580 Cara Mudah Jawab Soal Usm Pkn Stan(Tbi)

January 25, 2019 | Author: Vhiiviie FaithfulLovee Vhealldiiy'z | Category: Grammatical Tense, Linguistics, Grammar, Onomastics, Style (Fiction)
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580 Cara Mudah Jawab Soal Usm Pkn Stan(Tbi)...


TBI 1 PRESENT TENSES 1. Simple Present Tense Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang berlangsung pada masa sekarang dan merupakan: - Kebiasaan (habitual action) - Kebenaran umum (general truth) Verbal:

- At this moment - At this time - At present - Rightnow e.g:  We are discussing an importing thing now.

S + V1 (-s/es) + O Non Verbal:

S + is/ am/ are + Complement Adverb of time: - Every day - Once a …. (ex: once a month) - Twice a …. (ex: twice a week) - Today Adverb of frequency: - Often - Always - Usually - Sometimes - Seldom - Never - Etc e.g: 

The earth revolves around the sun. (general truth) truth)  Fanni and her mother always go to Bandung every year. (habit  (habit )

2. Present Continuous Tense Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sedang berlangsung pada saat sekarang. S + is/ am/ are + V – V –ing ing + O Adverb of time: - Now - For the time being Exercise: 1. Since the 1994 FIFA World Cup, FIFA … an anthem composed by the German composer Franz Lambert. a. Adopts b. Adopted c. Has adopted d. Was adopting

3. Present Perfect Tense Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sudah selesai pada waktu tertentu pada masa sekarang. S + have/ has + V 3 + O Adverb of time/ biasa diikuti oleh: - Yet - Already - Just - Recently - Since + Simple Past - For + durasi waktu e.g:  She has already finished  her study.  I haven’t done it yet.

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang telah dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang. S + have/ has + been + V –ing  –ing +O Adverb of time: - For three years, etc - Since yesterday, etc. - All the month/ the year/ the day, etc. e.g:  It has been raining since last night.  I have been teaching English for seven years.

2. Since there are many complaints about the new product, the company … the products now. a. Is recalling b. Recalls c. Recalled d. Has recalled

3. Because the river … Steadily since S unday, the residents of the area have been advised to prepare for flood conditions. a. Rose b. Had risen c. Is rising d. Has been rising 4. I started school when I was five years old. I … a student for seventeen years now. a. Am b. Am being c. Have been d. Am tobe 5. Honey is the only form of naturally occurring sugar that … to be refined. a. Does not b. Does not have c. Not having d. Has not 6. The research for the book roots taking Alex A B C Haley twelve years. D

7. He has been sitting in the library every night … the last four months. a. Since b. Until c. Before d. For 8. Recently, the work had been being done by A B C D  john M. Rayyan. 9. While the exact date crop circles began to appear is unknown, the documented cases … since 1970s. a. increase b. increased c. have increased d. were increasing 10. The family … with the neighbor since the tragedy. a. Had rarely engaging b. Had rarely engaged c. Has rarely engaging d. Has rarely engaged

3. Because the river … Steadily since S unday, the residents of the area have been advised to prepare for flood conditions. a. Rose b. Had risen c. Is rising d. Has been rising 4. I started school when I was five years old. I … a student for seventeen years now. a. Am b. Am being c. Have been d. Am tobe 5. Honey is the only form of naturally occurring sugar that … to be refined. a. Does not b. Does not have c. Not having d. Has not 6. The research for the book roots taking Alex A B C Haley twelve years. D

7. He has been sitting in the library every night … the last four months. a. Since b. Until c. Before d. For 8. Recently, the work had been being done by A B C D  john M. Rayyan. 9. While the exact date crop circles began to appear is unknown, the documented cases … since 1970s. a. increase b. increased c. have increased d. were increasing 10. The family … with the neighbor since the tragedy. a. Had rarely engaging b. Had rarely engaged c. Has rarely engaging d. Has rarely engaged

TBI 2 PAST TENSES 1. Simple Past Tense Digunakan untuk menyatkan suatu kejadian yang terjadi pada masa lampau. Verbal: S + V2 + O Non verbal:

S + was/ were + Complement Adverb of time: - Yesterday - Last …. - ….ago - Just now - Once upon a time - in + time (past) ex: in 1998 e.g:  Derry came late yesterday.  Last Monday, I studied English with Mr. Tom.

2. Past Continuous Tense Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. S + was/ were + V-ing + O Adverb of time: - At 10 o’clock last night - At this time yesterday - When + Simple Past - While … e.g:  When he arrived at home, his mother was cooking with his sister.  I was painting my new house at this time last month.

3. Past Perfect Tense Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang telah selesai ketika kejadian lain terjadi. S + had + V3 + O Biasa diikiti oleh: - By - By the end of S + V2 + O ,atau ,atau - By the time S + was/ were + Comp - Before - after e.g:  He had attended the meeting before he died.  After I had known him, I realized that he was awesome.

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sudah berlangsung beberapa lama tetapi masih terus berlangsung ketika kejadian yang lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. S + had + been + V-ing + O Biasanya ditandai dengan: - Before - By the time - When S + V2 + O ,atau ,atau - By the end of S + was/ were + Comp + for - By - After e.g:  Hafiz had been working here for three years before he retired.  When he arrived here, we had been waiting for him for 7 minutes .

Note: when + S past T +

Exercises: 1. The chief accountant … the monthly report for seven hours when the director arrived. a. Had been scrutinizing b. Has been scrutinizing

1. 2. 3. 4.

c. Had been scrutinized d. Has been scrutinized

Past Cont T S past T Past Perfect T Past Perfect cont T (for)

2. Joe … a terrible role model for his younger brother all day yesterday. a. Was b. Being c. Has been d. Was being

3. The children … by the time their parents got home. a. Sleep b. Was sleeping c. Has already slept d. Had already slept 4. … you fatter when you studied in senior high school? a. Was c. Were b. Are d. Have 5. Kristina … to an opera before she lived in Jakarta. a. Was never going b. Has never gone c. Had never gone d. Did not go

d. Had never visited 8. The Titanic … four days when a huge iceberg was suddenly spotted. a. Sailed b. Was sailing c. Has sailed d. Had been sailing 9. After Michael failed the first math test, he thought he … the course. a. Will b. Is going to c. Failed d. Was going to 10. I …..a video last night when my best friend called. a. Watch b. Watched c. Had watched d. Was watching

6. I havespent three weeks in Germany last A B C D July.

11. They … mineral water while jogging around the station. a. Drank b. Drinking c. Had drunk d. Have drunk

7. Ditto … Indonesia before he came to Jakarta to study in the International student program. a. Has never visited b. Never visited c. Would never visited

12. Eko … many backhoes before he received his special mechanic license. a. Repaired b. Repairing c. Had repaired d. Has repaired

TBI 3 FUTURE TENSES 1. Simple Future Tense Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang akan dilakukan pada masa yang akan datang. S + will/ be going to + V 1 + O Adverb of time: - Next … - Tomorrow - Tonight - Soon - Then - Later e.g:  I will send the report soon.  The man will reach the dangerous zone tomorrow.

2. Future Continuous Tense Dugunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang akan sedang dilaksanakan pada waktu yang akan datang. S + will be + V-ing + O Adverb of time: - At 10 pm tonight - At this time later - At this moment tomorrow morning - Etc. e.g:  Tama and Naufal will be discussing their new project at 8 tonight.  Mr. Lakmus will be giving  his welcoming speech at this moment tomorrow morning.

Exercise: 1. At 7 P.M. tonight, the tax payers … their reports online. a. Will submit b. Will be submitting c. Will be submitted d. Will submitting

2. By the time you get back, we … care of everything. a. Will take b. Will be talking c. Will have taken

3. Future perfect Tense Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang telah akan berlangsung sampai masa yang akan datang. S + will + have + V3 + O Adverb of time: - By - By the end of S + V1 + O - By the time - Before e.g:  By the time he graduates from school, we will have finished  our research.  They will have released  a new album by next year.

