee beans with a large cavity similar to a shell. While only a secondary concern, compared to defects such as stones, sticks, black beans, or sour beans, too many shells in a coffee sample is an indication of a lesser coffee grade. Shemsi of Damascus: (Coffee House) Opened, in 1554, the first coffee house in Constantinople with Hekem of Aleppo Sherley's Travels: (History - Writing) Published works in 1601 that described the use of coffee in the passage "a certain liquor which they call coffe." SHG: (Grading) Acronym for a grading called (Strictly High Grown). See - Strictly High Grown SHGC: (Grading) Acronym for a grading called (Strictly High Grown Central). Ship Filings: (Export - Trade) Coffee swept overboard or that has fallen off the pier. Ship Samples: (Export - Trade) Samples that precede the actual shipment. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Ship Sweepings: (Export - Trade) All loose coffee swept up from the floor of piers, ship holds, or warehouse which are not suitable for consumption. Shipper's Slacks: (Export - Trade) Bags of coffee originally delivered by the shipper to the steamer in a slack filled condition. It describes a bag that is not completely full. Short Black: (Drink) – A ‘pure intense Italian favourite with a biting crème head. Contains 75ml of pure double shot (2) coffee essence made from 24gm of fresh ground coffee beans. Traditionally served in glass and is referred to as Espresso by European customers. Shortberry Harrar: (Brand) A smaller green bean from Ethiopia. It is grown and processed in the traditional way on the eastern part of the state near Harrar (the old state capital until 1577). Shot: (Coffee Making) A term used by baristas to describe a brewed espresso. Showers: (Espresso Machine - Component) A round metal fine mesh attachment fixed to the underside of the group head to disperse the hot water evenly across the ground coffee that is held in the filter. It is also known as a diffuser. In high end and commercial machines the disk is 2 - part; a solid stainless steel disc at back with relatively large holes and a fine stainless steel mesh front, which provides a more even water distribution. Sidamo/Sidama: (Brand) A Ethiopian Arabica bean grown at 1400-2200m in the south eastern part of state on the boarder with Kenya. It is grown in small plot gardens and cultivated from the varieties that originated in the south-west of the state. They are noted for their fragrantly floral character, light-to-medium bodied and balanced acidity. This popular brand is both wet and dry processed. Sierra Leone Coffee: (Botany) See – Stenophylla. Sierra Madre: (Region) A coffee growing region on the mountain range in the state of Chiapas in southern Mexico. Sieur Monin: (History) A celebrated physician of Grenoble who in France in 1685 first recommended Café au lait for use as a medicine Sigri: (Brand) One of New Guinea’s most famous brands. It is grown in the Wahgi Valley in the Western Highlands province. Silver Hill Estate: (Estate) A coffee growing estate in Jamaica. It is one of the few works licensed by the Jamaican Coffee Industry Board to produce genuine Blue Mountain coffee. See - Blue Mountain Silverskin: (Botany) The thin, papery innermost skin of the coffee cherry that surrounds the coffee beans and similar to rice paper. It mostly stays with the green bean until it is burnt off during roasting when it becomes chaff. As an option it can also be removed prior to roasting using a polishing process. Generally the silver skin on coffee grown at lower elevations, like Kona for example, is generally harder to remove than is the skin on coffee grown at higher altitudes. Sina, Ibn: (History – Writing) See - Ibn Sina Single Basket: (Espresso Machine Component) A filter basket designed inside a portafilter for producing a single shot of espresso. This basket has a narrower bottom area when compared to a double basket. Single Origin: (Grading) See - Single-Origin Coffee Single-Estate Coffee: (Grading) See - Single-Origin Coffee © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Single-Origin Coffee: (Export - Trade) It is also known as Estate Grown. It is a coffee variety that comes from a single country, region, area or crop. It is usually the coffee produced by a single farm, a single mill, or a single group of farms and marketed without blending with any other coffees. Generally they are grown on large farms (or government controlled farms) and old family owned plantations as opposed to small peasant plots. Many specialty coffees are now identified by estate name, rather than the less specific regional or market name. Estate Java and Estate Kenya are examples of some of the finest coffees in the world. Sometimes called straight coffee. Sir Henry Blount: (History) In 1634 makes a voyage to the Levant, and is invited to drink "cauphe" in Turkey. Sivetz Michael: (Roasting) See - Michael Sivetz Sivitz Roaster: (Roasting) See - Fluid Bed Roaster Sizing: (Grading) The term used for the grading the coffee bean by its size. Skimmings: (Export - Trade) Describes that part of the coffee in the bag which has been damaged by moisture. The damaged portion of the bag is skimmed off. Skimmings are then further graded into “GS” for good skimmings, "MS" for not so good skimmings, and "PS" for poor skimmings. Skinny: (Drink) (as in Skinny Cappuccino or Latte): An espresso-based drink made with skim or low-fat milk. Slack: (Export - Trade) Bags that have become torn or otherwise not full. SMBC: (Farming) Acronym for (Smithsonian Migratory Bird Centre). Licenses the “Bird Friendly’ coffee mark to farms that comply with its shade grown requirements. By planting the coffee trees under the forest canopy (rather than clear felling) provides migratory birds with a resting place in their travels. Smoky: (Cupping) The taste and naturally occurring aroma of wood smoke. Smooth: (Cupping) Describes a cup low in palate acidity and with a moderate low level of oily material suspended in the coffee beverage. Also called round, or rounded or soft. Soft: (Cupping) A taste descriptor of a smooth cup free of any foreign flavors and often describes the low-acidity coffees such as those from Indonesians or the washed Arabica coffee from Santos, Brazil. This taste may also be called mellow or sweet. Soft-sweet: (Cupping) A pleasant clean sweet taste denoting a smooth cup free of any foreign objects. Solenoid, 3 - way Valves: (Espresso Machine - Component) These valves serve to relieve the built up pressure in the group and portafilter assembly immediately after the brewing process. They are normally actuated electronically via a solenoid, but mechanical versions of this valve (as on the original Faema E-61 group) also exist. They are present in high end domestic machines and all commercial machines. ONLY machines with these valves should be cleaned using the backflushing method. Soliman II: (History) In 1542 at the solicitation of a favorite court lady, forbids the use of coffee, but to no purpose. Solo: (Drink) A single shot of espresso. Sommeliers: (Cupping) See - Coffee Sommeliers Sorting: (Green Bean Processing) The method used by producers to remove as many defective beans from the shipment as possible and thereby gain a better price on the © Peter Baskerville 2009