4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang akan selesai selama beberapa waktu kedepan. S + will have + been + V-ing + O Adverb of time: - By - By the end of S + V1 + O + for - By the time - Before e.g:  Tukul will have been writing  his new novel for three weeks by tomorrow.  Before I take him, he will have been staying there for five days.

d. Will have been taking 3. As soon as the midfielder … the ball, the striker will shoot it to the goal. a. Passes b. Passed c. Will pass d. Has passed 4. Sari … to school with her friend s at 06.30 a.m. tomorrow. a. Walks b. Is going to walk

c. Will be walking d. Will have walked 5. They left two hours ago, so they should be here soon. The statement that is similar in meaning : a. They left two hours ago, so they’re likely to be here soon b. They left two hours ago, so they must be here soon c. They left two hours ago, so they’ve ever here soon d. They left two hours ago, so they will be here soon 6. … dinner tonight with Mr. Capello, and I’d like to invite you to come along. a. We’re having b. We have c. We would have d. We’ve just 7. Tony is going to return to Aceh as soon as he … his university diploma’s degree.

a. b. c. d.

Gets Will get Would get Got

8. Charlotte ….. a speech at this time tomorrow. a. Gives b. Is giving c. Will be given d. Will be giving 9. Charice … the course for three months by next week. a. Will take b. Would take c. Will have taken d. Is going to take 10. Mr. Fahri ….. a new research at 8 tonight. a. Discusses b. Is discussing c. Will discuss d. Will be discussing

TBI 4 GERUND AND INFINITIVE 1. Gerund Gerund adalah kata kerja dasar yang ditambah dengan -ing (V1  + ing) yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda, seperti subjek, objek, kepunyaan, dll. a. Sebagai Subjek Terletak di awal kalimat sebelum kata kerja (Verb). e.g:  Reading the mathematics and chemistry books makes me bored and sleepy.  Practicing with your friend  may ease you to understand it.

e.g: 

She is interested in buying that old building.  Hana wanted to object to accepting our offer.

d. Setelah Preposisi - On - In - Of - From - For - By


After Before Without About Off

e.g: 

b. Sebagai Objek Terletak setelah kata kerja tertentu, seperti: Admit Appreciate Avoid Can’t help Can’t stand Can’t stop Consider Delay deny Enjoy Finish Mind miss

Keep Postpone Practice Quit Recall Report Remind Resist Resume Risk Suggest


I can’t live without consuming it.  She reached here by riding her bicycle

e. Setelah possessive Adjective - My - Your - Our - Their - Her - His - Its - Father’s e.g: 

I need your understanding.  He was angry because of her crying loud.

I was avoiding using too much sugar.  They really enjoy going to the beach.


Setelah Phrase Tertentu - Look forward to - Object to - Confess to - Tobe/get used to - Tobe/get accustomed to - Interested in - Fond of - Put on - Etc

2. Infinitive Infinitive adalah kata kerja bentuk dasar. a. To infinitive Bentuk kata kerja yang diawali kata to, misalnya - To go - To make - To study - To live - Etc

Pemakaiannya (posisi) meliputi: 1. Setelah kata kerja tertentu - Agree - Learn - Attempt - Need - Claim - Offer - Decide - Plan - Demand - Prepare - Desire - Pretend - Expect - Refuse - Fail - Seem - Forget - Strive - Hesitate - Tend - Hope - Want - Intend - Wish e.g:  I think you seem to get cold now.  They never agree to sell it.

2. Setelah kata sifat (Adjective) e.g:  It was hard to understand him.  I don’t know but I’m happy to know you. 3. Menyatakan tujuan e.g:  I think we must invite him to make this party more interesting.  I come here to take you. b. Bare infinitive (without to) Bentuk kata kerja dasar tanpa to. Pemakaiannya (posisi) adalah: 1. Setelah kata kerja tertentu - Make - Let

Exercise: 1. His father is an experienced investor who is accustomed to … with residential pro perties. a. Deal b. Dealing c. Be dealing d. Be dealt

2. We made the pie with … cherries. a. Pit b. Pitted c. Pitting d. Pitting of


Cause Have

We have  our friend do  our assignment.  It causes her cry.

2. Setelah kata kerja panca indera(verbs of senses) - See - Notice - Hear + O + infinitive/ Ving - Smell - Feel e.g:  I saw him arrange the flowers.  I saw him arranging  the flowers. 3. Setelah modals -

Can May Must Will Shall


Could Might Had to Would Should

e.g: 

We can do it  The student will represent us there.

3. The patient should avoid … cosmetics during the skin recovery. a. To wear b. Wearing c. To wearing d. Wear 4. Prima’s father is looking forward to … the premiere of “Garuda di Dadaku”. a. Attend

b. Attending c. Attended d. Attends 5. Since Mario is a presenter, he is used to … in front of the spectators. a. Speak b. Speaks c. Speaking d. Spoke 6. After attending the wedding party, Dona continued … the meal and having dinner with her family. a. Heating b. To heat c. Heat d. Heats 7. Would you mind … please? a. To pass the sugar b. Pass me the sugar c. Passing the sugar d. To pass me the sugar 8. After … an investigation for alleged tax violations. Spiro Agnew resigned the vicepresidency in 1973. a. Underwent b. To undergo c. Been undergone d. Undergoing 9. … taking over the leadership of this project is what made it succed. a. Her b. She c. She is d. Her having 10. Indonesians … soup with rice a. Accustomed to eat b. Are accustomed to eating c. Have the custom to eat d. Are accustoming in drinking 11. I am absolutely sure you are capable ofpass A B C D the examination. 12. I am now … tea without sugar. a. Accustomed to drink b. Accustomed to drinking

c. Have the custom to drink d. Accustoming in drinking

13. Jim said that he wouldn’t mind … for an hour. a. To wait for her b. Wait for her c. Waiting for her d. For waiting her 14. She is considering … to the OSIS’s concert. a. Not going b. Not go c. Not to go d. No goes 15. In the film world, professionals are accustomed to … a negative into a computer at the highest resolutions possible. a. Scan b. Scanning c. Be scanned d. Be scanning 16. It was very kind of my friend to help me … cash money. a. To count b. Counted c. Counts d. Count 17. Many kids refuse to eat healthy food because their parents always let them … whatever they like. a. Eat b. To eat c. Eating d. Ate 18. The guess made the bell boy … the luggage. a. To bring b. Brought c. Brings d. Bring 19. Susan decides … that she has committed a crime. a. Confess b. Confessing c. Confessed d. To confess

20. Susi made Andi … his sandals before he went into her house. a. Takes off b. Take off c. Took off d. Taken off 21. If people have to pay cash to buy a house, nobody can afford … it. a. Buy b. To buy

c. Buying d. For buying 22. My teacher made me … the history project in a week. a. Do b. To do c. Done d. Doing

TBI 5 PASSIVE VOICE AND TAG QUESTION 1. Passive Voice Passive Voice adalah perubahan bentuk kalimat aktif menjadi kalimat pasif. S + tobe + V3 + by + O Syarat kalimat pasif adalah: - Subjek bertukar posisi dengan Objek - Kata kerja (Verb) harus transitif - Harus muncul tobe + V3 pada kalimat pasif - Tenses tidak berubah (tetap) Kriteria tobe sesuai jenis tensesnya: Simple Present = is, am, are o o Simple Past = was, were o Perfect = been o Future = be Continuous = being o Proses perubahan kalimat aktif menjadi pasif: Tenses Active Passive Simple S + V1 +O S+ is/am/are+ present V3 Simple S+ V2 + O S+ was/were+ past V3 Perfect S+ S+ have/has/had+ have/has/had+ V3 been V3 Future S+ S+ will/would/shal will/would/shal l/ should + V 1+ l/ should + be O V3 S+ tobe Continu S+ tobe (is/am/are/was (is/am/are/was ous /were) + Ving /were) + being + V3 e.g:     

A: They attend the class today. P: The class is attended by them today. A: I sent it last night. P: it was sent last night. A: She has found a good man. P: A good man has been found by her. A: We will finish them. P: They will be finished by us. A: we were waiting for him. P: he was being waited by us.