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markets (particularly in USA where imperfections per 100g has a major influence on the grading/pricing formula). Sorting is done by hand or in conjunction with Air or Electronic Sorting machines. Sound Coffee: (Export - Trade) Green coffee that is ready for sale and in a marketable condition. . Sound Cup: (Cupping) A coffee with no particular positive characteristic yet without any negative characteristics. Sour Beans: (Grading) Coffee beans that have been discoloured and have a foul odour. Usually caused when putrefactive bacteria attacks the proteins in the green bean when they have left too long in the fermentation tanks under the natural fermentation method. See - Putrefactive Bacteria Sour/Sourness: (Cupping) A basic taste perceived at the tip of the tongue and characterized by solutions of tartaric acid, citric acid or malic acid. They are the excessively sharp, biting and unpleasant flavours (such as vinegar or acetic acid) and are best described as tart flavors reminiscent of unripe fruit. It is a characteristic found most often in unwashed Robusta coffees and range in description from hard to acrid. It is sometimes associated with the aroma of over-fermented coffee that can occur when beans are under-ripe or under-roasted. Soury flavors are often confused with acidity, which is the slightly tangy sensation associated with brighter coffee flavors. Specialised Production Farming: (Farming) Farms where coffee is the unique product of interest and is planted intensively (1,200/ha) with shade trees. Specialty Coffee: (Marketing) It is used as a term to differentiate between large commercial roasters and coffees that are more individual in their marketing. (usually sold to espresso bars) Species Plantarum: (History - Writing) See - Linnaeus, Carolus Spent Puck: (Coffee making) see Puck. Spermoderm: (Botany) Biological name for the thin membrane that covers each bean separately. It is more commonly referred to in the coffee trade as the 'silver skin.' Spicy: (Cupping) A lively flavor and aroma reminiscent of sweet and savory woodseed cloves, wood-spice cinnamon and allspice. It produces a slightly "hot" sensation in the finish and is often associated with coffees from Ethiopian and Guatemalan. Indonesian Arabicas are another good example of this taste sensation. Does not include the aroma of savory spices such as pepper, oregano, and curry. Spills/Spillings: (Cupping) Describes coffee spilled in the ship's holds, or on the pier. Spot: (Export - Trade) The spot market is where the purchaser actually buys the beans at the current price for immediate delivery. As opposed to the future's market where the sale of coffee is planner for sometime in the future. Spout(s): (Espresso Machine Component) This is the exit area on a portafilter where the brewed espresso pours out into the cup. Portafilters can have one or two spouts, though most come standard with two spouts. Stale: (Cupping) This is roasted coffee that has been stored incorrectly and has been exposed to moisture and oxygen for too long. This causes it to develop an unpleasant flat cardboard taste. The oxygen penetrates the bean fiber and adversely affects the organic material in the coffee bean. Stall: (Coffee Making) (also stalling) occurs when coffee is ground too fine and/or tamped too hard, and the espresso machine pump cannot produce enough pressure to © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 76 of 89

force water past the coffee grounds. Most often occurs when attempting to brew a ristretto shot. Stationary Driers: (Green Bean Processing) A recent introduction where green coffee beans are placed on enclosed, stationary shallow trays with screen bottoms. Heated air is forced through the coffee via the screen bottom. Cascade type dryers are a variation on this type and may someday replace the rotary type. Steam Knob: (Espresso Machine Component) Most consumer, prosumer, and commercial espresso machines use a manual valve control knob to release steam from the machine's boiler or thermoblock. By controlling the knob, you can increase or decrease the amount of steam pressure released. Steam knobs are used to control the steam used to froth and steam milk. Steam Pressure Espresso: (Coffee Making) This can refer to moka pots or "espresso machines" that rely on steam pressure solely to push water through a bed of coffee. Most of the typical $40 to $80 espresso machines you may see at department stores are steam pressure espresso makers. They are essentially self-contained, electric moka pots. Also called steam espresso. Steam Valve: (Espresso Machine Component) this is the valve you control with a steam knob, that allows steam to be released from an espresso machine's internal boiler or thermoblock. Steam Wand: (Espresso Machine - Component) The small pivotal protruding pipe on espresso machines that provides live steam for the milk-frothing operation. It is controlled by a steam knob that opens and closes the steam valve inside the machine. Steamer Sweat: (Export - Trade) An insurance term meaning damage to coffee from sweat generated by the heat in the hold of a vessel. Steaming Pitcher: (Coffee Making) See Frothing Pitcher Steep: (Coffee Making) A method of making a coffee beverage where ground coffee is soaked in hot water at a temperature just under the boiling point to steep the coffee flavours from the grounds. Stenophylla: (Botany). Coffea stenophylla G. Don. A cultivar grown in Brazil, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast and is resistant to the “leaf miner” disease and to lack of water. It is a coffee variety that is not grown commercially in large quantities. Its comparable odour like tea makes it unpopular with the tasters. Common names are Highland coffee, Narrow-leaf coffee and Sierra Leone coffee. Stinker: (Grading) A coffee cherry that has been picked in an over ripe/black bean state. The coffee seeds have gone rotten in the fruit or in the processing and produce an unpleasant or even foul taste. Beans that get stuck in a pulper, or fermentation tank, too long are likely to become stinkers. One or two stinker beans can spoil a whole batch of coffee. Straight Coffee: (Grading) See - Single-Origin Coffee Strawy: (Cupping) A taste taint with a distinct hay-like character. It describes the loss of organic material from the green coffee beans while in storage, often occurring in the aging process after harvesting. Strictly Hard Bean: (Grading) (S.H.B.) The highest grade for Costa Rica and Guatemala green coffee beans traded on the Tokyo Grain Exchange. Usually refers to coffee beans grown above 3,900 feet (1,180m). Beans grown at high altitudes mature more slowly and grow to be harder and denser than beans grown at lower elevations. The inherent consistency and taste attributes of high grown beans makes them more © Peter Baskerville 2009 Page 77 of 89

desirable, and generally more expensive, than coffees grown at lower elevations. Synonymous with "strictly high grown (SHG)". Strictly High Grown: (Grading) (S.H.G.) The standard grade for Nicaragua but the highest grade for Mexico, Haiti, El Salvadorian and Honduras green coffee beans traded on the Tokyo Grain Exchange. Strictly Soft Bean: (Grading) Strictly Soft (SS) beans are grown at relatively low altitudes (under 4,000 feet). Beans grown at lower altitudes mature quickly and produce a lighter, less dense bean. Strictly Soft Arabica beans have a more rounded flavor compared to the generally more flavorful and dense Arabica beans grown at higher elevations. Stripping: (Farming) In harvesting terms it consists of removing everything on the branch by hand: (ie. ripe cherries, flowers, unripe cherries, and black, over-ripe ones) Practiced in some African regions and in Brazil but generally with poor quality results. Strong: (Cupping) The degree of presence of various taste defects or virtues or relative proportion of coffee solubles to water in a given brew Style: (Cupping) A term used to describe the appearance of the whole coffee bean. Stylus: (Espresso Machine – Component) See - Steam Wand Sufis: (History - Drink) Under the name of the Shathilya order they are recognised as the first uses of coffee. They are known to have created a drink from the coffee cherries as a stimulant to help them stay awake during their late night Thika (remembrance of God) ceremonies. The Egyptian Dhul-Nun is generally considered to be the founder of this Muslim mysticism. Sulawesi Toraja: (Brand) Formally called Celebes Kalossi it is the market name for coffee beans grown in southwestern Sulawesi (formerly Celebes), Indonesia. Kalossi is the name given by the Dutch to the southern part of the island. Coffee grown here possesses a deep rich body and flavour with low acidity. Suleiman Agha: (History – Writing) See - Agha Suleiman Sulfurous compounds: (Chemistry) This family of compounds forms the basis of coffee aroma. These include strong smelling mercaptans like onion, garlic, and even sweet, honey-like aromas. Sultan Selim I: (History) After conquering Egypt in 151, brings coffee to Constantinople. Sumatra: (Region) Two of the world's best and most famous coffees come from Sumatra: Mandheling and Ankola. Both are semi-dry processed coffees grown in westcentral Sumatra near the port of Pandang at altitudes of 2,500 to 5,000 feet. Mandheling is known for its herby aroma, full body, low acidity, and a rich smooth flavor. Sun Drying: (Green Bean Processing) The traditional way in which coffee beans are dried on small farms. Drying coffee directly after picking (in the dry method) or after fruit removal (in the wet method) by exposing it to the heat of the sun. The coffee is spread and raked in thin layers on drying racks or patios. It is the more traditional alternative to machine drying. Provision is made to protect the beans from rain, usually in the form of movable roofs over the platforms. It takes from four to six days to completely dry the coffee beans when sunny weather prevails. Sun-grown coffee Farming: (Farming) Super-intensive (5,000trees/ha) specialized coffee plants requiring high doses of agro-chemicals that is not grown under a shade canopy. Arabica coffee is traditionally grown in shade in many (but not all) parts of © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, and in some other parts of the world, including India and some regions of Indonesia and Africa. Super automatic: (Espresso Machine Component) A class of espresso machine that can grind, dose, tamp, brew, and eject a spent puck, all with one push of a button. Some commercial super automatics can also steam milk automatically, depending on your brew selection. The Saeco Royal Digital is an example of a super auto. Supercritical carbon dioxide: (Decaffeination) The description of the point (72.8 atm 304.2 K) at which gaseous and liquid carbon dioxide become identical. The carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid in that there is no distinction between the liquid and gas phases. This allow it to easily penetrate deep into the beans (gas property) and yet dissolve caffeine like a liquid. Supremo: (Grading) This is the highest export grade of coffee shipped from some countries with Colombia being the most notable. The grade only contains flat beans and excludes any Peabody. Sustainable Farming: (Farming) Defined by Mark Perkins, Elan as “Coffee which is cultivated, produced and marketed in a manner that respects and preserves the symbiotic balance between ecosystems and cultures." See - Eco-Friendly/Eco Cultivated Sweated coffee: (Marketing) A not widely accepted practice of submitting green coffee to a steaming process to give the beans a brown appearance. It is generally considered an adulteration of the coffee bean. Sweating: (Green Bean Processing) This can occur when the volume of air in mechanical drying is not sufficient to prevent condensation forming on the beans which will result in poor quality coffee being produced. Sweaty: (Cupping) A coffee probably starting to fade because it has been stored for some time in less-than-ideal conditions and results in a distinct sweaty taste. Sweet or Sweetness: (Cupping) One of the four basic tastes and includes solutions of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose), alcohols, glycols, and some amino acids. It describes a coffee that is free from harshness, contaminates, off-flavours and defects. It is smooth, palatable coffee with fruity, caramel or chocolaty flavors. Sweetly Floral: (Cupping) A coffee taste creating fragrant sensations reminiscent of a flower such as jasmine. Sweetly Spicy: (Cupping) A coffee taste like a spicy fragrance sensations reminiscent of a sweet spice such as cardamom. Swiss water process: (Decaffeination) A trademarked 100% chemical free coffee decaffeination process where caffeine-free "flavor charged water" is used to extract the caffeine from green coffee beans. Since the flavor charged water is already saturated with flavor ingredients, only caffeine moves from the beans to the water. Activated charcoal rather than chemicals or solvents are used to remove the caffeine from the solution. Syrupy: (Cupping) Description of a sweet, rich, and viscous mouthfeel. Coffee - Ambrosia of the Gods