2. Tag Question Tag Question  adalah bentuk pertanyaan di akhir kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menegaskan atau memastikan suatu pernyataan. Sentence …. , aux + S… ? Jika kalimatnya positif, maka tag questionnya negative. Begitu pula sebaliknya.

Catatan: Dalam setiap kalimat Tag Question, subjek dalam Tag Question  nya harus  dalam bentuk kata ganti (pronoun). Pemakaiannya adalah: a. Kalimat yang menggunakan tobe e.g:  She is a good girl, isn’t she?  He was not cleaning his room, was he? b. Kalimat menggunakan auxiliary e.g:  Sandy didn’t  know me, did he?  Jamal runs fast, doesn’t he?  Iwan has chosen it, hasn’t he? c. Kalimat menggunakan modals e.g:  George will  call us, won’t he?  Haikal and Fauzan can help her, can’t they?  Maman must not tell it to us, must he?

Exceptions: 1. I am a super hero, aren’t I? I am not a super hero, am I? 2. There is a new building here , isn’t there? 3. That is my bag, isn’t it? 4. Let’s do it now, shall we? 5. Call him, will you? 6. Don’t disturb me, will you? 7. Everybody/onelikes it, don’t they? Anybody/one Somebody/one Nobody/none 8. Every/any/some/nothing is impossible, isn’t it?

9. Main clause + Subordinate clause Tag diambil dari main clause e.g: Rani told that she wouldn’t go anywhere, didn’t she?

Exercise: 1. Nothing went wrong when the director was gone, …? a. Did it b. Didn’t it c. Was d. Wasn’t it

2. Faiz almost never ate at home, … ? a. Did he b. Would he c. Had she d. Didn’t she 3. He’s already read the letter, …? a. Hasn’t he b. Isn’t he c. Doesn’t he d. Hasn’t it 4. Let’s go to the stadium,…? a. Will we b. Don’t we c. Are we d. Shall we 5. The recent progress report … to   the Branch Manager. a. Submit b. Will submit c. Will be submitted d. Will be submitting 6. Many people in that hotel were frightened … the bombing threat issued by the terrorist. a. Off c. At b. By d. With

7. Michael’s report … discussed when I c alled Prof. Smith this afternoon. a. Being b. Have been c. Was being

d. Been 8. The proposal … discussed when I called the office this morning. a. Being b. Have been c. Was being d. Been 9. All of my time … in the library. a. Is spent b. Are spent c. Spending d. Has spending 10. Sekolah Tinggi Akutansi Negara (STAN) … as one of the best colleges in Indonesia. a. Is regarded b. Regarded c. Regards d. Regarding 11. Tropical forests can be find in Southeast Asia A B C countries. D 12. When a bone is broke into several pieces A B doctors may pin the pieces together for C proper Healing . D 13. Nowadays, the main element of competition, A both on national and international level B are representing by human resources. C D

TBI 6 MODALS AND PREFERENCES 1. Modals Modals merupakan bagian dari auxiliary (kata kerja bantu) yang dapat mengubah arti. Modal Can Could +V1 May Might + be + V3/Ving Should Ought to + be + Adj/Adv/N Must Be able to + V1 Be capable of + Ving Be allowed to +V1 Be permitted to +V1 Have to Has to +V1 Had to e.g:  Fanni must study harder.  Naufal will help Tama.  Sahara can be a good assistant.

a. Modal perfect Modals + have + V3

 Could + have + V3

Modal ini digunakan untuk menyatakan kemampuan pada masa lalu. e.g:  I could do it myself. But I realized that I need you to help me. ( I didn’t do it myself ).

Note: Kalau ada “tobe + to V1, need, must” berdiri sendiri di choice maka utamakan “tobe + to V1” lalu “need” baru kemudian “must” 2. Preferences Preference adalah bentuk ungkapan yang digunakan untuk menyatakan rasa lebih suka, kita dapat menggunakan beberapa ungkapan, diantaranya:  Prefer – to S + prefer + to V 1 S + prefer + V-ing/ Noun e.g: 

I prefer to stay at home.  I prefer staying at home.  I prefer banana.

 Might + have + V3

modal ini digunakan untuk menyatakan kemungkinan pada masa lalu ( possibility in the past ). e.g:  Kamelia might have come late yesterday.  Should + have + V3

modal ini digunakan untuk menyatakan saran/ nasehat pada masa lalu. ( Advice/ suggestion in the past ) e.g:  I should have given him the food. (I didn’t give him the food )  Must + have + V3 Modal ini digunakan untuk kesimpulan logis yang terjadi pada masa lalu (logical conclusion in the past ) e.g:  The grass is wet. It must have rained last night.

S + prefer + V-ing/ Noun +to V-ing/ Noun e.g:  Jihan prefer playing badminton to going to the cinema.  Jihan prefer English to Mandarin.  Like – better than

S + like + V 1 S + like + V-ing/ Noun e.g: 

We like to study in the library.  The man likes  going to traditional market.  I like the new car.

S + like + V-ing/ Noun + better than + Ving/ Noun e.g:

They like fishing better than  jogging.  They like Tokyo better than Shanghai.

e.g: 

Koko would rather buy something than make it.

 Would prefer – rather than  Would rather – than

S + would rather + V 1 e.g: 

S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 e.g: 

Hadi would prefer to take taxi rather than wait for me.

Koko would rather buy that black car.

S + would rather + V 1 + than + V1

Exercise: 1. X: I really need a job right now. Y: Well, you … look for job vacancies in the newspaper. a. Should b. Must c. Might d. Need

2. X : Our cargoes are not ready yet, sir Y : Well, I think we … contact our costumer to ask for some extra time. a. Will b. Might c. Should d. Used to 3. Henry VIII ruled that people born on February 29 … their birthday on February 28 in non -leap years. a. Celebrated would have b. Celebrated c. Celebrates d. Would celebrate 4. All students … report to the STAN Secretariat on September 2nd for the final exam. a. Could b. Might c. Need d. Are to 5. Since the company doesn’t charge a late fee until after the sixteenth, you … pay until a day or two before that. a. Shouldn’t

b. Mustn’t c. Needn’t d. Can’t 6. All students … report to the examination hall on July 30th for the exam. a. Might b. Need c. Could d. Are to 7. He went by bus, but he … by car. a. Might of gone b. Should have gone c. Could have gone d. Ought have gone 8. She went to the office by taxi, but she … by bus. a. Might of gone b. Should gone c. Could have gone d. Ought have gone 9. The light is out in her room; she … a. Must go to bed b. Must have gone to bed c. Must gone to bed d. Must be gone to bed 10. You want to tell your repeated action in the past, you say: ‘When I was a child,…’ a. I would visit my grandparents every weekend b. I could visit my grandparents every weekend


I might visit my grandparents every weekend d. I should visit my grandparents every weekend 11. We would rather study for the final exam A B tomorrow better than go shopping. C D

12. Abdul … continuing his education to the Graduated Program to working in his family business. a. Likes b. Would rather c. Had better d. Prefers

TBI 7 ELLIPTICAL SENTENCE, CAUSATIVE AND APPOSITIVE 1. Elliptical Sentence Elliptical Sentence  adalah penggabungan dua kalimat setara dengan menghilangkan bagianbagian predikat yang sama untuk menghindari terjadinya pengulangan. Elliptical sentence dapat dibagi menjadi dua kelompok; negative dan positive elliptical. a. Positive elliptic.


S + Have + O ( orang) + V1 e.g: 


Mr. Yuan has his students do their homework.


……+…….. and S + Aux + Too ……+…….. and So + Aux + S

S + Get + O (orang ) + to V1



Nana cooks fried rice. Indra cooks fried rice. = Nana cooks fried rice and so does Indra. or Nana cooks fried rice and Indra does too.

S+ have+ O (benda) + V3 S + Get + O (benda) + V3 e.g: 

My uncle had his hat washed.  Ujang gets his motor cycle painted.

……+…….. and S + Aux + not + either ……+…….. andneither + Aux + S c.

e.g: 

Ozi has not come yet. Surya has not come yet. = Ozi has not come yet and neither has Surya. Ozi has not come yet and Surya hasn’t either.

Positive – Negative elliptic. Negative sentence +but + S + Aux + Positive sentence +but + S + Aux + not e.g: 

Dona agreed to go to Bali. Dani didn’t agree to go to Bali. = Dona agreed to go to Bali but Dani didn’t. Dani didn’t agree to go to Bali but Dona did.

2. Causative Causative  digunakan untuk menyuruh atau meminta orang lain untuk mengerjakan sesuatu. a. Active Causative Menyuruh orang lain untuk melakukan sesuatu.

Kelly got her husband to call the doctor.

b. Passive Causative

b. Negative elliptic.


Has/ have

Let, Make, Help S+ let + O (orang) + V1 Make Hel e.g: 

I don’t want to him go.  Lee makes me meet Mr. Darwis.  Vina helps him finish her home work.

3. Appositive Kata – kata yang memberikan informasi tambahan terhadap subjek, objek atau benda. Pola : …S…,……Appositive……. , …P…

Syarat - Tidak boleh ada subjek - Tidak boleh ada predicate kecuali V-3 atau V-ing - Tidak boleh ada clauses (adj clause, adv clause, noun clause) Note : jika tidak terdapat jawaban maka boleh menggunakan “Adj Clause”

e.g: 1. The prisoner, ………by guards, walked calmly to his execution. a. Was surrounded b. Which surrounded c. Surrounded d. It was surrounded

3. An ambulance,…….by a pedestrian, can not come quikly because of the traffic jam a. It was summoned b. Was summoned c. Summoned d. Which summoned

2. Ramayana ,……….., consist of even books and 24.000 couplets. a. It has rich description and poetic language b. Rich in its description and has poetic language c. It is rich in its description and poetic language d. Rich in its description and poetic language

Exercise: 1. Ira barely sleeps before midnight, and … a. Ita does not either b. Neither does Ita c. Either does Ita d. Does not Ita either

6. I am worried about the test, and … a. Also is he b. So is he c. He is so d. So he does

2. Syamsul Bachri did not sign the contract offered by Gaylang FC, and … a. Neither did Rommy and Firdaus b. Either didn’t Rommy and Firdaus c. Rommy and Firdaus did either d. Rommy and Firdaus didn’t neither

7. The costumer had the shoes … before six o’clock in the evening. a. Delivers b. Deliver c. Delivered d. Delivering

3. I am going to the technical meeting and … a. So does Indra b. So goes Indra c. So is Indra d. Indra is so

8. My teacher made me … the history project in a week. a. do b. to do c. done d. doing

4. If Jack’s wife won’t agree to sign the papers,… a. Neither won’t he b. Neither he will c. He won’t neither d. Neither will he 5. Dinna didn’t like our new roommate, and … a. I don’t too b. Neither I did c. Neither did I d. I didn’t also

9. Nias, … covering an area of 5,121.3 km 2, is the largest of the islands of Sumatra. a. An island b. Is an island c. That an island d. Is that an island 10. Paula never uses a dictionary when the French programs begin, and ... a. Lydia does either b. Either does Lydia c. Neither does Lydia d. Lydia doesn’t neither

11. During his career, Luther Vandross , …, sold over twenty-five million albums and won eight Grammy Awards. a. Which an America singer and producer b. Was an American singer and producer c. An American singer and producer d. An American singer and producer was

12. Mary, … to win the prize, tripped when she ran upstairs. a. Having thrilled b. Thrilling c. Thrilled d. Thrill 13. Caecilians, … , are the only amphibians that are blind. a. Live underground b. Live underground which c. Which live underground d. Live which underground 14. Mars, …, has two satellites. a. Which the fourth planet from the sun b. It is the fourth planet from the sun c. The fourth planet from the sun d. Is the fourth planet from the sun

15. The insect, … , bit my brother’s arm last night, a. A big spider with hairy legs b. It is a big spider with hairy legs c. A big spider which with hairy legs d. Which is a big hairy-legged spider

16. Milliard Fillmore, … , taught school and studied law before aspiring to political office. a. Was the least great American president b. The American president was least c. One of the least known American presidents d. That he was one of the least American president 17. Soekarno, … one of the strongest Indonesian President, served from 1945 to 1965. a. Considered b. Is consider c. Was considered d. Considering 18. We had our house …….…two weeks ago. a. renovate b. to renovate c. renovated d. had renovate

TBI 8 CONDITIONAL SENTENCE AND REPORTED SPEECH 1. Conditional Sentence adalah kalimat Conditional Sentence  pengandaian. Terdapat tiga jenis Conditional Sentence: a. Open Conditional (Type 1) – Future Merupakan bentuk pengandaian masa yang akan datang.

I would have told him the truth if they had arrived here.

Penghilangan “IF”

IF + S + had + V 3, S + would + have + V 3 + O = HAD + S + V 3 , S + would + have + V 3 + O e.g:

IF + S + V 1 , S + will + V 1 + O e.g: 

If he studies seriously, he will pass the test.  He will pass the test if he studies seriously.

b. Present Conditional (Type-2) – Present Merupakan bentuk pengandaian saat ini. IF + S + V 2/ were , S + would + V 1 + O e.g: 

If she gave it to me, I would share it to others.  I would share it to others if she gave it to me.  If Hendra were not absent yesterday, he would get the grand prize.  Hendra would get the grand prize if he were not absent yesterday. Penghilangan “IF”

IF + S + were, S + would + V 1 + O = WERE + S , S + would + V 1 + O e.g: 


If  I were you, I wouldn’t take it. Were I you, I wouldn’t take it.

Past Conditional (Type 3) Merupakan bentuk pengandaian masa lampau. IF + S + had + V 3, S + would + have + V 3 + O e.g: 

If they had arrived here, I would have told him the truth.

If Keith had finished it, he would have left us. Had Keith finished it, he would have left us.

2. Reported Speech Indirect speech/Reported speech Kalimat tidak langsung Syarat: 1. Ada perubahan Tenses Direct. speech Indirect.speech S.Present.Tense S.Past.Tense Pr.Cont.Tense Past.Cont.Tense Pr.Perfect.Tense Past.Perfect.tense Pr.Future.Tense Past.Future.tense S.Past.Tense Past. Perfect.Tense 2 . Ada perubahan Adverb of Time Direct speech Indirect speech Now Then Today That day Tonight That night Tomorrow The following day, the day after Next Week The following week, The week after Last week The previous week, The week before Yesterday The previous day, The day before Here There This That These Those 3. Ada perubahan Pronoun Direct speech Indirect speech I/ me/ my/ mine He/ him/ his/ his, atau She/ her/ her/ hers You Tergantung konteks kalimat.

Jenis – Jenis Reported Speech a. Affirmative Bentuk pernyataan Pola :

With Q.Word What, where,who,how,etc


Pola : S+ asked/wondered + Q.word + Rep.word

S + Said / explained + that + Rep.words

Eg : Eg :

Amat said. “ I will go  abroad next week”.  Amat said that he would go abroad the following  week.  Yanti said ,” I bought a car last week”.  Yanti said that she had bought a car the previous week

b. Interrogative Bentuk pertanyaan - With auxiliary Tobe, modals, do, does. Did, have, has, had Pola : S + asked/wondered/ if/whether + Rep.words Eg : 

My father asked, “ Did you take my money?”  My father asked whether I had taken his money  She asked, “ Do you love me?”  She asked if I loved her

Exercise: 1. That machine … if you fixed it immediately. a. Would work b. Would be worked c. Would have worked d. Would have been worked

2. If you put a wet towel directly under the sun, it … momentarily. a. Will dry b. Will dries c. Dry d. Dried 3. … her shyness, she would have become a great teacher. a. She had overcome


Joni asked, “ Where did you go last night ?”  Joni asked where I had gone the previous night.