T Tachira: (Brand) A full bodied, sweet delicate coffee with rich acidity. It is grown in the west of the Venezuela state near the Colombian boarder. Coffees grown in this area © Peter Baskerville 2009

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are grouped together under the marketing name of Maraciabos which they take from the port from where they are shipped. Taint/Tainted: (Cupping) A unwanted slightly defective flavor caused by chemical changes in the coffee that happens during the growing, processing, or roasting stages. Too much pulp in fermenting parchment, for example, will produce tainted coffee. Takengon: (Region) A region of Sumatra (Indonesia) that provides an excellent organic coffee. Tall: (Drink) (AKA Double or Grande): A larger portion (not necessarily twice the size), as in a Tall latte. Tamilnadu: (Region) (formerly Madras) A respected coffee growing region in the south of India. Tamp/tamping: (Coffee Making) The act of pressing and compacting a bed of loose, finely ground coffee into a portafilter in preparation for brewing espresso coffee to prevent channeling by the brewing water. Tamper: (Coffee Making) Is the small pestle-like device with a round flat end used for compressing and distributing the ground coffee inside the filter basket in preparation for the coffee extraction process. This action ensures that there are no air pockets in the coffee so that the pressurized water cannot find the path of least resistance (channeling) at the edges of the coffee. Most commercial, prosumer, and high end consumer espresso machines use a 58mm tamper; other common sizes are 49mm, 53mm, and 57mm. Some tampers are attached permanently to the from of espresso grinders enabling you to handle the tamping operation with one hand. Tangy: (Cupping) A taste sensation characterized by a predominantly darting, sour almost fruit like sensation along the sides of the tongue that is caused by a high-thannormal percentage of sugars. It is typical of unwashed Indian Arabica and high-grown Costa Rican coffees. Tapachula, Chiapas: (Region) A coffee-growing area in the state of Chiapas in southern Mexico. The most noted beans are grown in the southeast corner of the state near the border with Guatemala. Tapachula coffees (named after the town) often display the brisk acidity, delicate flavor, and light to medium body of the better known Mexican coffees of Oaxaca and Vera Cruz States. It has been gaining a reputation recently for its above average organic coffees. See - Chiapas Tare: (Export - Trade) The net weight of the contents of the bag of coffee. Tarrazu: (Brand) Coffee named after the town of San Marcos de Tarrazu. It is the market name for one of the Costa Rica’s and in fact the world’s better coffees. It is grown in rich volcanic soil in the south of the state at elevations of between 1,200 – 1,700m. Tarry: (Cupping) A taste fault giving the coffee brew an unpleasant burnt character. It is said to be caused by excessive heat in the extraction process that has scorched the coffee proteins. Tart: (Cupping) A taste sensation characterized by a predominantly puckering, sour sensation along the sides of the tongue. It is caused by a higher-than-normal percentage of sour acids. Taste of the roast: (Cupping) See - Roast Taste/Roasty Temperature Stability: (Coffee Making) The stability of critical temperature refers to the ability of the heating mechanisms in the espresso machine to maintain the water © Peter Baskerville 2009