Imperative Bentuk perintah - Perintah positive Pola : S + Told/Ordered/Warned + O+ to V1 Eg : 

She told me, “ Open the door!”  She told me to open the door.

Perintah Negative Pola :


S+Told/Ordered/Warned + O+not+to V1 Eg : 

They told me, “ Don’t speak English !”  They told me not to speak English.

b. Had she overcome c. If she overcome d. If she would overcome 4. You … the job if you were not late to the interview. a. Would get b. Would be gotten c. Would have gotten d. Would have been gotten

5. If the students … late to submit the scholarship application to the board, they will not be listed as candidates. a. Be b. Are

c. Were d. Have 6. If I … you, I’d just go for dessert. a. Was b. Am c. Were d. Had been

b. Whether he has finished his homework c. If he finished his homework d. If he had finished his homework

9. … the announcement, I would have participated in the Balinese painting workshop. a. If I knew b. I had known c. Had I known d. If I have known

7. Mrs. Evi … if she had been delayed. a. Would call b. Would have called c. Will call d. Will be calling 8. Kiranti said to Tono,”Did you homework?” Kiranti asked Tono …….. a. Whether he finished his homework


10. If you drop the egg from the third floor, it … to pieces. a. Shatter b. Shattered c. Will shatter d. Would shatter

TBI 9 SUBJUNCTIVE Subjunctive  adalah bentuk kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menyatakan tentang pengharapan pada masa yang akan datang atau pengharapan yang tidak terwujud pada masa lampau dan masa sekarang. Subjunctive menggunakan seperti: - Wish - If only - As if/ as though - Would rather


3. Past Subjunctive Pengharapan yang tidak terwujud pada masa lampau. Untuk menyatakannya kita dapat menggunakan adverb of time  seperti: yesterday, last …, …ago, etc. Wish Would rather If only As if/ as though

+that + S + had + V3

e.g: 

Jenis-jenis Subjunctive: 1. Future Subjunctive Pengharapan pada masa yang akan datang. Dalam Future Subjunctive ini, kita dapat menggunakan adverb of time seperti: tonight, tomorrow, next.., soon, later. Etc.

Wish Would rather If only As if/ as though

+that + S + would + inf


Indra wished  he had gone to bed last night.  Anton spoke as though they had been a great speaker.

4. Supplementary a. Subjunctive Verb S + Subj. Verb + that + S + infinitive (V 1) (DIA SUPER COMMAND) Demand, Insist, Advise, Suggest, Urge, ProposE, Request/Require/Recommend, Command e.g:

We wish he could come here tomorrow.  I wish you would tell us soon.

2. Present Subjunctive Pengharapan yang tidak terwujud pada masa sekarang. Untuk menyatakannya kita dapat menggunakan adverb of time  seperti: today, now, rightnow, at this time, at this moment. Wish Would rather If only As if/ as though

+that + S + V2/ were


I recommended that  you take this offer.  She suggests that  Jihan buy the product.

b. Subjunctive Adjective It + tobe + Subj. Adj+ that + S + infinitive (V 1) (NIA SUPER COMMAND) Necessary, Important, Advised, Suggested, Urged, ProposEd, Requested/Required/Recommended, Commanded e.g:

Nawi sings as though he were  Maher Zein.  Everyone wishes  they passed the final test now.

It is important that  we go from here now.  It was suggested that  Reza meet Yuda yesterday.

Exercise: 1. The executives demanded that a trained A B Technician repaired the copier. C D

6. I would rather they … their obligatio n right now. a. Pays b. Has paying c. Paid d. Pay

2. It is necessary that the Department of Military … the 20 th annual State Veterans Homes Week. a. Celebrated b. Celebrate c. Celebrates d. To celebrate

7. Aziz wishes he … to Ikranegara’s play on the 30 th of November last year. a. Had gone b. Went c. Has gone d. Were going

3. The class teacher insist that the students … the assignment on time. a. Hand in b. Handed in c. To hand in d. Handing in

8. I’d rather you … anything about it for the time being. a. Do b. Didn’t do c. Don’t d. Didn’t

4. When a patient’s blood pressure is much A higherthan itshould be, a doctor usually B C Insists that he will not smoke. D

9. Rust can deteriorate a steel pipe to such an extent that it will snap easily … it were a twig. a. If b. Unless c. As though d. Although

5. Efi was shocked as though … a. She saw a ghost b. She has seen a ghost c. She had seen a ghost d. She was seeing a ghost

10. Last night, a boy screamed and ran as if he … a ghost. a. Saw b. Has seen c. Had seen d. Was seeing

TBI 10 CONCORDANCE & PHRASES 1. Concordance Concordance adalah persesuaian antara tiap unsur kata dalam suatu kallimat. a. Persesuaian antara Subjek dan Predikat (Subject – Verb Agreement) Jika suatu subjek dalam sebuah kaliamat berbentuk tunggal, maka predikatnya  juga tunggal dan begitu sebaliknya.

b. Parallel Structure Not only Not only Neither Either Both

Adj N Adv V

But also But Nor Or And

Adj N Adv V

As well

e.g: 

Tintin is not only smart but also energic.  It can be both increased and decreased.

Neither + N + nor + N + V + O/C Either + N + or + N + V + O/ C e.g: 

Neither the participants nor she was able to answer the questions.  Neither she nor the participants were able to answer the questions. Neither of + N + V (singular) + O/C Either of + N + V(singular) + O/ C Every/ each (of) + N + V (singular) + O/C e.g:  Either of  the participants has been selected.  Each participant tries hard to reach it.

The number of + N + V (singular) + O/C A number of + N + V(plural) + O/ C e.g: 

The number of  participants feels interested in it.  A number of  participants feel interested in it. As well as Together with Along with Accompanied by

S1 +

+ S2 + V + O/C

2. Phrase Susunan kata a. Noun Phrase Susunan kata benda Pola: Adj + Noun Adv + Adj + Noun Adj+ly V3/Ving e.g:  Beautiful girl Adj N  Beautifully decorated room Adv Adj N b. Verb phrase Susunan kata kerja Pola : Verb + Adv Adv + Verb e.g:  She slowly walked Adv verb  She walked slowly Verb Adv c.

e.g: 

Sandra, together with Dona and Fauzi, goes to school today.  My brothers, together with my mom, go to the market today.

Note: -

Adjective phrase Pola : Adj – Adj – Adj + N e.g:  smart-five-year –old boy

Jika terdapat phrase bergaris di choice maka jawaban bergaris. Phrase bergaris tidak boleh memakai “s” kecuali kata benda.


Sebelum kata benda tidak boleh bergaris. Kata keterangan tidak boleh bergaris.

Pembentukan Adv of Manner Adj + ly = Adv Slow + ly = slowly Quick + ly = quickly Adj = Adv

Exercise: 1. The Araceae are a family of herbaceous A B monocots with 109 genus including the C D Lemnaceae.