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temperature at the optimal level throughout the brewing process from the boiler to the grouphead. It is generally considered that the Electronic control maintains this temperature stability at a more precise level than the Electro-mechanical system. TGE: (Export - Trade) Acronym for (Tokyo Grain Exchange) where coffee futures are traded. The Basics of Cupping Coffee: (Research) A book by Ted Lingle. The Blue Bottle: (History – Coffeehouse) See - Kolschitzky, Franz Georg The Illistrated Orinoco: (Histroy – Plant) See - Gumilla, Jose The King's Arms: (Coffee House) In 1696 was the first coffee house opened in New York. The Moka: (History Coffeehouse) See - Pino Riservato The New and Curious Coffee House: (History) is issued at Leipzig by Theophilo Georgi, as a kind of organ of the first kaffee-klatsch. W1707—The first coffee periodical, The Tea and Coffee Trade Journal Company: (Research) See – All About Coffee The Ultimate Coffee: (Research) A book by Kenneth Davids Theatrum Botanicum: (History - Writing) This book contained the first botanical description of the coffee tree in English and was published by Parkinson in 1640. Theophila, Georgi: (History - Writing) In 1707 he was the first to publish a gossip Coffee magazine titled “The New and Curious Coffee House”. Thermoblock: (Espresso Machine - Component) A pressure casting metal aluminium block containing a large number of narrow channels inside that is built inside the boiler. Cold water passing through the block will reach the required temperature for brewing by the time it passes out and into the shower of the group head. The block is heated by an external element and the thermal stability provided by a thermoblock is generally better than that provided by just the espresso machine boiler on its own. Thermostats: (Espresso Machine Component) A temperature measuring device that is electrically, mechanically, or electronically controlled, and which activates and deactivates a heating element to maintain a preset level. Thin: (Cupping) The description of a coffee beverage that lacks flavor, body, acidity or substance. Tico: (Botany) A cultivar of Coffea Arabica grown in Central America. Timor Hybrid: (Botany) A variety of coffee tree that was found in Timor in 1940s and is a natural occurring cross between the Arabica and Robusta species. Cultivars developed from this variety include, Catimor (cross of Timor hybrid & Caturra), Sarchimor (cross of Timor hybrid & Vila Sarchi), Costa Rica 95, IHCafe 90, Colombia (Timor hybrid 1343 derivative), Ruiru 11 (Kenya; cross of TH 1343 & SL28), Tupi, Obata (Brazil; Sarchimor), Ababuna (Ethiopia), Cauvery (India) Tipo Gigante: (History - Inventor) See - Bezzera, Luigi © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Tipping/Tipped: (Roasting) The name given to the charring of the little germ at the end of the green coffee bean that occurs during the roasting process. It is generally caused by the application of intense heat, too quickly. It produces a cereal-like taste taint. TIPS: (History - Coffeehouse) Folklore has it that it was the coffeehouses of England that started the custom of tipping waiters and waitresses. People who wanted good service and better seating would put some money in a tin labeled "To Insure Prompt Service" - hence the name ‘TIPS’. Toasty: (Cupping) A coffee with an appealing taste and scent that may bring to mind the smell of fresh toast. Tobacco: (Cupping) An aroma descriptor, reminiscent of the odour and taste of fresh (not burnt) tobacco in brewed coffee. A tobacco-like taste is not necessarily disagreeable and is found in various specialty coffees throughout the world. A tobaccoy taste or aroma should not be confused with characteristics of burnt tobacco (ash). Tokyo Grain Exchange: (Export - Trade) The Tokyo Grain Exchange (TGE) was established in 1952. Producers, roasters, as well as fund managers and speculators trade Arabica and Robusta coffee contracts at this exchange. Tone: (Cupping) This is the description of the appearance or colour of the coffee. Tontine Coffeehouse: (History Coffeehouse) This coffeehouse played an important role in the formation of the New York Stock Exchange. Torrefaction Coffee: (Marketing) Roasted coffee beans that have been glazed with sugar. It is believed by some that this helps to preserve the freshness and aroma of the coffee bean. Still practiced and sold in Spain and South America. Traditional Polyculture Farming: (Farming) This farming technique requires more management than the rustic coffee farming. It involves the deliberate integration of beneficial plants such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, and medicinal plants which leads to a greater species diversity than the commercial polyculture farming. The crop diversification generally helps farmers survive when coffee prices are depressed. Traditional Process: (Green Bean Processing) See - European Process. Tres Rios: (Region) The market name for one of the more respected and famous coffees of Costa Rica. It is a premier growing region to the east of San Jose and interpreted as meaning “Three Rivers”. Triage: (Grading) The name given to broken and chipped green coffee beans. Triglycerides: (Decaffeination) A liquid agent used in the decaffeination process. It is used to extract the caffeine from the green bean. See – Lipid. ) See - Direct Contact Decaffienation Triple Certified: (Farming) See - Eco-Friendly/Eco Cultivated Tri-sodium phosphate: (Espresso Machine – Maintenance) See - Detergents © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Trujillo: (Brand) Considered to be a rather lifeless coffee bean produced in the Andean region of Venezuela. Tryer: (Roasting) It is the small scoop that is inserted into the roasting machine to capture a small sample of the coffee roast during the roasting process. By periodically withdrawing this scoop the roast-master is able to examine the degree and stage of the roasting process and make decisions about that contribute to the desired output.. Turkish Coffee: (Drink) A coffee making procedure where coffee beans are ground to a fine powder, sweetened (usually), brewed by bringing to the boil, and served in cups along with the grounds. Turk's Head: (History - Coffeehouse) A coffee house that traded from the Strand in London from 1763 to 1783 and was famous for the gathering place for such literary figures as Samuel Johnson, his biographer Boswell, Oliver Goldsmith, the actor David Garrick, Edmund Burke, and Sir Joshua Reynolds the painter. Other members of the circle were Thomas Percy, historian Edward Gibbon, and economist Adam Smith. Turpeny: (Cupping) An aromatic sensation found in coffee's aftertaste that produces either resinous sensations similar to turpentine or medicinal sensations similar to camphor. Twisty: (Cupping) A coffee with unreliable characteristics that shows differing negative characteristics in a single cup or from cup to cup. A coffee with unreliable characteristics. Type: (Export - Trade) A sample given that is fairly represents the bulk coffee contract that is to be shipped. Typica: (Botany) The correct botanical name is Coffea arabica L. 'Typica’. It is a coffee variety of Coffea Arabica that is native to Ethiopia. Var Typica is the oldest and most well known of all the coffee varieties and still constitutes the bulk of the world's coffee production. Some of the best Latin-American coffees are from the Typica stock. The limits of its low yield production are made up for in its excellent cup. Other cultivars that have developed from this variety include, Blue Mountain (Jamaica), Kona (Hawaii), Harrar, Agaro, Yrgacheffe (Ethiopia), Kents (India), San Bernardo (Guatemala). Typica varieties have lesser genetic diversity than the Bourbon varieties because they are derived from just one plant, the original one from the Amsterdam botanic garden in 1706. This makes them more susceptible to attack and disease. Research confirmed that the Typica and Bourbon varieties derive from separate genetic bases however, the genetic distance between them is extremely small. Coffee - The soothing draught