2. In the movie, the actor has showed a fiercely, A B C D dreamy, and brave character.

3. I had so few job offers that its was not difficult A B C to select one. D 4. After his parents passed away, Sam lived … a. His self b. Himself c. By hisself d. By himself 5. The role of a geologist varies not only with his area of specialization, but also … a. It varies with experience earned on the occupational specialties b. With experience earned on the occupational specialties c. Varies with experience earned on the occupational specialties d. Its experience earned on the occupational specialties

Kecuali: Fast high late Near hard long Good ≠ well (Adj ≠ Adv)

b. Themselves c. By theirselves d. By themselves 8. Ana likes to wear … when going to the party. a. Jewelry b. Jewelries c. A jewelry d. Some jewelries 9. Promoting … goods and services, the company salesmen also bid a opportunity to earn some profit. a. They b. Their c. Its d. It 10. The little girls is taking care of the puppy with …, affection, and kindness. a. Patient b. Patience c. Patiently d. Patients 11. In the meeting, we gave the clients our A B telephone number, and they gave their. C D

6. Both Agung as well as Wawan eat all the time A B but they never get fat. C D

12. The Venice Film Festival is … which was founded by Count Giuseppe Volpi in 1932. a. Year festival b. A year festival c. Years festival d. Yearly festival

7. Now that their children are grown up, Mr. and Mrs. Grayson live… a. Their selves

13. The officially reason for the delay of their A B C flight to Singapore is the bad weather.

D 14. The test materials were developed by the A B C Centrally government and tasted to all D schools In Indonesia. 15. The man was released after the police A realized that he was wrong convicted of drug B C D smuggling. 16. We made the juice from freshly … orange. a. Squeeze b. Squeezed c. Squeezing d. Squeezing up 17. The regional government in Kalimantan tried to eradicated a … few years ago. a. Boundary fire haze b. Boundary haze fire c. Haze fire boundary d. Fire haze boundary 18. She woke up … this morning because of studying hard in the previous night. a. Late b. Lately c. Latest d. Later 19. In the developing world, where the possession of money can literally mean the difference between life and death, and often does, people … in their attitude towards money. a. Are refreshingly, unequivocal b. Are refreshingly and unequivocal c. Are refreshingly but unequivocal d. Are refreshingly unequivocal

20. I found the mathematic problem to be … a. Exceedingly difficult b. Real difficult c. Rather difficulty d. Very much difficult 21. The Whitney Boomerang is the first … which exceed all crash testing requirements.

a. b. c. d.

Two seater aircraft Two-seater aircraft Two seaters aircraft Two-seaters aircraft

22. The bills are folded in an origami style in a … a. Three-dimensionals frame b. Three-dimensional frame c. Three-dimensional-frame d. Three-frame dimensionals

23. Jhonatan’s … daughter has been selected student of the year. a. Beautiful twelve – year – old b. Beautiful twelve – years – old c. Beautiful twelve – year – olds d. Beautifully twelve – years – old 24. The man received … tie as a gift from his wife. a. A maroon elegant silk b. A maroon silk elegant c. An elegant maroon silk d. An elegant silk maroon 25. The quality of water varies not only with local land use but also … a. its geologic history of the earth b. with the geologic history of the earth c. varies with the geologic history of the earth d. it varies with the geologic history of the earth

26. Johan likes to talk to his dogs, takes them for a A B C walk twice a day, and feeding them expensive D dog food. 27. The materials I got from this English course is A B different with the material I learned from C D school. 28. Rani seems very mature for a …. a. Twenty – year – old girl b. Girl with twenty years c. Girl of twenty year d. Twenty – years – old girl

29. The assignment for Friday is to write … about World Cup 2002. a. A five-hundred-word-composition

b. A five-hundred-words-composition c. A five-hundreds-words-composition d. A five hundreds-word-composition

TBI 11 CLAUSES 1. Adjective Clause digunakan untuk Adective Clause  menggantikan satu atau dua frase benda yang identic dan menghubungkan klausa satu dengan lainnya, dimana nantinya kalimat/ klausa yang satu akan menerangkan bagian kalimat lainnya. a. Adjective Clause sebagai Subjek Who Which That

+ V/ tobe/ aux/ modals

Cindy likes going shopping every weekend. She is my best friend. = Cindy who is my best friend  likes going shopping every weekend.

I like Mr. Tom. He teaches us patiently. = I like Mr. Tom who teaches us  patiently .

b. Adjective Clause sebagai Objek Whom Which +noun/ pronoun + V That e.g: 

Indonesia is one of the largest country. Many people likes it. = Indonesia is one of the largest countrywhich many people like.

We all know Kurnia. Mr. Watson was talking about him. = We all know Kurnia whomMr. Watson was talking about.  About  whom Mr. Watson was talking.

Adjective Clause sebagai Possession Whose Of which

The man looks familiar. His hair is curly. = The man whose hair is curly  looks familiar.  The dog barked me last night. Its fur is black. = The dog, the fur of which is black , barked me last night.

d. Time and Place




+ noun + V/tobe/aux/modals

Where/ in which When/ on which

+ noun/pronoun + V

e.g: 

Today is 10 th November. We commemorate the Hero’s day. = today is 10 th November when we commemorate the Hero’s day .

The house has been sold. I lived there when I was young. = The house where/ in which I lived when I was young  has been sold.

2. Noun Clause Noun Clause  adalah anak kalimat yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda dengan menggunakan: - That - What - Who - Which - Where + S + V/Predicate - When - Why - If/ whether - How - Whom Posisi: a. Sebagai Subjek Terletak di awal kalimat e.g:  That he is clever  makes Angelina interested in him.  What he told has made us angry.

b. Sebagai Objek Terletak setelah kata kerja e.g:  I only want to know why you were absent yesterday.  They want to tell us how Indra did his work. c.

Sebagai Pelengkap (Complement) e.g:  This is what we need.  I have no idea why he leaves me alone.

3. Adverbial Clause Adverbial Clause  adalah anak kalimat yang berfungsi sebagai kata keterangan. Kebanyakan adverbial clause dibentuk oleh kata penghubung.

e.g: 

He had studied hard; therefore he could pass the examination.  They run so fast that she can’t reach them.  She has such many problems that she feels bored.


Adverb of Purpose Anak kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menerangkan tujuan dari suatu pekerjaan. Kata penghubung yang digunakan: - So that - In order that - In order to + V1 e.g:

Jenis-jenis: a. Adverb of Reason Anak kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menerangkan alasan. Kata penghubung yang biasa digunakan: - Because - As + S + V/Predicate - Since - For - Because of - Due to - Owing to

+ Noun/ Noun Phrase

e.g: 

He couldn’t come yesterday because he got ill.  I like English because it is fun and easy to learn.

b. Adverb of Result Anak kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menyatakan hasil dari suatu perbuatan/ pekerjaan. Kata penghubung yang biasa digunakan adalah: - So/ hence/ thus/ therefore/ consequently - So + adj + that (sangat ……sehingga…) - Such + noun + that (…..sehingga) - S + V + so +many/few + count noun (plural) + that much/ little + uncount noun + that

He plans to visit the village so that he can meet his uncle.  We work hard in order to finish it on time.

d. Adverb of Contrast Anak kalimat yang berfungsi menunjukkan pertentangan.


Kata penghubung yang biasa digunakan adalah: - Although, though, even though - However, nevertheless, + S + V/ Predicate whereas, still - On the other hand, but, yet - While -

Despite In spite of

+ Noun/ Noun Phrase

e.g: 

Despite your poorness, you can send your children to university.  He had tried hard but he still failed in his test.

e. Adverb of Place

Anak kalimat yang menyatakan tempat.





e.g: 

Today is the day when we met him last month.  I had told him before I left for Bandung.

Kata penghubung yang biasa digunakan adalah: - Where - Wherever e.g:


This is the house where I was born.  I want to visit Medan where Mr. Fauzan lives.


Adverb of time Anak kalimat yang menyatakan waktu.



Kata penghubung yang biasa digunakan adalah: - When - After - Before - While

Exercise: 1. The patient who the phsycian diagnosed with A B C cancer left suddenly. D

2. Coral reefs areas … small fish live and take shelter are damaged now. a. Which b. Of whose c. In where d. In which 3. Ozokerite is a mineral wax occurring in the vicinity of petroleum deposits. It is the crude, dark colored … ceresin is refined. a. Wax which is for b. Wax that which c. Wax from which d. Wax for which 4. The people which cheated in the examination had to leave the room. a. The people b. Which c. Had to d. Leave

Adverb Clause yang memberikan informasi tambahan Kata penghubung yang digunakan adalah: - Moreover - In addition - Besides - Furthermore - In addition to + V1 e.g: 

He is handsome. Moreover, he is clever and awesome.  Indonesia is a large country. In addition, it is beautiful.

5. … the citizen must obey. a. That the result and the outcomes of the selection b. Which the result and the outcomes of the selection c. Whatever the result and the outcomes of the selection d. When the result and the outcomes of the selection 6. … Taufik Hidayat won the Sudirman Cup is the pride of Indonesia. a. That c. Thus b. As d. However

7. It is generally considered unwise to give a child … he or she wants. a. Whatever is it b. Whatever c. That d. Whatever that 8. I didn’t hear … because there was too much noise when I was sitting. a. What said b. What he said

c. What did he say d. What was he saying 9. Could you please tell me … a. Where is the STAN secretariat? b. Where the STAN secretariat? c. Where the STAN secretariat is? d. Where did the STAN secretariat? ( 10. No one seems to know when will the bus A B arrive at the bus stop. C D 11. Predicting the future is never easy, but by extrapolating certain present-day trends in retail payment technology, … , and what consumer attitudes towards payment methods are likely to be. a. It is possible to gain a good idea of how goods will be paid for in the year 2010

b. It is possible to gain a good idea of whether goods will be paid for in the year 2010 c. It is possible to gain a good idea of which goods will be paid for the year 2010 d. It is possible to gain a good idea of how goods will be paid for in the year 2010 12. John met many beautiful girls at the dinner party last night, the most beautiful girl … was Nora. a. Of that b. Of them c. Of which d. Of whom 13. There are many good people in the worl d … you can trust to take care of your children. a. Which b. Whom c. Whose d. Of which

TBI 12 INVERTED SENTENCE AND DEGREE OF COMPARISON 1. Inverted Sentence Inverted Sentence adalah bentuk kalimat dimana predicate mendahului subject . Predicate  yang dimaksud adalah:  Auxiliary : Tobe, Modals, do, does, did, have,has,had Penggunaan: a. Setelah Ungkapan “ Negative” Pola: Neither Hardly Never Rarely Not only Scarcely + Aux+ S +V Not until Barely No Sooner Seldom Nor Not just E.g: 

Hardly  can she understand me.

b. Setelah ungkapan “ only” Pola: Only Recently Only Then Only If + Aux + S + V Only With Only After Only …..


Only with did he watch tv

Setelah keterangan tempat. Pola: Adv of place + Verb + S Adv of place + Aux + verb + S Adv of place + Aux + S E.g:  The boy is sleeping under the table.  Under the table  is sleeping the boy  The woman sleeps on the table.  On the table sleeps the woman

2. Degree of Comparison a. Positive Degree Perbandingan yang setara Pola: - (+) As… KS… As

(-) So… KS … As The same …KB… As Twice as …KS…. as S + Like S + V + O + Like S + V + alike

e.g: 

Haikal is as old as we are  Haikal isn’t so old as she is  Haikal is the same age as we are  My car and that one are alike

b. Comperative Degree Perbandingan lebih Pola I : Adj + er + Than (KS yang terdiri dari 1 atau 2 suku kata) e.g: clever => clever er than smart => smart er than Pola II : More + Adj + Than (KS yg terdiri dari lebih 2 suku kata) e.g: diligent => more diligent than expensive => more expensive than


e.g: 


Superlative Degree Perbandingan paling Pola I : The + Adj + est + OF/In/Among e.g: clever => the cleverest student in the class Pola II : The + Most + Adj + Of/In/Among e.g: expensive => the most expensive car in the world

Note : Ada beberapa kata sifat yang tidak beraturan perubahannya (Irregular of comparison): Positive D Comp D Super D Good Better The Best

Bad Little Many/much Far

Worse Less More Farther Further

The Worst The Least The most Farthest Furthest

d. Double Comperative Pola : The + Comperative D , The + Comparative D e.g: 

Kata sifat yang berakhiran huruf y, er, ow menggunakan pola I

Positive D Happy Narrow Clever

Comp D Happier Narrower Cleverer

Super D The happiest The narrowest The cleverest

Exercise: 1. Hardly ever … the same word twice alike. a. The little boy spelled b. Did spell the little boy c. Did the little boy spell d. Spelled the little boy

2. Not only … the best student in his school, but he also receives a scholarship. a. Markus becomes b. Did Markus become c. Does Markus become d. Markus becoming 3. Not only … a good thing he did the right thing. a. Sam did b. Sam do c. Did Sam do d. Will Sam do 4. Not until a monkey is several years old … to exhibit signs of independence from its mother. a. It begins b. Does it begin c. And begins d. Beginning

5. Only after has been dried and canned … a. That it should be stored for later consumption.noisy b. Should be stored for later consumption. c. Should it be stored for later consumption. d. It should be stored for later consumption.

The faster you run, the harder they reach you.

e. Of the two , The + Comparative D e.g:  Of the two girls, the more beautiful one is Fanni.

6. Of the three dresses she has just bought, the dark blue one is … a. More expensive b. The more expensive c. Most expensive d. The most expensive 7. The biggest mistake people can make with their dogs is to treat them alike humans. A B C D

8. The blueberry muffins made by yo ur mother A are as delicious with what the chef made. B C D

9. Our first tour destination in Asia is … our next destination. a. Farther than b. The farther than c. Farthest than d. The farthest than 10. The Sony camcorder demo was fun and A impressive, but it is not as better as B C Microsoft’s. D

11. The more I think about philosophy, …. a. The less I understand it b. I like it less c. Better I like it d. It likes better 12. The art of singing is … humanity. a. As old b. Old as c. As old as d. As old 13. The view from your house is … from mine. a. Better b. The better c. Better than d. The best 14. Of the two cars, my father bought … a. The most expensive b. The least expensive c. The less expensive d. The one most expensive

15. The results of the third experiment are even better as the results of the second one. a. Results b. Third c. Better d. As 16. Alike an orange, a kiwi has a deserved A B C reputation as valuable sources of vitamin C. D

17. At the end of this road … which is confiscated by the state court. a. a dark house b. is a dark house c. a dark house is d. it is a dark house

TBI 13 PARTICIPLE 1. Bentuk Umum : - V-ing - V3 - Being + Adj or Noun ……. , S Past Tense - Having + V3, S Past Tense - Having + been + V 3, S Past Tense


Means : Because/As/Since/for + S.Past.T When/While + Past.Cont.T Because/As/Since/for + S.Past(pasif) Because/As/Since/for +S.Present T or S.past.T After + Past.Perfect.T (aktif) After + Past Perfect.T (Pasif)

b. It is called the bass c. Called the bass d. Calls the bass  Many communities are dependent on ground water……. from wells to their water supply. a. That obtained b. Obtained c. Is obtained d. Obtain it -

Subjek……Ving……+ Verb/ Aux Verb /Aux + noun ……Ving……

e.g: e.g: 

………. Sleepy, She went to bed. a. Because b. Feeling c. She felt d. Felt Means: Because She Felt Sleepy, or Because She was Feeling Sleepy ……… the works, he went home. a. He had finished b. After he had finished c. Having finished d. He finished Means : After he had finished the works.