U UGQ: (Export - Trade) Acronym for (Usually Good Quality) Ukers, William H.: (Research) See – All About Coffee ULKA: (Espresso Machine - Manufacturer) See - Vibration Pump Unclean: (Cupping) Description of an off-flavor slightly similar to fermenting but without the pungent, rotting taste. Generally depends on the geographic origin of the beans and how they have been treated. Unclean: (Grade) Also used to describe green beans depending on their geographic origin and how they have been treated. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Uncommon Grounds "The History of Coffee and How it Transformed Our World": (Research) by Mark Pendergrast. Undefinable flavor: (Cupping) A coffee with an "off" taste that can not be categorized. Under Dried Beans: (Green Bean Processing) with a moisture content above 12%. The final drying process should result in coffee beans with a 10 to 12% moisture content. Unshaded Monoculture: (Farming) See – Full-Sun Farming Unwashed Coffee Names: (Green Bean Processing) Green coffee beans that have been dry processed are also known as natural/cherry (India) – French (Café non lavé Café naturel), Portuguese (Café de terreiro), Spanish (Café no-lavado, Café natural). Unwashed coffee: (Green Coffee Processing) Green coffee beans that have been produced by the dry or natural extraction process. Upper Block: (Espresso Machine - Component) That part of the espresso machine that is connected directly to the outlet of the heat exchanger by means of a valve. This chamber normally has a flat filter, known as a shower, which serves to spread the hot water evenly over the whole surface of the coffee in the filter. Urubamba Valley: (Region) A coffee growing region in Peru that is noted for producing a good quality organic coffee. Utz Certified: (Grading) The UTZ CERTIFIED program is based on a Code of Conduct that involves a set of social and environmental criteria for responsible coffee growing practices and efficient farm management. Utz is a Mayan word for "good". Coffee - The divine draught

V Vaccum Pot Brewer: (Coffee Making) A coffee brewing container consisting of two glass globs fitted and sealed together with ground coffee sitting as a plug in the bottom of the top bowl. Water is heated in the bottom bowl creating pressurized steam which forces the hot water up into the upper bowl. This process then creates a vacuum in the lower chamber. Once cooled the vacuum then draws the water back into the bottom bowl and through the ground coffee. It was a coffee brewing method that was all the rage in the 1930’s and 1940’s. Vacuum-Filter Method: (Coffee Making) See - Vaccum Pot Brewer Valdez Juan: (Marketing) See - Juan Valdez Valente, Ernesto: (History - Inventor) He is credited with having the idea in the 1950’s of replacing the compression spring of the lever machine with a rotating pump driven by a small electric motor. This reversed the previous order of heating the water then compressing it with the spring. Known as the father of the Faema brand of espresso machines. Valve Bag: (Roasting) Valve bags are air tight coffee bags with small one-way valves that let gas escape, but will not allow air into the bag. The valve bag was a significant development for the specialty coffee industry since it allows coffee roasters to package freshly roasted coffee without having to first degas the coffee beans. Shortly after roasting, coffee beans give off a tremendous amount of gas, which may explode a completely sealed package not equipped with a one-way valve. If packaged immediately in valve bag, freshly roasted coffee will produce enough gas to expel much of the available oxygen from the bag, thereby allowing the beans to stay fresh much longer. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Vapid: (Cupping) A term to describe coffee that is lacking taste, zest, or flavour. Could also be described as flat marked by a loss of organic material that would normally be in a gaseous state in both the aroma and nose of the brew. Occurs during the staling process after the roasting or the holding process after brewing. Varietal Distinction or character: ( Grading) When the coffee has characteristics that both set it off from other coffees, yet identify it as what it is. For example; The rich, winey acidity of the Yemen Mocha immediately suggests that it is either a Yemen coffee or a good Ethiopian; the heavy body and rich finish of the Sumatran identifies it as a good Indonesian coffee. Varietal/Varietal distinction/Varietal character: (Grading) These terms refer to coffee beans that have a single geographical origin, single cultivar of coffee tree and are not a blend. It is a tasting or cupping term describing the positive characteristics that distinguish a given regions/farm’s coffee from coffee grown in other area. An example is the varietal distinction of a winey or berry-like acidity of Kenyan coffees compared to the varietal distinction of the full, smooth, resonant character of the best Sumatran. Vassieux, Madam: (History – Inventor) See - French Balloon Vector: (Botany) An insect that is the means of caring a disease from one plant to another Vibration/Vibratory Pump: (Espresso Machine - Component) A pump found in most domestic espresso machines and some of the lower end small commercial machines. Vibratory pumps use a diaphragm that expands and contracts at great rates, creating a rapid pulse of high pressure water. Most of them are produced by ULKA in Italy. See Pulsing pumps Viennese Coffee: (Coffee Making) coffee brewed by the drip or filter method Viennese Coffee: (Drink) brewed black coffee of any roast or origin topped and served with whipped cream. Villalobos: (Botany) A cultivar of Coffea Arabica that originated from the cultivar 'San Ramon' and has been successfully planted in Costa Rica. Vinegary: (Cupping) Description of a tart, biting flavor similar to that of vinegar. Vintage Coffee: (Grading) See - Aged/Vintage Coffee Visible supply: (Export - Trade) The known coffee stocks housed in public warehouses or afloat or at ports of shipment. Viton: (Espresso Machine – Component) See - Gaskets Volatile Molecular Species: (Chemistry) The components that give a substance its taste and aroma. There are about 250 identified components in the green bean and over 800 after the bean has been roasted. As a comparison there are only 150 identified components in wine. Volatilization: (Roasting) The process of changing one substance into another by way of the application of heat. See – Pyrolsis. Volcafe: (Export – Trade) See - Green Bean Traders Volumetric Portion Control: (Espresso Machine - Component) A small rotating device implanted in the water supply line to the group head that measures the predetermined amount of water portion and triggers the shut off once the full measure is reached. Volumetric Pump: (Espresso Machine Component) See Rotary Pump. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Voyage de L'Arabie heureuse: (History – Writing) See - Jean de la Roque's Coffee - The grateful liquor

W Wahgi Valley: (Region) See - Sigri Wallenford Estate: (Estate) This is the rarest and most expensive coffee bean in the world. It is grown high in the mountains on the isle of Jamaica. At one time it was the most celebrated and the best of Jamaica’s Blue Mountain coffee that was only ever grown on the Wallenford Estate. Now it is applied to any Jamaica Blue Mountain coffee that is processed through the Wallensford mill. This coffee is noted for the utmost care that is taken in the growing/processing stages and is prized for its perfect balance. Wallenford: (Brand) See - Blue Mountain Warm Water Demucilage: (Green Bean Processing) A process in the wet processing system where a machine is used to strip the mucilage off the green bean that is left after the pulping stage. This is done by vigorously agitating the beans in luke warm water (110-120°F). The demucilaging machine is sometimes called the Fukunaga-type. Washed Coffee: (Green Bean Processing) A descriptor of green coffee beans that have been produced (under the “wet processed method”) by utilising a process of pulping, fermenting and washing. This method is also known as Plantation coffee (India) – in French (Café lavé), in Portuguese (Café despolpado), in Spanish (Café lavado). See Wet Processed Washed Sidamo: (Brand) See - Sidamo Washington, George Constant: (History - Drink) He was an English chemist that lived in Guatemala in 1906, who noticed a powdery condensation forming on the spout of his silver coffee carafe. After experimentation, he creates the first mass-produced instant coffee and marketed it as “Red E Coffee” in 1909. Water Filter/Purification: (Espresso Machine Component) Some coffee and espresso machines feature a built in water filtration system. Most commercial machines have an external filter prior to entering the boiler. They are designed to remove contaminates impurities, excess chlorine, and particulate matter from the water. Good filtering systems are inexpensive and readily available; most on the market range from a single, butted type cartridge, to a three-cartridge set-up, usually mounted on a wall under or near the brewer or espresso machine. The placement of a filtering system should be strategic, making sure that (1) water is filtered before its introduction to the brewer or espresso machine, and (2) water filters are easily accessible for routine changing (the frequency of which is determined bye the particular system and volume of machine use. Water Hardness: (Coffee Making) This describes the amount of dissolved minerals found in ordinary water. It ranges from 50 ppm (parts per million) up to 800 ppm. Most municipal water supplies range around 600 ppm. Water Quality: (Coffee Making) This describes the desired amount of mineral hardness, oxygen and contaminants found in the water. Water Reservoir: (Espresso Machine Component) A built in tank or container that holds water that is used by the machine to brew coffee or espresso especially if it has a separate steam ability. Generally found in consumer and many prosumer espresso machines and a feature of most other coffee brewers. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Water Softening: (Coffee Making) This is the act of substituting softer sodium ions for the dissolved mineral ions (calcium and magnesium) that are naturally found in the water supply. This process helps to prevent lime-scale and solid deposits from building up in the boiler or heating element. Watery: (Cupping) A coffee cupper’s description of a coffee taste that lacks body/viscosity in the mouth-feel with a relatively low level of oily material suspended in the coffee beverage. Weak: (Cupping) A coffee that lacks body but is not bad enough to describe as “flat”. Weight yields: (Green Bean Processing) Under the wet process system 550lb of fresh cherries will produce 225lb of wet pergamino, which will produce 120lb of dry pergamino and ultimately 100lb of dry polished coffee. Under the dry process system 550lb of fresh cherry will produce 200lb of dry cherry and ultimately l00lb of dry polished coffee. Wet Method: (Green Bean Processing) See - Wet Processed Wet Processed: (Green Bean Processing) This is the name given to the green bean extraction process, where the flesh of the freshly picked red cherry is removed from the coffee beans whilst it is still moist (pulping). This takes place after the floating cherries have been removed from the batch. Extraction is done by pressed the coffee cherries against a perforated surface, allowing only the seed, and some attached pulp, to pass through the holes. The mucilage covering the skinned beans after pulping is then removed in a process called demulicage. The seeds are placed in fermentation tanks or the remaining pulp is removed by mechanical means. The coffee beans are then washed in collateral tanks to remove any remaining flesh or chemical and are sun dried for several days on concrete or fiber/synthetic mats spread on the ground to a moisture content of about 12%. They can be speed dried using mechanical dryers. Most of the world's great Arabica coffee beans are processed using the wet processed method with the exception of those produced in Brazil. This process is rarely used for the Robusta variety of coffee beans. Also called the wet method. Whole-Bean Coffee: (Grading) The description of a coffee bean that has been roasted but not yet ground. Whole bean coffee has the advantage of maintaining its freshness much longer than ground coffee. Wild Coffee Plants: (Botany) The name of the indigenous coffee plants growing in Ethiopia. They show relatively high genetic diversity compared to the cultivated varieties planted through out the world. It is believed, through genetic analysis, that the plants based on the South-West side of the Great Rift Valley of Ethiopia are the ‘original’ coffee plants. Wild: (Cupping) A gamey, brash or spoiled flavor and odor usually marked by unpleasant sourness which is not usually considered favorable but is still typical of Ethiopian Harrar coffees. Wild: (Cupping) A taste fault in the coffee beans characterized by extreme variation between the sample cups. Usually marked by unpleasant sourness. Result of internal chemical changes in the green coffee beans or external contamination. Wild: (Grade) It is also a grade fault in the coffee beans characterized and identifying extreme variation between sample cups. William H. Ukers: (Research) See – Ukers William H. Will's: (History – Coffeehouse) A Covent Garden coffeehouse in London that became a favourite meeting place for writers and poets. © Peter Baskerville 2009