Having been treated badly by her own father ,……… a. The man found the girl crying in front his house b. Escaping from her house was the best decision for the girl c. The girl escaped from her house d. The house was left by the girl

2. Bentuk Khusus - Subjek…V3……+ Verb/ Aux - Verb/ Aux + noun……V3….. e.g: 

The musical instrument………. is six feet long a. Is called the bass

Those applicants…..their completed forms at the earliest date have the highest priority. a. return c. to return d.returning b. returns

Every computer consists of a number o f systems….together. a. By working b. Working c. That works d. They work


Subjek………………+ Verb /Aux V-3 , V-ing (yang) Verb /Aux + noun …………………. V-3, V-ing (yang)


e.g: 

The motorcycle………yesterday will be sold next week. a, Repaired b, was repaired c, Repairing d. was repairing

Completed in 1756, Nassau Hall is the oldest building now….. on the ca mpus of Princeton University a, Standing b. has stood d. stood c, it stands

Note : Catch Leave Find

+ O + V-ing

e.g:  My father found the boy …….. his money a. steal b. stolen d. stealing c. to steal

Exercise: 1. … with the consequence of his attitude, Michel signed his resign letter. a. Embarrassed b. Embarrassing c. Embarrass d. Embarrasses

2. … to buy a house, she rented a small room near her office. a. Being unable b. Be unable c. Having unable d. Because unable 3. The artificial flower … from paper was sold in the market. a. Which made b. Was made c. Made d. It was made 4. While travelling to Mexico, the newlyweds … the site of the Aztec. a. Has visited b. Had visited c. Visited d. Visiting 5. While … to buy the correct ticket, the man with the beard stole the young lady’s purse. a. He queuing b. He queues c. Queuing d. Queued

6. Completed in 1980, the G Hall is the oldest building now … on our campus. a. It stands c. Stood b. Has stood d. Standing

7. Candles … from beeswax burn with a very clean flame. a. Are made b. Which make c. Making d. Made 8. Ever since the information technology revolution of the late 1980’s, … of Personal Computers and the Microchip, the Company, from the Managing Director down to the man in the mailroom, has been striving for a constant policy of Excellence. a. Occasions, and the use of b. Occasioned by the use c. Occasionally in the use d. Occasional use 9. Most of books … for Accounting today are supplement with CD-ROMs. a. Using b. In use c. Is use d. Are used 10. After seeing the movie Jurassic Park,… a. The book was read by many people b. The book made many people want to read it c. Many people wanted to read the book d. The reading of the book interested many people

11. Of the three dresses she has just bought, the dark blue one is … a. More expensive b. The more expensive c. Most expensive d. The most expensive 12. Several people have been arrested by the local police for … smuggling three tons of fuel. a. allege b. alleged c. alleging d. allegedly 13. … by many researchers and scientists throughout the world, robotics is employed in automobile manufacturing. a. Supported b. Supporting c. It supported d. Have been supported

TBI 14 DERIVATIVES 1. Noun Suffix Pembentukan kata benda dengan menambah akhiran. Pembentukan : ….. ion ….. ment …. ness …. ity …. ence …. hood …. ship …. dom Penggunaan : a. Setelah artikel Pola: A/an/the + Noun e.g:  The government b. Setelah kata sifat Pola: Adj + Noun e.g:  Good action c. Setelah possessive adjective Pola My Their its A’s  Your his Our her e.g:  My kindness


e.g: 


a. Adjective Suffix Pembentukan kata sifat dengan menambah akhiran. Pembentukan : …. ful …. able …. less …. ous …. y …. ive …. ic ….ish …. al ….ent …. like Penggunaan : a. Setelah tobe Pola : S + tobe + Adj e.g:  She is powerful

b. Sebelum kata benda Pola : Adj + Noun e.g:  Active Girl c. Setelah Linking Verb Pola: Become Look Appear Seem Feel Sound Turn Taste smell

He looks childish

b. Verb prefix / suffix Pembentukan kata kerja dengan menambah awalan/akhiran . Pembentukan : en……. ……. en …….. ize ……. .ify dis ……. mis……. Penggunaan : a. Setelah modals Pola : Modals + V-1 e.g:  She should sweeten my tea b. To + V-1 Eg :  To enlarge


Adverb suffix Pola: Adjective + ly e.g:  He runs slowly.  He spoke clearly.

Exercise: 1. Ali manufactures produced designs that were A coherence with both layoutand navigational B C D elements.

2. Even with the nomination out of reach, he A B Appeared unwillingness to concede. C D

3. A financial … evaluates and interprets public company financial statements. a. Analysis b. Analyses c. Analyze d. Analyst 4. When entering a Japanese home or restaurant. It is … to remove shoes. a. Customary b. Customs c. Customer d. Customy 5. The air turned … when the wind blew. a. Cold c. Clods b. Coldly d. Coldest

6. Although Ani speaks softly and appears A B timidly, she is the leading expert in her field. C D

7. A list key beliefs of world class performers is the important material in coaching mental … a. Tough c. Toughment b. Toughful d. Toughness

8. It was very … of you to send me the information promptly. a. Consideration b. Considerable c. Considerate d. Considering

9. A company will not … if its employees are? a. Prosper b. Prosperous c. Prosperity d. Prospering

TBI 15 PENGAYAAN TAMBAHAN 1. Teori “Irregular Noun” Noun (sg) Man Woman Child Foot Tooth` Mouse Goose Deer Sheep Stuff Furniture Criterion Phenomenon

Noun (pl) Men Women Children Feet Teeth Mice Geese Deer Sheep Stuff Furniture Criteria Phenomena

2. Article” A & An” a.

An + Bunyi Vocal / Huruf Vocal Eg : - An hour - An Honour - An apple

b. A + Bunyi Consonan / Huruf Consonan Eg : - A car - A University - A house

3. Other Kata other memiliki arti yang lain/ lainnya. Jika kata other   diawali oleh the  maka bendanya  jelas. Namun jika tidak ada kata the  maka bendanya belum jelas. Tunggal (singular) Another The other + N (sing)

Jamak (plural) Other + N (plu) Others The other + N (plu) The others

Sementara untuk kata Each Other   memiliki makna saling (2 benda) dan kata One Another   memiliki makna saling (> 2 benda). Eg : - I don’t want this book. I want another . - I have a lot of friends. Ten are American and others are Australian and Canadian. - She bought three novels. Two are from Indonesia and the other is from Japan. - There are five cars. Three are Mercedes and the others are Audi.

Catatan: Jika terdapat angka, maka jawaban pakai “the”. 4. Teori “Longer” Pola : - S + No longer + V1 - S + is,am,are + No Longer Eg : we no longer live here. we are no longer here.  

5. Analisa Error Ada beberapa kata-kata yang perlu di periksa  jika di garis bawahi pada soal analisa Error, yaitu : - Tobe - Ving atau V3 - Relative Pronoun - Conjunction - Comparative Degree - Elliptic - Q Tags - Pronoun - Q. Words - Article “A,AN” - Frase Bergaris - Noun


1. Former military ruler Pervez Musharraf has pledged to return back A B to Pakistan despite threats to his life from the C D Taliban. 2. The unusually rainy weather caused by La Nina A B affected Turkey for other two weeks. C D

3. Calcium is known as an nutrient that will A B C decrease hypertension and colonic cancer. D 4. … is a fleshy fruit produced from a single ovary. a. Because the botanical definition of a berry  b. The botanical definition of a berry which c. The botanical definition of a berry d. That the botanical definition of a berry 5. The newly-built fashion boutique near my A house has more than ten employers. B C D

6. Jakarta, a capital city of Indonesia, is the most A B  populous city in. C D 7. The thief who stole my watch was compelled A B to restore it back again. C D 8. … can solve the algoritma test, even Bowo, the cleverest student in our school.

a.  b. c. d.

Everyone  No one Somebody All

9. The Harvard Art Museums have some great … to be displayed. a. Stuff c. Stuffes  b. Stuffs d. Stuves 10. Some of the shops I wanted to see … no longer in the city. a. Is c. Have  b. Are d. Were 11. The hammerhead shark is usual found in warm, A B temperate waters. C D 12. Thomas Alfa Edison invented … a. An electric light  b. Electric light c. Electric lights d. The electric lights 13. Response : I used to, but I resigned my membership. The sentences that could generate the response indicate : a. Didn’t you use to belong to the English Club?  b. Wouldn’t you belong to the English Club? c. Won’t you belong to the English Club? d. Wouldn’t you have belonged to the English Club? 14. … of human resources is interviewing applicants. a. Director  b. The director c. A director d. Directors

15. Consult … for questions about SARS. a. The two index  b. Second index c. Index numbering two d. Index two 16. Please write out the answers to the question at the end of … a. Fourth page  b. Four page c. Page four d. Page the four

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