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Wilting: (Botany) A description of the collapse of the leaf or stem of a plant due to the loss of water or because of a disease attack. Wine of Arabia: (History - Names) The word "qahwa" in Arabic can mean ‘wine’ or “dark stuff”. Some parts of Europe took this interpretation in the 17th century and called the coffee beverage “Wine of Arabia” Winey: (Cupping) This is a primary coffee taste sensation, describing an eloquent and agreeable flavor reminiscent of well-matured fine red wine. It is a full-bodied flavour with strong acidic or fruity notes. It is most typical in unwashed arabica coffees grown at elevations above 4,000 feet, such as the unwashed Djimmah from Ethiopia or the Kenyan, Harrar and Yemeni coffees. Ranges in description from tangy to tart. Often used incorrectly to describe a soury or over-fermented flavor. Winnowing: (Green Bean Processing) A procedure in quality control where the fresh picked coffee cherries are separated from other lighter material by throwing the entire batch into the air and allowing the wind to remove the lighter and unwanted items.. Withered: (Grading) Wrinkled, undeveloped, and light weight coffee beans that are typically the result of drought or poor husbandry. Woody coffee: (Cupping) It is also used to describe a taste fault that gives the roasted coffee beans a distinct, unpleasant old wood-like character with scents and aroma reminiscent of the smell of dry wood, an oak barrel, dead wood or cardboard paper. This defect occurs when beans are improperly stored for an extended period of time causing an almost complete loss of organic material in the green beans. Coffees stored at low altitudes in high temperatures and humidity (as in many ports of shipment) tend to deteriorate quickly and become woody. All coffees can become woody if stored long enough. Makes coffee unsuitable for commercial purposes. Woody coffee: (Grade) primarily used to describe green beans that have lost almost all their organic material during storage and have deteriorated to the point that they have lost their commercial value. Coffee - The universal drink

Y Yauco Selecto: (Brand) This is an Arabica (var. Bourbon) coffee bean from a region of Puerto Rico and is grown high in the mountains above 3,000 feet. It is one of the finest coffees of the Caribbean but it can be subject to some commercial inconsistency. Often likened to the balanced perfection of the Jamaica Blue Mountain because of its deep, vibrant, yet restrained acidity and gently rich flavor. Two famous estates in the region include Hecienda San Pedro and Santa Ana. Ye coffee house: (Coffee House) The first coffee house in Philadelphia built by Samuel Carpenter in 1700 Yemen Coffee Plants: (Botany) These populations showed characteristically lower genetic polymorphism than other varieties from the wild coffee plants of Ethiopia. Yemen cultivars were grouped with the Typica-derived accessions, confirming the Yemen origin of the coffee plant cultivated in Amsterdam and Paris at the beginning of the 18th century.

© Peter Baskerville 2009

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Yemen Mocha: (Brand) These are typically the coffee beans originating from Yemen, the mountainous regions of the south-western tip of the Arabian peninsula. It is the world's oldest (600 year) cultivated coffee. Grown at elevations of 3,000 to 7,000 feet but the area lacks water. Beans are typically small and hard. Coffee is packaged in mats made of plaited straw. It is typically a full bodied coffee that is distinguished by a rich, winey acidity. Yirgacheffe/Yirga Cheffe: (Brand) The market name for one of the most famous Ethiopian washed Arabica coffee bean gardens grown at 1700-2100m in the south central Sidamo region near the boarder with Kenya and the village of Yirga Ch'efe. Regarded by many as the ‘cream of the crop’ of all coffees grown in the horn of Africa. It has unparalleled fruity aroma and is distinguished by its lemon/fruit-like and distinct tart bite floral acidity. The body is light and elegant whilst the flavour is complex leaving a rich floral finish and an almost menthol aftertaste. It is believed that these trees were cultivated from the varieties of the south-west of the state. Sometimes spelled "Yirgacheffe". Yunnan: (Region) A coffee growing province in China that shares the same northern latitude as Hawaii. The coffee tree was introduced here by the French missionaries in 1892. The taste is described as having a mild acidity with just a hint of sweetness.

© Peter Baskerville 2009

Page 89 of 89

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